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!aragrap" Spacing: A#o$e !aragrap"-1pt% &elow !aragrap"-1pt


&eca'se o( t"e do'#le-#lind re$iew% t"e a't"ors) in(ormation s"o'ld not #e incl'ded in t"is (ile* !lease p't
a't"ors) in(ormation in t"e separated Title !age*
Abstract
An a#stract is a #rie(% compre"ensi$e s'mmar+ o( t"e contents o( t"e article; it allows readers to s'r$e+ t"e
contents o( an article ,'ic-l+ and% li-e a title% it ena#les persons interested in t"e doc'ment to retrie$e it (rom
a#stracting and indexing data#ases* .ost sc"olarl+ /o'rnals re,'ire an a#stract* 0ons'lt t"e instr'ctions to
a't"ors or we# page o( t"e /o'rnal to w"ic" +o' plan to s'#mit +o'r article (or an+ /o'rnal-speci(ic instr'ctions*
A well-prepared a#stract can #e t"e most important single paragrap" in an article* .ost people "a$e t"eir (irst
contact wit" an article #+ seeing /'st t"e a#stract% 's'all+ in comparison wit" se$eral ot"er a#stracts% as t"e+ are
doing a literat're searc"* Readers (re,'entl+ decide on t"e #asis o( t"e a#stract w"et"er to read t"e entire article*
T"e a#stract needs to #e dense wit" in(ormation* &+ em#edding -e+ words in +o'r a#stract% +o' en"ance t"e
'ser)s a#ilit+ to (ind it* 1o not exceed t"e a#stract word limit o( t"e /o'rnal to w"ic" +o' are s'#mitting +o'r
article* 2ord limits $ar+ (rom /o'rnal to /o'rnal and t+picall+ range (rom 13 to 23 words* For in(ormation on
"ow a#stracts are 'sed to retrie$e articles% cons'lt Record Str'ct're (or A!A 1ata#ases 4Sic-% 256*
Keywords: low case% comma% paper template% a#stract% -e+words% introd'ction
1. Introduction
1.1 Introduce the Problem
T"e #od+ o( a man'script opens wit" an introd'ction t"at presents t"e speci(ic pro#lem 'nder st'd+ and
descri#es t"e researc" strateg+* &eca'se t"e introd'ction is clearl+ identi(ied #+ its position in t"e man'script% it
does not carr+ a "eading la#eling it t"e introd'ction* &e(ore writing t"e introd'ction% consider t"e (ollowing
,'estions 4&ec- 7 Sales% 21% p* 16:
16 2"+ is t"is pro#lem important8
26 9ow does t"e st'd+ relate to pre$io's wor- in t"e area8 :( ot"er aspects o( t"is st'd+ "a$e #een reported
pre$io'sl+% "ow does t"is report di((er (rom% and #'ild on% t"e earlier report8
;6 2"at are t"e primar+ and secondar+ "+pot"eses and o#/ecti$es o( t"e st'd+% and w"at% i( an+% are t"e lin-s to
t"eor+8
<6 9ow do t"e "+pot"eses and researc" design relate to one anot"er8
36 2"at are t"e t"eoretical and practical implications o( t"e st'd+8
A good introd'ction answers t"ese ,'estions in /'st a (ew pages and% #+ s'mmarizing t"e rele$ant arg'ments and
t"e past e$idence% gi$es t"e reader a (irm sense o( 2"at was done and w"+ 4&ec- 7 Sales% 21% pp* 1-126*
1.2 Explore Importance of the Problem
State w"+ t"e pro#lem deser$es new researc"* For #asic researc"% t"e statement a#o't importance mig"t in$ol$e
t"e need to resol$e an+ inconsistenc+ in res'lts o( past wor- and=or extend t"e reac" o( a t"eoretical (orm'lation*
For applied researc"% t"is mig"t in$ol$e t"e need to sol$e a social pro#lem or treat a ps+c"ological disorder*
2"en researc" is dri$en #+ t"e desire to resol$e contro$ersial iss'es% all sides in t"e de#ate s"o'ld #e
represented in #alanced meas're in t"e introd'ction* A$oid animosit+ and ad "ominem arg'ments in presenting
t"e contro$ers+* 0oncl'de t"e statement o( t"e pro#lem in t"e introd'ction wit" a #rie( #'t (ormal statement o(
t"e p'rpose o( t"e researc" t"at s'mmarizes t"e material preceding it* For literat're re$iews as well as t"eoretical
and met"odological articles% also clearl+ state t"e reasons t"at t"e reported content is important and "ow t"e
article (its into t"e c'm'lati$e 'nderstanding o( t"e (ield*
1.3 Describe Relevant Scholarship
1isc'ss t"e rele$ant related literat're% #'t do not (eel compelled to incl'de an ex"a'sti$e "istorical acco'nt*
Ass'me t"at t"e reader is -nowledgea#le a#o't t"e #asic pro#lem and does not re,'ire a complete acco'nting o(
its "istor+* A sc"olarl+ description o( earlier wor- in t"e introd'ction pro$ides a s'mmar+ o( t"e most recent
directl+ related wor- and recognizes t"e priorit+ o( t"e wor- o( ot"ers* 0itation o( and speci(ic credit to rele$ant
earlier wor-s are signs o( scienti(ic and sc"olarl+ responsi#ilit+ and are essential (or t"e growt" o( a c'm'lati$e
science* :n t"e description o( rele$ant sc"olars"ip% also in(orm readers w"et"er ot"er aspects o( t"is st'd+ "a$e
#een reported on pre$io'sl+ and "ow t"e c'rrent 'se o( t"e e$idence di((ers (rom earlier 'ses* At t"e same time%
cite and re(erence onl+ wor-s pertinent to t"e speci(ic iss'e and not t"ose t"at are o( onl+ tangential or general
signi(icance* 2"en s'mmarizing earlier wor-s% a$oid nonessential details; instead% emp"asize pertinent (indings%
rele$ant met"odological iss'es% and ma/or concl'sions* Re(er t"e reader to general s'r$e+s or researc" s+nt"eses
o( t"e topic i( t"e+ are a$aila#le* 1emonstrate t"e logical contin'it+ #etween pre$io's and present wor-*
1e$elop t"e pro#lem wit" eno'g" #readt" and clarit+ to ma-e it generall+ 'nderstood #+ as wide a pro(essional
a'dience as possi#le 4&ec- 7 Sales% 216* 1o not let t"e goal o( #re$it+ lead +o' to write a statement
intelligi#le onl+ to t"e specialist*
1.4 State !potheses and "heir #orrespondence to Research Desi$n
A(ter +o' "a$e introd'ced t"e pro#lem and "a$e de$eloped t"e #ac-gro'nd material% explain +o'r approac" to
sol$ing t"e pro#lem* :n empirical st'dies% t"is 's'all+ in$ol$es stating +o'r "+pot"eses or speci(ic ,'estion and
descri#ing "ow t"ese were deri$ed (rom t"eor+ or are logicall+ connected to pre$io's data and arg'mentation*
0learl+ de$elop t"e rationale (or eac"* Also% i( +o' "a$e some "+pot"eses or ,'estions t"at are central to +o'r
p'rpose and ot"ers t"at are secondar+ or explorator+% state t"is prioritization* >xplain "ow t"e researc" design
permits t"e in(erences needed to examine t"e "+pot"esis or pro$ide estimates in answer to t"e ,'estion*
2. Method
T"e .et"od section descri#es in detail "ow t"e st'd+ was cond'cted% incl'ding concept'al and operational
de(initions o( t"e $aria#les 'sed in t"e st'd+% 1i((erent t+pes o( st'dies will rel+ on di((erent met"odologies;
"owe$er% a complete description o( t"e met"ods 'sed ena#les t"e reader to e$al'ate t"e appropriateness o( +o'r
met"ods and t"e relia#ilit+ and t"e $alidit+ o( +o'r res'lts% :t also permits experienced in$estigators to replicate
t"e st'd+% :( +o'r man'script is an 'pdate o( an ongoing or earlier st'd+ and t"e met"od "as #een p'#lis"ed in
detail elsew"ere% +o' ma+ re(er t"e reader to t"at so'rce and simpl+ gi$e a #rie( s+nopsis o( t"e met"od in t"is
section*
2.1 Identif! Subsections
:t is #ot" con$entional and expedient to di$ide t"e .et"od section into la#eled s'#sections* T"ese 's'all+
incl'de a section wit" descriptions o( t"e participants or s'#/ects and a section descri#ing t"e proced'res 'sed in
t"e st'd+* T"e latter section o(ten incl'des description o( 4a6 an+ experimental manip'lations or inter$entions
'sed and "ow t"e+ were deli$ered-(or example% an+ mec"anical apparat's 'sed to deli$er t"em; 4#6 sampling
proced'res and sample size and precision; 4c6 meas'rement approac"es 4incl'ding t"e ps+c"ometric properties
o( t"e instr'ments 'sed6; and 4d6 t"e researc" design* :( t"e design o( t"e st'd+ is complex or t"e stim'li re,'ire
detailed description% additional s'#sections or s'#"eadings to di$ide t"e s'#sections ma+ #e warranted to "elp
readers (ind speci(ic in(ormation*
:ncl'de in t"ese s'#sections t"e in(ormation essential to compre"end and replicate t"e st'd+* :ns'((icient detail
lea$es t"e reader wit" ,'estions; too m'c" detail #'rdens t"e reader wit" irrele$ant in(ormation* 0onsider 'sing
appendices and=or a s'pplemental we#site (or more detailed in(ormation*
2.2 Participant %Sub&ect' #haracteristics
Appropriate identi(ication o( researc" participants is critical to t"e science and practice o( ps+c"olog+%
partic'larl+ (or generalizing t"e (indings% ma-ing comparisons across replications% and 'sing t"e e$idence in
researc" s+nt"eses and secondar+ data anal+ses* :( "'mans participated in t"e st'd+% report t"e eligi#ilit+ and
excl'sion criteria% incl'ding an+ restrictions #ased on demograp"ic c"aracteristics*
2.3 Samplin$ Procedures
1escri#e t"e proced'res (or selecting participants% incl'ding 4a6 t"e sampling met"od% i( a s+stematic sampling
plan was 'sed; 4#6 t"e percentage o( t"e sample approac"ed t"at participated; and 4c6 t"e n'm#er o( participants
w"o selected t"emsel$es into t"e sample* 1escri#e t"e settings and locations in w"ic" t"e data were collected as
well as an+ agreements and pa+ments made to participants% agreements wit" t"e instit'tional re$iew #oard%
et"ical standards met% and sa(et+ monitoring proced'res*
2*;*1 Sample Size% !ower% and !recision
Along wit" t"e description o( s'#/ects% gi$e t"e mended size o( t"e sample and n'm#er o( indi$id'als meant to
#e in eac" condition i( separate conditions were 'sed* State w"et"er t"e ac"ie$ed sample di((ered in -nown wa+s
(rom t"e target pop'lation* 0oncl'sions and interpretations s"o'ld not go #e+ond w"at t"e sample wo'ld
warrant*
2*;*2 .eas'res and 0o$ariates
:ncl'de in t"e .et"od section in(ormation t"at pro$ides de(initions o( all primar+ and secondar+ o'tcome
meas'res and co$ariates% incl'ding meas'res collected #'t not incl'ded in t"is report* 1escri#e t"e met"ods 'sed
to collect data 4e*g*% written ,'estionnaires% inter$iews% o#ser$ations6 as well as met"ods 'sed to en"ance t"e
,'alit+ o( t"e meas'rements 4e*g*% t"e training and relia#ilit+ o( assessors or t"e 'se o( m'ltiple o#ser$ations6*
!ro$ide in(ormation on instr'ments 'sed% incl'ding t"eir ps+c"ometric and #iometric properties and e$idence o(
c'lt'ral $alidit+*
2*;*; Researc" 1esign
Speci(+ t"e researc" design in t"e .et"od section* 2ere s'#/ects placed into conditions t"at were manip'lated%
or were t"e+ o#ser$ed nat'ralisticall+8 :( m'ltiple conditions were created% "ow were participants assigned to
conditions% t"ro'g" random assignment or some ot"er selection mec"anism8 2as t"e st'd+ cond'cted as a
#etween-s'#/ects or a wit"in-s'#/ect design8
2*;*< >xperimental .anip'lations or :nter$entions
:( inter$entions or experimental manip'lations were 'sed in t"e st'd+% descri#e t"eir speci(ic content* :ncl'de t"e
details o( t"e inter$entions or manip'lations intended (or eac" st'd+ condition% incl'ding control gro'ps 4i( an+6%
and descri#e "ow and w"en inter$entions 4experimental manip'lations6 were act'all+ administered*
T"e text size o( (orm'la s"o'ld #e similar wit" normal text size* T"e (orm'la s"o'ld #e placed in t"e middle and
serial n'm#er on t"e rig"t* For example:
a
2
(b
2
)c
2
416
3. Results
:n t"e Res'lts section% s'mmarize t"e collected data and t"e anal+sis per(ormed on t"ose data rele$ant to t"e
disco'rse t"at is to (ollow* Report t"e data in s'((icient detail to /'sti(+ +o'r concl'sions* .ention all rele$ant
res'lts% incl'ding t"ose t"at r'n co'nter to expectation; #e s're to incl'de small e((ect sizes 4or statisticall+
nonsigni(icant (indings6 w"en t"eor+ predicts large 4or statisticall+ signi(icant6 ones* 1o not "ide 'ncom(orta#le
res'lts #+ omission* 1o not incl'de indi$id'al scores or raw data wit" t"e exception% (or example% o( single-case
designs or ill'strati$e examples* :n t"e spirit o( data s"aring 4enco'raged #+ A!A and ot"er pro(essional
associations and sometimes re,'ired #+ ('nding agencies6% raw data% incl'ding st'd+ c"aracteristics and
indi$ld'al e((ect sizes 'sed in a meta -anal+sis% can #e made a$aila#le on s'pplemental online arc"i$es*
3.1 Recruitment
!ro$ide dates de(ining t"e periods o( recr'itment and (ollow-'p and t"e pnmar+ so'rces o( t"e potential s'#/ects%
w"ere appropriate* :( t"ese dates di((er #+ gro'p% pro$ide t"e $al'es (or eac" gro'p*
3.2 Statistics and Data *nal!sis
Anal+sis o( data and t"e reporting o( t"e res'lts o( t"ose anal+ses are ('ndamental aspects o( t"e cond'ct o(
researc"* Acc'rate% 'n#iased% complete% and insig"t('l reporting o( t"e anal+tic treatment o( data 4#e it
,'antitati$e or ,'alitati$e6 m'st #e a component o( all researc" reports* Researc"ers in t"e (ield o( ps+c"olog+
'se n'mero's approac"es to t"e anal+sis o( data% and no one approac" is 'ni(orml+ pre(erred as long as t"e
met"od is appropriate to t"e researc" ,'estions #eing as-ed and t"e nat're o( t"e data collected* T"e met"ods
'sed m'st s'pport t"eir anal+tic #'rdens% incl'ding ro#'stness to $iolations o( t"e ass'mptions t"at 'nderlie
t"em% and t"e+ m'st pro$ide clear% 'ne,'i$ocal insig"ts into t"e data*
3.3 *ncillar! *nal!ses
Report an+ ot"er anal+ses per(ormed% incl'ding s'#gro'p anal+ses and ad/'sted anal+ses% indicating t"ose t"at
were pre-speci(ied and t"ose t"at were explorator+ 4t"o'g" not necessaril+ in t"e le$el o( detail o( primar+
anal+ses6* 0onsider p'tting t"e detailed res'lts o( t"ese anal+ses on t"e s'pplemental online arc"i$e* 1isc'ss t"e
implications% i( an+% o( t"e ancillar+ anal+ses (or statistical error rates*
3.4 Participant +lo,
For experimental and ,'asi-experimental designs% t"ere m'st #e a description o( t"e (low o( participants 4"'man%
animal% or 'nits s'c" as classrooms or "ospital wards6 t"ro'g" t"e st'd+* !resent t"e total n'm#er o( 'nits
recr'ited into t"e st'd+ and t"e n'm#er o( participants assigned to eac" gro'p* !ro$ide t"e n'm#er o(
participants w"o did not complete t"e experiment or crossed o$er to ot"er conditions and explain w"+* Note t"e
n'm#er o( participants 'sed in t"e primar+ anal+ses* 4T"is n'm#er mig"t di((er (rom t"e n'm#er w"o completed
t"e st'd+ #eca'se participants mig"t not s"ow 'p (or or complete t"e (inal meas'rement*6
3.- Intervention or .anipulation +idelit!
:( inter$entions or experimental manip'lations were 'sed% pro$ide e$idence on w"et"er t"e+ were deli$ered as
intended* :n #asic experimental researc"% t"is mig"t #e t"e res'lts o( c"ec-s on t"e manip'lation* :n applied
researc"% t"is mig"t #e% (or example% records and o#ser$ations o( inter$ention deli$er+ sessions and attendance
records*
3./ 0aseline Data
&e s're t"at #aseline demograp"ic and=or clinical c"aracteristics o( eac" gro'p are pro$ided*
;*6*1 Statistics and 1ata Anal+sis
:n st'dies reporting t"e res'lts o( experimental manip'lations or inter$entions% clari(+ w"et"er t"e anal+sis was
#+ intent-ta-treat* T"at is% were all participants assigned to conditions incl'ded in t"e data anal+sis regardless o(
w"et"er t"e+ act'all+ recei$ed t"e inter$ention% or were onl+ participants w"o completed t"e inter$ention
satis(actoril+ incl'ded8 ?i$e a rationale (or t"e c"oice*
;*6*2 Ad$erse >$ents
:( inter$entions were st'died% detail all important ad$erse e$ents 4e$ents wit" serio's conse,'ences6 and=or side
e((ects in eac" inter$ention gro'p*
Ta#le 1* Ta#le title 4t"is is an example o( ta#le 16
53@0:
0ondition .4SD6 LL AL
Letters 1<*342B*66 3*< 2;*6
1igits ;1*B4;;*26 21*2 <2*<
1ote. !lace ta#le caption in (ront o( ta#le #od+ and description #elow t"e ta#le #od+* A$oid $ertical r'les* &e
sparing in t"e 'se o( ta#les and ens're t"at t"e data presented in ta#les do not d'plicate res'lts descri#ed
elsew"ere in t"e article* Co' ma+ resize t"e ta#les to (it t"e page size*
4. Discussion
A(ter presenting t"e res'lts% +o' are in a position to e$al'ate and interpret t"eir implications% especiall+ wit"
respect to +o'r original "+pot"eses* 9ere +o' will examine% interpret% and ,'ali(+ t"e res'lts and draw in(erences
and concl'sions (rom t"em* >mp"asize an+ t"eoretical or practical conse,'ences o( t"e res'lts* 42"en t"e
disc'ssion is relati$el+ #rie( and straig"t(orward% some a't"ors pre(er to com#ine it wit" t"e Res'lts section%
creating a section called Res'lts and 1isc'ssion*6
Dpen t"e 1isc'ssion section wit" a clear statement o( t"e s'pport or nons'pport (or +o'r original "+pot"eses%
disting'is"ed #+ primar+ and secondar+ "+pot"eses* :( "+pot"eses were not s'pported% o((er post "oc
explanations* Similarities and di((erences #etween +o'r res'lts and t"e wor- o( ot"ers s"o'ld #e 'sed to
context'alize% con(irm% and clari(+ +o'r concl'sions* 1o not simpl+ re(orm'late and repeat points alread+ made;
eac" new statement s"o'ld contri#'te to +o'r interpretation and to t"e reader)s 'nderstanding o( t"e pro#lem*
Co'r interpretation o( t"e res'lts s"o'ld ta-e into acco'nt 4a6 so'rces o( potential #ias and ot"er t"reats to
internal $alidit+% 4#6 t"e imprecision o( meas'res% 4c6 t"e o$erall n'm#er o( tests or o$erlap among tests% 4d6 t"e
e((ect sizes o#ser$ed% and 4e6 ot"er limitations or wea-nesses o( t"e st'd+* :( an inter$ention is in$ol$ed% disc'ss
w"et"er it was s'ccess('l and t"e mec"anism #+ w"ic" it was intended to wor- 4ca'sal pat"wa+s6 and=or
alternati$e mec"anisms* Also% disc'ss #arriers to implementing t"e inter$ention or manip'lation as well as t"e
(idelit+ wit" w"ic" t"e inter$ention or manip 'lation was implemented in t"e st'd+% t"at is% an+ di((erences
#etween t"e manip'lation as planned and as implemented*
Ac-nowledge t"e limitations o( +o'r researc"% and address alternati$e explanations o( t"e res'lts* 1isc'ss t"e
generaliza#ilit+% or external $alidit+% o( t"e (indings* T"is critical anal+sis s"o'ld ta-e into acco'nt di((erences
#etween t"e target pop'lation and t"e accessed sample* For inter$entions% disc'ss c"aracteristics t"at ma-e t"em
more or less applica#le to circ'mstances not incl'ded in t"e st'd+% "ow and w"at o'tcomes were meas'red
4relati$e to ot"er meas'res t"at mig"t "a$e #een 'sed6% t"e lengt" o( time to meas'rement 4#etween t"e end o(
t"e inter$ention and t"e meas'rement o( o'tcomes6% incenti$es% compliance rates% and speci(ic settings in$ol$ed
in t"e st'd+ as well as ot"er context'al iss'es*
>nd t"e 1isc'ssion section wit" a reasoned and /'sti(ia#le commentar+ on t"e importance o( +o'r (indings* T"is
concl'ding section ma+ #e #rie( or extensi$e pro$ided t"at it is tig"tl+ reasoned% sel(-contained% and not
o$erstated* :n t"is section% +o' mig"t #rie(l+ ret'rn to a disc'ssion o( w"+ t"e pro#lem is important 4as stated in
t"e introd'ction6; w"at larger iss'es% t"ose t"at transcend t"e partic'lars o( t"e s'#(ield% mig"t "inge on t"e
(indings; and w"at propositions are con(irmed or discon(irmed #+ t"e extrapolation o( t"ese (indings to s'c"
o$erarc"ing iss'es*
Co' ma+ also consider t"e (ollowing iss'es:

2"at is t"e t"eoretical% clinical% or practical signi(icance o( t"e o'tcomes% and w"at is t"e #asis (or t"ese
interpretations8 :( t"e (indings are $alid and replica#le% w"at real-li(e ps+c"ological p"enomena mig"t #e
explained or modeled #+ t"e res'lts8 Are applications warranted on t"e #asis o( t"is researc"8 4Note 16

2"at pro#lems remain 'nresol$ed or arise anew #eca'se o( t"ese (indings8 T"e responses to t"ese ,'estions
are t"e core o( t"e contri#'tion o( +o'r st'd+ and /'sti(+ w"+ readers #ot" inside and o'tside +o'r own specialt+
s"o'ld attend to t"e (indings* Co'r readers s"o'ld recei$e clear% 'nam#ig'o's% and direct answers* 4Note 26
Fig're 1* Fig're title 4T"is is an example o( (ig're 16
1ote. N'm#er (ig'res consec'ti$el+ in accordance wit" t"eir appearance in t"e text* !lace (ig'res caption and
description #elow t"e (ig're #od+* 4Resol'tion: ; dpi6* Co' ma+ resize t"e (ig'res or sc"emes to (it t"e page
size*
Acknowledgents
:denti(+ grants or ot"er (inancial s'pport 4and t"e so'rce% i( appropriate6 (or +o'r st'd+; do not precede grant
n'm#ers #+ No* or E* Next% ac-nowledge colleag'es w"o assisted in cond'cting t"e st'd+ or criti,'ing t"e
man'script* 1o not ac-nowledge t"e persons ro'tinel+ in$ol$ed in t"e re$iew and acceptance o( man'scripts F
peer re$iewers or editors% associate editors% and cons'lting editors o( t"e /o'rnal in w"ic" t"e article is to appear*
:n t"is paragrap"% also explain an+ special agreements concerning a't"ors"ip% s'c" as i( a't"ors contri#'ted
e,'all+ to t"e st'd+* >nd t"is paragrap" wit" t"an-s (or personal assistance% s'c" as in man'script preparation*
Re!erences
American !s+c"ological Association* 415G26* Ethical standards of ps!cholo$ists* 2as"ington% 10: American
!s+c"ological Association*
Anderson% 0* A*% ?entile% 1* A*% 7 &'c-le+% H* >* 42G6* 2iolent video $ame effects on children and
adolescents3 "heor!4 research and public polic!.
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"otes
Note 1* T"is is an example*
Note 2* T"is is an example (or note 2*
A##endi$ A
%he &eading to A##endi$ A
:n general% an appendix is appropriate (or materials t"at are relati$el+ #rie( and t"at are easil+ presented in print
(ormat* Some examples o( material s'ita#le (or an appendix are 4a6 a list o( stim'l's materials 4e*g*% t"ose 'sed
in ps+c"oling'istic researc"6% 4#6 a detailed description o( a complex piece o( e,'ipment% 4c6 a list o( articles t"at
pro$ided t"e so'rce data (or a meta-anal+sis #'t are not directl+ re(erred to in an+ ot"er wa+ in an article% and 4d6
a detailed demograp"ic description o( s'#pop'lations in t"e st'd+ and ot"er detailed and=or complex reporting
items s'ggested in t"e reporting standards section o( t"is c"apter*
:( +o'r man'script "as onl+ one appendix% la#el it Appendix; i( +o'r man'script "as more t"an one appendix%
la#el eac" one wit" a capital letter 4Appendix A% Appendix &% etc*6 in t"e order in w"ic" it is mentioned in t"e
main text* >ac" appendix m'st "a$e a title* :n t"e text% re(er to appendices #+ t"eir la#els: prod'ced t"e same
res'lts (or #ot" st'dies 4see Appendices A and & (or complete proo(s6*
A##endi$ '
%he &eading to A##endi$ '
Li-e t"e main text% an appendix ma+ incl'de "eadings and s'#"eadings as well as ta#les% (ig'res% and displa+ed
e,'ations* N'm#er eac" appendix ta#le and (ig're% and n'm#er displa+ed e,'ations i( necessar+ (or later
re(erence; precede t"e n'm#er wit" t"e letter o( t"e appendix in w"ic" it is incl'ded 4e*g*% Ta#le A16* :n a sole
appendix% w"ic" is not la#eled wit" a letter% precede all ta#les% (ig'res% and e,'ation n'm#ers wit" t"e letter A to
disting'is" t"em (rom t"ose o( t"e main text*
Ta#le &1* Ta#le title 4t"is is an example o( ta#le &16
Total capital stoc- :ncome o( main #'siness Total assets
!'dong 1e$elopment &an- ;5*2 21<*G 3G;*G
&an- o( 0"ina <35*< ;;<3*G 35BG6*5
Ta#le &2* Ta#le title 4t"is is an example o( ta#le &26
Total capital stoc- :ncome o( main #'siness Total assets
!'dong 1e$elopment &an- ;5*2 21<*G 3G;*G
&an- o( 0"ina <35*< ;;<3*G 35BG6*5
Fig're &1* Fig're title 4T"is is an example o( (ig're &16
A##endi$ (
%he &eading to A##endi$ ( 4:( one ta#le constit'tes an entire appendix% t"e appendix la#el and title ser$e in
lie' o( a ta#le n'm#er and title*6
53@0:
0ondition .4SD6 LL AL
Letters 1<*342B*66 3*< 2;*6
1igits ;1*B4;;*26 21*2 <2*<
(o#yrights
0op+rig"t (or t"is article is retained #+ t"e a't"or4s6% wit" (irst p'#lication rig"ts granted to t"e /o'rnal*
T"is is an open-access article distri#'ted 'nder t"e terms and conditions o( t"e 0reati$e 0ommons Attri#'tion
license 4"ttp:==creati$ecommons*org=licenses=#+=;*=6*

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