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Concrete Works Specification

Prepared by Lem
Concrete for Structure
General
Note: This section is applicable to all kinds of concrete works in the Contract. Specifications for
particular aspects of concrete work are found in other Sections where applicable.
Cement
Cement shall be either Portland cement or Portland blast furnace cement of the best Malaysia
manufacture approved by the JKR.
Portland cement shall comply with the requirements of BS 12 and Portland and blast-furnace
cement shall comply with the requirements of BS 146.
Manufacturers certificates of test will in general be accepted as proof of soundness, but the
S.O. may require additional tests to be carried out on any cement which appears to him to have
deteriorated thorough age, damage to containers, improper storage or for any other reason.
The S.O. may, without tests being made, order that any bag of cement, a portion of the contents
of which has hardened, or which appears to be defective in any other way, to be removed from
the Site forthwith.
The Contractor may elect to use either ordinary of rapid hardening Portland cement of Portland
blast-furnace cement, but no extra will be paid on account of using a cement priced higher than
the price entered for ordinary Portland Cement in the Contract, unless work using such cement
is ordered by the S.O.
The cement shall be transported to the site in covered vehicles adequately protected against the
entrance of water. It shall be stored in a weather-proof cement store to the approval of the S.O.
and shall be taken for use in the works in the order of its delivery into the store.
Where cement is delivered in bulk containers, additional arrangements are to be made for bulk
storage to the approval of the S.O., or at his own expense the Contractor may use his bulk
container lorries for storage.
Aggregates
Coarse aggregates shall be granite or other hard stone from a source approved by the S.O.
Limestone aggregates shall NOT be used unless otherwise specified.

Concrete Works Specification
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a) Quality
Aggregate is to consist of naturally occurring sand, gravel of rock, whole or crushed or a
combination thereof, and is to be hard, durable, clean and free from adherent coatings,
such as clay.
Aggregates are not to contain harmful impurities such as iron pyrites, coal, mica, shale
or similar laminated materials.
Aggregates are not to contain flaky or elongated particles.
Qualitative tests are to be carried out on all aggregates in accordance with BS 812. The
Contractor is to execute all sampling and testing at his own expense. If so directed he is
to deliver duplicate samples to the S.O., properly packed and clearly labeled so as to be
identifiable with the samples used in the tests. The results of the tests are to be submitted
to the S.O. for this approval prior to the delivery or use of the aggregates.
When tested in accordance with the methods described in BS 812 aggregates are to
have the following properties:
I. Aggregate crushing value : not more than 45 %
II. Flakiness Index : not more than 30 %
Unless evidence of general performance is offered which is satisfactory to the S.O., the
maximum quantities of clay, silt and fine dust, and of organic impurities, are not to exceed
the limits given in clause 5d of BS 882.
b) Definitions
The terms fine aggregate coarse aggregate and all-in aggregate, are as defined in
clause 2 of BS 882.
c) Grading of Aggregates
The grading of course, fine and all-in aggregates when tested in accordance with BS 812
are to be within the limits defined in the relevant table in BS 882 as specified and
reproduced hereunder:

Concrete Works Specification
Prepared by Lem
B.S. 410 1976
Coarse Aggregate -
Fine Aggregate
Fine Aggregate All-In-Aggregate
Test PERCENTAGES BY WEIGHT PASSING B.S. SIEVE
Sieve
Size
Nominal
40 mm
Nominal
20 mm
Grading
Zone 2
Grading
Zone 3
40 mm
Nominal
Size
20 mm
Nominal
Size
75 mm
40 mm
20 mm
10 mm
5 mm
No.7
No. 14
No. 25
No. 52
No. 100
100
95 - 100
30 -70
10-35
0 - 5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
100
90 - 100
75 - 100
55 - 90
35 - 59
8 - 30
0 -10
-
-
-
100
90 - 100
85 - 100
75 - 100
60 - 79
12 - 40
0 -10
-
-
-
100
90 - 100
85 - 100
75 - 100
60 - 79
12 - 40
0 -10
100
95 - 100
45 - 75
-
24 - 45
-
-
8 - 30
-
0 - 6
-
100
95 - 100
-
3- 5
-
-
-
10 - 35
Sampling and Testing of Aggregates
Samples of the fine and coarse aggregates approved by the Superintending Officer shall be kept
on site, and shall give a fair indication of the general quality of the aggregates for comparison
with the aggregates delivered during the course of work. Tests shall be carried out on samples of
the latter taken at intervals as required by the Superintending Officer. The method of sampling
and the amount of aggregates to be provided for the tests shall be in accordance with BS
812:1975 Section One Sampling and Submission of Samples. The tests shall be those laid down
in BS 812:1975 Section Two to Six inclusive. The tests shall be carried out by the Superintending
Office who may, at his discretion either reject the batch from which the sample was taken, order
it to be washed and/or screened, or permit it to be used with variations in the proportions of
the concrete mixes specified. Any batch aggregate rejected by the Superintending Officer shall
be removed from the works site forthwith.
Handling Aggregates
The sitting and preparation of sites for stock piles of aggregates, the numbers of stock piles, the
sizes of the piles and the method adopted to prevent coning or other segregation of
component sizes are to be arranged with the S.O.
Stock piles are to be on concrete or other approved hard surface laid to falls to that water is not
retained in the bas of the stock piles.
Stock piles are to be at least 6 ft. (1.8) in height and built up in layers of not more than 3 ft.
(0.9m) in thickness. Each layer is to be completely in place before beginning the next, which is
not to be allowed to cone down over the under layer.
If aggregates of different grading are stockpiled in close proximity, the stock piles are to be
separated by bulkheads.
Concrete Works Specification
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All aggregates are to be handled from the stock pile or other source to the batching plant in
such a manner as to secure a typical grading of the material, care being taken to avoid crushing
the aggregates and that they remain free from extraneous matter.
All aggregates produce or handled by hydraulic methods and all washed aggregates are to be
stockpiled for draining least 24 hours before being batched.
Water
Only clean fresh water free from impurities is to be used. Where the water is not obtained from
a public supply the Contractor is to submit a report of its composition to the S.O. The water
must comply with BS 3148.
Batching Concrete
When cement is stored in bulk it is to be measured by weight, when it is supplied in bags each
batch of concrete is to contain a whole numbers of bags of cement.
a) Batching by Weight
The cement and each size of aggregates are to be measured by weight the water may be
measured by weight or volume. The weight batching machines used are to be kept in
good condition while in use under the Contract.
b) Batching by Volume
Where batching by volume is allowed the aggregates are to be measured by volume, the
cement by weight and the water by volume or weight.
The containers in which the aggregates are measured are to be of such shape that their
volume can easily be checked by measurement. Their depths are to be at least equal to
their greatest width and their cross section at the top level of the aggregate is not to
exceed 600 mm x 600 mm.
Mixing Concrete
Concrete required to be mixed mechanically is to be mixed in a batch mixer of approved type
which is to be in good condition and is to have a drum rotating about a horizontal or inclined
axis. Each mixer is to be fitted with a water measuring device capable of accurate measurement
to 1/2 gallon of a 2 cubic yard mixer and pro-rata for smaller sizes and so arrange that the
accuracy is not affected by variations in the pressure in the water supply line.
The siting of the batching and mixing plant is to be arranged with the S.O.
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The fine and coarse aggregates and the cement are to be mixed for at least 4 turns of the drum,
after which the required amount of water is to be added gradually whilst the drum is in motion
and the concrete is then to be mixed for at least 2 minutes and until of a uniform colour and
consistency. (The time may be reduced to 70 seconds where Koehring or other similar and
approved double drum mixer are used).
The amount of concrete mixed in any one batch is not to exceed the rated capacity of the mixer.
The whole of the mixed batch is to be removed before materials for a fresh batch enter the
drum.
On cessation of work, including all stoppages exceeding 20 minutes, the mixer and all handling
plant are to be washed out with clean water.
Concrete mixed as above is not be modified by the addition of water or otherwise in order to
facilitate handling or for any other purpose.
Water / Cement ratio
The term water/cement ratio means the ratio by weight of water to cement in the mix,
expressed as a decimal. The water is that which is free to combine with the cement in the mix,
including free water in the aggregate, but not water absorbed by the aggregate.
When determining the moisture content of the aggregate for this purpose, the aggregate is not
being dried in an oven, but is to be surface-dried with absorbent cloth or similar material. The
moisture content of the fine aggregate may be calculated in accordance with Section 4 of BS
812.
Aggregate / Cement ratio
The term aggregate/cement ration means the ratio by weight of aggregate to cement in the mix
expressed in decimal terms.
For this purpose the aggregate is assumed to be surface-dry as specified in the previous clause.
Placing Concrete
Concrete shall be placed as soon as possible after mixing and shall be thoroughly compacted by
both hand tamping and mechanical vibration. It shall be thoroughly worked into the corners of
formwork by hand tamping. After tamping into place the concrete shall not be subjected to
disturbance other than such as is incidental to compaction by vibration.
The concrete shall be placed in the formwork in layers not exceeding 600 mm deep in walls and
deep beams and placed to the full depth in slabs and small beams.
Concrete Works Specification
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Vibrators hall be used solely for compacting the concrete and not for distributing it into place.
Concreting shall be carried out continuously and up to predetermined construction joints, in one
sequence of operation. The surface of the concrete shall be maintained reasonably level during
placing.
In the event of unavoidable stoppage in positions not determined the concreting shall be
terminated on horizontal planes, and by the sue of stopping-off boards, against vertical faces.
A record shall be kept on the Site of the time and date of placing the concrete in each portion of
any structure together with the reference numbers of the test cubes pertaining to the batches
of concrete placed in particular of any structure.
Compacting Concrete
Concrete maintained between the two faces of forms shall be compacted by vibrators of the
internal type and concrete in slabs shall be compacted either by vibrators of the pan type or by a
vibrating screed. The vibrators shall be of ample power and of a kind approved by the S.O. and
shall be operated by workmen skilled in their use who shall be additional to the labourers
employed on placing and tamping the concrete.
The internal vibrators shall be inserted and withdrawn slowly and at uniform rate of
approximately 100 mm per second. Compaction shall be deemed to be compete when cement
mortar appears in a circle around the vibrator. Over-vibration, leading to segregation of the mix,
must be avoided. The vibrators shall be inserted at points judged by the area of mortar showing
after compaction with a certain allowance made for overlapping. They shall not be allowed to
come into contact with the formwork or the reinforcement and shall be inserted at a distance of
75 mm from the former.
The pan vibrators shall be placed on the surface of the concrete, which shall have previously
been tamped and levelled and an allowance in height left for compaction, until the cement
mortar appears under the pan. The vibrator shall then be lifted and placed on the adjoining
surface and the operation repeated until the whole surface has been compacted. Alternatively a
vibrating screed spanning the full width of the surface may be used.
Concrete Proportion (Based on C.P 110)
The grade of concrete used in all reinforced concrete members for the works shall be as stated
or indicated in the Drawing. The coarse aggregates shall be as stated or indicated in the
Drawing. The coarse aggregates shall be 20 mm nominal maximum size, unless otherwise stated.
The proportions of materials per 50 kg bag of cement for the various grades of concrete shall be
as stated in the following tables obtained from CP 110. Concrete mixes of grade higher than
Concrete Works Specification
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grade 30 (used for e.g. in prestressed concrete) where specified, shall be designed as specified in
Clause 13C of this section.
Prescribed mixes for normal structural concrete per CP 110: proportions per 50 kg bag of
cement
Concrete
grade

Nominal maximum size of
Aggregate (mm)

40 20 14
10

Workability Medium High Medium High Medium High Medium High
15
Total aggregate (kg)
Fine aggregate (%)
Vol. of finished concrete (m
3
)
370
30 45
0.200
330
30 45
0.184
320
35 50
0.178
280
35 50
0.160
- - - -
20
Total aggregate (kg)
Sand: Zone 1 (%)
Zone 2 (%)
Zone 3 (%)
Vol. of finished concrete (m
3
)
305
35
30
30
0.165
270
40
35
30
0.155
280
40
35
30
0.156
250
45
40
35
0.143
255
45
40
35
0.146
220
50
45
40
0.130
240
50
45
40
0.137
200
55
50
45
0.121
25
Total aggregate (kg)
Sand: Zone 1 (%)
Zone 2 (%)
Zone 3 (%)
Vol. of finished concrete (m
3
)
265
35
30
30
0.147
240
40
35
30
0.137
240
40
35
30
0.137
215
45
40
35
0.127
220
45
40
35
0.130
195
50
45
40
0.118
210
50
45
40
0.124
175
55
50
45
0.110
30
Total aggregate (kg)
Sand: Zone 1 (%)
Zone 2 (%)
Zone 3 (%)
Vol. of finished concrete (m
3
)
235
35
30
30
0.134
215
40
35
30
0.127
210
40
35
30
0.124
190
45
40
35
0.115
195
45
40
35
0.115
170
50
45
40
0.106
180
50
45
40
0.109
150
55
50
45
0.097
Percentages are by weight of fine aggregate in weight of total dry aggregates. Volumes of fully-
compacted finished concrete are approximate only. Cement must comply with BS 12 of BS 146
aggregates with BS 882
Concrete Proportions (Nominal Mixes)
Where nominal mixes have been specified or so indicated in the drawings, the concrete shall be
proportional in the following manner: cement by weight or bags of 50 kg each, aggregated by
weight, water by volume. The fine and coarse aggregates shall be measured separately. The
proportions of materials for various nominal mixes shall be as follows:
Nominal mix Portland cement (kg) Fine Aggregate (kg) Coarse Aggregate (kg)
Water including water
in aggregate (litres)
1 : 3 : 6 0 150 296 As directed by the S.O.
1 : 2 : 4 50 107 199 28.0
1 : 1 1/2 : 3 50 82 150 25.5
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The weights of the fine and coarse aggregates specified in the above table refer to the materials
in the drawing state. Tests shall be carried out twice daily, or more frequently if considered
necessary by the S.O. to ascertain the moisture content of the aggregates. Allowances shall be
made for the water contained in the aggregates when calculating the quantity of water to be
added to the mix.
While the proportions of the mix are to be generally as given in the above table, the
Superintending Officer shall have the right to order variations in these proportions should tests
show such variations to be necessary to produce a dense concrete of the specified strength and
of a consistency that will permit of its being worked into position and compacted satisfactorily in
the different parts of the work. The proportions of the mix as specified in the are expected to
produce works cube strengths in excess of the requirements of the Specification and workability
sufficient to ensure that the concrete can be worked and fully compacted using the methods of
vibration specified in this section. If, however, it is shown during the preliminary trials and the
course of the Works that the concrete mix is stiffer that can be placed satisfactorily, an
adjustment of up to 5 per cent may be made in the water/cement ratio but any further
adjustment of the mix shall be made by increasing the proportion of both the water and the
cement without increasing the water/cement ratio. The cement proportions shall be increased
up to 10 per cent if the cube strengths fall below those specified.
Design Mixes
Concrete mix of grade higher than grade 30 for prestressed concrete and certain portions of the
work as specified as shown in the drawings shall be designed by the Contractor and the mix
approved by the S.O. prior to concreting. The method of carry out designed mixes shall be in
accordance with the recommendation of Section 6.5 Requirements for Designed Mixes of CP
110: Part 1 : 1972.
Grout
Where grout is shown on the Drawings this shall consist of a 1 : 3 cement/sand slurry containing
only sufficient water to ensure the desired workability.
Additives
The use of additives in the concrete, for the purpose of promoting rapid hardening, for water-
proofing, for creasing workability of for any other reason, may permitted in special
circumstances.
Such additives shall be a brand and type, approved by the S.O. and shall be used strictly in
accordance with the makers instructions. Permission for their use must be obtained from the
S.O. who may require test to be carried out with the additives before granting such permission.
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Steel Works Built Into Concrete
The surface of all structural steel which is to be built or cast in the concrete of any structure
shall be thoroughly cleaned of any protective paint or other adherent coatings and shall be free
from rust, oil or any other deleterious matter immediately before casting the concrete.
Transporting Concrete
Concrete shall be transported from the mixer to the place of deposit in the Works as rapidly as
practicable and by means which will prevent segregation of the materials and/or loss or
contamination of ingredients.
It shall be deposited as near practicable to its final position to avoid re-handling or flowing.
The concrete shall be conveyed by chutes only with the express permission of the S.O. and
arrangements for these shall be to his satisfaction.
Sampling and Testing Concrete for Consistency
While work on concreting is in progress, test on the workability of the mix shall be carried out
twice daily and, in addition whenever any materials or the proportions of the mix are changed,
or when directed by the S.O. The tests shall consist of either the slump test or the Compacting
Factor tests, as described in BS. 1881.
Sampling and Testing Concrete for Strength
While work on concreting is in progress, sample of the concrete as placed shall be taken and
work test cubes made from them. While at the same time consistency tests shall be made from
the samples and the slump and/or compacting factors recorded.
A record of these tests shall be kept on the works, identifying them with the part of the work
executed. The samples shall be taken and the test cubes made and matured, in accordance with
the standard methods laid down in BS 1881.
A set of six 150 mm cubes shall be cast each day when concreting is in progress. Where more
than 130 m3 of concrete are placed in a day, a set of six cubes shall be cast from each 130 m3 of
such concrete placed that day. The Contractor shall provide for all attendance and apparatus
necessary for carrying out all the tests required.
Three of the cubes shall be tested at age 7 days and three at age 28 days. The strength
requirement shall be considered to be satisfied if none of the strength of the three cubes at
each age is below the specified works test cube strength for the respective age, or if the average
strength of the three cubes is not less than the specified cube strength and the difference
between the greatest and the lowest strengths is not more than 20 % of that average.
Concrete Works Specification
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If the 7 days strength exceeds that specified, the 28 days test may be dispensed with at the
discretion of the S.O.
When the cubes tested at 7 days show a resistance of crushing less than that specified, the right
is reserved by the S.O. to order work on concreting to stop until results of the tests at 28 days
are known. If the resistance to crushing of the cubes at 28 days is less than that specified, the
S.O. has the power to reject and have any concrete from which the test cubes were taken to be
cut and removed.
When the cube failures occur, cores may, at the discretion of the S.O., be taken from the in-situ
concrete which the cube represents. Such costs and that of subsequent tests carried out on the
cores shall be borne by the Contractor.
The specified minimum works cube strength of various concrete mixes is as follows:
Concrete Grade 7 days cube strength N/mm
3

28 days cube strength
N/mm
3

Prescribed mixes for normal
structural concrete as per CP
110
20
25
30
14.3
17.9
21.9
20
25
30
Nominal mixes

1 : 3 : 6
1 : 2 : 4
1 : 1 1/2 : 3
8.5
14.0
17.0
12.5
20.5
26
Designed mixes Grades higher
As per requirements in Requirements for Designed Mixes of
Section 6.5. of CP 110 : Part 1 : 1972.
Construction Joints
Construction joints shall be located in positions directed by the S.O. Such joints shall be in a
horizontal plane when forming the upper surface of lifts in beams. Wooden fillets 50 mm x 50
mm, slightly chamfered shall be fixed to forms at 600 mm centers so as to produces rebates in
the face of the joints.
Joints shall have all excess water and laitance removed from the surface after the concrete has
been compacted and before it has set. Before concreting is resumed, the face of the joint
already formed shall have all further laitance removed and shall be well roughened, scrubbed
clean and thoroughly saturated with water.
The face shall then be rendered with 12 mm thick layer of mortar, composed of equal parts of
Portland Cement and sand, against which the freshly mixed concrete shall be immediately
deposited and thoroughly tamped.

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Curing and Protection Of Concrete
Exposed surfaces, immediately after final set, shall be protected from the sun in a manner
approved by the S.O. All concrete shall be well watered after it has set and shall be kept
continuously damp until deemed by the S.O. to be thoroughly cured.
Provision shall be made for adequate water distribution to all parts of the Site, so that, if
required this treatment can be continued efficiently throughout the whole period of
construction on any part of the Site.
In order to keep the concrete damp as specified all exposed surfaces shall be covered with
continuously damped gunny bags or shall have water impounded on them for the full period of
curing, which shall be not less ten days.
All work shall be protected from damage by shock or overloading or falling earth, etc.
Surface Treatment
As soon as the formwork has been removed and after inspection by the S.O. honeycombing or
small holes in the surfaces of the concrete shall be filled with cement mortar composed of equal
parts of Portland Cement and sand. No further treatment shall be given to concealed surfaces.
Permanently visible surfaces shall be then treated as follows:-
a) All projecting imperfections shall be rubbed down with carborundum stone or other
materials approved by the S.O. and the grit or dirt there from thoroughly washed off
with clean water.
b) As a separate operation, after completion of (i) above, surfaces shall be brushed over
with a coating of Portland cement wash which shall be rubbed into the pores and
smoothed off with carborundum blocks, The finished surfaces shall be protected against
drying too rapidly by the use of damp sacking or by other approved means.
c) Surfaces for which formwork is not provided shall be floated to a smooth finish with a
wooden float after compaction of the concrete.
Formwork
Formwork shall be constructed of sound, well-seasoned timber of such quality and strength as
will ensure complete rigidity throughout the placing, ramming, vibration and setting of the
concrete: it shall be sufficiently tight to prevent loss of liquid grout or mortar from the concrete.
Where formwork is not provided with special lining the faces in contact with concrete shall be
planed smooth, true to alignment and free from surface imperfections and the joints between
boards shall be tongued and grooved or caulked with tight-fitting fillets recessed into adjacent
boards and covering the joint.
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Internal ties or struts shall be avoided as far as possible, and if used, they shall be of metal and
capable of removal without injury to the concrete. No part of any metal tie or spacer, remaining
permanently embedded in the concrete, shall be nearer than 40 mm to the finished surface of
the concrete.
Construction details shall be arrange to permit each removal of the formwork and wedges and
bolts shall be employed wherever possible in preference to nails.
If he so choose the Contractor may, with the approval of the S.O. use steel formwork. This
should be so constructed as to remain sufficiently rigid during the placing of the concrete and
should be sufficiently tight to prevent loss of liquid grout or mortar from the concrete.
The detailed design of any formwork should be submitted to the S.O. for his approval.
Lining to Formwork
Formwork for all permanently visible concrete surfaces shall be lined with lining material
approved by the S.O. The Contractor may use linings to formwork for other surfaces if he so
desires.
The lining shall be carefully joined and finished so as to present a perfectly smooth and even
surface.
Cleaning and Treatment of Formwork
Before concrete is deposited, the forms shall be thoroughly cleaned and freed from sawdust
shavings, duct, mud or other debris by hosing with clean water and temporary opening shall be
provided in the forms to drain away and water and rubbish.
Unless otherwise directed by the S.O. the inside surface of forms shall be coated with lime wash
or approved mould oil. There shall be no excess coating material in the forms prior to
concreting.
All formwork shall be inspected by the S.O. after preparation and immediately prior to
depositing concrete and no concrete shall be deposited until approval of the formwork has been
obtained from the S.O.
Removal of Formwork
Formwork shall be removed without such shock or over vibration as would damage the
concrete.
Before general removal of the formwork the concrete shall be exposed over a small area in
order to ascertain that the concrete has sufficiently hardened.
Concrete Works Specification
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The table below specifies the minimum periods which shall elapse between the placing of the
concrete and the removal of the formwork but compliance with these requirements shall not
relieve the Contractor of the obligation to delay the removal of formwork, until the concrete has
sufficiently hardened.
Position of Formwork Ordinary Portland (Days)
Rapid Hardening Portland
Cement (Days)
Slabs (props left under)
Beam Soffits (props left under)
Beam/Slab Sides, Walls, & Columns (Unloaded)
Removal of Props to Slab
Removal of Props to Beams
4
8
3
10
21
3
5
2
5
8
The table above is given as a guide for normal and rapid-hardening Portland Cement and gives
the minimum striking times which will normally be approved by the S.O. but who may, at his
discretion, increase the above times if the considers such increase to be necessary.
Any variations proposed by the Contractor by virtue of the use of other types of cement
additives hall be subject to the approval of the S.O.
Reinforcement
Reinforcing bars shall comply with the requirements of BS 785 of BS 1144.
The Contractor shall furnish, for reinforcement supplied by him, manufactures certificates and
these shall be submitted for acceptance by the S.O. before any material is brought onto the Site.
In addition, the Contractor shall, on request, furnish the S.O. with a test sheet for any batch
bars, giving the results of each of the mechanical tests required under BS 785.
In the event of any reinforcement being found to be not in accordance with BS 785 in the course
of being worked, it may be rejected by the S.O. notwithstanding any previous acceptance on the
strength of the test certificates and the S.O. may call for additional tests to be made on samples
taken from the batch of bars form which the faulty reinforcement came. If the samples do not
comply with the BS 785 then the S.O. may reject the whole batch and require its removal from
the Site. High tensile fabric when used shall comply with the requirement of BS 1221.
Cleaning / Bending Reinforcement
The reinforcement shall be cleaned free from loose mill scale and rust before being placed in the
forms and shall be free from these and from oil, grease or other harmful matter at the time
when the concrete is placed.
The reinforcement shall be bent cold in an approved bar-bending machine. The bending
dimensions and tolerances and the dimensions of end anchorages, hooks, binders, stirrups, links
and the like where used shall be in accordance with BS 1478.
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The internal radius at the corner of stirrups and binders shall not be less than the radius of the
longitudinal bars embraced by the stirrups or binders.
Welding Reinforcement
Welding of reinforcement by electric are may be permitted by the S.O. under suitable conditions
and with suitable safeguards.
Welding if permitted shall be carried out in accordance with BS 1856. But welds shall be of the
double wire type and two butt weld bend tests shall be carried out on a specimen prepared to
represent each form of butt welded joint used in welding the reinforcement and for each
position of welding.
The method of making butt-weld test shall be that laid down in BS 709. The specimen shall pass
the tests to the satisfaction of the S.O. before approval is accorded to use the joint which the
specimen represents. Tack Welds between reinforcing bars, used merely to fix them in position
shall not be subjected to these tests.
Placing Reinforcement
The reinforcement shall be placed in the forms and held firm against displacement by approved
types of small precast concrete fixing blocks and wire ties in the position shown in the Drawings.
Fixing blocks may be left embedded in the concrete in cases where the S.O. approves.
Bars intended to be in contact when passing each other shall be securely held together at
intersection points with typing wire. Binders and stirrups shall tightly embrace the longitudinal
reinforcement to which they shall be securely wired or spot welded.
The wire ties shall be No. 16. S.W.G soft annealed iron wire; the ends shall be turned in from the
face of the formwork and shall not be left projecting beyond the reinforcing bars.
The reinforcement shall be inspected and passed by the S.O. or his representative before
concrete is placed in the forms.
The specified cover to the reinforcement shall be given when the reinforcement is placed in the
forms and shall be maintained during concreting. PRECAST CONCRETE
Pre-Cast Units
Where indicated on the Drawings components are to be precast in the mixes specified.
The clauses of the Section shall be generally applicable to this class of work together with the
following more specific clauses.

Concrete Works Specification
Prepared by Lem
Manufacture
Concreting of each component shall be carried out in on continuous operation, and vibration,
either by the methods specified in clause 4.12 by means of vibrators attached to the formwork,
is to be used to ensure adequate compaction
Formwork
Lined formwork as specified in clause 18 is to be used for the precast components which are to
be kept in the forms for a period of eight days.
Provided that the concrete has become sufficiently hard the formwork may then be removed
but the components must be kept adequately supported on level blocks for a further period of
six days before removal for stacking.
Curing
Throughout the above period of hardening the components shall be cured by covering with
sacking which shall kept continuously damp by watering.
Handling
Lifting and handling of precast components shall be carried out in a manner that will avoid
damage or overstressing, and when lifting points are indicated on the Drawings the components
shall be lifted by slinging at these points and at no other.
Should any components in the opinion the S.O. be so damaged by mishandling as to be
inadequate for its purpose the S.O. may order its removal from the site to be replaced at the
Contractors expense.
Stacking
Components shall be stacked in such a manner that no damage is caused to them by the weight
of upper layers of the stack, and when necessary they shall be placed in such a manner that
their removal in correct order or age is facilitated.
Fittings
All fittings, splice bars, etc. as shown on the Drawings to be cast into precast components shall
be accurately positioned in the formwork and held to maintain their position during concreting.
The fittings shall be protected after removal of the formwork to ensure that during subsequent
handling and stacking no damage is cause to them.

Concrete Works Specification
Prepared by Lem
Positioning
The components shall be fixed accurately in the positions shown on the Drawings. They shall be
true in alignment and level and where units are reinforced in one face only every care shall be
taken to ensure the placing of the units correctly as shown on the Drawings.