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The preconcentration, separation, and electrochemical detection of a series of tetracycline
antibiotics in a microfluidic channel were preformed. The electrophoretic experimental
parameters to analyze tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and doxycycline
antibiotics were investigated with a cellulose-dsDNA modified carbon paste electrode.
Modification of the electrode improved detection performance by enhancing the signal-to-noise
characteristics without surface fouling of the electrode. Field-amplified sample stacking and field-
amplified sample injection techniques were employed for on-chip preconcentration of the TC
series. The sensitivity of the method was improved 10900-fold when compared to conventional
MEKC-electrochemical detection analysis. The overall recoveries for TC, oxytetracycline,
chlortetracycline, and doxycycline were 87, 89, 87, and 81%, respectively, with 6.0% RSD. The
limits of detection for the series were estimated between 1.5 and 4.3nM. Applicability of the
method to beef samples was successfully demonstrated.
Keywords: Electrochemical detection; Microfluidic; Tetracycline
1 Introduction
Antibiotics have continued to play an important role in veterinary medicine, given their broad
spectrum and economic advantages. In general, they are used in livestock farm industries as
active disease treatment agents for pulmonary, urinary, and digestive infections [1][1]. The use of
antibiotics such as tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC), and chlortetracycline (CTC) in
veterinary medicine was instituted in the 1950s [2][2]. TC series antibiotics are an extremely
important group of antibiotics having a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and
Gram-negative bacteria, anaerobes, rickettsia, mycoplasmas, bedsonia, and spirochetes [3][3].
They are licensed for use in various food-producing animals including cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry,
and fish. The widespread use of these drugs has become a serious problem since they can act as
toxic substances, leaving residues in meat that can cause direct toxicity or allergic reactions in
some hypersensitive individuals. Low-level doses of antibiotics in foodstuffs consumed for long
periods also lead to problems regarding the spread of drug-resistant microorganisms [4][4]. Thus,
it is important to selectively analyze antibiotic residues.
Antibiotics of the TC series are usually determined by microbiological approaches [5][5],
immunoassays [6][6], HPLC [710][710], and CE [1114][1114]. Microbiological approaches
and immunoassays are expensive and time-consuming with low sensitivity and poor specificity.
Some HPLC methods are sensitive enough for very low levels of detection, despite the
difficulties associated with peak tailing and low efficiency. Additionally, the large amounts of
volatile organic solvents used in the HPLC mobile phase are still undesirable for most analysts.
Compared with other methods, CE has the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, small consumption
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of sample and solvent, and minimal contamination to the environment. CE has been used to
analyze many classes of antibiotics and has become an effective alternative to HPLC. Among the
CE methods, MEKC is a well-known technique for the analysis of neutral compounds of low
molecular weight [1517][1517]. Additionally, in order to meet the requirement of trace or
ultra-trace analysis, many online concentration methods have been developed. Among other
preconcentration methods, field-amplified sample stacking (FASS) and field-amplified sample
injection (FASI) are the most widely used techniques in conventional CE [1819][1819].
However, FASS and FASI techniques suffer from a major difficulty in flow control and analyte
movements inside the channel due to open communication between the various channels. In
solving the difficulties, a microchip implementing both FASS and FASI approaches was
fabricated and used to achieve more than 5000-fold increases in sensitivity, coupled with
electrochemical detection (ED) without the use of complex voltage programs [1920][1920].
Until now, the most widely applied detection method in separation is UV absorption in lieu of
its straightforward and almost universal application. Nevertheless, due to the short light path-
length with on-line UV detection (id of the capillary), detection limits are usually above
1.0M. LIF detection offers a high sensitivity in the separation technique; however, it is
expensive and lacks universality. Thus, ED is an alternative method of separation, such as CE.
Important drawbacks, such as the high potential required for electrooxidation of these
compounds, or fouling of the electrode surface by the products of the electrochemical reaction,
were observed when using conventional electrode materials as detection systems [21][21]. To
improve both sensitivity and reproducibility of the electrochemical measurements, a cellulose-
dsDNA-modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) was employed in this study. The cellulose
regulated the solubility of DNA molecules in aqueous media to give a stable electrode surface.
Modification of the electrodes is also a relatively simple process. In addition, the dsDNA
modification of the electrode helped to amplify the sensitivity of the electrode because grooves of
dsDNA can selectively capture plain-structured phenolic compounds through intercalation
[20][20].
In the present study, a micellar electrokinetic separation method was coupled with microchannel
electrophoresis having two in-channel preconcentration techniques of FASS in a basic buffer and
FASI in an acidic buffer containing micelles of SDS. Amperometry with the modified electrode
was applied to detect TC antibiotics. Various experimental parameters affecting the analytical
performances, such as electrode composition, buffer concentration, water plug length,
preconcentration time, sample injection time, SDS concentration, and the distance between the
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electrode and the channel outlet, were assessed and optimized. The analytical applicability of the
method was then examined for real beef samples.
2 Materials and methods
2.1 Materials
The structures of TC, OTC, CTC, and doxycycline (DC) are shown in Fig. 1. All were
purchased from Sigma Chemicals (City, State, USA). Graphite powder and mineral oil (DNase,
RNase, and protease not detected) were purchased from Fisher Chemical (City, State, USA).
Cellulose dsDNA (lyophilized powder containing 3.06.0mg double stranded calf thymus DNA
per gram) was received from Sigma Chemicals. Stock solutions of TC, OTC, CTC, and DC were
prepared daily in a 10-mM PBS (pH 7.0) and appropriate dilutions were made with the buffer.
The FASS buffer was 100mM phosphate buffer (PBS, pH 9.0), and the FASI buffer was
100mM acetate buffer (pH 2.5). The separation buffer consisted of 10mM acetate buffer (pH
4.2) with 10mM SDS. A 10mM PBS (pH 7.0) was used as the detection buffer. All solutions
were prepared with doubly distilled water (18Mcm) and deoxygenated by bubbling nitrogen
for 20min and filtered before performing MCE-EC experiments through 0.45mm Millipore
filters (Millipore, City, MA, USA). Other chemicals used in this work were extra pure grade
reagents.
2.2 Preparation of the cellulose-dsDNA-modified CPE
Experimentation for detection of the TCs was performed using cellulose-dsDNA-modified
CPEs. The CPE was prepared in the usual way by hand mixing 0.2g of graphite powders (grade
&hash;38: Fisher Scientific) and 10.0L of mineral oil. The mass ratio of graphite powder to
cellulose-dsDNA was 60:40 (wt/wt%). The paste was packed tightly into a Teflon sleeve (5mm
id) body with a CPE surface area of 0.79cm
2
. Electrical contact was established with a stainless
steel screw. The surface of the CPE was polished to a smooth finish and rinsed with doubly
distilled water prior to use.
2.3 Apparatus
All electrochemical experiments were performed in a three-electrode system consisting of a
CPE working, an Ag/AgCl reference, and a Pt-wire counter electrode, with a Kosentech Co.,
model PT-2, and EG&G Princeton Applied Research, model 273, Potentiostat/Galvanostat. A
Spellman CZE 1000R (City, NY, USA) was used as the high-voltage supply. A multi-ion meter
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(15 channel pH/Ion meter KST101, Kosentech Co., City, Korea) was used for pH measuring.
HPLC with a PDA detector, (Nanospace IS-2000 (Shiseido Co., Japan)) was used for the parallel
analysis of the antibiotics. Capcell Pak C
18
UG120 (4.6250mm, 5m, Shiseido, Japan) and
the mobile phase containing 0.01M oxalic acid-acetonitrile:methanol (20:10) in70/30 (v/vol%)
were used in the conventional HPLC analysis. The microfluidic channel consisted of two parallel
preconcentration channels (FASS and FASI channel) with a separation channel, with each
channel 10mm apart from the other. The schematic diagram of the microfluidic device is shown
in 1Scheme 1A. It was fabricated following our previously reported method [22][22]. The
separation channel (channel 3, from R6 to R9, =92mm) consisted of a 150-m double-tee
injector. The FASS channel (channel 1, from R2 to R3, =60mm) included a narrow sample
channel (NSC) tee injector [1920, 24][1920, 24]. The width of the NSC was 25m, one-sixth
the width of channel 1. The distance between the injection intersection and sample waste
reservoir 1 (II) defined the sample plug length and allowed the injection of a 2.0-mm sample plug
into channel 1. The length of the FASI channel (from R4 to R5) was 80mm. The depth of all
channels was 23m. The width of the FASS, FASI, and separation channels were 150, 150,
and 100m, respectively. A Teflon reservoir (id 1.0mm) was sandwiched onto each hole of the
microchip using epoxy glue. A platinum wire was inserted into the individual reservoir for
electrical contact. The electrochemical detector portion consisted of an Ag/AgCl reference, a Pt-
wire counter, and a carbon paste working electrode, and it was placed in the detection reservoir,
where the working electrode aligned horizontally to the separation channel exit. This design
provided reproducibility and central positioning of the electrode that allowed attainment of the
best sensitivity [1920, 24][1920, 24]. The CPE was held 20m apart from the separation
channel outlet by a screw. This interface was confirmed with the aid of a microscope (iTPRO,
Model 3.0, Sometech, City, South Korea). Finally, the chronoamperometric response for TC
antibiotic detection was monitored before and after preconcentration and separation.
2.4 Preparation of real samples
A beef sample (0.5g), 2.0g of C18 powder, 0.05g of oxalic acid, and 0.05g of EDTA were
placed in a mortar and homogenized completely using a pestle. The homogenous mixture was
transferred into a 10-mL syringe with two filter papers (Whatman No. 1). After placing a filter
paper on top of the mixture, the mixture was compressed to a volume of approximately 4.5mL
using the plunger. Hexane (8.0mL) was added and allowed to flow away. The syringe was
connected to a vacuum manifold to remove the remaining hexane from the mixture. The mixture
was washed again using 8.0mL of dichloromethane and the syringe connected again to a
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Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of infection in both hospitals and the community,
and it is becoming increasingly virulent and resistant to antibiotics. Possibilities of fast, sensitive
and cheap determination of these pathogenic bacteria is extremely important in antimicrobial
therapy. In the present study, CE with chemically modified capillary and zeta potential
measurements were used for differentiation of three different clinical strains of S. aureus. The
data presented in this contribution suggested that electrophoretic behavior and the values of zeta
potential should be very useful in distinguishing between closely related strains, which exhibited
coagulase gene/protein polymorphism. Understanding the differences between S. aureus strains
could help to improve our knowledge about S. aureus pathogenecity and to monitor for and
respond to emergence of more virulent strains.
Keywords: CE; coagulase gene/protein polymorphism; zeta potential
1 Introduction
Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as one of the most common bacterial pathogens
[1][1]. These gram-positive bacteria are a frequent component of the human microbial flora that
can turn into a dangerous pathogen. S. aureus is capable of infecting almost every tissue and
organ system in the human body. It does so by exporting a variety of virulence factors to the cell
surface and extracellular environment of the human host [1][1]. Surface-exposed and secreted
proteins of S. aureus play crucial roles in the colonization and subversion of the human host.
Coagulase production is an important phenotypic determinant of S. aureus, which is associated
with its virulence [2][2]. Coagulase is an extracellular protein that can bind human prothrombin
in a molar ratio of 1:1 to give a staphylothrombin complex [3][3]. The gene responsible for
coagulase production in S. aureus has been identified and variation within it detected [4, 5][4, 5].
PCR technique is able to subdivide strains of S. aureus of human origin based on coagulase gene
polymorphism [6][6].
Molecular subtyping of bacteria is the most valuable epidemiological tool that can divide strains
with high discriminatory power and is highly reproducible [7, 8][7, 8]. The problem of molecular
methods, including classical microbiological culture growth, is that, in general, they are
expensive and quite time consuming. For practical purposes any development in fast screening
methods would be a valuable advance in the field of medical diagnosis.
In our group we have been developing the CE-based method of separation of microorganisms
[912][912]. It has been shown that CZE is relatively fast and inexpensive technique that allows
differentiation of microorganisms based on their electrophoretic migration. The results obtained
so far have lead to the hypothesis that it is very likely that different strains of the same bacteria
species can be characterized by a slightly different surface charge as it was possible to observe
their different electrophoretic mobilities. There is, however, a problem of fast electroosmosis
during the separation of bacteria in fused silica capillaries, which makes their differentiation very
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difficult. Different buffer additives or capillary wall modifications are exemplary solutions
applied to solve the problem. The qualitative analysis in CE is basically based on differences in
migration times of the analyzed species. However, any observation of two separate peaks (or
groups of peaks) can be only a suggestion for the analyst to state that they represent particular
strains of bacteria. To prove it more sophisticated methods of molecular biology are needed
together with direct zeta potential and electrophoretic measurements.
The purpose of this study was to determine the phylogenetic relations of three S. aureus strains
based on the gene for coagulase production to show the differences in synthesized protein and
also differentiation of three S. aureus strains on the basis of electrophoretic behavior and the
values of zeta potential.
2 Materials and methods
<hnum>2.1</hnum> Bacterial strains
Three S. aureus strains, marked as Sa1, Sa2 and Sa16 were isolated from three different patients
from tracheostomic hole, wound and ulceration, respectively. The strains were isolated in the
same hospital at the same time.
<hnum>2.2</hnum> Molecular identification
The methods of isolation of the three bacterial strains of S. aureus mentioned in Section 2.1,
basic microbiological tests for their determination, physiological properties (BIOLOG) as well as
isolation of DNA and PCR conditions during molecular identification were described in our
previous study [13][13]. The nested PCR products of the gene for coagulase were sequenced
using PCR primers as sequencing primers (COAG-2/COAG-3). BLAST searches [14][14] with
coagulase gene sequences were performed on the GenBank database. DNA sequences determined
for this study were submitted to GenBank database (National Center for Biotechnology
Information) and accession numbers were given: Sa1 EU490368, Sa2 EU490369, Sa16
EU490370) [13][13].
<hnum>2.3</hnum> Coagulase gene and protein polymorphism
Received coagulase gene sequences Sa1 [EU490368], Sa2 [EU490369] and Sa16 [EU490370]
were aligned with the closest matches of GenBank BLAST search results and with identified
coagulase sequences of S. aureus species. Sequences with closest BLAST matches in the S.
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aureus strains 1, 2 and 16 were aligned with other published coagulase gene sequences of the S.
aureus using Clustal W (Lasergene, MegAlign 7.2.1.).
Revealed coagulase protein sequences were placed in the GenBank database (National Center
for Biotechnology Information) and accession numbers were given: Sa1 [EU490368], Sa2
[EU490369] and Sa16 [EU490370]. Above coagulase protein sequences were aligned with other
published coagulase protein sequences of the S. aureus using standard proteinprotein BLAST
(blastp), which is used for both identifying a query amino acid sequence and for finding similar
sequences in protein databases. The examined protein sequences, Sa1, Sa2 and Sa16, were
aligned with other published coagulase protein sequences of the S. aureus using Clustal W
(Lasergene, MegAlign 7.2.1.).
Comparison of coagulase gene sequences Sa1 [EU490368], Sa2 [EU490369] and Sa16
[EU490370] and coagulase protein sequences Sa1 [EU490368], Sa2 [EU490369] and Sa16
[EU490370] were investigated using PAUP, version 4.0b10 [15][15]. Neighbor-joining analyses
(NJ) [16][16] were done with Kimura 2-parameter genetic distances [17][17], combined with
bootstrap analyses [18][18] from 1000 replicates.
<hnum>2.4</hnum> Preparation of bacterial suspension for zeta
potential and electrophoretic measurements
Bacterial suspensions were prepared from the 24-h cultures of the examined strains (Sa1, Sa2,
Sa16) growing on the broth agar (Difco). The obtained suspensions were centrifuged (16873g,
20min) and washed with sterile water (five times) to remove any medium residuals and to clean
the bacterial cells before further analysis. The OD of the prepared bacterial suspensions varied
between 0.10 to 0.13 (590nm).
<hnum>2.5</hnum> Equipment
The analyses were performed using HP
3
DCE system (Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn,
Germany) equipped with a diode array detector. Fused silica capillaries were purchased from
Composite Metal Services (Worcester, Great Britain). All experiments were performed using
acrylamide modified fused silica capillaries with internal diameter of 75m, total length
L
tot
=33.5cm and effective length L
eff
=25cm. For the zeta potential measurements Zetasizer
Nano ZS was used (Malvern Instruments, Worcestershire, UK). The experimental setup for
visualization of bacterial behavior comprised of a CE system, a fluorescence stereomicroscope
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model SZX16 (Olympus, Japan) equipped with a CCD camera, CELL software and a PC for data
collection and control of the CE instrument.
<hnum>2.6</hnum> Chemicals
The following chemicals have been used for the analysis of bacteria: EDTA, boric acid
(analytical grade), acetone and toluene, which were from Polskie Odczynniki Chemiczne (POCh,
Gliwice, Poland), and Tris (99.5%) and MES (95%), which were from Merck (Darmstadt,
Germany), was from Aldrich and phosphoric acid (85%) was from JT Baker. (3-
trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (-MAPS) was from Fluka (Buchs, Switzerland). Deionized
water was produced in our laboratory using Mili-Q water purification system (Milipore, Bedford,
MA, USA).
<hnum>2.7</hnum> Electrophoretic measurements
The modification of the inner capillary wall was performed in the following way. The capillary
was rinsed with 0.5mL of 1M NaOH and then its both ends were plugged using pieces of GC
septa after which it was placed in the oven (120C) for 2h. After that time the capillary was
flushed with deionized water and acetone and dried using the stream of nitrogen for 1h. To
introduce the vinyl-anchoring sites to the inner capillary surface, the silanization mixture (10% of
-MAPS in toluene) was introduced and then the capillary was left for 3h at room temperature.
The silanized capillary was flushed with toluene and acetone and dried with nitrogen. Then,
aqueous 4% solution of acrylamide containing TEMED and ammonium persulfate was
introduced and left for 30min at room temperature followed by rinsing with water and drying
with nitrogen.
<hnum>2.8</hnum> Statistical analysis
The results of the studies measured the impact of the pH of the buffer solution on zeta potential
were statistically evaluated using one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and NewmanKeuls
multiple range test (p0.05 for comparison of means). All statistical calculations were performed
using Statistica for Windows, release 5.1 (1996; statSoft, Tulsa, OK, USA).
3 Results and discussion

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1


<RHV> M. Arai and K. Crawford</RHV>
<RHR> 2 Neutron Sources and Facilities </RHR>
<CN>Chapter 2</CN>
<CTL> Neutron Sources and Facilities</CTL>
<COPAU>Masatoshi Arai
1
and Kent Crawford
2
</COPAU>
<CRSAU>M. Arai</CRSAU>
<CRSAUADD>
1
J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan</ CRSAUADD >
1

<COPADD>
2
Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA</COPADD>
2

<AH>Abstract</AH>
<AUIP>This chapter provides a brief survey of the types of neutron sources that are available for imaging
applications, primarily focusing on high-flux sources such as reactors or spallation sources but also including smaller
or portable sources based on radioactive decay or small accelerators. Although nearly all neutron imaging studies
performed so far have used portable or reactor-based sources, spallation sources will be of increasing importance in
the future. Their designs are less familiar and somewhat more complex, so the chapter concentrates on them.</AUIP>
<KDH>Keywords</KDH> <KD>Reactor source, spallation source, portable source, neutron energy, pulse, pulse
width, thermal neutron, moderators, reflectors, neutron production, fission, spallation, proton, accelerator, instrument,
time-of-flight, flux </KD>
<H1>1 Introduction</H1>
<UIP>One might think it is not necessary to have any detailed knowledge of the neutron source in order to
use the techniques of neutron scattering or imaging. To an extent this is true. However, the distribution of neutrons
from the source in terms of energy and time, and the distribution of background (fast neutrons, delayed neutrons,
gammas ), has a direct bearing on the design of neutron scattering and imaging instruments and their performance,
on how measured raw data must be corrected to make them scientifically meaningful, and on the types of
measurements that can be undertaken. Even if the average user does not design the instrument, the user needs to
choose the source/instrument to be used for a particular experiment or measurement, so some knowledge of the
different types of sources is advisable. There are two kinds of neutron sources for neutron scattering and
high-resolution/high-flux imaging facilities: (1) reactor sources and (2) large accelerator-based neutron sources.
However, low-resolution/low-flux imaging can also be carried out with small radioactive or accelerator-based sources,
Comment: Considered first author as a
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author.
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spallation. Please confirm.
Comment: As per clarification over
phone, we have changed first letter from
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2
which can be fixed or portable.</UIP>
<IP>Nuclear reactors use the fission process to produce neutrons. Most of the current reactor sources for
scattering applications were built in the 1960s and 1970s and were primarily designed for materials testing for the
nuclear industry, providing medium flux. The best reactor source, optimized for neutron scattering applications, is still
the High-Flux Reactor (HFR) at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) built in 1972 in Grenoble, France [1]. Reactors
coming into operation more recently include JRR3 at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (1990) [2], HANARO at the
Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (1997) [3], FRM-II in Munich, Germany (2004) [4], OPAL at the
Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (2006) [5], and the China Advanced Research Reactor in
Beijing, China (potential operation in 2008) [6]. With the exception of the HFR, these are all medium-sized research
reactor sources (typical power 1020 MW) built with advanced technology.</IP>
<IP>Electron accelerators can produce neutrons in a target material using the Bremsstrahlung photo-neutron
reaction. Although electron accelerators are relatively inexpensive to construct, the large amount of heat dissipated in
the target per neutron produced severe limits on the potential performance.</IP>
<IP>Neutrons can also be produced by the spallation process, in which high-energy protons strike a solid
target. The development of proton accelerator technology, driven by other applications such as particle physics, helped
to increase the potential power and hence the neutron flux of spallation sources. The pulsed nature of most
accelerator-based neutron sources can offer a significant advantage in experiments using the time-of-flight (TOF)
method, in which the speed of the neutron is measured by timing its flight from the source to the detector. Pulsed
proton-driven neutron sources recently completed or under construction include the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)
in the United States [7], the Japanese Spallation Neutron Source (JSNS) of the J-PARC project in Japan (2008) , and
the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) in China (under construction) [9].</IP>
<IP>Both fission and spallation produce neutrons in the MeV volt energy range, as discussed in Section 2.
However, neutron scattering and most neutron imaging applications require neutrons at electron volt or lower energies.
Moderators are used to slow the neutrons to these energies, as described in Section 3. Reactor technology is highly
developed and has not changed significantly for many years. The technologies for accelerator-driven sources offer
many more parameters that can be varied to optimize the source for different purposes, so more space will be devoted
to describing these options in this chapter.</IP>
<H1>2 Neutron Production</H1>
<H2>2.1 Reactors</H2>
<UIP>At research nuclear reactors, neutrons are produced by the well-known fission process.</UIP>

<EQU>
235
U + n X + Y + 2.5n (~200 MeV total energy release, ~2 MeV per neutron) (1)</EQU>
<UIP>where X and Y are fission fragments or atoms of smaller atomic weight. Reactors are designed and optimized
for different purposes. The exact design is dependent on a number of features the shape and size of the core, the
arrangement and types of the fuel elements, control rods, coolant, moderator, reflectors, and beam tubes. Power
reactors are optimized for heat extraction and efficient use of fuel, so they have quite a different design from research
reactors that are optimized for high (external) thermal neutron flux. In a typical research reactor design, one of the
neutrons produced per fission is needed to sustain the chain reaction, ~0.5 is lost, and one is available for external use,
i.e., ~200 MeV of heat is produced for each available neutron.</UIP>
Comment: Please Check correction
made
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3
<IP>Recent design innovations have made a compact reactor core with high enrichment capabilities practical,
and this in turn produces very high neutron fluxes outside the core for beam tube applications, as it is the case at the
FRM-II reactor in Munich (Fig. 2.1). The highly optimized combination of core design and moderator arrangement
makes the thermal neutron flux available for experiments comparable to that of the worlds preeminent research
reactor facility for neutron scattering at the ILL I in Grenoble 8 10
14
n cm
2
s
1
for 20-MW reactor power compared
with 1.5 10
15
n cm
2
s
1
for the ILL power of 58 MW. Table 2.1 shows the reactor power and source flux for the
operating world-class research reactor sources (for scattering applications) along with some other parameters that will
be discussed later in the chapter. </IP>
<IP>The 1980s Advanced Neutron Source project in the United States attempted to design a high-flux
reactor of significantly higher power than ILL. However, it became clear that the technical challenges, coupled with
increasing safety regulation, made this effort economically unviable [10]. The future development of higher-flux
neutron sources will therefore be based on accelerators.</IP>
<H2>2.2 Proton Accelerator-Based Sources</H2>
<UIP>High-energy protons can create large numbers of spalled neutrons from bombardment of heavy
nuclei. For example, a 1-GeV proton is capable of producing approximately 25 neutrons from a lead target, with heat
deposition in the target of about half of the proton beam powermeaning one order of magnitude less heat must be
dissipated than in a fission reaction producing the same time-averaged neutron flux. Spallation reactions occur for
proton energies above 100 MeV. High-energy neutrons, pions, and spalled nuclei cause inter-nuclear cascades
followed by low-energy neutron evaporation from the excited nuclei (Fig. 2.2). </UIP>
<IP>The energy of a small fraction of the neutrons produced in spallation processes can be as high as the
incident proton energy (these neutrons require very thick shielding), but the spectrum reaches a maximum of around 2
MeV for the evaporating neutrons, as shown in Fig. 2.3.</IP>
<IP>For efficient neutron production, as many protons as possible should undergo high-energy collisions
with nuclei rather than gradually losing energy through other processes. The proton mean free path, dominated at high
energies by energy-independent nuclear collision cross sections, is approximately 200 g cm
2
(dividing by the selected
target material density gives units of length). The proton stopping length, dominated at low energies by electron
excitation energy loss, depends on the material and the energy but is roughly 600 g cm
2
(for lead and other heavy
elements for 1 GeV protons). When the stopping length of a proton is greater than three times its mean free path,
neutron production efficiency becomes close to 100%, so the proton energy should be as high as 1 GeV or
greater.</IP>
<IP>In the early days of design work on spallation sources, proton energies were less than 1 GeV because of
the lack of experimental experience at higher energies. However, more sophisticated codes and experiments in the
1990s demonstrated that the neutron production rate is almost proportional to the accelerator power even at 12 GeV
[1829, 39], as shown in Fig. 2.4. This resulted in flexibility in optimizing accelerator and neutron target design. Proton
current and energy are equally optimized for beam experiments. Current and energy for spallation sources are listed in
Table 2.2 along with some other parameters to be discussed.</IP>
Comment: TS: Insert Figure 2.1 near
here
Comment: TS: Insert Table 2.1 near
here
Comment: AU: Please check the
inserted citation for Fig. 2.2.
Comment: AU: Please check the
inserted citation for Fig. 2.2.
Please check figure 2.2 citation missing.
TS: Insert Figure 2.2 near here.
Comment: TS: Insert Figure 2.3 near
here.
Comment: AU: Is 1829 refers to page
number of Ref. 30. Please advice on this.
Comment: TS: Insert Figure 2.4 near
here.
Comment: TS: Insert Table 2.2 near
here.
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4
<IP>For a short-pulse neutron source, the repetition rate of the proton acceleration is an important parameter
to be considered. When a long neutron flight path is used for improved TOF resolution, a slow repetition rate is
important to minimize frame overlap (where the fast neutrons from one pulse overlap with the slow neutrons from the
previous pulse). However, if the same time-averaged power is maintained, a lower repetition rate requires more power
per pulse, creating a more difficult engineering problem for the accelerator and target.</IP>
<IP>Most accelerator-based neutron sources are pulsed, and heat is produced in the target only during the
pulses. This allows the heat to dissipate slowly in the period between pulses, so the instantaneous power and neutron
flux can be very high. However, thermal shock in the target remains a problem to be overcome at the highest levels of
proton power. Building spallation neutron sources instead of reactors is therefore becoming a worldwide trend, as
demonstrated by the SNS in the United States [7] and the J-PARC project in Japan [8]. China has started construction
of the CSNS [9], and European countries are planning a long-pulse neutron source, the European Spallation Source
(ESS), in the near future.</IP>
<IP>So far, short-pulse spallation neutron sources, typically delivering 1-s proton pulse widths, have
predominated because of the good timing resolution provided for TOF measurements of the neutron energy. Ring
structures (synchrotrons or accumulator/storage rings) in the accelerator system are required in order to provide high
proton intensities in such short pulses. Figure 2.5 shows an example of one such accelerator system using an
accumulator ring.</IP>
<IP>Long-pulse sources, typically having 1-ms proton pulse widths, are another option rapidly gaining favor
for neutron sources not requiring such high timing resolution. No accumulator ring is required for such sources, so a
very high-intensity direct proton beam can be delivered from the linac to the neutron target [27]. Continuous
cyclotron-based spallation sources, such as that at the SINQ at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland [28], produce
continuous neutron beams; their performance is similar to that of a medium-flux reactor. Table 2.2 shows spallation
neutron sources either in operation or being planned.</IP>
<H1>3 Moderation Mechanisms for Reactors and Spallation Sources</H1>
<H2>3.1 Reactor Neutron Sources</H2>
<UIP>The cross section for neutron-induced fission is much higher for thermal neutrons (100 meV) than for
the fast neutrons (12 MeV) that are produced. For a reactor to achieve a self-sustaining chain reaction from a small
mass of fissile material, and to obtain suitable neutrons for neutron scattering, the fast neutrons within the core must
be slowed down. This is done using a moderator, which is usually also the coolant. A moderator reduces the neutron
energy by inelastic scattering and so is preferably a material containing light elements, for example, H
2
O or D
2
O.
Hydrogen has a large scattering cross section and a large absorption cross section, so when H
2
O coolant is used, the
core needs to be relatively compact to achieve a high-flux density at the neutron beam tubes. These beam lines are
directed tangentially to the cylinder of maximum thermal flux in order to reduce the background of high-energy
neutrons and gammas, as illustrated in Fig. 2.1. With D
2
O, a larger core can be used (meaning easier cooling because
heat can be dissipated more easily). Surrounding the moderator there may be reflector materials that do not provide
much moderation but scatter or reflect some of the fast neutrons back into the moderator to enhance the thermalized
neutron flux output.</UIP>
Comment: TS: Insert Figure 2.5 near
here.
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5
<IP>The neutron energy distribution can be altered from that produced by the reactor coolant/moderator or
reflector/moderator materials and designed by strategic placement of special moderators, shifting the neutron energy
spectrum to either slightly lower energies (a cold sourcee.g., liquid hydrogen) or higher energies (a hot
sourcee.g., carbon heated by gamma radiation from the reactor). Such special moderators expand the range of
usable neutron energies and hence expand the research capabilities of the reactor facility. Table 2.1 shows which of
the research reactor facilities provide such capabilities.</IP>
<H2>3.2 Pulsed Spallation Neutron Sources</H2>
<UIP>In designing spallation sources, as much consideration should be paid to the moderators as to the
accelerator performance. The design of moderators is strongly dependent on the kinds of instruments, resolution, and
intensity that are required. Among the most important parameters to be optimized for moderators are (1) temperature,
(2) neutronic structure, and (3) materials.</UIP>
<IP>Neutrons in moderators reach thermal equilibrium after multiple scattering events and have, in the case
of sufficiently thick moderators, a Maxwellian distribution in energy around the temperature of the moderator. On the
other hand, for pulsed sources, the time that neutrons spend in the moderator broadens the pulse. Short-pulse
spallation sources need to have a sharp pulse structure of thermalized neutrons, so the moderator dimensions need to
be small and are optimized at around 10 10 10 cm
3
. The under-moderated neutrons result in a rich epithermal
flux, proportional to 1/E where E is the energy of the neutrons, in the higher energy slowing down region above the
Maxwellian distribution (Fig. 2.6). Most pulsed neutron sources utilize moderators in a wing geometry so that the
beam tubes are directed tangentially to the target to minimize the flux of high-energy neutrons and gammas in the
neutron beams. The flux trap geometry is also effective, as is demonstrated by the Los Alamos Neutron Science
Center [35]. Low-temperature moderators can extend the slowing-down region to shift the Maxwell distribution to
lower energy, although flux is sacrificed in the thermal energy region.</IP>
<IP>The pulse width is a key parameter for short-pulse spallation sources and is directly influential on
neutron beam instrument performance. It is almost proportional to the neutron wavelength in the 1/E region of flux, is
broadened in the thermal equilibrium region, and then saturates in the very low-energy region. The broadening starts
to occur at about 300 meV (neutron wavelength of 0.5 ) for an ambient-temperature moderator and at about 15 meV
(2.5 ) for a methane moderator at 20 K. This is clearly seen in Fig. 2.7. In the 1/E region for each moderator, the
pulse width, t, is proportional to wavelength, , as [37].
<EQU> EMBED Equation.DSMT4 (2)</EQU>
<UIP>This proportionality between the pulse width and wavelength is of great importance for high-resolution
instruments, as will be discussed in a later section.</UIP>
<IP>Pulse widths can also be reduced by surrounding the moderator with an absorbing material (decoupler)
such as cadmium on all sides except the side from which the neutron beam emerges. This prevents the neutrons
slowed down in the reflector from entering the moderator and emerging as part of the neutron beam. Since those
neutrons would typically emerge into the beam later than would the neutrons slowed down in the moderator, such
Comment: TS: Insert Figure 2.6 near
here.
Comment: TS: Insert Figure 2.7 near
here.
Comment: AU: Equation (2) seems to be
missing. Please check EMBED
Equation.DSMT4.
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I N D E X I N G
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Interpersonal Violence in the African-American Community
Evidence-Based Prevention and Treatment Practices

INDEX

A
Advocacy and the Learning Club, 59, 65
African communitarian values, 123
African-American children
and child welfare system, 18, 128
age differences, 1920
fathers, role of, 3132
maltreatment experiences, 2024
racial disparities, 1819
evidence-based interventions for, 166
culture-specific programs, 2728
prevention programs, 2426
treatment programs, 2627
exposure, to IPV, 5457
interventions, see therapeutic interventions, for children exposed to IPV
African-American churches, exploratory study of
analysis
attitudes and beliefs of domestic abuse, 113
domestic violence experiences, 113
male code of conduct, 115116
sex role perceptions, 113115
methodology, 111
participant details
age, 112
children, 112
denomination, 112
education, 112
employment status, 112
ethnicity, 112
income, 112
marital status, 112
organizational affiliations, 113
religious activities, 112
social class, 113
African-American cultural processes
adolescent mothers, 30
communalism, 31
extended family support system, 2930
parental role, 29
religion, role of, 3233
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African-American families, see also African-American children; African-American men;
African-American women
child welfare services for, 128
criminal justice services for, 128129
and domestic violence, 109
fathers, role of, 3132
grand parents, role of, 152153
impact on children, 154157
interventions
Afrocentric approaches, 132135
factors responsible for refusal, 122
family protection strategies, 151
limitations of, 126129
preferred model, 125126, 131
and intimate partner violence, see intimate partner violence
mental health services for, 127
parenting programs and practices for, 3435
core features of, 35
principle components of, 36
spirituality and religious functions, role of, 3233
African-American men, 3, 81, 124125
personality traits, 67
aggressive behavior, 8284
African-American Rites of Passage cultural programs, 133134
African-American women, 3, 6, 82, 124125
abused, 5152, 109
drug addicts, 8
life experiences of, 83
racial loyalty of, 110111
and religiosity, 33
Ryan, case study of, 107108
alcohol and illegal drug abuse, see intimate partner violence, influencing factors
Art of Healing, the, 122, 135
definition of, 135136
family safety plan, 138
goals of, 136
guidelines for practitioners, 141
objectives of, 136
steps in using, 136142
Umoja wellness goals, 139
ASAP: A School-Based Anti-Violence Program, 68

B
black churches
role of, 117118
understanding of, 116117
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Black Family Ministries Parenting Program, 34
black gospel musical plays, 11
black popular music, 11

C
child maltreatment consequences
attachment behavior, 23
brain functioning, 22
emotional development, 24
failure to thrive, 22
incidence of
childhood diseases, 22
infectious diseases, 21
neurobehavioral deficits, 23
physical injuries, 21
child rearing by grandparents, research study of
data analysis, 156157
data collection, 155156
data interpretation, 156
guidelines for assessment, 158159
sampling method, 154155
Child Witnesses of Wife Abuse program, 6162
clinical-research standard tools
Child Witness to Violence Questionnaire, 62
Conflict Tactics Scale, 5960, 8889
Danger Assessment Scale, 8788
Index Of Psychological Abuse-Shortened Version, 59
Index of Spouse Abuse, 67
Intimate Justice Scale, 100102
Parent-Child Conflict-Tactics Scale, 67
Sex Role Perception, 111
Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide, 9091
Wife-Abuse Inventory Scale, 111
cognitive-behavioral therapy, 27
communities of color, 1, 8

D
domestic homicide, see intimate partner violence
domestic violence, 1
and African Americans, 109
and child maltreatment, 153154
and cultural competence, 109110, 132135
and ethnic discrimination, 110
family protection strategies, 151
practitioner, role of, 159160
intimate partner violence, see intimate partner violence
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maladaptive behavior, theories of, 151
myths and stereotypes associated with, 110
and racial and ethnic differences, 1, 34, 110
and spirituality, 111, see also African-American families, spirituality and religious
functions, role of

E
Effective Black Parenting Program (EBPP), 34
employment status, see intimate partner violence, influencing factors
Enhancing Nurturing Parenting Skills for African-American Families Program, 34
exchange theory, 151
Experimental Social Innovation and Dissemination (ESID) model, 52

F
family group conference, 30
family violence outreach program, a case study
data analysis, 185
data collection and management, 182185
data reporting and feedback, 186
developing theory of change and logic model, 180
developing evaluation questions, 180181
developing outcome evaluation, 181182
developing process evaluation, 181
evaluation findings, 186190
outcomes and surveys, 183184

H
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 176
Healthy Families America (HFA) program, 25
healthy people 2010, 178

I
IDVAAC research assessments, 9
community assessments, 910
issues assessed, 10
intersection of prisoner reentry and intimate partner violence, 1011
popular culture and intimate partner violence, 1112
Imani principles, 123, 134
infantparent psychotherapy, 27
Institute on Domestic Violence in the African-American Community, see IDVAAC
research assessments
interpersonal violence, 12, 122, see also domestic violence; intimate partner violence
intimate justice theory
axioms of, 9697
definition of, 9495
challenging men
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accountability, 9798
freedom, 99100
respect, 98
intimate partner violence, 2
among African Americans, 123125
theoretical world views, 129132
and black popular culture, 1112
child exposure to, 5456
child maltreatment, 5657
interventions, see therapeutic interventions, for children exposed to IPV
definition of, 48
demography of, 4849
domestic homicide in, 3
and economic status, 4
female victims of, 3
help seeking behavior of, 5152
identifying
issues, 8486
multi-model instruments, 8691
influencing factors of
cultural-community context, 67
poverty, 150
racism, 150
situational context, 78
social conditions, 56
interventions in, 5254
couples therapy, 53
male victims of, 3
mental health professionals, role of, 84
mutual abuse cases in, 3
nonmutual abuse cases in, 3
offenders, types of
antisocial type, 9394
dysphoric/borderline personality types, 93
family only batterers, 93
and parenting, 51
prisoner reentry and, 10
protective factors of, 5051
risk factors of, 50
sequelae, 4950
psychological, 49
severity classification, 9394
violence assessment, 100103
IPV, see intimate partner violence
Its Your Business program, 12

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K
Kawaida theory, 122, 132
Kwanzaa, values of, see Nguzo Saba

M
mental health professionals, role of, 84
minority violence
and public health problem, 1, 47
My Family and Me: Violence Free program, 68

N
National Crime Victimization Survey, 2
Nguzo Saba, 122123, 134
Nurse Family Partnership program, 25
Nurturing Parenting Program, 35

O
offenders, types of
antisocial type, 9394
dysphoric/borderline personality types, 93
family only batterers, 93

P
Peer Group Counseling program, 64
play therapy, 63
program evaluation, of community based programs, 166
philosophy and conceptual framework, 167170
resources, 191193
steps in
data analysis, 176177
data collection and management, 175176
data reporting and feedback, 177178
developing evaluation questions, 171172
developing outcome evaluation, 173175
developing process evaluation, 172173
developing theory of change and logic model, 170171
terminology, 168169
Project Safe Care program, 25

S
SAFETY Project, 6667
Separate but treatable treatment approach, 127129
Storybook Club, 64
Strong African-American Families Program (SAAF), 28, 36
subordinated masculinity, 6
SUPPORT project, 5960, 65
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Supporting African-American Families Empowering their Youth program, 66

T
Task Force on Black and Minority Health, 1
the Kids Club, 61, 65
therapeutic interventions, for children exposed to IPV
recommendations
culturally competent interventions, 6668
developmentally informed interventions, 68
sequenced treatment models, 6869
stronger evidence base, 69
type 1 studies, 5961
Advocacy and the Learning Club, 59, 65
the Kids Club, 61, 65
SUPPORT project, 5960, 65
type 2 studies, 6162
Child Witnesses of Wife Abuse Program, 6162
type 3 studies, 6265
play therapy, 63

U
Umoja principles, 123, 134

W
Wiesz study, 92
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[Title of book: Doctors, Honour and the Law by A.-H. Maehle; December 2008]




MAEHLE INDEX


[Page numbers in italics denote pages containing tables]


Abla, Dr Bruno, 52
abortifacients, 65, 98
abortions, 109, 113, 116, 117, 121, 130
see also criminal abortions; illegal abortions
academic medicine, 95, 122
academic psychiatry, 63
accusations, 31, 334, 43
active euthanasia, 98, 115, 121, 127, 128, 147n.19
see also euthanasia/medical euthanasia; involuntary euthanasia
advice book/booklet, 86, 87, 101, 104, 106
advice booklet, see advice book/booklet
advice literature, 95, 99, 100, 108, 118, 119
Alexander, Salomon (18521928), 90, 91
Allgemeine Medicinische Central-Zeitung, 107
Altmann, F., 20
American Medical Association, 16
Code of Ethics, 16
anaesthesia, 4, 74, 147n.27
animal experimentation, 100, 147n.27
anti-feminist attitudes, 129
anti-Semitic sentiments/anti-Semitic attitudes, 19, 82, 129
antisepsis/antiseptic methods, 4, 69
antiseptic methods, see antisepsis/antiseptic methods
anti-vaccinationist protests, 4, 138n.124
anti-vivisectionists, 82, 100,138n.124
apothecaries, 48, 107
appeal courts (Ehrengerichtshof; Landesberufungsgericht), 10, 11, 13, 25, 289, 30, 31, 36, 38, 123, 138n.
appeals, 9, 14, 19, 212
applied ethics, 107, 109
arbitration panel, 12, 13, 22
rztetag (annual meeting), 9, 13, 15, 16, 109, 123, 138n.116
Principles of a Medical Professional Code, 15
rztliche Rundschau (Munich medical magazine), 80
rztliches Vereinsblatt fr Deutschland (medical professional journal), 9, 18, 31, 41, 61, 76, 133nn.34, 44
Aschaffenburg, 22
Aub, Dr Friedrich Ernst (18371900), 22, 23, 26, 27
August Hirschwald (Berlin publishing house), 106
Viaticum (booklet), 106
Austria, 91
authorised disclosure/exempt disclosure, 48, 61
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see also disclosure
authoritarian attitude, see authoritarian culture/authoritarian attitude
authoritarian culture/authoritarian attitude, 2, 5, 78, 86, 129
average morality (Durchschnittsmoral), 112


bacteriological trials, see bacteriology/bacteriological trials
bacteriology/bacteriological trials, 97, 100, 111, 112, 121
Baden, 7, 10, 11, 14, 20, 30, 64, 148n.37, 151n.5
Bavaria, 6, 7, 8, 10, 14, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 132n.12, 148n.48
see also Upper Bavaria
Bavarian government, 23, 28, 132n.12
Bavarian medical chambers, 212, 249
compulsory membership of, 23, 30, 151n.5
Draft of a Professional Code for the Doctors of Bavaria, 23
Bavarian Parliament (Landtag), 23
Bavarian Reichsratskammer, 28
Becher, Julius (18421907), 18, 20
Beling, Ernst (18661932), 52
Bentham, Jeremy, 112
philosophical utilitarianism, 112
Berg, Manfred, 2
Berlin case (on medical confidentiality, 1905), 589, 60
Berlin District Court, 59
Berlin Medical Society (Berliner Medizinische Gesellschaft), 8, 48
Berlin, 1, 13, 19, 31, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 41, 42, 52, 58, 59, 60, 61, 67, 81, 86, 88, 92, 104, 106, 107, 109,
110, 111, 114, 117, 119, 120, 146n.71, 149n.70, 152n.15
Berliner rzte-Correspondenz (medical professional journal), 31, 88
Berliner Brsenzeitung, 80
Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift (medical journal), 80
Berlin-Moabit, 52
Bernheim, Hippolyte, 110
Bernstein, Max (Justizrat), 56, 57, 58
Binding, Karl (18411920), 43, 44, 70, 71, 128, 146n.78
capital of honour (Ehrenkapital), 44
Die Freigabe der Vernichtung lebensunwerten Lebens (The Release of the Destruction of Life
Unworthy of Living) (booklet), 128
biomedical ethics, 5
Bismarck, Chancellor Otto von, 2, 8, 14, 15, 120, 133n.24, 146n.71
introduction of compulsory health insurance (1883), 2
bodily interventions (on patients), 69, 70, 71, 72, 76
Bonn, 70, 81, 90, 91
Bosse, Robert (18321901), 1718, 20
Bourdieu, Pierre, 7, 39, 434, 45, 96
excessive Ehrgefhl, 45
symbolic capital, 7
theory of cultural capital, 434
bourgeois, 8
Brand, Ulrich, 2
Brandenburg, 34, 35, 40
BrandenburgBerlin court of honour, 356, 138n.115
see also BrandenburgBerlin medical chamber
BrandenburgBerlin medical chamber, 18, 35, 36, 89, 90, 107, 110
see also BrandenburgBerlin court of honour
Brauser, Dr August Georg (18331901), 22, 23
Breslau, 56, 61, 82, 111
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British Medical Association, 109, 131n.12
Brunswick Principles, 1516
Brunswick, 10, 11, 15, 20, 30, 151n.5
Principles of a Medical Professional Code, 1516


Caesarean section, 64, 102, 116
cancer, 40, 74, 100, 126
central appeal court (rztegerichtshof) (Munich), 123
chamber meetings, 22, 23
chancre, 55
Charit (Berlin university clinic), 120
Chotzen, Dr Martin (died 1921), 56
civil rights, 19, 21
Cocks, Geoffrey, 2
Code of Criminal Procedure (Strafprozessordnung), 4952
Code penal (France, 1810), 47
coercion (Ntigung), 71, 90
collective ethics, 68, 128
collective interest, 5, 124
collegiality, 13, 28, 36, 38, 43, 98, 104, 105, 119
and positive effects of medical societies, 103
reprimand forlack of, 40
common law (Gewohnheitsrecht), 71, 72, 73, 74
compensation/compensation payments, 55, 73, 79, 81, 89, 92
competition (among doctors), 3, 8
Brunswick Principles and, 16
for contracts with sickness insurance funds, 15
measures of state control of, 2930, 36, 38
and non-licensed healers (Kurpfuscher), 87, 99, 103, 129
competitive behaviour, 22, 23
compulsory health insurance, 2, 8, 18, 100
compulsory hospitalisation, 57, 64
compulsory membership (of state-authorised medical chambers), 8, 30, 151
compulsory sterilisation, 124
compulsory treatment, 55, 125, 126
compulsory vaccination (1874), 4
confidential reprimands, 22, 25
confidential warnings, 22, 25
Congress for Internal Medicine, Wiesbaden (1898), 108
conscientious practice (gewissenhafte Berufsausbung), 46, 59
consultations, 25, 103, 106, 107, 109
contagious diseases, 4, 54, 55, 60, 67, 97
see also infectious diseases; venereal disease (VD)
contract commissions, 245, 29, 38
contracts (with clientele and for empanelment), 3, 15, 16, 18, 245, 27, 30, 122
Higher Medical Commissions intervention in, 29
proximity to Social Democratic movement, 46
contract-theory/contract-perspective (of doctorpatient relationship), 5, 60, 11314, 11617, 120, 121, 129
counter draft code (Gegenentwurf), 91
Court of Honour (Ehrengerichtshof ) for Lawyers, Leipzig, 9
courts of first instance (Ehrenrte), 10, 13, 25, 75, 79
see also courts of second instance
courts of honour (Ehrengerichte), see medical courts of honour (rztliche Ehrengerichte)
courts of second instance, 10, 11, 13, 25
disciplinary powers of, 256
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see also courts of first instance (Ehrenrte)
criminal abortions, 49, 627, 143n.83
see also abortions; illegal abortions
criminal conviction, 19, 21, 105
Criminal Court of Basle City, 71
criminal law, 41, 69, 81, 91, 115
critiques of medicine, 12, 869, 95, 99109, 1269
of Friedrich Scholz, 845
of Heinrich Marx, 968
Molls views, 66, 11017
of Placzek on medical confidentiality, 65
Richard Oswalds films, 54
cultural capital, 43, 44


De Styrap, Jukes, 108, 130
Code of Medical Ethics (1878), 109, 130
deception/pious deception (pia fraus), 87, 106, 109, 113, 147n.17
decision-making, 5, 7, 59, 65, 78, 85, 118, 129
courts of honour proceedings for, 22, 29
individual and collective honour and, 456
in medical disciplinary tribunals, 39
deontology/deontological literature, see medical ethics literature; medicaldeontological writings/literature
Der Gerichtssaal (legal journal), 118
Dessoir, Max (18671947), 107, 111, 149n.67
Deutsche Vaterlandspartei, 129
Dietrich, E., 119
dirty competition, 245
disciplinary control, 17, 20, 22, 23, 29
disciplinary jurisdiction/medical disciplinary jurisdiction, 17, 30, 33, 46
disciplinary measures, see disciplinary control; disciplinary punishments
disciplinary mechanisms, 23, 26, 30
disciplinary offences, 10, 32, 346, 138n.120
disciplinary powers (of state recognised representative bodies), 11, 12, 1617, 21, 22, 234, 26, 30, 123
of doctors chambers, 14, 15
enforcing solidarity among medical practitioners, 122
disciplinary procedures, 11, 13, 23, 28, 123
disciplinary proceedings, 19, 27, 38, 40, 138n.120
for breaches of professional secrecy, 60
regulated by Prussian law, 1844, 6
temporary ban on accused doctors in, 124
disciplinary punishments, 14, 25, 31, 323, 359, 122, 142n.60
see also disciplinary control
disciplinary regulations, 17
disciplinary tribunals (Ehrenrat), 3, 67, 10, 12, 16, 20, 39, 43, 45, 122, 123
civil servants or military officers excluded, 18
collective honour and, 45
decision-making process of, 1415
see also medical courts of honour
disciplining of doctors, 6, 3146, 119
courts of honour in Prussia for, 720
medical chambers (rztekammern) in Bavaria for, 2130
see also medical courts of honour (rztliche Ehrengerichte)
disclosure, 47, 48, 61, 63, 656, 1245, 140n.19
evidence in court and, 4953
striking a balance in, 60
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of tabooed diseases, 547, 589, 67
tactful, 11314
see also authorised disclosure/exempt disclosure; criminal abortion; unauthorised (unbefugte)
disclosure
District Court of Frankfurt/Main, 49, 50
District Court of Hamburg, 50
divorce trials, 4951, 59, 141n.51
doctors duties, 53, 61, 67, 85, 958, 122, 126
after-effects of Trade Ordinance on, 99103, 118
medical ethics, 1049
medical law, 1201
conservative attitudes to, 78, 968
Molls new paradigms of, 11017
see also habitus; ideal habitus; medical duties
doctors habitus, see doctors duties; habitus; ideal habitus
doctors personality, 1201, 126
doctors role, 99, 102, 111, 120
doctors self-image/self-perception, 47, 96, 120, 126
doctors social identity, 118
doctorpatient relationship, 36, 38, 138n.120, 149n.67
contractual nature of, 856, 110, 112, 113
disclosure and secrecy in, 60
paternalistic conception of, 5, 1289
patients right to self-determination in, 867
published decisions on, 39
see also information; patient information and consent; self-determination (of patients)
doctors, state control of, 8, 9, 12, 13
doctors ethics, 1, 2, 5, 130
doctors fees, 3, 8, 10, 38, 43, 46, 79, 97, 107
adjusted to patients financial circumstance, 100, 105
freedom for free negotiation of, 9
undercharging and underbidding in, 24, 41
Doctors Ordinance (rzteordnung), 9, 10, 15, 223, 123
debate on, 1314
sections of draft ordinance, 1112
doctors professional ethics, see professional ethics
Doerfler, Hans, 29
Drees, Annette, 2
Dresden case (1897), 7681
druggists, 107, 130
duelling, 6, 102
duels/duelling, 6, 44, 45, 102
Durchschnittsmoral (average morality), 112
dying patients/persons, 4, 73, 96, 98, 102, 112, 116, 121, 150n.105
dying persons, see dying patients/persons


Eben, Antonia K., 110
Ebermayer, Ludwig (18581933), 52
economic crises, 5, 66, 152n.33
Ehrenmann (man of honour), 121, 130
Elkeles, Barbara, 2, 82, 145n.61
emergencies (Nothilfe), 8, 36, 39, 71, 80, 86, 91, 112
declared will of patient, 86, 92
involving children, 78
ethical conduct, 101, 103
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ethical conflicts, 49, 109, 117
ethical obligations, 1, 50
ethical questions, 117, 119
eugenism/eugenic ideas, 2, 111, 114, 115, 124, 128
euthanasia/medical euthanasia, 98, 109, 113, 11416, 117, 118
for incurably ill, 128
and palliative care, 121
theme of contemporary novels, 127
see also active euthanasia; involuntary euthanasia; palliative care/palliative treatment
evolutionary ethics, 111
Ewald, Carl Anton (18451915), 80
exempt disclosure, see authorised disclosure/exempt disclosure
experimental physiology, 97, 100
explicit consent, 4


female sexual honour (weibliche Geschlechtsehre), 123
Ferdinand Enke Verlag (Stuttgart), 100
financial misconduct, 36
First World War, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 30, 31, 323, 61, 67, 69, 92, 934, 119, 120, 121, 125, 128
Flesch, Max (18521942 or 1944), 56, 57, 58
foetus, 113, 116, 118
Frster, Adolph(18471919), 19, 60, 134n.62
Franzos, Ottilie (pen name F. Ottmer)
Das Schweigen (novella, 1902), 53
free profession, 8
freedom to cure (Kurierfreiheit), 7, 112
Freiburg, 61, 81, 128


General Medical Council (GMC), 130
German Association of Doctors Societies (Deutscher rztevereinsbund, 1873), 7, 12, 14, 26, 41, 90,
132n.16, 138n.116
rztliches Vereinsblatt fr Deutschland (Associations journal), 9
campaign for state-authorised Doctors Ordinance (rzteordnung), 9, 15, 21
medical response to Dresden case of, 767
topic of consent and physical injury and, 90
German Civil Code, 81
management without instruction (Geschftsfhrung ohne Auftrag), 812
German medical profession, 2
organisation in Prussia of, 721
German medicine, 2
German Progress Party, 13
German Reich, 3, 6, 8, 15, 16, 21, 48, 70, 137n.101
German Society for the Combat of Venereal Diseases (1902), 56
Medical Secrecy and Venereal Diseases(theme of Munich congress), 56
German special path (Sonderweg), 129, 130
German Supreme Court (Reichsgericht), Leipzig, see Supreme Court (Reichsgericht), Leipzig
German Trade Ordinance (1869/71), see Trade Ordinance (Gewerbeordnung) (1891)
Germany, 7, 50, 66, 67, 103, 114, 130, 143n.83, 145n.68, 147n.15
criminal convictions for illegal abortions in, 105
medical confidentiality in, 489
social rise of doctors in Prussia, 2
Gersuny, Robert (18441924), 100, 101, 103, 106
Arzt und Patient. Winke fr Beide (Doctor and Patient. Hints for Both), 1001
Gisela-Kinderspital (private paediatric clinic, Munich), 28
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[Title of book: Evolution of Human Behavior by Agustin Fuentes; Sep 2008]


FUENTES INDEX


[Page numbers in italics indicate boxes/figures/tables]


abiotic/biotic environments, 172
abiotic pressures, 168
abiotic resources, 6
Acheulian tools/Acheulian toolkit, 88, 91, 93
active intention, 6
adaptability, 40, 109, 141, 165, 178
adaptationist perspective, 45, 48, 49n.1
adaptations, 7, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 51, 122, 157, 165168, 178, 194, 222, 228, 242
and behavior/behavioral change, 62, 190, 193, 218, 226, 249
and cooperation and bonding, 198199
and coping with pressures, 206
and inheritance, 117, 161162
and niche construction, 173, 175, 177
and selection pressures, 118
specific, 214, 226, 229, 230
and traditional Neo-Darwinian theory, 174
The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture (1992), 4547
adaptive lag, 42, 46, 55, 62
adaptive patterns, 20, 38, 107, 198
adaptive problems, 45, 47, 48
adaptive psychological mechanisms, 62
adaptive specificity, 47
adaptive trade-offs, 40
adaptively relevant environment (ARE), 46, 48, 245
Adovasio, J.M., 228 [Author: The reference Adovasio et al (2007) has two different sets of names
appearing on pages 159 and 262. The names included in the index are those appearing on p. 262]
advertisement behavior, 155, 225
affect hunger, 116117, 256
affiliative (friendly) relationships, 66, 201, 208, 219
Africa/African continent, 3, 43, 74, 76, 81, 82, 83, 84, 87, 88, 91, 92, 93, 100, 177, 210, 233, 234
African apes, 33n.2, 68, 69, 71, 87, 153
African hominine lineages, 71
African hominoids, 68
agesex class groups See agesex classes/agesex class groups
agesex classes/agesex class groups, 104, 192
aggression, 27, 32, 33, 99, 101, 102, 103, 105, 112, 118, 122, 123
and dominance relationships, 67
form of advertisement, 224
and relationship with hunting, 212
See also aggressive conflict; intergroup aggression; male aggression
aggressive conflict, 33, 105, 112 See also aggression; intergroup aggression; male aggression
agonistic (unfriendly) relationships, 66
agriculture, 94, 199, 203, 213, 235, 246
Aiello, L.C., 90, 125
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Alexander, Richard D., 110
The Biology of Moral Systems, 110
alleles, 24, 25, 53, 171, 243
alliances, 44, 66, 67, 193, 196, 198, 205, 232, 234 See also coalitions
allomaternal assistance, 113, 219
altruism, 49, 20, 2122, 98
cooperation link with, 141, 255
core factor in human societies, 2324
fitness factor in, 3031
response to conflict and competition, 207
and tribal psychology, 103
and Wilsonian Sociobiology, 29
See also altruistic behavior; altruistic punishment; reciprocal altruism/reciprocal altruism model
altruistic behavior, 21, 31, 109110, 145 See also altruism; altruistic punishment; reciprocal
altruism/reciprocal altruism model
altruistic punishment, 98, 110111, 116 See also altruism; altruistic behavior; reciprocal altruism/reciprocal
altruism model
Alvarez, H., 119
anatomically modern humans, 83, 84, 92, 103
ancestors, 34, 10, 64, 69, 75, 80, 148, 199, 218, 241
and aggressive or violent behavior, 123
competition with other human groups and, 153, 200, 202, 203
complex meme clusters in, 106
niche construction by, 246
and true imitation, 59
ancestral dogs, 11, 13
ancestry, 20, 249
animals, 3, 12, 13, 17, 18, 22, 86, 91, 93, 141, 148, 151, 155, 170, 225
altruistic behavior in, 31
and DIT, 53
group living in, 31, 38
intragroup (beyond kin-biased) cooperation among, 55
and moral sense and system of values, 97
anthropoids/anthropoid primates, 4, 65, 98, 108
anthropology/anthropological, 6263, 9596, 112, 160, 239, 240, 243, 247248, 249253
biocultural approaches in, 165168, 177179, 200
ethnographic accounts, 32
and evolutionary psychology, 45
research trajectories of the 1960s and 1970s in, 2728
and SSSM specific approach, 4849
treatment of gender and sex in, 228n.5
See also biocultural anthropology/biocultural anthropological
antipredator abilities See antipredator strategy/antipredator defense
antipredator behavior See antipredator strategy/antipredator defense
antipredator defense See antipredator strategy/antipredator defense
antipredator strategy/antipredator defense, 44, 76, 193, 218, 219, 233 See also predation avoidance
apes, 3, 7, 65, 6772, 97, 114, 124, 195, 204, 219, 233, 240
Aramis site (northern Ethiopia), 71
arboreal environment, 7176, 86
arboreality, 68, 72, 86, 212
archeological record, 35, 11, 63, 64, 158, 176, 191, 192, 225
and emergence of social hierarchies, 209
of encephalization and behavioral complexity, 128
interconnection with fossil record, 237, 244
of intergroup cooperation, 202
of intragroup cooperation, 193
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of lifestyle and behavior, 241242
of material culture of modern humanity, 92
of nuclear family as basal unit, 223224
of use of fire, 89
of violence and aggression, and warfare, 201
Ardey, R., 102
The Territorial Imperative (1966), 102
Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba, 71
Ardipithecus ramidus ramidus, 71
Ardipithecus ramidus, 71, 72
Ardipithecus subspecies, 74
Asian great ape (orangutan), 68
Atapuerca site (Spain), 217
atlatl (spear thrower), 92, 93
attention (innovation of human mind), 17
Aureli, F., 112
Natural Conflict Resolution (2000), 112
Australia/Australian, 93, 277
Australopithecus afarensis, 70, 72, 74, 7576, 79, 80, 192
Australopithecus anamensis, 71, 72, 74
Australopithecus bahrelghazali, 74
Australopithecus garhi, 77, 7880, 87
autocatalysis model, 3234, 9899
avoidance strategies See predation avoidance
awareness, 6
Axlerod, R., 111


baboons, 27, 196, 198, 204, 212, 213, 218
Baldwin and Morgans organic evolution See Baldwins organic evolution/Baldwin effect
Baldwin, Mark James, 21, 2224
Baldwin effect the Baldwin effect, 22, 23
evolutionary biopsychology, 23
organic evolution, 23
organic selection, 22
physical heredity, 23
social heredity, 23
Baldwins organic evolution See Baldwins organic evolution/Baldwin effect
Baldwins organic evolution/Baldwin effect, 22, 23, 44, 52, 55, 173, 174, 179, 181
Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus), 202, 219
Barkow, J.H., 46, 49n.1, 118
Barrett, L., 46
Human Evolutionary Psychology (2002), 254
basal assumptions/basal perspectives (of evolution of human behavior), 1635, 52, 187, 207
of Baldwins theory of organic selection, 2324
of Darwins focus on natural and sexual selection, 1718
of Dawkins theory of genic level selection, 3435
of Hamiltons theory of kin selection, 30
of Modern Synthesis paradigm, 2425
of Morgans theory, 2223
of Spencers multidisciplinary approach, 21
of Tinbergens ethological approach, 28
of Trivers reciprocal altruism model, 31
of Wallaces focus on human mind, 1920
of Washburns New Physical Anthropology, 2627
of Wilsonian sociobiology and autocatalysis model, 29, 3233
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basal patterns, 67, 75, 122, 195, 196, 199, 200, 207
basal perspectives See basal assumptions/basal perspectives (of evolution of human behavior)
basal traits, 17
basic gene function, 2526
behavior patterns, 39, 6466, 96, 203, 230
behavioral adaptations, 22, 30, 35, 39, 218, 249
behavioral capabilities, 65, 126, 232
behavioral ecology, 38, 96, 101, 165166, 206, 255 See also human behavioral ecology (HBE)
behavioral evolution See human behavioral evolution/behavioral evolution
behavioral experiences, 13, 14
behavioral factors, 39, 155157, 164, 168169, 184185
behavioral features, 1115
behavioral flexibility/flexible behavior, 98, 116117, 126, 128, 225227, 229, 233, 236
behavioral inferences, 8694
behavioral inheritance, 161, 162, 173174, 179, 185, 244
behavioral innovation, 189
behavioral interactions, 6568
behavioral outcomes, 41, 4748, 208
behavioral patterns, 5, 7, 8, 10, 19, 4042, 97, 112, 168, 202, 210, 214215, 216, 218, 235, 239, 247
of competition for access to resources, 206207
of competition for dominance and mates, 208
of cooperation, 198199
human-impacted change in, 11
influence of feedback on, 189190
response to ecological pressures, 165
role of epigenetic systems in, 185
and selective pressures, 14, 3839
and sex differences, 141
tameness, 1213
and transmission of information, 162163
See also human behavioral patterns; specific behavioral patterns
behavioral phenotypes, 163169 See also phenotypic plasticity
behavioral plasticity, 108, 109, 124125, 163164, 181, 182, 183184, 185, 206 See also phenotypic
plasticity
behavioral potentials, 11, 1718
behavioral proclivities, 2122
behavioral responses, 24, 28, 42, 157, 164, 169, 180181, 190, 230, 233
DIT as a solution, 52
pressures, 39, 202, 226, 228
behavioral shifts, 10, 234
behavioral strategies, 38, 4042, 62, 148, 204, 211, 221
niche construction, 209
show-off behavior, 44
in specific social contexts, 200
behavioral traits/human behavioral traits, 13, 170, 175, 181
behavioral trajectories, 10, 163
behavioral variants, 57, 164, 175176
behavioral variation, 40, 126, 164, 165, 221
belief systems, 94, 252253
beliefs, 41, 53, 56, 58, 94, 106, 114, 242, 252
Belyaev, Dimity K., 1112
biased cultural transmission/biased transmission, 56
bidirectional pathogen transmission, 217
big game hunting, 33, 43 See also hunting
biocultural anthropology/biocultural anthropological, 180, 183, 187188, 195, 200, 207, 232 See also
anthropology/anthropological
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Becoming Human: Evolution and Human Uniqueness (1998), 106
terrestrial locomotion, 68, 86
territoriality, 33, 100, 111, 122
testable hypotheses, 240242
testability (in behavioral models), 190192, 195232, 240n.1 See also traditional paradigmatic views (EP,
HBE, ND-Sociobiology, Memetics, and DIT)
theft and sharing of food, 100101
theoretical perspectives, 16, 34, 180, 192, 239
thermoregulation, 65, 90
Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), 202
Tinbergen, Niko, 2829
On aims and methods of ethology, 2829
tit-for-tat cooperation, 111 See tit-for-tat exchanges; tit-for-tat strategies/tit-for-tat reciprocities
tit-for-tat exchanges See tit-for-tat cooperation; tit-for-tat strategies/tit-for-tat reciprocities
tit-for-tat strategies/tit-for-tat reciprocities, 111, 122, 150, 194 See also reciprocal altruism
tolerated theft, 43
tool use, 225227
Tomasello, M., 104105
Tooby, J., 46, 49n.1, 118
trade-offs, 40, 68, 90, 120, 230
traditional Neo-Darwinian perspectives/traditional Neo-Darwinian thought, 160, 174, 182
traditional Neo-Darwinian thought See traditional Neo-Darwinian perspectives/traditional Neo-Darwinian
thought
traditional paradigmatic views (EP, HBE, ND-Sociobiology, Memetics, and DIT):
commonalities in:
conflict, 203207
cooperation, 192200, 211212
ecology/environment, 213215
sex/reproduction, 219223
specific behavior, 225230
factors needing further enquiry:
conflict, 208212
cooperation, 201202
ecology/environment, 216218
sex/reproduction, 224
specific behavior, 231232
traits, 5, 181183, 188, 191n.2, 204, 224, 230, 243
tribal-social instincts hypotheses, 103, 176
tribes, 20, 103
tri-inheritance vision model (TIV), 175, 176n.6, 178, 179
Trivers, Robert, 30, 3132, 111
reciprocal altruism, 3132
Trut, L., 1112
tubers, 75, 86, 100, 213
twenty-first century evolutionary theory, 160186
two-adult groups, 195196, 223, 232
two-adult plus offspring groups, 222, 223


Ulijaszek, S.J., 250, 251


values, 41, 53. 97
van Schiak, C.P., 102
Infanticide by Males and Its Implications (2000), 102
variable environments, 107, 109, 121, 152, 159, 213214, 215
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violence, 10, 213, 253
vocalizations, 65, 122
Vulpes vulpes (silver foxes), 12


Waddington, C., 172
Wallace, Alfred Russel, 1921, 22, 23, 30, 54, 182, 240n.1, 245
evolution of the mind, 1921
Warden, C., 254
The Evolution of Human Behavior (1932), 254
warfare, 33, 34, 56, 98, 157, 201
Washburn School, 27
Washburn, Sherwood, 2628, 30, 62, 99, 186, 187
New Physical Anthropology, 2628
savannah baboons, 27
Washburnian Biological Anthropology, 17
new physical anthropology, 2628
Watanabe, J.M., 113
weapons/weaponry, 20, 44, 76, 212
Wells, H.G., 10
The Time Machine (1895), 10
Wells, J.C.K., 90
Werner, E.E., 168
West Africa/West African, 176
West-Eberhard, Mary Jane, 165, 169
Western Europe, 20
wild populations, 13
Williams, G.C., 34
Wilson, D.S., 113, 114
Do Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior (1998), 113
Wilson, E.O., 2930, 3234, 53, 95, 98
autocatalysis model of human evolution, 3334, 9899
culturgens, 53
social insects, 32
Sociobiology: the New Synthesis (1975), 30, 98
ultimate explanations (of human behavior), 30
Wilson, M., 102
Homicide (1998), 102
Wilsonian Sociobiology, 29
Winterhalder, B., 101, 103
Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence (1996), 101, 103
Wood, B.A., 84, 88
woodland environments See arboreal environments
Wrangham, Richard W. 100, 101, 102
Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence (1996), 101


xenophobia, 33, 58, 106, 118, 157


Zahavi, A., 43, 122
handicap principle, 43
Zihlman, A.L., 108



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[Title of book: What Works in Foster Care? by Peter J. Pecora and others; June 2009]



PECORA INDEX


[Page numbers appearing in italics denote those containing figures; page numbers appearing in bold
denote those containing tables]

Abused children. See Child abuse/neglect
Accountability, 1314, 24
Add Health study (of adolescents), 118, 140, 142
Administration for Children and Families, 265n.5
Adolescent Health (Add Health) study (of adolescents), 118, 140, 142
Adolescents, 3, 47, 76, 140141, 149, 154, 217, 237, 243
foster care for longer time periods, 28
mental illness/emotional disorders in, 102, 103, 108, 142, 171
and placement disruption, 36
and preventive interventions, 268269
and substance abuse, 255
Adopted children, 5, 76, 154, 243
Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA), 12, 34, 265n.2
Adoption, 5, 67, 8, 24, 40, 232. See also Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions
Act (P.L. 110-351), highlights of
acceptable permanency plans for, 24, 25, 63
placement with Casey, 17, 59
primary responsibility for, 20, 22, 23
Adoptive families, 25
Adult criminality, 12, 45
Adult functioning, 81, 101, 112, 230
Adult mental health, 235, 236
Adult outcomes, 4, 3031, 4143, 49, 5051, 171172, 181183, 189, 246, 266n.21
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areas considered important in influencing, 3539
maltreated children, 45, 46
predictors of, 4748
risk factors for adverse, 8197, 218
successful, 222230
Adult relationships, 9, 43, 47, 189
Adulthood, 3, 52, 244
functioning of youth from care, 55, 173174
increasing prevalence of depression, 108
mental health and, 234235
sibling relationships in, 142143, 147
successful transition to, 126127
Adverse/negative adult outcomes, 41, 45, 81. See also Adult outcomes
African American youth, 136, 239
African Americans, 13, 29, 44, 119, 137, 218, 239, 269n.62
After foster care events/after care events, 39, 43, 116117, 242
Age of onset, 92
Agency Main Effect, 153168
Agency membership, 4, 152, 155162, 169172
foster care agency, 153154
relationships and social supports, 163168
Aid to Families, 136, 270n.68
Alaska alumni, 114, 272n.93
Alaska Natives, 13, 29, 218
Alcohol abuse/alcohol dependence, 21, 112. See also Alcohol problems; Drinking
Alcohol dependence. See Alcohol abuse/alcohol dependence
Alcohol problems, 107. See also Alcohol abuse/alcohol dependence; Drinking
Alexander, G., 137
Allegation codes, 255
Alumni demographics, 6063, 195
Alumni functioning, 34, 139, 218
Alumni outcomes, 10, 29, 48, 87, 177179, 184, 189190, 197, 245, 267n.21
criminal justice problems of birth parents and, 89
optimizing foster care experiences and, 191195
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Alumni reviewers, 183184, 197
American Association for Public Opinion Research, 60
American Indians, 13, 29, 35
American War Veterans. See Vietnam War veterans/Vietnam theater veterans
Anorexia, 116
Ansell-Casey Life Skills Assessment (ACLSA), 15, 186, 270n.73
Antisocial relationships, 47, 141, 142
Anxiety disorders, 103106, 107, 116
Attachment relationships, 82
Attachment theory, 41, 43, 46
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), 37, 94, 97, 103, 142
Authoritative foster parents, 174, 175, 187
Autonomic hyperarousal, 106


Barnett, D., 65, 92, 255
Barth, R. P., 103
Baseline characteristics, 153, 175
Before foster care events/prefoster care events, 8182, 8587, 9497, 181
Behavioral health, 7
Behavioral problems, 7, 14, 37, 85, 103, 236, 238
Belief systems, 149
Biological factors, 47, 140
Biological family, 63
Biological parents, 17, 85
Bipolar Disorder, 107
Birth family, 4, 8, 41, 236
characteristics of, 41
contact with, 8587, 139, 147, 245, 266n.18
maltreatment/abuse by, 46, 58, 77, 92, 154, 268n.51
mental health of child and, 235
Birth family members, 8, 147, 143, 245
Birth fathers, 69
contact with, 147
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FOODBORNE PARASITES

INDEX

A
AIDS-associated complications, 42
albendazole, 177, 220, 222
amoeba, free living, 8
Acanthamoeba spp, 8
Balamuthia madrillaris, 8
Naegleria fowleri, 8
amoeba, nonpathogenic
Endolimax nana, 1, 7
Entamoeba coli, 1, 7
Entamoeba chattoni, 1
Entamoeba dispar, 1
incidence of amebiasis, 23
Entamoeba hartmanni, 1, 7
Entamoeba invadens, 1
Entamoeba moshkovskii, 1
Entamoeba polecki, 1
Iodamoeba butschlii, 1, 7
amoeba, pathogenic, 26
amoebic colitis,4
amoebic dysentery, 3
amoebicides
albendazole, 177, 220, 222
chloroquine, 6
dehydroemetine, 6
diloxanide furoate, 6
furazolidone, 27
iodoquinol, 67, 11
ketoconazole cream, 8
mebendazole, 7, 177
metronidazole, 6, 11
ornidazole, 27
secnidazole, 27
triclabendazole, 186
Angiostrongylus cantonensis, 148150
Angiostrongylus costaricensis, 148150
anisakid worms, 146
Anisakis Simplex, 135, 145
background, 145
clinical manifestations, 147
control, 148
diagnosis, 147148
epidemiology, 146147
life cycle, 146
prevention, 148
treatment, 147148
apicomplexan parasites, see Cryptosporidium spp

B
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BioTechnology Frontiers, (BTF), 255
bithionol, 167, 181, 186
Blastocystis, 1

C
Catostomus commersoni, 173
cestodes, see tapeworms
Cholangiocarcinoma, 172
ciliates, 1, 8
Balantidium coli, 1
clinical significance, 911
diagnosis and treatment, 11
epidemiology and prevention, 11
life cycle and morphology, 9
ciprofloxacine, 46
CLB, see coccidian parasites
Clonorchis eggs, 161
coccidian parasites, see also Toxoplasma gondii
background of, 3335
biology, 3638
clinical significance, 3839
diagnosis methods, 4546
foodborne outbreaks, 3940
transmission and epidemiology
Cyclospora cayetanensis, 3942
Isospora belli, 42
Sarcocystis spp, 4245
treatment and control, 4647
Cryptosporidium spp., 232235
control of contamination in water and food, 8286
chlorination, 82
ozone and ultra violet radiation, 82, 84
physical removal, 82
snap freezing, 84
cryptosporidiosis transmission, role in, 57
cryptosporidiosis outbreaks due to contaminated drinking water, 233
currently recognized, 59
diagnosis and detection
antigen detection by immunoassays, 7374
EPA method, 8081
indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT), 7778
microscopic detection of stool specimens, 7073
molecular method, 7477
polymerase chain reaction method, 7880
serologic method, 69
epidemiology
cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent persons, 6162
cryptosporidiosis in immunocompromised persons, 6263
life cycle and developmental biology, 6061
taxonomy of, 57
Cryptosporidium agni, 58
Cryptosporidium anserinum, 58
Cryptosporidium bovis, 58
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Cryptosporidium cuniculus, 58
Cryptosporidium muris, 58
Cryptosporidium rhesi, 58
transmission routes and infection sources
anthroponotic versus zoonotic, 6364
food, 6669
water, 6466
treatment
paramomycin, 81
spiramycin, 81
Cyclospora cayetanensis, 33, 3942
cysteine proteinases, 5
cysticercosis, 201202

D
4,6 diamidino-2-phenylindole, 239
Dientamoeba fragilis
morphology and transmission, 67
therapy, 7
digenetic trematodes, 161
Clonorchis sinensis, 168
clinical signs, 171173
diagnosis, 171173
epidemiology, 170171
hosts for, 170
life cycle, 169170
treatment, 171173
comparison of food-borne, 162
Fasciolopsis buski
clinical signs, 188189
diagnosis, 188189
epidemiology, 188
life cycle, 187188
treatment, 188189
Fasciola gigantica
clinical signs, 184186
diagnosis, 184186
epidemiology, 184
life cycle, 182184
treatment, 184186
Fasciola hepatica
clinical signs, 184186
diagnosis, 184186
epidemiology, 184
life cycle, 182184
treatment, 184186
Nanophyetus salmincola
clinical signs, 180182
diagnosis, 180182
life cycle, 177179
salmon poisoning disease, 179180
treatment, 180182
Opisthorchis felineus, 174
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clinical signs, 176177
diagnosis, 176177
epidemiology, 175
life cycle, 174175
treatment, 176177
Opisthorchis viverrini, 174
clinical signs, 176177
diagnosis, 176177
epidemiology, 175
life cycle, 174175
treatment, 176177
Paragonimus spp, 161
clinical signs, 166168
diagnosis, 166168
epidemiology, 165166
life cycle, 163165
treatment, 166168
prevention and control of, 189191
agricultural practices, 190
cooking time, 190
drying, 190
freezing, 190
pickling, 190
salting, 190
smoking, 190
Diphyllobothrium spp.
Diphyllobothrium latum
biology, 211212
clinical aspects, 213214
control, 214
diagnosis, 213214
epidemiology, 212
transmission, 213
treatment, 214
Diphyllobothrium pacificum
clinical presentation, 215
control, 215
diagnosis, 215
epidemiology, 214
life cycle, 214
transmission, 214
DMSO-carbolfuchsin, 238

E
Echinococcus spp.
Echinococcus granulosus
biology, 216217
clinical aspects, 218219
control, 220221
diagnosis, 219220
epidemiology, 217218
treatment, 220
Echinococcus multilocularis
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biology, 221
clinical relevance, 222
control, 223
diagnosis, 222
epidemiology, 221222
transmission, 222
treatment, 222223
EhPgp1, 6
Entamoeba gingivalis, 1
Entamoeba histolytica, 26
enteric tract infection, of humans, see coccidian parasites
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 46
eosinophilic meningitis, see Angiostrongylus cantonensis; Angiostrongylus costaricensis

F
flagyl, see metronidazole
fluconazole, 8
fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), 251
fluorescent dye stains
acridine orange, 238
diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), 238, 250
propidium iodide (PI) and 4,6, 238
food borne parasites, risk assessment of
framework, 276
assumptions, 281282
defining hazard, 276
emerging applications of risk assessment, 282
exposure assessment, 277278
hazard characterization, 278280
risk characterization, 280281
by National Research Council, 275
furazolidone, 27

G
Gal/GalNAc lectin, 5
Giardia intestinalis, 15
biology of, 16
classification methods, 1920
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, 19
Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 19
restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), 19
zymodeme analysis, 19
control and treatment, 2527
detection methods, 17
enzyme immunoassays (EIA), 17
immunofluorescent antibody microscopy (IFA), 17
US EPA method, 19
genotyping of, 2023
TPI genes, 20
host range of, 16
taxonomy of, 17
transmission and epidemiology
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environmental, 2425
human, 2324
Gnathostoma spp., 150151
Gnathostomiasis, see Gnathostoma spp
Gongylonema pulchrum, 151152
GRA4 genes, 114
granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), 8

H
hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) programs, 275, 278, 282
Hymenolepis nana, 223225


I
immunomagnetic separation (IMS), 237
indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT), 46
Invader technology, 248
Isospora belli, 33, 42

K
ketoconazole cream, 8

L
Laboratory Multi-Analyte Profiling, 248
Ligase Chain Reaction, 248

M
macrogametocytes, 111
mebendazole, 177
merogony, 60
meronts, 60
metastrongyle nematodes, see Angiostrongylus cantonensis; Angiostrongylus costaricensis
metronidazole, 27
monoxenus parasites, see Cyclospora cayetanensis; Isospora belli

N
nematode infection parasites, food-borne, 135
Angiostrongylus cantonensis, 148150
Angiostrongylus costaricensis, 148150
Anisakis Simplex, see Anisakis Simplex
Gnathostoma spp, 150151
Gongylonema pulchrum, 151152
Trichinella, see Trichinella
neurocysticercosis, criteria for diagnosis of, 205
niclofolan, 168
niclosamide, 181, 206, 209, 211, 214
nitoxozanide, 27
Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC), 237
nucleic acid liberating schemes, 242243
nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), 248
nurse cell, 137

O
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oligonucleotide-ligation assay (OLA), 46
ornidazole, 27

P
PAIR treatment, 220
parasite concentration and isolation technique, 235237
parasite detection methodologies
advantages of, 240241
disadvantages, 240241
evaluation of, 253255
good laboratory practices (GLP), 253
lower limit of detection (LLOD), 253
thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) gene, use of, 254
immunological-based techniques
speciation and genotyping techniques, 249250
strengths and weaknesses, 248249
microscopic techniques
dye stains, 238
fluorescent labeling, 238
strengths and weaknesses, 237238
USEPA approved, 239
nucleic acid techniques
DNA based protocols, 243247
nucleic acid recovery techniques, 242243
RNA based protocols, 248
strengths and weaknesses, 239242
viability techniques
cell culture and animal infectivity models, 252
dye permeability assays, 250
fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), 251
in vitro excystation, 251
reverse transcription PCR, 251
strengths and weaknesses, 250
Percoll/Percoll step gradient, 237
Percoll/sucrose flotation, 237
phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 235
polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 6, 243244
multiplex, 247
nested, 244
real-time, 246
reverse transcription, 248
praziquantel, 167, 173, 177, 181, 186, 189, 206, 209, 211, 214, 220, 225
protozoan parasites
amoeba, 1
axenic cultivation of, 2
life cycle of, 2
nonpathogenic, 13, 7
pathogenic, 26
ciliates, 1, 811
food-borne, of human concern, 276282
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pyrimethamine therapy, 46

Q
Q-beta replicase, 248
quinacrine, 27

R
real-time polymerase chain reaction, 46
18S rRNAgene, 254

S
Safe DrinkingWater Act, 1819
safranin methylene blue stain, 238
SAG1-4 genes, 114
SAG5A genes, 114
SAG5B genes, 114
SAG5C genes, 114
Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) Agreement, of WTO and GATT, 275
Sarcocystis hominis, 33, 4245
Sarcocystis spp. infection, in countries
Belgium, 44
Brazil, 43, 45
Canada, 44
Czechoslovakia, 4344
Ethiopia, 44
Ghana, 44
Hanoi-Haiphong areas, 43
India, 44
Iran, 44
Japan, 44
Malaysia, 43
Mongolia, 44
New Zealand, 44
Thailand, 42
Tibet, 43
Sarcocystis suihominis, 33, 4245
Schistosoma eggs, 161
secnidazole, 27
selective centrifugation techniques, 235237
snap freezing technique, 84
Spirometra mansoides, 215216
SSU-rRNA gene, 46
sulfadiazine, 8

T
Taenia spp.
T. asiatica, 197, 209
biology, 210
clinical aspects, 210211
control, 211
diagnosis, 210211
epidemiology, 210
transmission, 210
treatment, 211
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T. saginata, 197
biology, 207208
clinical aspects, 208209
control, 209
diagnosis, 208209
epidemiology, 208
transmission, 208
treatment, 209
T. solium, 197
biology of, 198200
clinical aspects, 202204
control, 207
diagnosis, 204206
epidemiology, 200201
transmission, 201202
treatment, 206207
tapeworms, 197
Diphyllobothrium spp., see Diphyllobothrium spp
Echinococcus spp., see Echinococcus spp
Hymenolepis spp., 223225
Spirometra spp., 215216
Taenia spp., see Taenia spp.
tetracycline, 11
Toxoplasma gondii
epidemiology
in humans, 115118
in other animal species, 122123
in poultry, 120121
in sheep and goats, 121122
in swine, 118120
identification, 112
molecular assays, 113114
PCR-RFLP method, 115
riboprinting, 114115
inactivation, 124125
infection, 109
life cycle of, 110112
pathogenicity, 115
transmission of, 112
treatment
azithromycin, 124
nifurtimox, 124
pyrimethamine, 123
sulfadiazine, 123
types of, 110
Toxoplasma infection, in humans
in crowded conditions, 116
in Ethiopian immigrants, 117
in Netherlands, 117
in Slovenia, 118
in South America, 118
in Spain, 117
in Tanzania, 117
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women, 115
in Catania, 116
in India, 116
in Korea, 116
in Sweden, 117
transcription mediated amplification (TMA), 248
Trichina spiralis, see Trichinella
Trichinella, 135
background, 135
clinical manifestations, 142143
control, 143145
diagnosis, 143
epidemiology
Trichinella brivoti, 138
Trichinella murrelli, 139
Trichinella native, 138
Trichinella nelsoni, 139
Trichinella papuae, 139
Trichinella pseudospiralis, 139
Trichinella spiralis, 138
Trichinella T6, 140
Trichinella T8 and T9, 140
Trichinella zimbabwensis, 140
human trichinellosis infection, 140142
due to globalization, 141
ecological modification, 142
human behavior, 141
literacy level, 141
misdiagnosis, 142
life cycle, 136137
prevention, 143145
speciation, 136
transmission routes, 140
treatment, 143
triclabendazole, 186
trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMPSMX), 46
triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) gene, 17
trophozoites, 1, 16

U
ulcers, 3
US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)-mandated Information Collection Rule
(ICR), 236
USEPA Method 1623, 236

W
waterborne parasites
Ascaris lumbricoides, 232
Ascaris. suum, 232
Balantidium coli, 232
Blastocystis hominis, 232
Cyclospora cayetanensis, 232
Cryptosporidium parvum, 231232
Fasciolopsis buski, 232
Fasciola hepatica, 232
Giardia lamblia, 231232, 235
Taenia gondii, 232
Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene Flow Cytometry Unit (WSLH), 255

Z
zymodeme analysis, 6
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[Title of book: Changing Families Changing Food by Peter Jackson; Jan 2009]

INDEX

Acheson Inquiry (1998), 21
advanced liberal democracies, 15, 167, 1834
advertisement/adverts/advertising, 15, 60, 1634
analysis of issues, 146, 1508
claims made, 15962
affordable food, 13, 312, 21213, 224
Alanen, L., 79
antenatal clinics/care, 223, 24, 25, 29, 45, 46
Asian foods, 238
Association of Ukrainians in Britain (Soyuz Ukrayintsiv Velikoyi Britaniyi, SUB) see SUB
Club
awareness, 12, 64, 74

babies, 19, 223, 38
balanced meals/balanced diet, 10, 323, 151, 161, 235
caloric balance, 51
nutritionally, 232, 2423
see also healthy eating
Barling, D., 8, 171, 172
Barnardos childrens charity, 252n.14
Bauman, Z., 169
Beck, U., 94
Risk Society, 170
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behaviour change, 12, 119
behaviour patterns, 128, 166
Bellingham, Linda, 156
Bengtson, V., 253n.3
Betty Crocker Cake Mix, 153
biopolitics/biopolitical governing system, 1667, 170, 183
see also governance (of family meals)
bird flu, 122, 123, 1245
Birds Custard, 156
Bishop, L., 255n.3
black box of family life, 5, 246, 251n.7, 255n.7
Blake, M., 15
Blank, L., 14
body management/body management practices, 36, 514
Body Mass Index (BMI), 31, 252n.11, 252n.1
Bolton, 137
bottle-feeding, 55, 6872
Bourdieu, P., 5
Bradford, 12, 139, 235, 236, 238, 249
Brannen, J., 87
breakfast, 112, 113, 1412, 203, 215, 253n.5
family practice, 1516
with family, 192, 194200
in IDRs, 239
breastfeeding, 10, 20, 2834, 58, 646, 6872, 74
and dietary inadequacies, 201
familys support to mothers, 513, 556
special nutrition programmes for, 247
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Brembeck, H., 255n.2
Bridges, L., 253n.3
Britain, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 14, 26, 44, 58, 62, 69, 131, 134, 139, 152, 156, 168, 173, 208, 228,
236, 238
British Medical Association (BMA), 25
British Medical Journal, 32
British school meals see school meals
British-Asian households/families, 4, 113
Brown, Gordon, 8
Brown, R., 229
Burchell, G., 167
Burgess, R., 252n.14
Byng-Hall, J., 87, 253n.4

calcium, 8, 13, 23, 30
capitalism, 39, 166, 169
Captive Nations Society, 239
Caraher, M., 173, 224
care deficit, 187, 200
carers (of children), 11, 112, 182, 221
caring activities, 150, 196
caring roles (of women), 3941, 150, 2213
celebrity mums, 634, 74
Census (2001), 34
changing consumption patterns (study, 19752000), 1356
changing families, 312, 21920
Changing Families, Changing Food research programme, 16, 95, 121, 147, 151, 163, 252n.8,
254n.8, 255n.3, 256n.5
changing food practices see food practices
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Charles, N., 148, 154, 156, 213, 253n.4
chav mum, 63
Cheng, S-L., 135
child food support schemes, 19
child nutrition, 19, 27, 33, 234
Child Tax Credit, 19
childcare, 457, 54, 6971, 95, 116, 143, 216, 248
childhood memories, 21718, 225
childhood obesity, 12, 356, 133, 206
see also obesity/overweight
childhood, 10, 759, 97, 11828, 21516, 225
family life, 23, 9, 10, 1314, 98115, 13645, 2489
food practices, 11617, 21720
inter-generational relations, 8092
childrearing see childcare
Children as Family Participants project, 2315
children, 310, 12, 34, 35, 3740, 42, 49, 54, 62, 13842, 2012, 2034, 207, 21718
advertising aimed at, 152, 1534, 227
good eating habits, 42, 182, 1945, 205, 2245, 248, 252n.14
grandparents relationship with, 802, 902
health/nutrition of, 12, 248, 467, 68, 151, 161, 175, 1789, 200
of immigrant families, 445
inter-generational relations, 779, 838
involvement of fathers with, 54, 60, 947, 109, 11217, 1414
mothering of, 150, 218
outside marriage, 3, 37
school meals for, 12, 11, 193, 22935, 2423
Children, Food and Identity project, 256n.6
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Childrens Centres (UK), 206
childrens eating practices, 92
China, 8
chip shop/fish and chip shop, 85, 139, 143, 234, 243
chosen families, 3, 4, 38, 1445
chosen relationships, 3, 251n.4
Christensen, P., 207
Churchill, Winston, 26
Citizens Forums, 8
civil servants, 2289
civility, 11, 16, 242
cod liver oil, 26
Codex Alimentarius Commission, 118
cohabitation/cohabiting households, 34, 36, 37
Cohen, S., 132, 133, 135
Commensality, 144
commitment, 3, 10, 1415, 117, 172, 219, 244
Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy (COMA), 27
Panel on Maternal and Child Nutrition, 26
commodity prices, 78, 1745, 235, 248
Common Agriculture Policy (EU), 6, 172
Community Food Educators (UK), 206
community see wider community/wider society
complaints (related to food provisioning), 15, 1529, 163
see also food refusal
conflicts/conflictual, 37, 889
Consumer Attitudes Survey, 12
consumer choice, 89, 11, 21011, 2478
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consumer-oriented food regulatory system, 1812, 183
consumption (of food/foodstuffs), 1, 56, 301, 161, 1736, 20710, 24850
changing patterns of, 534, 1356, 2245
and family food practices, 20710
in IDRs, 2289, 2402
national food policy and, 1657
patterns of, 534, 1356
risks associated with food preparation, 11923, 1278
transition in familial environment, 347, 4551
contemporary family life, 4, 77, 845, 878
diversity of, 1112
intergenerational relations, 1314
social practices, 56
contested spaces, 16, 242
continuities and discontinuities (in family life), 13, 414, 61, 78, 828
controlled trials, 23
convenience food, 82, 116, 144, 251n.2
convenience stores/store chains, 181
Cook and Eat programmes, 21316
cooked dinner/proper cooked dinner, 85, 134, 1478, 156
cooked lunch, 1516, 196
cookery lessons, 12, 84
cooking practices, 845, 148
cooking skills, 1011, 13, 303, 34, 4950, 77, 154, 247, 251n.2
day-to-day cooking, 415
food and health knowledge, 211
passed down through generations, 23, 83
Corrigan, Richard, 133
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Cossack Brothers, 2367
counter-tendencies, 6, 1356
Coveney, J., 173, 255n.4
cows milk, 22, 27
Croft, Mark, 64
culinary skills/competence, 9, 37, 41, 445, 4750, 14951, 214, 24950
accommodating partners poor skills, 51
learning, 21316
presenting meals of several courses, 142
and shop-bought ready meals, 52
curry and rice, 230, 238
Curry Commission, 7
Curtin, D., 188
Curtis, P., 13

daily life, 188, 191, 195, 21920, 225
Daily Mail, The, 77, 205
De Boer, M., 128
De Certeau, M., 5
Dean, M., 167, 169, 254n.2
deficit models, 1112
Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), 7, 171
Department of Health (DoH), 27
dependent children, 3, 138
deprivation/deprived, the, 19, 201, 289, 80, 136, 231, 233
deserving poor discourse, 228
DeVault, M., 4, 95, 99, 116, 131, 148, 149, 150, 154, 190, 253n.2
Feeding the Family, 4
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diabetes, 20, 29, 36, 40, 46, 51
managing, 36, 523, 556
obesity/overweight and, 13
diabetic states see diabetes
diet and health study project, 20613
diets, 12, 13, 367, 5861, 72, 127, 151, 1745, 179, 206, 2213, 245
for children, 467
in Edwardian era, 138, 1401
home cooked traditional, 858
and inequalities, 21012
nutrition and healthy eating, 334, 2034
pregnant women/mothers, 628
risks in, 1225, 1834, 1889
for women, 1314, 208, 313, 249
for young peoples, 243, 248
dietary advice, 2, 24, 25, 34
dietary intakes, 23, 24, 28, 301, 32, 34, 151
dietary practices/patterns, 1, 23, 201, 174, 183, 248
see also eating patterns; food habits
dining table, the, 556, 112, 115
affording a, 21516
eating together/Sunday lunch, 423, 556, 1334, 218, 225
dinner ladies, 2303, 243
disabled, the, 227, 2378, 239
discursive construction (of generation), 14, 79, 92
divorce, 3, 4, 37, 60, 81, 253n.2
Dobson, B, 210
docile bodies, 68, 73
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doing family, 36, 14, 789, 858, 92, 1312, 188, 246, 251n.8
domestic kitchen, 96, 214
domestic labour, division of, 13, 37, 389, 414, 4650, 936, 11617, 1478
domestic responsibilities, 10, 144
domestic roles/divisions see domestic labour, division of
domestic space, 15, 96
domestic tasks, 14, 55, 95, 160, 216, 2467
see also household chores/tasks
domestic work, 414, 524
see also domestic labour, division of; household chores/tasks
domesticity, 389, 134, 139, 1424
Donzelot, J., 166, 167
Douglas, Mary, 200
Dowler, E., 224
dried milk/dried cows milk, 13, 22
Dryden, C., 14
dual-career households, 188, 191, 202
Dundee, 138
Dutch Hunger Winter, 34

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A
AMSRS. see Australian Market and Social Research Society
Australian Market and Social Research Society (AMSRS)
codes of practice of, 71, 72

B
Billabong, 88
Budgets, 86

C
Causal research, 77
Colmar Brunton, 85
Complex research problems
multiple research approaches for, 78
Costbenefit analysis
in market research, 71
Critical path method, 86

D
Data analysis
qualitative, 8889
quantitative, 8788
Data collection, 8687
Data mining, 78
Descriptive research, 77

E
Ethics
in market research, 7172
Exploratory research, 77

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G
Gantt charts, 86, 87

H
Hypothesis
defined, 77

I
International market research, 75

M
Marketing information system (MIS), 69
Market research
assessing effectiveness of, 28
availability of resources, 71
causal, 77
components of, 70
costbenefit analysis in, 71
Dairy Farmers, 85, 86
data analysis, 87
qualitative, 8889
quantitative, 8788
data reporting findings, 9091
defined, 67
defining problem of, 7375
preparing market research brief, 7475
descriptive, 77
design issues, 7784
ethics in, 7172
exploratory, 77
international, 75
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managing data collection, 8687
MIS, 69
need for new information, 71
overview of, 70
qualitative, 8283
methods, 8283
quantitative, 8081
methods, 80
relevance, 71
responding problems to, 9192
role in making marketing decisions, 6772
used by MLA, 9698
use of, 67
Market research brief
appendices, 74
background, 74
defined, 74
executive summary, 74
introduction, 74
preparing, 7475
problem definition, 74
reporting schedule, 74
time and budget, 74
Market Research Society of New Zealand (MRSNZ)
codes of practice of, 71, 72
Meat & Livestock Australia (MLA)
consumer research of, 9798
market research used by, 9698
phased marketing communication of, 9697
MIS. see Marketing information system
MLA. see Meat & Livestock Australia
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MRSNZ. see Market Research Society of New Zealand

N
Network Ten, 91
Non-probability sampling. see also Probability sampling
defined, 84

P
Perceptual map
by quantitative data analysis, 87, 88
Population
sampling, 83
Primary data, 78. see also Secondary data
Probability sampling
defined, 84

Q
QT. see Queensland Transport
Qualitative analysis, 8889
Qualitative data, 89
Qualitative research, 8283
methods, 8283
use of, 82
Quantitative analysis, 8788
perceptual map by, 8889
Quantitative research, 8081
defined, 80
methods, 80
use of, 80
Queensland Transport (QT), 68
Varsity Lakes research, 91
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R
Rambaldini Pty Ltd., 75
Research design
defined, 77
Research problem
defined, 73

S
Sample, 84
Sampling, 8384
error, 84
methods, 84
non-probability, 84
population, 83
probability, 84
Secondary data, 78
advantages of, 78
sources, 79
Steel Blue, 72
Survey methods
advantages and disadvantages of, 81

V
Varsity Lakes community, 68
Varsity Station Village Project, 68
Virgin Blue, 71

W
Woolworths, 69
World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research
Professionals, 71
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A
Absolute temporal information (ATI) filter, 424

B
Blind VQA, 418

C
Chrominance, 422423
Contrast masking property, 427428

D
Digital video quality (DVQ) metric, 421
Discrete cosine transform (DCT), 421
Distortions
spatial, 425426, 428
temporal, 425426, 428
DVQ metric. see Digital video quality metric

F
Feature based methods
full reference VQA system, 422425
Finite impulse response (FIR) filter, 421
Full reference VQA algorithms, 418, 422

G
Gabor filter, 421, 427429, 428f, 430f

H
Human visual system (HVS)
motion processing in, 426
Human visual system (HVS) modeling based methods, 419421
IQA systems, 420421, 420f
temporal mechanisms in, 421
VQA systems, 420421, 421f
HVS. see Human visual system

I
Image quality assessment (IQA)
HVS-based, 420421, 420f
Infinite impulse response (IIR) filters, 421
IQA. see Image quality assessment

L
LCC. see Linear correlation coefficient
Linear correlation coefficient (LCC), 432
Linear filter, 423
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Lubin model, 421
Luminance, 422423

M
Motion based video integrity evaluation (MOVIE) index, 427
Gabor filter, 427429, 428f
spatial, 428, 430, 431f
temporal, 428430, 431f
Motion modeling based methods, 425431
Area MT/V5, 426
for VQA, 427431
MOVIE index. see Motion based video integrity evaluation index
Moving pictures quality metric (MPQM), 421
MPQM. see Moving pictures quality metric

P
Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), 432433
Perceptual distortion metric (PDM), 421
Perceptual evaluation of video quality (PEVQ) model, 422
Perceptual video quality measure (PVQM), 422, 426
PDM. see Perceptual distortion metric
PEVQ model. see Perceptual evaluation of video quality model
PSNR. see Peak signal-to-noise ratio
PVQM. see Perceptual video quality measure


R
Reduced reference VQA algorithms, 418
Root mean square error (RMSE), 432

S
Sarnoff JNDMetrix technology, 421
Spatial distortions, 425426, 428
Spearman rank order correlation coefficient (SROCC), 432
SROCC. see Spearman rank order correlation coefficient
Static video, spectrum of, 429f
Structural similarity (SSIM) index, 426

T
Temporal distortions, 425426, 428
Temporal filtering, 420421

V
Video quality assessment (VQA)
applications of, 417418
feature based methods for, 422425
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full reference algorithms, 418, 422
HVS-based, 420421, 421f
motion modeling based methods for, 427431
no reference algorithms, 418
objective, 431
performance of, 431433, 432t
reduced reference algorithms, 418
subjective, 418
Video quality metric (VQM), 422423, 426
calibration stage of, 422
feature computation in, 423424
pooling stage in, 424425
quality parameters estimation, 424
VQA. see Video quality assessment
VQEG FR-TV Phase I database, 431433
VQM. see Video quality metric
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
A
Administrative leader, 8
Authentic leadership, 10
Autonomous decision-makers, 7

C
Concerns-based adoption model, 9
Creative tension, 6, 8
Cultural leadership, 10
Curriculum mapping, 6

E
Educational change process, 1

F
First International Mathematics Study (FIMS), 8
Formal data, 6

H
Hazy lessons, 2
Home-grown teacher proficiencies, 2, 7

I
Implementation of Math Trailblazers, 111
role of the administrator in, 810
Informal data, 6
Instructional leadership, 24, 8, 9

L
Loosely coupled schools, 2, 3

N
National Council of Supervisors of Mathematics (NCSM), 4
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) Principles and Standards for School
Mathematics (2000), 1, 7
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), 2

P
Parallel leadership, 9
Professional development, 4
Professional learning, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10

Q
Quality leadership, 10

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S
Second International Mathematics Study (SIMS), 8
Service leadership, 10
Shared leadership, 9
Shared vision, developing
clear theory of action and action plan, 8
diagnosis of current math implementation, 68
goals, 56
steps in, 48

V
Visionary leadership, 10
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, - 1 -
BOOK TITLE: KEYS TO MEDICAL ASSISTING A POCKET GUIDE
AUTHOR NAME: Jahangir Moini

Note: Page numbers followed by f and t indicate figures and tables.
A
ABO system, 358
accidental needle stick, 240246
acellular vaccine, 230, 232
Actiq (fentanyl citrate), 181
active records, 36
administrative duties, of medical assistants
reception area, 36
telephone techniques, 610
alphabetic filing, 37
alphabetical color coding, 3839
Alpha-Z, 38, 39, 40t
American Hospital Formulary Service, 193
American Medical Association (AMA), 193
Ames Color File System, 38, 39t
ampoules, 217
anabolic steroids, 183
angiography, 143
answering telephone
on-hold callers, 78
taking messages, 8
apothecary system, 200203
appointment scheduling
emergency, 17, 19
factors affecting, 11
methods, 12t14t
new patient, 1920
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, - 2 -
process, 1617
systems, 1416
types, 11
argumented leads, 132
arthrography, 143
artifacts, 137, 139
asepsis, 83
bloodborne pathogens and, 9193
medical, 8587
principles of, 8485
surgical, 8791
attenuated bacteria, 234
attenuated BCG, 234
attenuated virus, 231, 232, 233, 235
automated external defibrillator (AED)
shock delivery and, 165
special situations and, 165166
steps for operating, 163165
autonomic nervous system (ANS), 335336
Avinza capsules (morphine sulfate), 181

B
bacilli, 267t, 272t
bacteria, 270, 271t273t
culture media, 282288
identification methods, 277281
specimen collection, 281282
banking
checks, 5861
deposits, 61
Baraclude tablets (entecavir), 181
Formatted:
Tabs:Not at 1.34"
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, - 3 -
barium enema (lower GI), 143
barium swallow (upper GI), 143144
basic life support (BLS), 156, 167
bill of rights, 360361
billing and reimbursement cycle, 62
biopsy, 103
bipolar leads, 131
bleeding time, 264265
blood grouping
ABO system, 358
Rh factor, 359
blood pressure (BP)
cuff sizes, 117t
defined, 115
factors affecting, 116
korotkoff sounds, 117118
measuring, 116, 117
various ages and, 116
bloodborne pathogens, 9192
safety practice guidelines, 93
standard precautions, 92
body systems and functions, 327348
bone fractures
examples of, 174f
types of, 172t173t
bones, 332
breath sounds, 114, 115t
buccal administration, 212
burns, 170
classifications of, 171
rule of nines and, 171
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, - 4 -
business letters, 23
butabarbital, 183
butterfly method, 247251

C
capillary puncture, 251255
sites of selection, 252
cardiac arrest, 156
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
for adults, 157
for airway, 160
for children, 166167
for circulation, 158160
for infants, 167168
protocol, 157
for rescue breathing, 161
for unresponsiveness, 157158
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 246
certified mail, 31t
checks
defined, 58
standard information in, 6061
types of, 5960
chest compression technique, 167168
Chlamydia, 273t
chloral hydrate, 183
choking, 168
cholangiography, 144
cholecystography, 144
circulatory systems, 343344
Clarks rule, 209
Formatted:
Tabs:Not at 1.34"
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, - 5 -
clean technique, 85
Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA), 256
clinical procedures, 4950
closed records, 36
CMS-1500 form, 66
cocaine, 183
cocci, 267t, 271t
codeine, 183, 191
color-coding systems
alphabetical color coding, 3839
numerical color coding, 38
colposcopy, 103
communication
with children, 46
with coworkers, 48
with geriatric population, 46
with hearing-impaired patient, 47
types, 4143
with visually disabled patient, 47
computed tomography (CT), 144
computerized scheduling system, 1415
conjugate vaccines, 227235
consumable items, 54
controlled substances, 178184
drug abuse and, 184
guidelines for handling, 180181
prescription guidelines for, 181183
schedules of, 179t180t
cryosurgery, 103
curettage, 103
Current Procedural Terminology (CPT), 76
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, - 6 -
E/M codes, 7678
symbols in, 78

D
Daytrana transdermal patch (methylphenidate), 181
defense behaviors, 43, 44t
depreciation, 53
diazepam, 183, 190
differential white blood cell counts, 256260
digestive system, 346348
direct smear, 284
double booking, 11
drug administration
guidelines for, 210211
route of, 211225
ten rights of, 210
drug calculations
apothecary system, 200203
basic math, 206207
conversion between measurement systems, 204206
dosage calculations, 207209
household system, 203204
metric system, 198200
drug dosage calculations, 207209
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), 178
drugs
abuse, 184
classifications, 184192
information sources, 193194
storage of, 194197
See also drug administration; drug calculations
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, - 7 -
durable items, 53
Duragesic transdermal system (fentanyl), 181

E
E codes, 75
ear, 343
ECG
coding system and, 132, 136t
equipments of, 128
normal adult, 135, 137
use of, 128
waves and complexes, 137, 138t
einthovens triangle, 131
electrocardiogram. See ECG
electrodes, 131
electronic medical claim, 6667
electronic medical records (EMR)
advantages of, 34
security of, 3435
emergency, 156174
appointments, 17, 19
calls, 910
conditions, 19
endocrine system, 336342
endoscopy, 103
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), 264
Evaluation and Management (E/M) codes, 7678
express mail, 30t
eye, 342

F
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, - 8 -
Fentora (fentanyl buccal tablet), 181
filing systems
alphabetical filing, 37
color-coding systems, 3839
labeling, 38
missing files, location of, 3940
numeric filing, 3738
phonetic filing, 38
subject filing, 37
first class mail, 30t
fluoroscopy, 144
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 178
forceps, 96
forwarding mail, 31t
fourth class mail, 30t
Frieds rule, 209
fungi, 268t, 275276

G
gauge, 215
government-sponsored healthcare programs, 65
gram stain method, 278280

H
hand hygiene, 8687
health insurance
defined, 62
types, 63
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 3435, 68
healthcare claims
electronic medical claim, 6667
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, - 9 -
paper claim, 66
processing, 67
rejection, 68
Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS), 79
heimlich maneuver, 168
hematocrit measurement, 262263
hematology, 255
bleeding time, 264265
differential white blood cell counts, 256260
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), 264
hematocrit measurement, 262263
hemoglobin measurement, 261262
hemoglobin measurement, 261262
heroin, 183
herpes zoster, 354
Holter monitor, 139140
household system, in drug calculations, 203204
human papillomavirus (HPV), 353

I
ICD-9-CM coding, 7172
immunizations, 353357
immunizing agents, 230t235t
inactivated vaccines, 226
inactivated virus, 230, 231, 233
inactive records, 36
incoming calls and triage, 89
ineffective communication, 43, 45t
infection, chain of, 83, 84f
inhalation medications, 214
instillations, 213
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, - 10 -
insurance companies, 64
insured mail, 32t
integumentary system, 330331
International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. See ICD-
9-CM coding
intradermal injections, 218219
intramuscular injections, 220222
intravenous pyelography (IVP), 144
intravenous therapy, 223, 225

K
kidney, 346
kidneys, ureters, bladder (KUB) radiography, 144
korotkoff sounds, 117118

L
labeling, 38
laryngoscopes, 97
laser surgery, 103
leads, 130
letter styles, 23, 2427
limb leads, 131
live attenuated vaccines, 226
lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 183, 192

M
mail recall, 31t
mailing certificate, 32
mails
business letters, 23
classification, 28, 30t
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Book Title: Elementary Statistics in Criminal Justice Research

Addition rule, 9697
Aggregates, 2
Alpha, 145, 168
Analysis of variance
F ratio, 207213
HSD, 213215
logic, 198199
mean square, 206207
regression and, 287292
requirements for using, 215216
sum of squares, 199206
Area under the normal curve, 106112
Association, measuring, 322323

Bar graphs, 4952
Between-groups sum of squares, 203
Bimodal distribution, 6364, 7172
Bureau of Justice Statistics, 6

Central tendency measures
comparison of, 6872
defined, 63
mean, 6568
median, 6465
mode, 6364
Chi-square statistic, 221222
Chi-square test
one-way, 220224
two-way, 224228
Class interval
defined, 35
flexible, 4142
mid point, 36
number, 37
guidelines for constructing, 3637
size, 37
Cluster sampling, 126127
Coefficient of determination, 286
Coefficient of nondetermination, 287
Column percents, 46
using, 47
Comparison group, 34
Confidence intervals, 136150
95% confidence interval, 137140, 145, 148150
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99% confidence interval, 138139, 141142, 145, 148
for proportions, 148150
68% confidence interval, 137139
using t, 146148
using z, 140142
Content analysis, 5
Contingency coefficient, 317319
alternative to, 318319
requirements for using, 318
testing significance of, 318
Continuous variables, 15
Control group, 2
Converse rule, 96
Correlation, 251271
coefficient, 254, 314319
curvilinear, 253254
direction, 252253
matrix, 264
negative, 252
partial, 266271
Pearsons, 254263
positive, 252
strength, 251252
Correlation coefficient, 254, 314319
for nominal data arranged in 2 2 table, 314316
for nominal data in larger than 2 2 tables, 316319
partial, 266271
Pearsons, 254263
Spermans rankorder, 302310
Cramrs V, 318319
Criminal justice research
content analysis, 5
data sources, 68
experiment, 23
functions of statistics, 1521
hypotheses, 8
participant observation, 6
quasi-experiment, 34
series of numbers in, 915
stages of, 89
survey, 45
Critical regions, 168
Critical values, 168
Cross-tabulation, 4248
gamma and, 314
two-way chi-square test and, 224226
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Cumulative distributions, 3739
Cumulative frequencies, 37
Cumulative percentage, 37
Curvilinear correlation, 253254

Data collection, 29
Data sources
surveys, 67
police reports, 78
Decimal
adding, 372
data, 3941
dividing, 372373
multiplying, 372
rounding, 373
subtracting, 372
Decision making
analysis of variance, 197216
as function of statistics, 1820
nonparametric tests of significance, 219242
testing difference between means, 157192
Degrees of freedom, 144146
F ratio and, 208
Dependent samples
comparing, 177182
one-tailed test of means for, 187189
Dependent variable, 2
Description
as function of statistics, 1618
measures of central tendency, 6372
measures of variability, 7686
organizing data in, 2957
Deviation, 6667

Discrete variables, 15
Distribution, shape of, 6972
Disturbance term, 276, 283284
Dummy variable, 295

Error sum of squares, 284, 285
Error term, 276, 284
Expected frequencies
correction for small, 236238
defined, 221
finding, 228229
Expected value, 102
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Experimental group, 2
Experiments, 23

F ratio, 207213
multiple comparison of means, 213215
necessity for using, 215216
requirements for using, 215216
FBI, 78
Formulas, list of, 391396
Fox, James Alan, 357359
Frequency distributions
central tendency measures, 6972
comparing, 30
cross-tabulations, 4248
cumulative, 3739
decimal data in, 3941
differences between probability distribution and, 100102
graphical presentations of, 4857
grouped, 3437
interval data, 3437
nominal data, 2930
ordinal, 34
probability distribution versus, 100102
shape of, 5354
Frequency polygons, 5254

Gamma
Goodmans and Kruskals, 310314
requirements for using, 314
testing significance of, 313314
Goodmans and Kruskals gamma, 310314
Gottfredson, Michael R., 7
Graphical presentations
bar graphs, 4952
frequency polygons, 5254
histograms, 4952
line chart, 5456
maps, 5657
pie charts, 49
Grouped frequency distribution, 17
class interval, 4142
of interval data, 3437
variability measures and, 8891

Heterogeneity, 109
Hirschi, Travis, 7
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Histograms, 4952
Horizontal base line, 17, 50, 99
Hypotheses
defined, 2
null, 159160
research, 160
testing, 8

Independent variable, 2
Interval level of measurement, 1113
grouped frequency distribution, 3437
mean, 69
median, 69
mode, 6869

Jankowski, Martin Sanchez, 6

Kurtosis, 53

Leptokurtic distribution, 53
Level of confidence, 137
Level of measurement, 6869
interval level, 1113
nominal level, 910
ordinal level, 1011
Level of significance
.01 level of significance, 168169, 208
.05 level of significance, 168169, 208
choosing, 170171
critical region, 168
critical values, 168
null hypothesis, 168172
one-tailed tests, 185191
two-tailed tests, 185187
Type I error, 169171
Type II error, 169171
Line chart, 5456

Maps, 5657
Margin of error, 139
Marginal distributions, 45
Mass murderers, characteristics, 8
Mathematics, fundamental
decimals, 372374
negative numbers, 374375
Mean, 6568
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compared with other central tendency measures, 6872
multiple comparison, 213214
probability distribution, 102103
sampling distribution of, 128135
standard error of the, 135136
testing difference between, 157192
Mean square, 206207
Mean square error, 288289
Mean square regression, 288289
Measurement
importance of, 9
issues, 1415
level of, 913
Median, 6465
compared with other central tendency measures, 6872
Median test, 239242
Mesokurtic distribution, 53
Mid point, 36
Mode, 6364
bimodal distribution, 6364
compared with other central tendency measures, 6872
unimodal distribution, 64
Multiple coefficient of determination, 293
Multiple comparison of means, 213215
Multiple regression, 292297
Multiplication rule, 97
Multistage sampling, 126
Mutually exclusive outcomes, 9697, 100

National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 67
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), 78
National Opinion Survey of Crime and Justice, 7
National Youth Survey, 7
Negative correlation, 252253
Negative numbers
adding, 374
multiplying/dividing, 375
subtracting, 374375
Negatively skewed distribution, 5354, 70
95% confidence interval, 137140, 145, 148150
99% confidence interval, 138139, 141142, 145, 148
Nominal level of measurement, 910
Nonparametric measures of correlation, 302318
correlation coefficient, 314319
Goodmans and Kruskals gamma, 310314
Spearmans rankorder correlation coefficient, 302310
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Nonparametric tests of significance
median test, 239242
one-way chi-square test, 220224
two-way chi-square test, 224239
Normal curve
area under, 106108
characteristics, 104
defined, 104
finding probability scores, 119120
finding probability under, 114118
model and reality, 105106
as probability distribution, 103104
sampling distribution of means, 132135
standard deviation, 108112
standard scores, 112114
symmetrical nature, 108
Normal range, 85
Null hypothesis, 159160
levels of significance, 168171

Observed frequencies, 220, 222
One-tailed tests of significance, 185191
One-way chi-square test, 220224
Ordinal data as interval, treating, 14
Ordinal level of measurement, 1011
Outliers, 266

Parametric test, 219
Partial correlation, 266271
Partial correlation coefficient, 268271
Participant observation, 6
Pearsons correlation coefficient
formula, 258259
procedure for getting, 261263
regression, 286287
requirement, 263
testing, 259263
Percentage
column, 46
cumulative, 37
nature of, 3032
options of, 4748
total, 45
row, 4546
Percentage distribution, 3536
Phi coefficient
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requirements for using, 316
testing, 316
Pie charts, 49
Platykurtic distribution, 53
Police reports, 78
Population, generalizing from sample to, 153154
Positive correlation, 252253
Positively skewed distribution, 54, 70
Power of test, 219220
Prediction errors, 283286
Primary sampling unit, 126127
Probability, 95120
defined, 96
addition rule, 9697
converse rule, 96
multiplication rule, 97
under normal curve, 114118
Probability distribution
defined, 98
difference between frequency distributions and, 100102
mean and, 102103
normal curve as, 103104
standard deviation, 102103
variance, 103
Proportionate reduction in error (PRE), 286
Proportions, 31
confidence interval for, 150
estimating, 148150
sample test, 182185

Quasi-experiment, 34

Random samples, 125127
Range, 77
compared with other variability measures, 8586
Rate of change, 3334
Rates, 3234
Raw-score formula
Pearsons r, 258259
standard deviation, 8082
variance, 8082
Recidivism rate, 32
Regression analysis
and analysis of variance, 287292
multiple regression, 292297
Pearsons correlation, 286287
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prediction error, 283286
regression line, 281283
regression model, 276280
requirements for, 280281
Regression line, 281283
Regression sum of squares, 284285
Rejection regions, 168
Research hypothesis, 160
Research objective, 72
Research problems, 331346
Research solution, 346353
Residual sum of squares, 284
Rounding, 2021
decimal, 373374
Row percents, 4546
usage of, 47

Samples
defined, 124
generalizing from samples to populations, 153154
random, 125127
sampling methods, 124127
Sampling distribution of differences between means, 160164
difference between P and , 171172
levels of significance, 167171
testing hypotheses, 164167
Sampling distribution of means, 128130
characteristics, 130132
as normal curve, 132135
Sampling error, 127128
Sampling methods, 124127
Scatter plot, 251, 266267
importance, 263266
Simple random sampling, 126
Simple regression, 292294
68% confidence interval, 137139
Skewness, 5354
Slope, 276277, 279, 281282
Spearmans rankorder correlation coefficient, 302310
dealing tied ranks, 304306
requirements for using, 310
testing the significance, 306310
Standard deviation
clarifying, 108112
compared with other variability measures, 8586
meaning of, 8285
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normal curve, 108112
probability distribution, 102103
raw-score formula, 8082
t distribution, 142144
variance and, 7880
Standard error of the difference between means, 172177
testing, 173177
Standard error of the mean, 135136
t distribution, 142145
Standard error of the proportion, 148149
Standard score, normal curve and, 112114
Statistical procedure, applying
research problems, 331346
research solutions, 346353
Statistical Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS)
computer output, 371
data analysis, 369371
entering data, 360367
opening existing data file, 359360
recording variables, 367369
regression, 296
Statistically significant difference, 20
Statistics calculator (ABCalc), 357, 358359
Statistics, functions
decision making, 1820
description, 1618
Straight-line relationship, 252253, 263
Stratified sample, 126
Summation sign, 375376
Sum of squares, 199206
between-groups, 203
computing, 203206
regression, 284285
research illustration, 200203
residual, 284
within-groups, 200, 208
total, 201, 284
Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR), 78
Surveys
as data sources, 67
example, 2425
nature of, 45
Symmetrical distributions, 5354
Systematic sample, 126

Table of random numbers, 125127
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t distribution, 142148
confidence interval, 146148
standard deviation, 142144
standard error of the mean, 142145
Testing
differences between means, 157192
hypothesis, 8, 164167
significance of contingency coefficient, 318
significance of gamma, 313314
significance of Pearsons r, 259263
significance of phi coefficient, 316
significance of rankorder correlation coefficient, 306310
Total percents, 45
usage of, 4748
Total sum of squares, 201, 284
t ratio, 144145, 191192, 259261
Tukeys HSD, 213215
Two-tailed tests of significance, 185187
Two-way chi-square test, 224239
comparing several groups, 232235
correcting for small expected frequencies, 236238
finding expected frequencies in, 228231
requirement for use, 238239
Type I error, 169171, 197198
Type II error, 169171

Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), 78
Unimodal distribution, 64
Unit of observation, 2

Variability measures, 7686
comparison of, 8586
range, 77
standard deviation, 7885
variance, 7882
Variables, 12
Variance
analysis of, 197216
compared with other variability measures, 8586
raw-score formula, 8082
standard deviation, 7880
Variation between groups, 198199
Variation within groups, 198199
Vertical axis, 17

Within-groups sum of squares, 200, 208

Yatess correction, 237238, 239
Y-intercept, 276277, 279281

z score, 112113, 116118
probability scores, 119120
sampling distribution, 134135

COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION

Book Title: Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom

AAMD; See American Association of Mental Deficiency (AAMD)
A-B-A-B designs, 185
A-B-C; See Antecedent-behavior-consequence (A-B-C) assessment
A-B-C analysis for assessing aggression, 258260
ABLLS; See Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS)
Abolishing operation (AO), 302
Abused drugs, appeal and risks of, 348349
Academic assessment and intervention, 285286
Active supervision, 212
Activity reinforcement, 8283
Adaptive Behavior Scale, School Edition, 25
Agencies
transition issues between, 382
working with community professionals and, 388390
Aggressive behavior
case study, 255256, 260, 278
characteristics of students exhibiting, 273
crisis interventions, 286289
functional behavioral assessment of, 256261
intensive strategies for
addressing mismanaged contingencies, 284285
arousal-heightening interpretation of external stimuli, 274
cognitive and academic skill deficits, 285286
heightened affective arousal, 274, 276277
ineffective communication and social skills, 278284
prosocial value deficits, 285
students requiring intensive intervention for, 270273
targeted intervention for students at risk of, 261270
Aim line, 182
AIMS; See Assessment for Integration into Mainstream Settings (AIMS)
Alcohol consumption, 347, 349350
Alpha requests, 228229
Alternate assessment, 158
Alternating treatments design, 189192
Alternative behaviors, reinforcing, 304305
American Association of Mental Deficiency (AAMD), 25
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 14, 15
Analogue measure, 258
Anger management training, 274, 276277
Anorexia nervosa, 345, 346347
Antecedent stimuli, 72, 73
Antecedent strategies, 367368
Antecedent-behavior-consequence (A-B-C) assessment, 102, 117118
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Anxiety disorders, 339
school refusal, 341, 343
treatment, 341
types of, 339341
Anxious, tips for helping children feeling, 343345
AO; See Abolishing operation (AO)
APBS; See Association for Positive Behavior Support (APBS)
Applied behavior analysis, 72
principle I, 7374
principle II, 7475
principle III, 7576
principle IV, 76
principle V, 77
principle VI, 7778
Archival student data, 2526
Assessment
archival student data, 2526
direct behavioral, 110
of educational progress, 23
for identifying behavioral disorder, 19
indirect, 122
indirect behavioral, 110
intellectual, 23
medical, 26
mental health, 21, 23
school-based, 23
of social and linguistic functions, 25
Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS), 315
Assessment-based intervention planning, 113131; See also Behavioral assessment
case study, 101104, 129130
functional methods, 119
step 1 assess student behavior, 114119
step 2 propose hypothesis, 119121
step 3 validity of hypothesis, 121122
step 4 design intervention, 122126
step 5 data collection, 127
step 6 intervention objectives, 127131
Assessment for Integration into Mainstream Settings (AIMS), 110
Association for Positive Behavior Support (APBS), 9192, 260261
Autographing formats, 173174
Automatic reinforcement, 306307
Aversive stimulus, 75

Bar graph, 168
Baseline, 175
Baseline data, 178
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Behavior change, 366
Behavior Education Program; See Check-in/check-out (CICO)
Behavior enhancement
activity reinforcement, 8283
edible reinforcement, 8384
introduction to, 7879
modeling, 8182
procedures for, 7984
self-regulation, 7980
social reinforcement, 8081
tactile and sensory reinforcement, 84
tangible reinforcement, 83
token reinforcement, 83
Behavior intervention plan (BIP), 8, 1314, 39, 123; See also Assessment-based
intervention planning; Behavioral assessment
criteria for, 13
example of, 101104, 130, 271272
Behavior observation record, 108
Behavior rating scales, 110
Behavior reduction procedures
differential reinforcement, 8586
introduction to, 8485
other procedures, 8889
overcorrection, 88
precorrection, 86
response cost, 87
restraint, 89
timeout, 8788
verbal aversives, 8687
Behavior strategies, 368369
Behavior support plan, 39
Behavior Support Team, 13, 19, 122, 372
Behavioral assessment, 104105
antecedent-behavior-consequence (A-B-C) assessment, 102, 117118
data collection, 127
direct observation, 117119
functional methods, 119
guidelines for, 105
hypothesis proposal, 119121
intervention planning and, 114119
interviews, 115117
long-term objectives, 127130
operational definition, 114
scatter plot, 115, 116117
school records, 116117
short-term objectives, 127130
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
target behaviors, 114115
task analysis, 128129
Behavioral contexts, 105
Behavioral escalation, 286288
Behavioral information form, 332, 334
Behavioral interviews, 115116
Behavioral momentum; See High-probability requests
Behavioral objectives, 114, 127130
Behavioral principles, 210211
Behaviors
arrival, 237
changing class, 237
classroom, 237238
controlled by stimuli, 7374
escape and avoidance, 75, 120121
gain access, 120
identifying problem, 105112
leaving school, 238
lunchtime, 238
monitoring teacher, 212
procedures for changing, 77
reinforcement and, 7475
self-stimulatory, 75
systematic procedures for influencing, 7889
Behavior-specific praise, 81
Beta requests, 228229
Binge drinking, 350
BIP; See Behavior intervention plan (BIP)
Bipolar disorder, 338339
Building staff, working with, 371373
Bulimia, 346
Bullying, 269270
Burnout, 395

Candy man, 351
CBA; See Curriculum-based assessments (CBA)
CBM; See Curriculum-based measurement (CBM)
CCBD; See Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD)
CEC; See Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)
Changing criterion design, 188189
Chart, 165, 168; See also Graphing and charting
Check-in/check-out (CICO), 263
evidence supporting, 64
implementing, 5556, 58
Checklists, 110
Child study team; See Teacher assistance team
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Classroom community, creating, 200202
Classroom environment
guidelines for establishing rules in, 206207
high classroom structure, 202203
physical layout, 203204
Classroom goals, parental support of, 387388
Classroom measurement; See also Monitoring and evaluation; Student progress,
monitoring
overview of, 140141
questions about monitoring student behavior, 143145
teachers objection for systematic monitoring, 141143
Classroom-wide positive behavior support, 197
case study, 198, 204205, 209210, 212213, 214
classroom community, creating, 200202
engaging students in observable ways, 213218
evidence-based classroom practices, 199200
identifying students for targeted and intensive intervention, 218222
maximize structure and predictability, 202204
monitor and reinforce expectations, 210212
post, teach, monitor and reinforce expectations, 205209
Class-wide student tutoring teams (CSTT), 218, 219
Club drugs, 352353
CMOs; See Conditioned motivative operations (CMOs)
Cognitive and academic skill deficits, intensive strategies for, 285286
Cognitive behavior modification, 370371
Collaborative effort and PBS, 12
Common social stimuli, 368
Common stimuli, 368
Community professionals, guidelines for, 388390
Community-based training, 384
Comorbidity, 17
Competing explanations, 184
Condition lines, 175
Conditioned motivative operations (CMOs), 303
Conditioned reinforcers, 80
Conditions, 175
Consequent stimuli, 72
Consequent strategies, 369370
Content-imbedded requests, 228, 229
Contingency, 77
Contingency contracts, 240, 243244
Contingent observation, 88
Contingent praise, 207
Continuous behavior, 146
Coprophagia, 299
Corporal punishment, 89, 93
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD), 91
Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), 91
Crisis interventions
behavioral escalation, 286, 287
crisis plans, 286, 287288
physical interventions, 288289
Crisis management, 126
Crisis plans, 286, 287288
Criterion of ultimate functioning, 382383
CSTT; See Class-wide student tutoring teams (CSTT)
Cultural competence and aggression assessment, 261
Cumulative graph, 169
Curriculum-based assessments (CBA), 12, 106
Curriculum-based measurement (CBM), 141

Daily behavior report card, 56, 57
Data analysis
analyzing level, 178179
data trends, 179184
formative evaluation, 177178
Data collection
behavioral assessment and, 127
classroom measurement and, 140145
Data decision rules, 141, 181, 182
Data trend analysis, 179184
Data-based decision making, 165, 176184; See also Data analysis; Data collection
analyzing level, 178179
data decision rules, steps for implementing, 182
data trends, analyzing, 179184
Data-based evaluation and PBS, 1213
Decreasing trend, 179
Dependent group contingency, 244, 247
Dependent measures; See Dependent variables
Dependent variables, 150, 175
Depression, 335
myths about, 337
side effects of, 337338
symptoms of, 335
ways for supporting students with, 338339
Descriptive function, 178
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), 21, 335, 338, 346
Differential reinforcement, 75
Differential reinforcement of alternate behaviors (DRA), 8586
Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors (DRI), 85, 310
Differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior (DRL), 85, 230231
Differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO), 85, 230, 304305, 310
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Differentiated instruction, 218
Direct behavioral assessment, 110
Discipline regulations
controlled procedures, 92
IDEA 2004, 9091
permitted procedures, 90, 92
prohibited procedures, 92
Discrete behavior, 146
Discrete learning trials, 151
Discrimination, 73
Discriminative stimulus, 73, 82
Disruptive behavior
case study, 227228, 232
peer-mediated interventions, 244248
reasons for, 228
self-mediated interventions, 248251
teacher-mediated interventions, 228244
Distributed trials, 151
DRA; See Differential reinforcement of alternate behaviors (DRA)
DRI; See Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors (DRI)
DRL; See Differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior (DRL)
DRO; See Differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO)
treatment integrity checklist, 380
Drug and alcohol abuse, 347
DSM-IV-TR; See Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)
Duration and progress monitoring, 145
Duration recording, 151
Dysthymia, 335
symptoms, 338
ways for supporting students with, 338339

Eating disorders, 345, 346347
EBD; See Emotional and behavioral disorder (EBD)
Ecological ceiling, 182
ED; See Emotional disturbance (ED)
Edible reinforcement, 8384
Educational placement and behavior problems, 2730
Educational progress, assessment of, 23
Eligibility determination checklist, 22
Emotional and behavioral disorder (EBD)
assessment for identifying, 19
case study, 45
education placement, 2730
identifying students with, 1827
introduction to, 56
systematic screening tool for, 1819
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Emotional disturbance (ED), 1617
Enhancement procedures, 78
Environmental safety considerations
for SIB, 310
for SSB, 307308
EO; See Establishing operation (EO)
Equal interval graph, 171
Equal ratio graph, 171
Escape and avoidance behaviors, 75, 120
Establishing operation (EO), 302
Ethical guidelines, 9295
Evidence-based practices, 6, 1012
classroom-wide positive behavior support and, 199200
products for implement and monitoring, 4547
systems of care and, 385386
Exclusionary timeout, 88
Experimental control, 184
External stimuli, intensive strategies for interpreting, 274
External validity, 184
Externalizing behavior, 10
Extinction, 75, 76, 304

FACTS; See Functional Behavior Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS)
Family/community involvement, 384
community professionals and agencies, working with, 388390
families, working with, 386
family implementation of PBS, 386387
parental support of classroom goals, 387388
systems of care and evidence-based practices, 385386
Family-school communication, 388
Fidelity, 40
Follow-up assessments, 377378, 380
Formative evaluation, 141, 166168, 177, 184
Frequency and progress monitoring, 145
Frequency polygon, 170171
Frequency recording, 151
Full inclusion, 29
Functional analysis, 122, 301, 302, 307
Functional assessment, 119, 301302
Functional Behavior Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS), 115
Functional behavioral assessment (FBA), 39; See also Assessment-based intervention
planning; Behavioral assessment
of aggression, 256261
outcomes of, 114
reasons for conducting, 113
Functional relationship, 122, 177178
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
L A N GU A GE E D I T I N G

Sample: 1

Original Version
The experience that founders bring into a business has received attention from researches who
attempt to evaluate the impact of CEOs tenure on venture performance. A number of papers
have shown that founders add tremendous values to their corporations and that this contribution
depends heavily on founders motivations and practice over time, thus making company success
dependent on the accumulated experience of the founder. However, when overly committed to
earlier formulas and recipes of original success, long tenured founders-CEOs are also likely to
make their organisation less adaptive and flexible, thus failing to adapt the organisation to the
changing economic scenario.

Edited Version
The concept of founders experience influencing business today is receiving greater attention
from researchers attempting to evaluate the impact of a CEOs tenure on venture performance.
Several studies have revealed that founders add tremendous value to their corporations and that
their contribution depends heavily on the founders motivations and practice over time. Thus
company success becomes dependent on the accumulated experience of the founder. However,
when long-tenured founder-CEOs are overly committed to prior formulae and recipes of original
success, their organisations end up becoming less adaptive and flexible, thus failing to adapt to
the changing economic scenario.

Sample: 2

Original Version
Hydraulic and pneumatic systems is an especially difficult subject to teach since it requires
high cost didactic resources. With the aim to solve this problem, a Moodle resource has been
developed based in the XAMPP. As a result, better marks were obtained and future
improvements are proposed.

Edited Version
The requirement of high cost didactic resources makes Hydraulic and pneumatic systems a
difficult subject to teach. To overcome this problem, a Moodle resource based on XAMPP was
developed. As a result, students performance showed improvement and they secured better
marks; future improvements are proposed.

Sample: 3

Original Version
In last years it were developed a lot of research works that tried to relate the SBS symptoms with
measurable parameters of indoor air like temperature and relative humidity. Their objective was
to control these parameters to prevent the symptoms but before analyse their conclusions some
questions must be cleared. For example, we must employ natural or mechanical ventilation for
preventing the SBS and, if it was detected, we must control indoor ambiences or correct the
Heating Ventilating and air Conditioning System (HVAC). The answer of these questions will be
shown in the next sections.

Edited Version
Recently, a large number of studies have attempted to relate the SBS symptoms to measurable
parameters of indoor air, such as temperature and relative humidity. The objective of these
studies was to control these parameters to prevent the symptoms. However, before analysing
their conclusions, some questions have to be answered. For example, should we employ natural
or mechanical ventilation for preventing SBS? Further, if SBS is detected, should we control the
indoor ambiences or correct the heating ventilating and air conditioning system (HVAC)? The
answers to these questions are presented in the following sections.

Sample: 4

Original Version
The right definition of the thermal comfort would be the mind condition which expresses
satisfaction with the thermal environment and, in consequence, it depends on the individuals
physiology and psychology (ISO 7730, 2005). This concept plays an important role in any
working environment but it is a very vague term and it is very difficult to represent on modern
computers. Researches into the area of thermal comfort have been carried out and they have
proved that the indoor temperature required in a building is not a fixed value and that the PMV
index, which indirectly points out the satisfaction of the thermal comfort, is defined according to
the most important six thermal variables:

Edited Version
Thermal comfort can accurately be defined as the state of mind which expresses satisfaction with
the thermal environment, and therefore, it depends on the individuals physiology and
psychology (ISO 7730, 2005). This concept greatly influences any working environment;
however, it remains a very vague term and a very difficult concept to represent on modern
computers. Research conducted in the field of thermal comfort has proved that the required
indoor temperature in a building is not a fixed value, and that the PMV index, which indirectly
indicates satisfaction with the thermal comfort, is defined based on the six most important
thermal variables:

Sample: 5

Original Version
Recruitment is an important function of an HR Manager. Compared to other Functional
Managers, HR Manager has to be cost conscious, as recruitment and selection involves expenses,
recruitment is dearer as it involves heavy expenses and attention of top management is drawn.
Companies have budget for recruitment every year, In order to attract the talent required by the
Company for its business it becomes necessary to recruit and select right people.

Edited Version
Recruitment is an important responsibility of a Human Resource (HR) Manager. Compared to
other Functional Managers, the HR Manager has to be cost-conscious as recruitment and
selection processes involve expenses; importantly, the recruitment process involves greater
expenses and is brought to of the top management attention. Every year, most of the companies
have budget set for recruitment. In order to attract the talent required by the company for its
proper functioning, it is necessary to recruit and select the right people.

Sample: 6

Original Version

The condition of the patient progresses considerably, and there were temporary deteriorations in
the skeletal and breathing muscle strengths as a result of cardiac message and artificial
ventilation management in the ICU during the acute phase. During however the course of
recovery of skeletal and breathing muscle strength the patient received aggressive,, respiratory
rehabilitation, which included taking a cough machine this led to increases in the maximum
expiratory pressure (PEmax) maximum inspiration pressure (PI max), that are indices of
maximum breathing muscle strength, and in the PEFR values, that are believed to have a positive
correlation with these indices Improved breathing muscle strength was; therefore; believed to be
the main factr leading to increased respiratory function in these patient.

Edited Version
The condition of the patient improved remarkably, and there was a temporary deterioration in the
skeletal and respiratory muscle strengths as a result of cardiac massage and artificial ventilation
management in the ICU during the acute phase. However, during the course of recovery of
skeletal and respiratory muscle strength, the patient received aggressive respiratory rehabilitation
by using a cough machine. This led to an increase in the maximum expiratory pressure (PEmax)
and maximum inspiration pressure (PI max), which are indices of the maximum respiratory
muscle strength, and an increase in the PEFR values, which is believed to have a positive
correlation with these indices. Improved respiratory muscle strength was, therefore; believed to
be the main factor that improved the respiratory function in this patient.

Sample: 7

Original Version
Recently until community facilities were established, to fulfill a specific purpose such as social
education, self-governments by resident, or community welfare activities. However, as time has
passed the gap between, the needs of a given community and the purposes for which that
communities facilities were originally established grew wider. From the perspective from
residents of a given community, the functions of social education, resident self-government,
community welfare are absolutely indispensable and it is thus meaningless to categorize
community facilities according name and jurisdiction.
And in light of these circumstances, the purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of
community centers, that share the four functions of social education, resident self-government,
and community welfare; and then to verify the occurrence of reorganization involving
establishing such community centers.


Edited Version
Until recently, community facilities were established to perform specific functions such as social
education, resident self-governments, and community welfare activities. However, as time
passed, there was a widening gap between the needs of a given community and the purpose for
which the community facilities were originally established. From the perspective of the residents
of a given community, the functions of social education, resident self-government, and
community welfare are absolutely indispensable, and hence, it is meaningless to categorize
community facilities on the basis of name and jurisdiction.
Further, in light of these circumstances, the purpose of this study is to introduce the concept of
community centers that perform the abovementioned three functions and then to verify the
occurrence of reorganization that involves the establishment of such community centers.

Sample: 8

Original Version
Why Baghdad does not research, write or publish? Why the curiosity that is associated with
reading does not induce the Iraqis to be more involved in researching and writing? The Iraqis are
missing a lot by not venturing into the very creative activities of researching, writing and
publishing. Francis Bacon once said: Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and
writing an exact man. It is, perhaps, this exact man that seems to be missing in Iraq. The
exactness of the writing process is entirely different experience from reading or conversation. To
be precise, to name things in their proper names is what the political process, whether old or
new, needs in Iraq. Writing teaches people patience, tolerance, moderation, and clarity, all of
which are great, yet missed, values that are helpful for the country.

Edited Version
Why does Baghdad not research, write or publish? Why has the curiosity that is associated with
reading not induced the Iraqis to be more involved in researching and writing? The Iraqis are
missing a lot by not venturing into the highly creative activities of researching, writing and
publishing. Francis Bacon once said: Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and
writing an exact man. It is, perhaps, this exact man that seems to be missing in Iraq. The
exactness of the writing process is an entirely different experience from reading or conversation.
To be precise, to call things by their proper names is what the political process, whether old or
new, needs, in Iraq. Writing teaches people patience, tolerance, moderation, and clarity, all of
which are the great, yet missed out, values that are helpful for the country.

Sample: 9

Original Version

Hydraulic and pneumatic systems is an especially difficult subject to teach since it requires high
cost didactic resources. With the aim to solve this problem, a Moodle resource has been
developed based in the XAMPP. As a result, better marks were obtained and future
improvements are proposed

Edited Version
The requirement of high cost didactic resources makes Hydraulic and pneumatic systems a
difficult subject to teach. To overcome this problem, a Moodle resource based on XAMPP was
developed. As a result, students performance showed improvement and they secured better
marks; future improvements are proposed.

COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
River sand from Kinu River (density in saturated
surface-dry condition 2.60 g/cm
3
, water absorption 2.30%,
and fineness modulus 2.70) was used as the fine aggregate and
crushed stone from Kuzu (hard sandstone, maximum
dimension 20 mm, density in saturated surface-dry condition
2.64 g/cm
3
, and water absorption 0.60%) was used.
For water/cement ratios (W/C) of 55% and 45%, the
additives AE plasticizer (lignin sulfonic acid compound and
polyol compound) and AE auxiliary agent were used, and for
W/C = 30%, high-performance AE plasticizer (polycarbonate
ether type and antifoaming agent) was used. In the case of
W/C = 55% and 45%, the target slump was 10 2.5 cm, the
target air content was 4.5 1%, and adjustment of slump flow
was carried out by adjusting the water content. In the case of
W/C = 30%, the target slump flow was 50 7.5cm and the
target air content was 2.0 1%; here, the adjustment of slump
flow was carried out by adjusting the high-performance AE
plasticizer content.
The slump (slump flow) and the air content of the concretes
used in the tests were within the target range in all cases, and
for W/C = 55% and 45%, the water content was in the range
of 169 to 175 kg/m
3
. For W/C = 30%, the water content was
160 kg/m
3
and the content of high-performance AE plasticizer
was in the range of 1.3 to 1.5%, depending on the brand.
2.2 Test methods
(1) Autogenous shrinkage
Table 2 shows the various tests conditions. In Series I, the
effect of the brand of blast furnace slag cement B class, W/C,
and high temperaturetime history on the autogenous
shrinkage was investigated. The four brands BB(A), BB(B),
BB(C), and BB(D) were used as the blast furnace slag cement
B class, and W/C of 55%, 45%, and 30% were used. In the
autogenous shrinkage tests under high temperaturetime
history conditions, a simple thermally insulating mold with
internal dimensions 400 400 400 mm fabricated from
expanded polystyrene (thickness 200 mm, foaming rate 60%)
was used as the thermal insulation material (high temperature
(1)).
In Series II, BB(A) was used as the cement with a W/C
55% water cement ratio to investigate the effect of the range
of temperature in a high temperaturetime history on the
autogenous shrinkage. Envisaging the time history in the
case where the minimum dimension is particularly large
(estimated from the finite element method (FEM) analysis for
the center temperature of a 4-m-thick wall based on the
insulated temperature rise), 400 400 400 mm test
specimens were placed within a variable temperature chamber,
and the temperaturetime history was applied (high
temperature (2)). Further, autogenous shrinkage tests (high
temperature (1)) were carried out using the same simple
thermally insulating mold as in Series I.
In Series I and II, the strain in the vertical direction at the
center of the 400 400 400 mm specimens was measured
in the autogenous shrinkage tests under high
temperaturetime history conditions. In the autogenous
shrinkage tests under 20C conditions, 100 100 400 mm
test specimens were used, and the tests were carried out in
accordance with the method of the JCI Autogenous Shrinkage
Test Committee. However, under all conditions, the
measurement of the autogenous shrinkage strain was carried
out using embedded strain gauges (elastic modulus 40
N/mm
2
).
The number of test specimens was one for each
combination of parameters under high temperaturetime
history conditions (high temperature (1) and high temperature
(2)), and two for each combination of parameters under 20C
conditions.
(2) Compressive strength
Using 100 200 mm test specimens, compressive strength
tests were carried out for two curing conditions: high
temperaturetime history (high temperature (1)), and curing
in water at 20C. Under high temperature (1) condition, the
specimens were placed in a simple thermally insulating mold
that was the same as that used in the autogenous shrinkage
tests, and expanded polystyrene beads were inserted in the
gaps between specimens. Specimen ages were 1, 2, 3, 5, 7,
28, and 91 days. The number of test specimens was two for
each combination of parameters under high temperaturetime
history conditions, and three for each combination of
parameters under 20C conditions.
(3) Coefficient of thermal expansion
Using test specimens (100100400mm) that had
completed the autogenous shrinkage tests under 20C
conditions, the coefficient of thermal expansion was
measured over the temperature range 20 to 60C when the
specimen age was 3 months or more. Specimens that were
sealed on all surfaces were placed in a variable temperature
chamber, the temperature was changed at the rate 1C/hour,
and the strain was measured at 5C intervals after maintaining
a constant temperature for 5 hours, so that the center of the
specimen would be equal to the temperature of the
environment it was placed in.
(4) Setting tests
Setting tests were carried out at 20C, and the initial setting
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Deleted:
Deleted: Also
Deleted: ,
Comment: AQ: Please check change.
Deleted: W/C =
Deleted: the
Deleted: W/C =
Deleted:
Deleted:
Deleted:
Deleted: W/C =
Deleted: in
Comment: AQ: Please check the change.
Deleted: a water cement ratio of
Deleted: ,
Comment: AQ: Please check the change
from 1 No. to one and from 2 No to two
in this paragraph.
Deleted: , and
Deleted: 1 No.
Deleted:
Deleted:
Comment: We suggest that it be referred to
as
Deleted: was
Deleted: W/C =
Deleted:
Deleted: ,
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COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
: Coefficient to express the type of cement (= 1.0 for
ordinary Portland cement)
ao
: Final value of autogenous shrinkage strain (10
6
)
W/C: Water cement ratio
a b: Coefficients expressing the rate of progress of
autogenous shrinkage
t: Age (days), t
o
: Initial setting (days)
t and t
0
are the effective ages (days) of the concrete
obtained using the values corrected for concrete
temperature from the following equation.
t, t
0

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i
i
T / ) t ( T
. exp t
1
0
273
4000
65 13
)
) !
(4)
i
t ! : No. of days for which the temperature is TC
(days)
T(
i
t ! ): Temperature in the time period
i
t ! (C)
T
0
= 1
Regarding the final value of autogenous shrinkage strain

ao
, it was not possible to approximate the measured values
under 20C conditions by varying the value of in
Equation (1), so it was decided to correct the coefficient in
Equation (2). Also, in the case of high temperature-time
history, it was observed that the higher the maximum
temperature, the greater the final value of autogenous
shrinkage strain (see Fig. 12). Therefore, a function of the
maximum temperature T
max
was added to Equation (2).
From the above, it was decided that the final value of
autogenous shrinkage strain when blast furnace slag cement B
class is used can be calculated from Equation (5).
( ) { } C W . exp
ao
8 5 2350 ! = "
( ) { } [ ]
4 6
20 10 2 1 1 80 ! " " ! ! " +
!
max
T . exp (5)
T
max
: Maximum temperature of concrete (C)
The rate of increase in autogenous shrinkage strain
increases with T
max
; hence, it is difficult to evaluate the effect
of high temperaturetime history from the effective age alone
(see Figs. 79, 12). Therefore, a function of T
max
was added
to the calculation equations for a and b in Equation (3) that
were already proposed by the authors, and Equations (6) and
(7) are proposed. However, it is assumed that
20CT
max
70C.
( ) { } ( ) 20 0 060 0 8 6 7 3 . T . C W . exp . a
max
! " " ! = (6)
( ) { } ( ) 15 1 0075 0 5 2 25 0 . T . C W . exp . b
max
+ ! " " = (7)
Figs. 13 and 14 show the measured values of autogenous
shrinkage strain under 20C conditions and the predicted
values from the proposed model, respectively. In the case of
W/C = 55% and 45%, the measured values and the predicted
values from the proposed model are in general agreement, but
for W/C = 30%, there are cases where the prediction error is
large. In Fig. 14, for comparison, the predicted values for
ordinary Portland cement obtained from the prediction model
of the Concrete Standard Specification (Equations (1) to (4))
are also shown. By comparing the autogenous shrinkage
strain for concrete using blast furnace slag cement B class
with concrete using ordinary Portland cement, it can be seen
that there is a slightly increasing trend for the autogenous
shrinkage strain.
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OK.
Deleted: , =1.0
Deleted: W/C =
Deleted:
-
Deleted: can be seen
Deleted:
Deleted: ,
Deleted: to slightly increase
Deleted: that
Deleted: at
Comment: Please note that the symbol is not
visible.
Deleted:
Deleted: ,
Deleted: so
Comment: AQ: Does it refer to the above
data? If so, revise as From the above data,
Deleted: C
Deleted: maximum temperature
Deleted: of
Deleted: as
Deleted: the maximum temperature
increases,
Deleted: so
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... [124]
... [136]
... [133]
... [123]
... [140]
... [139]
... [128]
... [122]
... [142]
... [121]
... [125]
... [130]
... [144]
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... [151]
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Fig. 15 shows the relationship between T
max
and
autogenous shrinkage strain. Focusing on BB(A), which
was tested over a wide range of temperaturetime history
conditions (20C, high temperature (1), and high temperature
(2)), it was found that as T
max
increased up to approximately
50C, there was a large increase in the autogenous shrinkage
strain. However, the difference in autogenous shrinkage
strain at T
max
of 55C and 69C was comparatively small.
This characteristic is evaluated by the proposed equations.
The compatibility of the proposed equations with the change
in autogenous shrinkage strain with time is shown in Fig. 12.
From the above data, it is considered that the autogenous
shrinkage strain of blast furnace slag cement concrete under
high temperaturetime history conditions can be generally
estimated using the prediction model proposed in this
research. However, this prediction model can be applied to
concrete with W/C of approximately 55% for cases where the
maximum temperature of the member is 70C or less. It can
also be applied when the concrete temperature is
approximately 20C with W/C ratios in the range of 30 to
55%.
In the future, it is necessary to verify the accuracy of the
prediction model for a wide range of materials, compositions,
and temperature conditions.

5. Conclusions
The autogenous shrinkage strain of concrete using blast
furnace slag cement B class was measured at 20C and under
high temperaturetime history conditions assumed to occur in
mass concrete, and based on the test results, a prediction
model for autogenous shrinkage strain was proposed. The
following is a summary of the findings within the scope of
this research.
(1) Under high temperaturetime history conditions, the rate
of increase in the autogenous shrinkage strain and the
final value are high when compared with the 20C
conditions.
(2) Under high temperaturetime history conditions, there is
a large difference in autogenous shrinkage strain due to
the brand of blast furnace slag cement B class as
compared with that in 20C conditions.
(3) Prediction equations have been proposed for autogenous
shrinkage strain for concrete using blast furnace slag
cement B class and water/cement ratios of approximately
55% when subject to a high temperaturetime history
(maximum temperature of approximately 70C or less).



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Deleted:
Deleted: about
Comment: AQ: Please check change.
Deleted:
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Comment: Please specify the member
mentioned here for enhanced clarity.
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Deleted:
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... [153]
... [158]
... [154]
... [157]
... [160]
... [152]
... [159]
... [156]
... [155]
... [161]
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The condition of the patient improved remarkably, and there was a temporary deterioration
in the skeletal and respiratory muscle strengths as a result of cardiac massage and artificial
ventilation management in the ICU during the acute phase. However, during the course of
recovery of skeletal and respiratory muscle strength, the patient received aggressive
respiratory rehabilitation by using a cough machine. This led to an increase in the maximum
expiratory pressure (PEmax) and maximum inspiration pressure (PI max), which are indices
of the maximum respiratory muscle strength, and an increase in the PEFR values, which is
believed to have a positive correlation with these indices. Improved respiratory muscle
strength was, therefore; believed to be the main factor that improved the respiratory
function in this patient.


Deleted: progresses considerably
Deleted: were
Deleted: s
Comment: AQ: Please check the change
throughout.
Deleted: breathing
Deleted: e
Deleted: During h
Deleted:
Deleted: breathing
Deleted: ,,
Comment: AQ: Please check if this change is OK.
Deleted: , which included taking
Deleted: t
Deleted: s
Comment: AQ: Please confirm if max should be
subscripted in PEmax and PImax.
Deleted: that
Comment: AQ: Define PEFR if it is not a
common abbreviation in this field.
Deleted: breathing
Deleted: that are
Deleted: breathing
Deleted: ;
Deleted: leading to increased
Deleted: these
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION



Until recently, community facilities were established to perform specific functions such as
social education, resident self-governments, and community welfare activities. However, as
time passed, there was a widening gap between the needs of a given community and the
purpose for which the community facilities were originally established. From the perspective
of the residents of a given community, the functions of social education, resident self-
government, and community welfare are absolutely indispensable, and hence, it is
meaningless to categorize community facilities on the basis of name and jurisdiction.
Further, in light of these circumstances, the purpose of this study is to introduce the
concept of community centers that perform the abovementioned three functions and then to
verify the occurrence of reorganization that involves the establishment of such community
centers. We mainly focus on securing architectural planning policies that pertain to the
community facility reorganization that is currently being carried out. The purpose of these
researches is to form a framework for architectural planning that will lead to the re-
engineering of the functions of the community center facility through the cooperation of
both the facility staff and those who avail the facility services and will also lead to the
construction of unit spaces.


Deleted: Recently until
Deleted: ,
Deleted: fulfill
Deleted: a
Deleted: purpose
Comment: AQ: Please check the change.
Deleted: by resident
Deleted: or
Deleted: has
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Deleted: ,
Deleted: s
Deleted: that
Deleted: ies
Deleted: grew wider
Deleted: from
Deleted: thus
Deleted: according
Deleted: And
Deleted: paper
Deleted: , that share
Deleted: four
Deleted: of social education, resident
self-government, and community welfare;
Deleted: involving establishing
Deleted: are
Deleted: s
Deleted: s
Deleted: frame
Deleted: ,
Deleted: s
Deleted: functions
Deleted: the acceptors of
Deleted: ,
Deleted: go on
Comment: AQ: Does this mean space units?
Please check.
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION


Existence of the volume associated with a photon, the structure of Plancks constant, and
the uncertainty principleWhat is Plancks constant?

As a result of this, i) the frequencies (or wavelengths) of photons that are in thermal
equilibrium in the cavity is restricted by Eq. (3.4), and photons with others frequencies
cannot further exist in the cavity (see Experiment 1); ii) the cavity in thermal equilibrium is
packed with many photons without any voids (see Experiment 2).

2 Shape of the space occupied by a photon and the amplitude
Even if the volume that a photon occupies is determined by Eq. (3. 3), the correlation
between broadening in the direction of movement and broadening in the perpendicular
direction cannot be clarified by this equation alone. Hence, in order to simplify the
abovementioned discussion, we consider the state of a group of photons with frequency in
the cavity, i.e., the state in which n photons per unit time pass through a unit area that is
perpendicular to the direction of the movement and examine this correlation. The shape of
the volume associated with a photon can be envisioned as a cylindrical column or as a
solid of revolution (ellipsoid).


Deleted: ---
Deleted: .
Comment: AQ: Please clarify the situation here.
(i.e., as a result of what?)
Deleted: ,
Comment: AQ: Please check if the intended
meaning is conveyed.
Deleted: , in thermal equilibrium,
Deleted:
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Comment: AQ: Please check if this change is OK.
Deleted: , etc
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION



The Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources
Research and Key Lab of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes performs research
on water cycles and land surface processes in China to provide a scientific basis and the
technical assistance necessary for sustainable use of water resources in China. At the same
time, the Japan National Institute for Environmental Studies Asia Water Environment Section
performs comprehensive observation and modeling of water and geochemical cycles, mainly in
East Asian.
Both these parties agreed through serious discussions to develop a collaborative research on
the observation and modeling of water and geochemical cycles in basin zones. This agreement
is based on the General Agreement on International Collaborative Research in Fields Related
to Environmental Resources, which was agreed upon by the independent administrative
institution National Institute for Environmental Studies and the Chinese Institute of
Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research.

1. Obj ective of Coll aborative Research
The scientific basis and technical guidance necessary for the rational use of basin water
resources and sustainable management of water environments will be provided by the
cooperative development of a system of observation and modeling of water and geochemical
cycles in basin zones.

2. Content and Form of Col laborati ve Research
Through discussions, both the abovementioned parties will conduct a collaborative research
that will have the following content and form.
a. Cooperative research of observation and modeling of water and geochemical cycles in
water basins of the South-North Water Transfer Project (Yellow River and Huai River
basins)
b. Cooperative research on observation and modeling of water environments in the Yangtze
Formatted:
Indent: Hanging: 0.23", Left
1.37 ch, First line: 0 ch, No widow/orphan
control, Don't allow hanging punctuation,
Don't adjust space between Latin and
Deleted: the continent of
Deleted: researches
Comment: Please check if it should be "East Asian
countries"
Comment: The term "parties" appears to be
slightly unclear in the context. Can we replace it
throughout with "organizations"?
Comment: Pleas confirm if we can replace
"agreed upon" by "approved" for enhanced clarity.
Deleted: A
Deleted: s
Deleted: having
Deleted:
Deleted: River basin
c. Exchange of scientific and technical
information, and creation and public
disclosure of research reports and treatises
d. Mutual visitation of scholars, specialists,
delegations, etc., and holding of joint
seminars and fora
3. Administ rati on of Collaboration
Items
a. Researchers and administrators of both
the parties will participate in the
collaborative research.
b. Within the scope of the research content
Inserted: the
Deleted: t
Inserted: the
Deleted: s
Deleted: determined by this agreement,
before implementing specific collaborative
research plans, funding for this
implementation will be determined through
discussion by both parties.
c. Both parties will cooperate as closely as
possible on consensual collaborative research
plans
Deleted: ,
Deleted: and if possible
Deleted: ,
Deleted: will determine annual plans
through mutual discussion.
4. Results and Publ ications
a. Results and data of collaborative research
will be the joint property of both parties and
will be protected by the intellectual property
rights of the countries of both parties.
b.
Deleted:
Deleted: Intellectual property rights of
patents, data, information, etc., obtained
through collaborative research will be the
joint property of both parties. The other party
must be consulted before these intellectual
property rights
Deleted: are used in a third country.
c. Consent must be obtained from the other
party to publicly disclose publications and
other forms of collaborative research results,
with
Inserted: ,
Deleted: may be
Inserted: are
Deleted: the general principle that
disclosures will be made in the names of both
parties. However, exceptions may be made
when there are differences in opinion
Deleted: about
Deleted: regarding the same matter.
d. Consent from the other party must be
obtained before citing undisclosed
collaborative research results in other
research activities.
5. Other
a. Corrections, additions or deletions of
appropriate letters, words, paragraphs, etc.,
that are mentioned
Inserted: that are mentioned
Deleted: written
Deleted: in this agreement will be made
through mutual discussions.
b. Items that are not
Inserted: s
Inserted: that are
Deleted: written
Deleted: mentioned in this agreement will be
confirmed on paper through mutual
discussion.
c. If objections arise in the execution of this
agreement, confirmation will be made on
paper through discussion based on a spirit of
friendly cooperation.
d. This agreement will be written in both
Japanese and Chinese and will have equal
validity in both languages. Each party will
possess one
Inserted: mentioned
Inserted: u
Deleted: of
Deleted: copy of each agreement. The period
of validity will be until 3/31/2011.
Inserted: regarding
Inserted: ,
... [2]
... [1]
... [9]
... [3]
... [6]
... [7]
... [4]
... [10]
... [5]
... [8]
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
5
for physically handicapped, and
equipment in special classes. In addition,
it also subsidizes construction and
equipment
for pupils in special classes in ordinary
schools in Japan is held in a
multidisciplinary way.
In every school, there is a nurse teacher.
This nurse teacher is an instructor for
sex education as well. She develops her
orientation with the teachers.
The students have complete confidence
and they can talk about their problems
freely; moreover, the school feels that the
availability of individual interviews
might contribute considerably to help
with their sexual problems.
The sex education at school does not offer
individual or therapeutic assistance, but
only pedagogical assistance.

Resul ts
Copies of the questionnaires were sent to
375 ordinary schools with special classes
for mentally retarded students located in
Tokyo. In Tokyo, there are 725 ordinary
public schools, but only 375 schools have
special classes with 597 enrolled
students.
These questionnaires were answered by
235 teachers (149 females and 86 males)
and 312 parents (166 females and 43
males). [Are the edits OK?]
It was assumed that the answers found
would provide a better understanding
about their opinion about the sex
education for special students.
The first question was about the need to
offer sex education to their children. A
total of 213 teachers (91%) and 170
parents (54%) answered that they had
some situation in which they needed to
offer some orientation about sex to their
children.
In these cases, the topics that have been
increasingly discussed among teachers
were as follows: [Are the edits OK?]
hygiene (71%), masturbation (48%),
dating (44%), marriage (9%), parturition
(9%), sexual intercourse (9%), pregnancy
(7%), contraception (3%), and sexually
transmissible diseases (2%).
Among parents, the topics that have been
increasingly discussed were hygiene
(38%), masturbation (20%), dating (15%),
parturition (7%), pregnancy (7%),
marriage (5%), sexual intercourse (5%),
sexually transmissible diseases (3.5%),
and contraception (2%).
A total of 98% teachers and 89% parents
recognize that it is necessary to talk
about sex with these students. However,
90% teachers and 85% parents face
difficulty when they need to talk about
this topic.
Nevertheless, they believed that the
family is responsible to provide this
orientation (77% teachers and 85%
parents).
According to the results, 94% of teachers
and 92% of parents agreed that a sex
education program at school, which
Formatted
Formatted
Formatted
Deleted: sfor
Deleted: installations in dormitories
Deleted: ,
Deleted: and expenses to purchase school
buses for children whose homes are distant
from the schools.
The annual expenditure on special schools in
1988 was about 493 billion yen through the
national government, prefectures, and
municipalities.
In 1956, the annual expenditure was about
3.2 billion yen. Since the enactment of a
special measures law, this amount for
construction of public schools for handicapped
has increased about 150 times, summing up
to 493 billion yen in 1988. The expenditure
per pupil in special schools in 1988 was about
5.4 million yen, while
Deleted: per pupil expenditure
Deleted: that in ordinary elementary and
lower secondary schools was about 590
Deleted: .
Deleted: ,000 yen and 600,
Deleted: that
Deleted: and to encourage parents to enroll
their children in special classes and special
schools, subsidies are offered to parents of
handicapped children. Depending on the
parents income, the subsidies cover part or
all of the expenses with lunch, transportation,
boarding, school
Inserted: that
Deleted: ,
Deleted: s
Deleted:
Deleted: made
Deleted: prepared depending on the
characteristics and development of the pupils
with special educational needs.
It is considered important for complete
individual development. Thus, the school can
develop critical, reflexive, and educative
actions.
Many schools integrate in science teaching
programs topics
Deleted: such as anatomy and reproduction
as such a need is perceived.
Generally, these topics are addressed in
discussions
Deleted: about
Inserted: sthe s,expenditure yen,
Inserted: ,,
Deleted: .
Deleted: 000 yen, [Are the edits OK?]
respectively. Therefore, per pupil expenditure
in special schools is about 9.3 times more than
that in ordinary elementary schools
Deleted: and about 9 times more than in
ordinary lower secondary schools.
However, the number of special schools is
limited compared with ordinary compulsory
education schools. Many children have to live
in dormitories or travel a long distance to
attend school. Therefore, the parents
economic burdens become greater than
Inserted: ,[Are the edits OK?] ,
Deleted: ,
Deleted: those of the parents of ordinary
children. In order to reduce such burdens
Inserted: those the
Deleted: trips,
Deleted: schools supplies, and so on.
Inserted: a
Inserted: ,
Deleted:
Deleted:
Sex E
Deleted: ;
Inserted: E
Deleted: e
Deleted: ducation in Japan
The sex education program has formed a part
Inserted: prepared ,
... [4]
... [18]
... [17]
... [1]
... [2]
... [8]
... [19]
... [9]
... [6]
... [7]
... [10]
... [21]
... [16]
... [22]
... [12]
... [23]
... [20]
... [13]
... [24]
... [14]
... [11]
... [25]
... [3]
... [26]
... [5]
... [27]
... [15]
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
7
In addition, the program should have the
parents participation for effectiveness.
Then, we can affirm that the
implementation of this program at
school can contribute to present and
future
Appendix I
Questionnaire for the teachers:
a) Where do you work?
( ) elementary school ( ) junior high school
b) How old are you?
( ) below 25 years ( ) between 26 and 35
years ( ) between 36 and 50 years ( )
over 51 years [Are the edi t s OK?]
c) Gender
( ) female ( ) male


1) Did you have to offer sex orientation for your
students at school?
( ) yes ( ) no

2) Referring to the previous question, what were
the topics discussed:
( ) hygiene ( ) dating
( ) pregnancy ( ) STD
( ) contraception ( ) sexual intercourse
( ) abortion ( ) parturition
( ) masturbation ( ) marriage

3) Do you think that is necessary to talk about
sexuality with your students?
( ) yes ( ) no

4) Do you face any difficulty when you are
talking about sexuality with the students?
( ) yes ( ) no

5) In your teaching planning, [Is thi s
teaching pl an or teaching
program? Pl ease check and revi se,
if necessar y. ] is there some topic about
sexual education?
( ) yes ( ) no
6) During your graduate course, did you receive
any kind of orientation about teaching sexuality
to students with special educational needs?
( ) yes ( ) no

7) Whose is responsible for designing a sex
education program for mentally retarded
students? ( ) family ( ) school ( )
doctors

8) Do you think that a sex education program
should include biological and psychological
aspects? ( ) yes ( ) no

9) Do you believe that there is an adequate age
to start a sex education program?
( ) yes ( ) no

10) Referring to previous question, what is the
adequate age? ( ) 0 to 6 years ( ) 7 to 10
years ( ) 11 to 16 years ( ) above 17

11) Concerning the implementation of sex
education program, do you believe that it could
be provided to the parents simultaneously?
( ) yes ( ) no
Formatted
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Deleted: their
Deleted: individual welfare.
The sex education program should be
interpreted as a way of arguing and
amplifying knowledge and options for an
individual to choose their way.
Sex education is not limited to informing
children and adolescents about topics relative
to their sexuality, but it also involves all
intentional and functional processes of
personality formation, with special focus on
relationships with sexual involvement.
As a result, the students can be prepared for
conscious and responsible sexual behavior. It
is an integral part of the total educational
process. The objective is to help students with
special educational needs to grasp a better
degree of personal maturation throughout
their progressive development.
Bibliographi cal reference
DREW, C.J. & all [Please cl arify if &all
should be repl aced with et al. If so,
please replace throughout the
reference list] Mental retardation a life
cycle approach. Merrill Publishing Company,
Col
Inserted: but
Inserted: [Please cl arify if &all
should be repl aced with et al. If so,
please replace throughout the
reference list]l
Deleted: l
Deleted: umbus, 1984
EVANS P. & VARMA, V. Special Education in
Publication Data.
Deleted: S
Deleted: Publication Data, London, 1992
[j[v][q|```
]j[{`
j[|',]1995=)
!](J`'j[|1993=)
[Please clarify what do these dates
refer to. Are there any references
missi ng?]
Inserted: ..
Deleted: ,
Deleted: London, 1990
FOCAULT, M. The h
Deleted:
Inserted: s .
Deleted: sex
Inserted: s
Deleted: E
Inserted: h
Deleted: H
Deleted: istory of
Deleted: S
Deleted: S
Deleted: sexuality. Pantheon Books, New
York, 1987
YULE, W. & CARR, J. Behavior Modification
for the mentally handicapped. Croom Helm,
London, 1980
KATODA, H. Health and
Deleted: education of
Inserted: e
Deleted: schoolchildren with intellectual
handicaps.
Inserted: s
Deleted:

Inserted: -
Deleted: Almqvist & Wiksell International,
Stockholm, 1991
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, SCIENCE
AND CULTURE. Special Education in Japan
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, SCIENCE
AND CULTURE. Education in Japan
WALDRON, K.A. & all. Special Education:
the challenge of the future. Library of
Congress Cataloging-
Inserted: ..-
Deleted:
Deleted: in-
Inserted: [Please clarify what do these
dates ref er to. Are there any references
missi ng?] Deleted: until old old old old
Deleted:
... [32]
... [31]
... [34]
... [28]
... [44]
... [33]
... [45]
... [36]
... [46]
... [35]
... [47]
... [37]
... [42]
... [48]
... [43]
... [38]
... [49]
... [29]
... [50]
... [30]
... [51]
... [39]
... [52]
... [41]
... [53]
... [40]
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
8

12) If you were designing a sex education
program, which concepts would you consider
necessary? ( ) hygiene ( ) dating
( ) pregnancy ( ) STD ( )
contraception ( ) sexual intercourse
( ) abortion ( ) parturition ( )
masturbation
( ) marriage


Appendix II
Questionnaire for the parents
a) How old is your son [Please cl ari fy if
both son and daughter are
consi dered here. If so, repl ace
al l occurrences of son wi th
son/ daughter in thi s
questionnaire. ] ?
( ) between 6 and 11 years
( ) between 12 and 14 years
b) How old are you?
( ) below 25 years
( ) between 26 and 35 years
( ) over 35 years

1) Did you have to offer sex orientation for your
son? ( ) yes ( ) no

2) Referring to the previous question, what were
the topics discussed?
( ) hygiene ( ) dating ( ) pregnancy
( ) STD ( ) contraception ( )
sexual intercourse ( ) abortion ( )
parturition ( ) masturbation ( )
marriage

3) Do you think that is necessary to talk about
sexuality with your son? ( ) yes ( ) no

4) Do you face any difficulty when you are
talking about sexuality with your son? ( ) yes
( ) no

5) Whose is responsible for designing a sex
education program for special students?
( ) family ( ) school ( ) doctors

6) Do you believe that there is an adequate age
to start a sex education program?
( ) yes ( ) no


7) Referring to the previous question, what is
the adequate age?
( ) 0 to 6 years ( ) 7 to 10 years ( )
11 to 16 years ( ) over 17 years

8) Concerning the implementation of sex
education program, do you believe that it could
be provided to the parents simultaneously?
( ) yes ( ) no

9) If the school implements a sex education
program with participation of the parents,
would you like to participate? [ Is the edit
OK?] ( ) yes ( ) no

10) If you participating in a sex education
program at school, which topics would you
consider necessary?
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COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
P R OOF R E A D I N G
Sample:1
BeforeProofreading
Turkey is located on a highly active Eurasian Plate which has caused numerous large scale earthquakes
throughout history and the better understanding of its foreshock and aftershock activities provides new
insights notonlyfor Turkeybutalso easternMediterraneanregion.Sinceasignificantportionof Turkeyis
subject to frequent earthquakes, destructive mainshocks and their foreshock and aftershock sequences
betweenthelongitudesof(
N 42 39
o

)andthelatitudesof(
E 45 26
o

)areinvestigated.Inthisarea,111
mainshockswithsurfacemagnitude
) M (
s
5ormorehaveoccuredinthepast106yearsandtheseshocks
areshowninFigure1.
AfterProofreading
Turkey is located on a highly active Eurasian Plate which has caused numerous largescale earthquakes
throughout history, and better understanding of its foreshock and aftershock activities provides new
insightsnotonlyforTurkey,butalsofortheeasternMediterraneanregion.Becauseasignificantportionof
Turkey is subject to frequent earthquakes, destructive mainshocks and their foreshock and aftershock
sequences between longitudes ( N 42 39
o
) and latitudes ( E 45 26
o
) are investigated. In this area, 111
mainshockswithsurfacemagnitude ) M (
s
offiveormorehaveoccuredinthepast106years,asshownin
Figure1.
Sample:2
BeforeProofreading
Racemization rate is also depending on the nature of catalyst. It can be calculated using
enantiomeric excess, on the different catalysts used (fig. 9).
The racemization rate costants k, at different temperatures can be obtained from equation (6) and
than plotting ln(k) against 1/T and taking advantage of the linear relationship obtained doing a least
square regression (fig.10).
The results are shown for some catalysts, in table 1.

It can be noticed that the greater difference between the catalysts lies in the pre-exponential factor
which includes factors like the frequency of collisions and their orientations. The value of A can be
interpreted as probability for the formation of a transition state and the higher A the higher the
desidered probability [29]. Indeed the rate of racemization reaction is higher when A increases.
Deleted: EditedVersion
Deleted:
Deleted: the
Deleted: Since
Deleted: the
Deleted: of
Deleted: the
Deleted: of
Deleted: 5
Deleted: andtheseshocksare
Whereas the slope of the Arrhenius plot, its value E
a
/R is similar when the pyrolysis is performed
without solvent and increases in presence of CCl
4
.
In our experiments the time of pyrolysis is constant and equal to ca 0,3 s. It is possible to chose a
time interval and construct a temperature-time history, solving equation (4) at time t:
[
R
S

t
=
c
2kt
-1
c
2kt
+1
(9)
In this way we can obtain a series of graphs (R/S vs t), at different temperatures, that represents the
increase of racemization (R/S ratio) with time of pyrolysis (fig 11 and 12).
Timetemperature history graphs consist of n time steps spaced logarithmically from t =0.1 s to t
=10000 s. When R/S=1, racemization is complete whereas R/S=0.5 corresponds to the half life,
t=1/2, As it is shown in the graphs the presence of the catalyst induces a decrease in the time of
total racemization of about one order of magnitude.

AfterProofreading
Racemization rate is also dependent on the nature of the catalyst. It can be calculated using
enantiomeric excess, on the different catalysts used (Fig. 9).
The racemization rate constants k, at different temperatures can be obtained from equation (6) and
then plotting ln(k) against 1/T and taking advantage of the linear relationship obtained, doing a least
square regression (Fig.10).
The results are shown for some catalysts, in Table 1.

It can be noticed that the greater difference between the catalysts lies in the pre-exponential factor
which includes factors like the frequency of collisions and their orientations. The value of A can be
interpreted as probability for the formation of a transition state and the higher the A, the higher the
desired probability [29]. Indeed, the rate of racemization reaction is higher when A increases.
Whereas the slope of the Arrhenius plot, has a similar E
a
/R value when the pyrolysis is performed
without a solvent and increases in the presence of CCl
4
.
In our experiments, the time of pyrolysis is constant and equal to ca 0,3 s. It is possible to choose a
time interval and construct a temperature-time history, solving equation (4) at time t:
Deleted: ing
Deleted: f
Deleted:
Deleted: a
Deleted: f
Deleted:
Deleted: t
Deleted: de
Deleted: its value
Deleted: is
Deleted: similar
Comment [E1]: Kindlycheckca
[
R
S

t
=
c
2kt
-1
c
2kt
+1
(9)
In this way, we can obtain a series of graphs (R/S vs t), at different temperatures, that represent the
increase of racemization (R/S ratio) with time of pyrolysis (Figs. 11 and 12).
Timetemperature history graphs consist of n time steps spaced logarithmically from t =0.1 s to t
=10000 s. When R/S=1, racemization is complete, whereas R/S=0.5 corresponds to the half life,
t=1/2. As shown in the graphs, the presence of the catalyst induces a decrease in the time of total
racemization of about one order of magnitude.

Sample:3
AfterProofreading
1. page4last2linesfromthebottomlooselines.Pleasecheck.
2. page7para1lines1,2rare(andUGLYlookingcreatures).Please
deletebrackets.
3. page7box2line1yourweirdestnightmaresandthePleasedelete
commabeforeand
4. page10answer4plankton,whichiswhatDeletecommaafterwhich
andinsertbeforewhich
5. page17question6line3(hint:potato)coloninromanplease.
6. page22answer4ideafortheairconditionerasanapparatusPlease
inserthyphen
betweenairandconditioner.LowercaseApparatus.
7. page22answer5bloodstorageandappliedPleasedeletecomma
beforeand.
8. page23line1Fivequiz,youneedPleaseinsertcommabeforeyou.
9. page24line3makeyourmostPleaseinsertrforyou.
10. page24question5line3ownpoo!)exclamationmarkinroman
please.
11. page25answer3comettrappingabilities,Pleaseinserthyphen
betweencometandtrapping.
12. page26BetyoudidntknowPleaseinsertellipses.
13. page26box1line3pleasespellout32.onitbutfortunatelythe
deletecommasbeforebutandbeforethe.
14. page27line3pleasespellout50.
15. page28answeroneGirlsby0.3C.Deletecommabeforeby.
16. page28answer4Pleasechangedoctodoctor.
Deleted: s
Deleted: f
Deleted: ,
Deleted: it is
17. page28answer5line4bonesfuseorgrowtogetherPleasedelete
commasbeforeorandaftertogether.
18. page28answer7certainplantsandthePleasedeletecommabefore
and.
19. page28answer8lines2,3Pleasespellout13and18.wisdomteeth
becausePleasedeletecommabeforebecause.
20. page28answer9line2,6stomachbutitactuallyPleasedelete
commabeforebut.sweatingandotherPleasedeletecommabeforeand.
21. page28answer10lines1,2stayalivebutsomePleasedelete
commabeforebut.Pleasespellout18.athousandPleasechangeitto
1,000onlines2and4.
22. page30question2WhichistheonlyorganPleaseinsertthebefore
only.
23. page31answer3leukaemiaPleaseinserta.
24. page33question3line4HebroughtaboutPleasedeleteHisand
insertHe.
25. page38line3located,butifyouareabitgeographicallychallenged,
atcommasinromanplease.
26. page41line1bodiesortoPleasedeletecommabeforeor.
27. page41line2dontyou?Astraitisanarrow,navigablequestionmark
andcommainromanplease.
28. page41answer1TasmaniaandconnectsPleasedeletecomma
beforeand.
29. page41answer3line3PleaseitalisizeSultansofSwing,Moneyfor
Nothing
30. page42answer2line2Pleasespellout20.
31. page43question4alsoacontinent!)exclamationmarkinroman
please.
32. page46boxline3Pleasespellout20.
33. page48line3Inthefirstsection,youneedPleaseinsertcommabefore
you.
34. page48question10VecePaes,representedPleaseinsertcommaafter
Paes.
35.page50answer4aretoprankedbadmintonPleaseinserthyphen
betweentopand
ranked.
36. page50line1Finally,tothePleaseinsertcommaafterFinally.
37. page50question1ApartfromYuvraj,onlyonePleaseinsertcomma
beforeonly.
38. page55answer6dominionsandEmperorofPleasedeletecomma
beforeand.
39. page55answer10line3spentfouryearspaintingthePleaseinsert
yearsafterfour.
40. page59question5line2PleaselowercaseState.
41. page60question7line2PleaselowercasePresident.
42. page60question8PleaselowercaseChiefMinisterandState.
43. page60question9PleaselowercasePresident.
44. page68DeletesfromPOINTSintheboxontheside.
45. page71line2andpaperoracalculator!).Pleasedeletecommabefore
or.
46. page71Pleaseinsertcommain1,000intheboxinlines1,2,3and5.Insert
commain5,000intheanswerbox.
47. page74question10Pleasespellout40.
48. page74answer722.75cm2.Pleaseinsert2assuperscript.
49. page79answer4(hislatestwasAvatar)PleaseitalisizeAvatar.
50. page79answer5(fromthecomicstripCalvinandHobbes).characters
fromArchiePleaseitalisizeCalvinandHobbesandArchie.
51. page79answer8SorrybutyoullPleasedeletecommabeforebut.

Sample:4
AfterProofreading
1. Page 2 line 7 from the bottom overprinting Please check.
2. Introduction para 3 line 1 Tight line. Please check.
3. Introduction para 3 line 5 Loose line. Please check.
4. Introduction para 4 line 1, 6 Loose lines. Please check.
5. Introduction para 4 line 4 movies, or Please delete comma before
or.
6. Introduction para 5 line 3 former, but Please delete comma before
but.
7. Page 7 line 4 (19021971) Please delete 19 from 1971.
8. Page 7 dictionary plant, or Please delete comma before or.
9. Page 9 dictionary line 8 German, and Please delete comma before
and.
10. Page 9 dictionary line 9 pronouns, and Please delete comma before
and.
11. Page 10 under Reading Comprehension Answer the following questions.
Please delete full stop and insert colon after questions.
12. Page 10 dictionary line 2 sudden, or suspicious deaths, and Please
delete comma before or and and.
13. Page 12 line 3 Horrible Histories series of books. Please insert the
highlighted words as roman.
14. Page 12 para 1 lines 1, 2, 3 Loose lines. Please check.
15. Page 14 point 1. lines 6, 7 Loose lines. Please check.
16. Page 16 line 3 Loose line. Please check.
17. Page 16 point 5. line 5 Loose line. Please check.
18. Page 17 point 6. spies As Alan Please insert full stop after spies.
19. Page 18 point 9. line 1 Tight line. Please check.
20. Page 19 para 2 Please check.
21. Page 19 under Reading Comprehension Answer the following questions.
Please delete full stop and insert colon after questions.
22. Page 21 line 4 Farenheit 451 Please insert the highlighted words as
roman.
23. There Will Come Soft Rains. Please delete double quotes and insert the
highlighted words as roman.
24. Page 21 para 1 line 1 Loose line. Please check.
25. Page 22 para 1 line 1 Loose line. Please check.
26. Page 22 para 3 line 1 Loose line. Please check.
27. Page 22 para 4 line 4 Loose line. Please check.
28. Page 25 dictionary line 2 jealousy, or Please delete comma before
or.
29. Page 25 dictionary line 4 abuse, or Please delete comma before or.
30. Page 27 para 4 line 1 Loose line. Please check.
31. Page 27 para 4 line 3 Tight line. Please check.
32. Page 27 dictionary line 3 tape, or Please delete comma before or.
33. Page 29 line 5, 6 from the bottom Loose lines. Please check.
34. Page 30 lines 10, 11, 12, 13 from the bottom Please check.
35. Page 31 lines 3, 4 from the bottom Loose lines. Please check.
36. Page 31 dictionary line 1 shell, or Please delete comma before or.
37. Page 32 lines 5, 6 from the bottom Please check.
38. Page 32 line 2 from the bottom Loose line. Please check.
39. Page 33 under Reading Comprehension Answer the following questions.
Please delete full stop and insert colon after questions.
40. Page 34 under discussion Please delete full stop after 1. and 2.
41. Page 35 dictionary line 4 worry, or Please delete comma before or.
42. Page 37 under Reading Comprehension Answer the following questions.
Please delete full stop and insert colon after questions.
43. Page 38 Under Other poems by John Keats: On First Looking into
Chapmans Homer Ode to a Nightingale To Autumn Please delete all
double quotes and insert the highlighted words in italics.
44. Page 40 line 3 but Please insert double quotes properly.
45. Page 40 para 2 lines 1, 2 Loose lines. Please check.
46. Page 41 dictionary line 2 questioned, or Please delete comma
before or.
47. Page 42 line 1 Loose line. Please check.
48. Page 42 line 7 from the bottom Loose line. Please check.
49. Page 42 line 6 from the bottom remonstrance. He is Please delete
double quotes and insert double quotes before He.
50. Page 43 line 11 from the bottom Loose line. Please check.
51. Page 43 dictionary line 1 state , Please delete space between state
and comma.
52. Page 45 dictionary line 1 original, and Please delete comma before
and.
53. Page 46 lines 3, 9 Loose lines. Please check.
54. Page 51 dictionary line 1 confirm i Please insert t after i.
55. Page 53 line 3 from the bottom Loose line. Please check.
56. Page 54 line 9 Alpha. Please insert double quote the right way
without space.
57. Page 55 last line Mrs. Please delete single quote.
58. Page 56 line 2, 4, 5, 7 Please delete single quote on these lines.
59. Page 57 line 11 from the bottom Loose line. Please check.
60. Page 58 line 3 Tight line. Please check.
61. Page 61 para 1 lines 1, 2 Tight lines. Please check.
62. Page 62 lines 7, 8 Whatever Please insert single quote the right
way. Jem? Please insert double quote after single quote.
63. Page 62 Corrections given below in red
Whatever were you doing with that bird,
Jem? says she. (Single quote highlighted to be placed correctly and insert
double quotes after Jem?)
Well, said I, you said youd give me one
for Christmas, and I was feeling which was the
fattest. (Single quote highlighted to be placed correctly and insert double
quotes after well, and fattest. and
before you)
Oh, says she, weve set yours aside for you.
Its the big white one over yonder. (Single quote highlighted to be placed
correctly and insert double quotes
after Oh, and yonder. and before weve)
Thank you, Maggie, says I; but if it is all
the same to you, Id rather have that one I was
handling just now. (Single quote highlighted to be placed correctly and
insert double quotes
after Maggie, and now. and before but)
Oh, just as you like, said she, a little huffed.
Which is it you want, then? (Single quote highlighted to be placed correctly
and insert double quotes
after like, and then? and before Which)
That white one with the barred tail, right in
the middle of the flock. (Single quote highlighted to be placed correctly and
insert double quotes
after flock.)
Oh, very well. Kill it and take it with you. (Single quote highlighted to be
place correctly and insert double quotes
after you.)
64. Page 62 last line Please insert double quotes after there.
65. Page 63 Corrections given below in red
Where are they all, Maggie? I cried. (Single quote highlighted to be placed
correctly and insert double quotes
after Maggie?)
Gone to the dealers, Jem. (Delete space between double and single quote
and insert double quotes
after Jem.)
But was there another with a barred tail? I
asked, the same as the one I chose? (Single quote highlighted to be placed
correctly and insert double quotes
after tail?, and chose? and before the)
Yes, Jem; there were two barred-tailed ones,
and I could never tell them apart. (Single quote highlighted to be placed
correctly and insert double quotes
after apart.)
66. Page 64 under Reading Comprehension Answer the following questions.
Please delete full stop and insert colon after questions.
67. Page 64 question 5 Please delete found and insert find.
68. Page 64 line 1 under Discussion Loose line. Please check.
69. Page 68 under Reading Comprehension Answer the following questions.
Please delete full stop and insert colon after questions.
70. Page 68 line 1 under Discussion In this poem Please insert comma
after poem.
71. Page 70 line 3 (18041864) Please delete 18 from 1864.
72. Page 70 line 11 man, and Please delete comma before and.
73. Page 71 line 3 from the bottom Loose line. Please check.
74. Page 72 dictionary line 1 influence, or Please delete comma before
or.
75. Page 77 line 7 under Scene Four Please uppercase what.
76. Page 77 line 3 from the bottom (He leaves) Please italicize He
leaves.
77. Page 77 dictionary water, or Please delete comma before or.
78. Page 81 line 7 from the bottom Loose line. Please check.
79. Page 82 line 1 Giovanni (to himself): Please make Giovanni bold and
italicize to himself.
80. Page 84 line 10 (in horror) Please italicize in horror.
81. Page 86 under Reading Comprehension Answer the following questions.
Please delete full stop and insert colon after questions.
82. Page 88 dictionary line 2 reality, and Please delete comma before
and.
83. Page 96 para 1 line 4 Please check if the word Yale is not Pale.
84. Page 98 line 10 from the bottom Please insert double quotes before Here.
85. Page 99 para 2 line 5 Please uppercase and.
86. Page 100 under Reading Comprehension Answer the following questions.
Please delete full stop and insert colon after questions.
87. Page 102 dictionary ice, and Please delete comma before and.
88. Page 106 under Reading Comprehension Answer the following questions.
Please delete full stop and insert colon after questions.
89. Page 107 line 1 under Discussion (Now am I free to be poetical?)
Please delete the brackets.
90. Page 107 under Other Famous Poems by Robert Frost: Please delete all
double quotes given below.
Acquainted with the Night
Mending Wall
The Road Not Taken
Fire and Ice
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
Nothing Gold Can Stay
91. Page 108 para 1 line 1 Loose line. Please check.
92. Page 109 dictionary line 1 stuffing, and Please delete comma
before and.
93. Page 110 dictionary line 2 chains, or Please delete comma before
or.
94. Page 112 lines 1, 2, 3, 4 from the bottom Loose lines. Please check.
95. Page 113 lines 1, 2 Loose lines. Please check.
96. Page 118 lines 4, 5 from the bottom Loose lines. Please check.
97. Page 119 para 1 lines 4,5 Loose lines. Please check.
98. Page119dictionaryline2illusions,andPleasedeletecommabefore
and.
99. Page119dictionaryline3fever,andPleasedeletecommabefore
and.
100. Page120para1line1infuriateskyPleaseinsertdtoinfuriate.
101. Page120para2line1Looseline.Pleasecheck.
102. Page120dictionaryline2things;Pleasedeletespace
betweenthingsandsemicolon.
103. Page121underReadingComprehensionAnswerthefollowing
questions.Pleasedeletefullstopandinsertcolonafterquestions.
104. Page121question4Looseline.Pleasecheck.
105. Page122underOtherWorksbyH.P.LovecraftPleaseinsertcolon
afterLovecraftanddeletealldoublequotesgivenbelow.
Dagon
TheDoomthatCametoSarnath
TheRatsintheWalls
TheNamelessCity
Polaris

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T R A N S L AT I ON
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Language Translation
(Samples)
Japanese, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Norwegian and Turkish

Japanese to English

1. |(B,7[K@ lineage



lIJ7,

jDj/1|7,

HTCn|1J./||],434261
n7(IJ77,TonyI,'.OaIj0}{,]n|,1
1 2|7|,E[^1n|0@/
I/|7,STOP |77,
01J.n|n0I,2010=I,494261 503861 0#n,434261
I
1_77,],^q1'}
SnapDragon5.nHTC71I,2.75V
J+7 Min.1330mAh 1I,71nJ_77,
],HTCI,434261
17,jJ]|}Q]077,5II]||
(|||]0,)Ej]}?|@|7,

)

d



2. @@JB@

)#j'70J)(@_7,

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?7I7n,0[(,][@I|77,

CRM7j]|7,
|%7,RIMI5=)|0@,7|7|@77,
031I|n@|]?77,
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION






Translated to English

1 Mr Matsuura B, Mr Nakamura K

I am indebted to you.

Please find the following additional information.

I obtained the Road Map from HTC. 434261 is the centre. Tony has stopped the
visit request of Hitachi Maxell in order to obtain the following information from
the suppliers: the standards of quantity of one model from two companies.

From the Road Map, it can be understood that in the year 2010, a portion of
494261 and 503861 is summarized as 434261. Moreover, if KUORUKOMU
fabricates Snap Dragon Chip as per HTCs explanation, if at 2.75V electrical
discharge cut definition with min 1330 mAh is there, it is better not to be
disconnected. HTC is expecting to incorporate the new technology in the
embarked 434261 model. In a weeks time, we intend to apply this technology
and present the development programme schedule.

That is all for now.

Doi.


2 Mr . J B

Thank you very much for actively developing a new sized angle. Although the
priority or preference should be connected to the deal without which the sales
situation is considered as unbearable, all types of limitations and restrictions have
been understood.

A discussion will be conducted at the CRM

At the present point, in the next year and thereafter, a deal with good idea would be
fine for RIM towards (3).

I request you to provide me with some details on the remaining 3 models.

COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION


German to English

Seltene neurologische Komplikationen whrend der Schwangerschaft

entziehen

einige neurologische Krankheiten, die mit Schwangerschaft verbunden sind, knnen
whrend dieser Phase zuerst sich entwickeln, oder Schwangerschaft kann den Patienten
zu einigen dieser Krankheiten vorbereiten, oder einige knnen nur mit Schwangerschaft
auftreten. Diese Strungen knnen zu mtterliche Morbiditt und Sterblichkeit fhren.
Fristgerechte Untersuchungen und bung der therapeutischen Wahlen konnten helfen,
diese Probleme erfolgreich zu handhaben. Unsere Probe enthielt 16 schwangere Frauen,
die die neurologischen Strungen entwickelten, die selten angetroffen wurden oder zuerst
whrend dieser Phase berichtet waren, das ausgeschlossene eclampsia. Der Anteil
zerebrovaskularen Krankheiten war 56 Prozent. Die anderen schlossen den intracranial
Hypotension ein, der von den Ergreifungen, vom zerebralen ursprnglichen
neuroectodermal Tumor, von der ophthalmoplegic Migrne, von der hemiplegic Migrne,
vom spinalen segmentalen myoclonus, von der akuten Motoraxonal Neuropathie und
akuten von der Motoraxonal Neuropathie verbunden ist mit ophthalmoplegia begleitet
wurde. Schwangerschaft-, neugeborene und mtterlicheresultate in diesen mannigfaltigen
neurologischen Strungen, tiologie, wenn sie festgestellt werden, und die spezifischen
eingefhrten Behandlungen, wurden fr unsere Studie dokumentiert.

Schlsselwrter: Schwangerschaft, neurologische Krankheit.

Einleitung

etwas physiologische nderungen wie die Art des Verteilens der steroid Hormone und
ihrer Konzentration whrend der Schwangerschaft konnte den Ausdruck der
neurologischen Krankheit beeinflussen. Neurologische Strungen, die Frauen des
Gebrens beeinflussen, altern knnen zu mtterliche Morbiditt und Sterblichkeit fhren.
Whrend der Diagnose und der Therapie dieser Krankheiten, konnten einige
Beschrnkungen oder sogar eine Kontraindikation wegen der Schwangerschaft selbst
angetroffen werden. Einige Krankheiten mgen Migrne, mehrfache Sklerose,
myasthenia gravis, Epilepsie, Gehirntumoren, oder Guillain-Barresyndrom knnte bereits
bestehen bevor Angriff der Schwangerschaft oder kann blo zufllig whrend dieser
Phase erscheinen. Auerdem ist Schwangerschaft selbst ein Vorbereitenfaktor fr eine
Vielzahl von thromboembolic Strungen. Preeclampsia/eclampsia, HELLP Syndrom,
Nachwasser Embolism und pituitre Apoplexie sind Krankheiten mit neurologischen
Symptomen, die nur mit Schwangerschaft auftreten (Block 1999; Shehata u. Okosun
2004).
In dieser Studie berichteten die neurologischen selten gesehenen Strungen oder zum
ersten Mal und die sich zuerst whrend der Schwangerschaft entwickelten, dargestellt
werden, das ausgeschlossene eclampsia.
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION






Material und Methoden

die Studie, die Jahre von 2005 bis 2008 umgebend, bezogen 16 schwangere Frauen mit
ein, die voraussichtlich wegen der neurologischen Komplikationen beraten wurden;
eclampsia wurde ausgeschlossen. Alle Patienten und/oder ihre Familien wurden gebeten,
die Geschichte ihrer Krankheiten zur Verfgung zu stellen. Nach ausfhrlichen
neurologischen Prfungen wurden notwendige Studie Tests geleitet. Auer
biochemischen routinemigtests waren Tests fr Gesamtblutbild, Urinanalyse und
Sedimentbildung fr alle Patienten erfolgt. Fr Patienten mit klinischen Entdeckungen
des Anschlags und des intracranial Bluthochdrucks, wurden zerebrale
Kerspintomographie (MRI) und zerebrales venography durchgefhrt. Wo das MRI keine
Massenverletzung zeigte und wenn sichtlich, Strungen und Papilloedema dokumentiert
wurden, wurde zerebrospinaler flssiger Druck (CSF) durch lumbales Durchbohren
gemessen.
Nerv bertragung Studien der Patienten mit Zeichen und Symptome der Polyneuropathie
und Mae der erwhnten Sichtpotentiale der Patienten mit Sichtstrungen und des
Papilloedema mit dem Verwischen der Scheibe Seitenrnder wurden mit einer
Zweikanalelektromyographiemaschine durchgefhrt.
Um weitere tiologische Faktoren abgesehen von Schwangerschaft nachzuforschen,
wurden ansteckende Tests fr polyneuropathies und Koagulationtests fr
zerebrovaskulare Krankheiten durchgefhrt.

Resultiert

das Mittelalter der Probe von 16 schwangeren Frauen war 27.8 7.4 Jahre und
Schwangerschaftdauer war 22.5 11.2 Wochen. Neun Patienten wurden mit
zerebrovaskularen Krankheiten bestimmt [2 Flle zerebralen vensen Kurve Thrombosis
und intracranial Bluthochdrucks, 2 des vorbergehenden ischmischen Angriffs (TIA), 1
des zerebralen vensen Kurve Thrombosis und des zerebralen Infarktes, 1 des zerebralen
Infarktes, 1 von cerebellar Infarkt , 1 des umschaltbaren ischmischen neurologischen
Defizits (RINDE) und 1 des bilateralen Jugular- und subclavian Ader Thrombosis]. Die
restlichen sieben Patienten hatten andere neurologische Krankheiten, wie folgt: 1 hatte
intracranial Hypotension und Ergreifungen, 1 zerebraler ursprnglicher neuroectodermal
Tumor, 1 ophthalmoplegic Migrne, 1 hemiplegic Migrne, 1 spinales segmentales
myoclonus, 1 akute Motoraxonal Neuropathie und 1 akute Motoraxonal Neuropathie und
ophthalmoplegia (Tabelle 1).
Einer unserer Patienten, die mit zerebralem vensem sins Thrombosis (CVST) bestimmt
wurden und einer mit vensem Jugularthrombosis waren durch in-vitrodngung (IVF)
schwanger geworden. Ein Patient mit CVST hatte auch MTHFR C677T heterozygote
Vernderung, Mangel des Proteins S und aktivierten Widerstand des Proteins C. Einer
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der zwei Patienten mit cerebellar Infarkt war lter, und der andere hatte Reparatur des
mitral Ventils (MVR) mit unregelmigem Antigerinnungsmitteltherapieverbrauch; einer
der zwei Patienten mit TIA wurde gefunden, um vWF Mangel zu haben, und der andere
hatte MTHFR homozygote Vernderung.

Wegen der medizinischen Anzeigen war Bezeichnung Arbeit verursachtes bei 10
Patienten und preterm Arbeit bei 4 Patienten. Eine erlittene vermite Abtreibung und eine
Abtreibung wurden am Antrag des Patienten durchgefhrt. Die 14 Neugeborenen, die
geliefert wurden, waren gesund; jedoch wurden die geliefertes preterm in einer
neugeborenen Maeinheit fr eine Weile hospitalisiert. Dreizehn Patienten gewannen
vollstndig und 3 mit mild-zu-gemigten Folgeentdeckungen zurck. Der Patient mit
neuroectodermal Tumor starb wegen der Komplikationen, die mit dem Tumor (Tabelle 1)
verbunden sind.


Translated to English

Rare Neurological Complications During Pregnancy

Abstract
Some neurological diseases associated with pregnancy may develop initially
during this phase or pregnancy may predispose the patient to some of these diseases or
some may occur only with pregnancy. These disorders may lead to maternal morbidity
and mortality. Timely investigations and exercise of therapeutic options might help
manage these problems successfully. Our sample comprised 16 pregnant women who
developed neurological disorders rarely encountered or initially reported during this
phase, eclampsia excluded. The proportion of cerebrovascular diseases was 56 percent.
The others included intracranial hypotension accompanied by seizures, cerebral primitive
neuroectodermal tumor, ophthalmoplegic migraine, hemiplegic migraine, spinal
segmental myoclonus, acute motor axonal neuropathy and acute motor axonal neuropathy
associated with ophthalmoplegia. Pregnancy, neonatal- and maternal outcomes in these
varied neurological disorders, etiologies if determined, and specific treatments
implemented were documented for our study.

Key words: pregnancy, neurologic disease.

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Introduction
Some physiological changes like the type of circulating steroid hormones and
their concentration during pregnancy could influence the expression of neurologic
disease. Neurological disorders that affect women of childbearing age can lead to
maternal morbidity and mortality. During diagnosis and therapy of these diseases, some
restrictions or even a contraindication might be encountered because of the pregnancy
itself. Some diseases like migraine, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, epilepsy, brain
tumors, or Guillain-Barre syndrome could exist already before onset of pregnancy or may
appear merely by chance during this phase. Moreover, pregnancy itself is a predisposing
factor for a variety of thromboembolic disorders. Preeclampsia/eclampsia, HELLP
syndrome, amniotic fluid embolism, and pituitary apoplexy are diseases with
neurological symptoms that occur only with pregnancy (Block 1999; Shehata & Okosun
2004).
In this study, neurological disorders rarely seen or reported for the first time and
which developed initially during pregnancy are presented, eclampsia excluded.




Material and methods
The study, encompassing the years from 2005 to 2008, involved 16 pregnant
women consulted prospectively because of neurological complications; eclampsia was
excluded. All the patients and/or their families were asked to provide the history of their
diseases. After detailed neurological examinations, necessary study tests were conducted.
Besides routine biochemical tests, tests for total blood count, urine analysis, and
sedimentation were done for all of the patients. For patients with clinical findings of
stroke and intracranial hypertension, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and
cerebral venography were performed. Where the MRI did not show any mass lesion and
if visual disturbances and papilloedema were documented, cerebrospinal fluid pressure
(CSF) was measured by lumbar puncture.
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Nerve conduction studies of patients with signs and symptoms of polyneuropathy
and measurements of visual evoked potentials of patients with visual disturbances and
papilloedema with blurring of the disc margins were performed using a two-channel
electromyography machine.
To investigate further etiological factors apart from pregnancy, infectious tests for
polyneuropathies and coagulation tests for cerebrovascular diseases were carried out.

Results
The mean age of the sample of 16 pregnant women was 27.8 7.4 years and
pregnancy duration was 22.5 11.2 weeks. Nine patients were diagnosed with
cerebrovascular diseases [2 cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and intracranial
hypertension, 2 of transient ischemic attack (TIA), 1 of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis
and cerebral infarct, 1 of cerebral infarct, 1 of cerebellar infarct, 1 of reversible ischemic
neurologic deficit (RIND), and 1 of bilateral jugular- and subclavian vein thrombosis].
The remaining seven patients had other neurologic diseases as follows: 1 had intracranial
hypotension and seizures, 1 cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor, 1
ophthalmoplegic migraine, 1 hemiplegic migraine, 1 spinal segmental myoclonus, 1 acute
motor axonal neuropathy, and 1 acute motor axonal neuropathy and ophthalmoplegia
(Table 1).
One of our patients diagnosed with cerebral venous sins thrombosis (CVST), and
one with jugular venous thrombosis had become pregnant by in vitro fertilization (IVF).
One patient with CVST had also MTHFR C677T heterozygote mutation, protein S
deficiency, and activated protein C resistance. One of the two patients with cerebellar
infarct was older, and the other had mitral valve repair (MVR) with irregular
anticoagulant therapy usage; one of the two patients with TIA was found to have vWF
deficiency, and the other had MTHFR homozygote mutation.

Because of medical indications, term labor was induced in 10 patients, and
preterm labor in 4 patients. One suffered missed abortion and one abortion was
performed at the patients request. The 14 newborns delivered were healthy; however,
those delivered preterm were hospitalized in a newborn unit for a while. Thirteen patients
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
recovered completely, and 3 with mild-to-moderate sequel findings. The patient with
neuroectodermal tumor died due to complications associated with the tumor (Table 1).



French to English

1. Dfinitions
Les dfinitions ci-dessous sont applicables dans le cadre de la prsente Annexe.

Equipement Remplac
Dsigne lEquipement, y compris les Modules, dont lArrt de Commercialisation est
annonc par le FOURNISSEUR et pour lequel il conoit un Equipement de
remplacement.

Equipement Successeur
Dsigne lEquipement, y compris les Modules, qui remplace lEquipement Remplac
dans la gamme de produits du FOURNISSEUR.

Module (rappel)
Plus petite partie matrielle remplaable dun Equipement.

Pices dtaches
Dsigne les parties, les composants et les sous-lments ncessaires pour la
maintenance, la rparation du rseau du CLIENT.

Tests Usine
Procdure de tests propre au processus de dveloppement du FOURNISSEUR qui doit
assurer au CLIENT que les Equipements prsents en validation sont conformes aux
Spcifications Techniques et aux exigences de qualit requises. A ce titre, le
FOURNISSEUR garantit que toute Anomalie critique est lobjet dun plan daction
prsent au CLIENT.

Disponibilit Commerciale
Signifie quun Equipement est en production, quil est commercialement disponible pour
des commandes en volume, quil a franchi avec succs tous les jalons du processus de
dveloppement et de validation du FOURNISSEUR qui garantit alors que lEquipement
est pleinement conforme aux spcifications et aux niveaux de qualit requis.

Priode de Recouvrement
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Dsigne la priode de temps durant laquelle un Equipement Remplac et lEquipement
Successeur peuvent tous deux tre commands par le CLIENT au FOURNISSEUR en
accord avec les dispositions de la prsente Annexe.

Avis dArrt de Commercialisation
Dsigne la notification faite par le FOURNISSEUR qui informe le CLIENT de larrt de
la commercialisation dun Equipement, et ce, en accord avec les dispositions de la
prsente Annexe.

Support Complet
Signifie que le FOURNISSEUR doit fournir au CLIENT durant les priodes indiques au
Tableau Protection des Investissements les Equipements, Modules et prestations dans
les conditions dfinies ci-dessous :
a) Pour lEquipement Remplac, le support des fonctions existantes la date de
lArrt de Commercialisation, et ce, pour la priode correspondante (en ce
compris les prestations dues au titre du Support Long Terme).
b) En outre, tous les Paliers des logiciels, toutes les extensions et mises jour des
Equipements Matriels ncessaires au bon fonctionnement des paliers logiciels
successifs (palier de base et ses options) ; la garantie que la mise en uvre
des capacits, des fonctions et des performances de lEquipement Remplac,
en accord avec les spcifications techniques, seront maintenues lorsquun
nouveau Palier (palier de base et ses options), en cohrence avec un ventuel
upgrade matriel (ncessaire et recommand), sera install sur le Equipement
Remplac.
c) Les Pices Dtaches matriellement et fonctionnellement compatibles avec
lEquipement Remplac ; le service de rparation pour lEquipement Remplac
suivant les dispositions du paragraphe 10.

Support Long Terme
Signifie que le FOURNISSEUR garantit linteroprabilit du Logiciel et fournit les
prestations de support logiciel pour la correction des Anomalies critiques et des
Anomalies majeures (voir ci-dessous le paragraphe 3 - Support et disponibilit long terme
pour le Logiciel), pour la disponibilit des pices dtaches, pour la rparation des
Equipements matriels (voir ci-dessous le paragraphe 4 - Support et disponibilit long
terme pour le Matriel), et ce, pour la priode correspondante figurant dans le Tableau
Protection des Investissements.


2. Protection des investissements du CLIENT

COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Nonobstant les dispositions des paragraphes 3 et 4, les engagements du FOURNISSEUR
seront pris conformment au contenu du Tableau Protection des Investissements.
3. Support et disponibilit long terme pour le Logiciel

Le FOURNISSEUR doit tre en mesure de supporter les dernires versions de chaque
Logiciel afin de permettre le fonctionnement correct du Sous-systme, y compris
linteroprabilit et linterfonctionnement dans le Rseau du CLIENT, et ce, pour la
priode spcifie dans le Tableau Protection des Investissements.

Le Support Long Terme pour le Logiciel est d par le FOURNISSEUR au CLIENT au
titre des dispositions lies la Maintenance dfinies dans le Contrat dExcution
concern.

Dans le cas o le FOURNISSEUR arrterait de proposer les prestations de support sur les
dernires versions logicielles fournies au CLIENT avant la fin de la Priode Long
Terme, alors le FOURNISSEUR communiquera gratuitement au CLIENT lensemble de
la documentation et des codes-sources en sa possession.

Cette information ne devra tre utilise par le CLIENT que dans le cadre de son propre
rseau, elle restera proprit du FOURNISSEUR et sera soumise aux Accords de
Confidentialit signs par les Parties.
4. Support et disponibilit long terme pour le Matriel

Le FOURNISSEUR doit tre en mesure de supporter les dernires versions de chaque
Matriel afin de permettre le fonctionnement correct du Sous-systme, y compris
linteroprabilit et linterfonctionnement dans le Rseau du CLIENT, et ce, pour la
priode spcifie dans le Tableau Protection des Investissements.
Le Support Long Terme pour le Matriel est d par le FOURNISSEUR au CLIENT au
titre des dispositions lies la Maintenance dfinies dans le Contrat dExcution
concern, notamment en ce qui concerne les services de pices dtaches et de rparation.

Dans le cas o le FOURNISSEUR arrterait de proposer les prestations de support sur les
dernires versions matrielles fournies au CLIENT avant la fin de la Priode Support
Long Terme, alors le FOURNISSEUR communiquera gratuitement au CLIENT
lensemble de la documentation, des plans de fabrication, des spcifications techniques et
des codes-sources en sa possession.

Cette information ne devra tre utilise par le CLIENT que dans le cadre de son propre
rseau, elle restera proprit du FOURNISSEUR et sera soumise aux Accords de
Confidentialit signs par les Parties.

Toutefois, si les droits affrents aux lments ci-dessus taient dtenus par une tierce
partie, le FOURNISSEUR fera ses meilleurs efforts pour permettre au CLIENT dobtenir
les droits qui lui sont ncessaires.
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
5. Avis dArrt de Commercialisation

Dans le cas o le FOURNISSEUR planifie lArrt de Commercialisation dun
Equipement, il est tenu de communiquer au CLIENT un courrier notifiant son intention.
LAvis dArrt de Commercialisation doit tre communiqu au CLIENT selon le dlai de
pravis notifi dans le Tableau Protection des Investissements.


Phase Out Notice
+
Overlapping Period
(En annes)
Full Support
Period
(A compter de la
Phase Out Date)
(En annes)
Long Term Support Period
(A compter de la Phase Out
Date)

(En annes)
Equipements du
FOURNISSEUR
[A
complter]
-(1+2) +3 +10
Equipements de
Fournisseurs
Tiers

[A
complter]
-(1+2) +2 +5


Tableau Protection des Investissements
Complments insrer dans les Contrats dExcution

Afin de rendre applicable au niveau de chacun des Contrats dExcution les dispositions
de la prsente Annexe, il est expressment convenu entre les Parties que chaque Contrat
dExcution rattach au Contrat-Cadre, comprendra un tableau du type Tableau
Protection des Investissements pour lequel les Parties auront pris soin de saccorder sur
les valeurs des dlais et des priodes en fonction des types dEquipements fournis par le
FOURNISSEUR au CLIENT au titre du Contrat dExcution concern.

--------------------
Activit de Qualification du FOURNISSEUR
La Recette Usine (ou Qualification du FOURNISSEUR) portera essentiellement et de
faon pertinente sur les volutions fonctionnelles ayant t crs ou modifies. Le
FOURNISSEUR ralisera galement l'ensemble des tests de non rgression pertinents et
appropris.
Qualification interne l'application :
Dfinition des orientations, simulation, prparation, excution et vrification.
Qualification inter - applications et interfaces :
Qualification inter - applications partir des bouchons et simulateurs dvelopps ;
Dfinition des orientations, simulation, prparation, excution et vrification.

Formatted:
Bullets and Numbering
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
La Qualification du FOURNISSEUR prsente des tches :
de prparation des tests ;
dexcution des tests ;
de prparation du support de livraison.


Tableau rcapitulatif de lactivit :

Activit de Qualification FOURNISSEUR
Tches de lactivit Rle des acteurs
Libell FOURNISSE
UR
CLIENT
Tches de prparation
Rdaction du Plan de tests dfinissant la stratgie de tests de la version applicative
et du cahier de test, dfinition et construction des jeux dessai
ralise info
Mise en place de lenvironnement de Qualification du FOURNISSEUR ralise
Tches dexcution
Installation de lApplication dans lenvironnement de Qualification du
FOURNISSEUR
ralise
Excution des tests dvolution fonctionnelle et des tests de non rgression (interne
lapplication et inter applications). Eventuellement, excution des tests de
performance
ralise
Enregistrement des rsultats de test au fur et mesure du droulement ralise info
Enregistrement, analyse et correction des anomalies, rdaction du bilan de
Qualification du FOURNISSEUR
ralise info
Tches de prparation du support de livraison
Elaboration du support de livraison ralise info
Actions Qualit FOURNISSEUR
Nature Origine
Revue de qualification (facultative) Structure Qualit
Approbation des documents produits CP
Approbation de la Qualification du FOURNISSEUR DP
Documents et produits en entre
Nature Origine
Prparation
Spcifications fonctionnelles gnrales et dtailles FOURNISSEUR
Spcifications des interfaces FOURNISSEUR
Excution
Logiciel test unitairement et intgr FOURNISSEUR
Documents et produits en sortie
Nature Livrable / Validable
Plan de tests livrable / validable
Cahier de tests livrable
Logiciel recett livrable / validable
Bilan de tests de la Qualification du FOURNISSEUR livrable / validable
Bons de Livraison, Fiche de contrle qualit FOURNISSEUR livrable
Support de livraison livrable
Conditions de prononc de fin dactivit
Condition Responsable
100% des tests excuts FOURNISSEUR
Aucune anomalie bloquante ouverte FOURNISSEUR
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION

Activit de Prparation au Dploiement
Cette activit consiste prparer lensemble des lments ncessaires la Mise en
Production (MeP) de la nouvelle version de lapplication ainsi qu sa mise en service.
Tableau rcapitulatif de lactivit :

Activit de Prparation au Dploiement
Tches de lactivit Rle des acteurs
Libell FOURNISSE
UR
CLIENT
Rdaction du Manuel dexploitation ralise valide
Rdaction des Guides et manuel (pour la partie qui concerne le FOURNISSEUR)
ralise ralise et
valide
Ralisation ventuelle des scripts dinstallation (selon les projets) ralise valide
Rdaction des manuels dinstallation Client et / ou Serveur ralise valide
Rdaction du manuel utilisateur (selon les projets) ralise valide
Actions Qualit FOURNISSEUR
Nature Origine
Approbation des documents produits CP
Documents et produits en sortie
Nature Livrable / Validable
Ensemble des documents produits dans le cadre de cette activit livrable et validable
Bons de Livraison, FCQ livrable
Conditions de prononc de fin dactivit
Condition Responsable
Validation par le CLIENT de lensemble des documents produits dans le cadre de
cette activit
CLIENT / FOURNISSEUR


Translated to English
Definitions
Definitions below are applicable within the framework of the present Appendix.

Replaced Equipment
Indicates the Equipment, including Modules, whose Stop of Marketing is announced by
the SUPPLIER and for which it designs an Equipment of Replacement.

Equipment Successor
Indicates the Equipment, including the Modules, which replaces the Replaced Equipment
in the range of products of the SUPPLIER.

Module (recall)
Smaller replaceable hardware part of the Equipment.

Spare parts
Indicate parties, components and necessary sub-elements for servicing and repair of the
CUSTOMERs network.

Formatted:
Bullets and Numbering
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Test Plants
Procedure of tests specific to the process of development of the SUPPLIER who must
assure the CUSTOMER that the Equipment introduced in validation complies with
Technical Specifications and necessary requirements for quality. In this title, the
SUPPLIER guarantees that any Critical Anomaly is the object of an action plan
introduced to the CUSTOMER.

Commercial Availability
Means that tan Equipment is in production, that it is commercially available for orders in
volume, that it has successfully crossed all the milestones of the development process and
validation of the SUPPLIER who then guarantees that the Equipment fully complies with
the specifications and the required quality levels.

Period of Coverage
Indicates the period of time during which the Replaced Equipment and the Equipment
Successor can both be ordered by the CUSTOMER from the SUPPLIER in which the
SUPPLIER is in agreement with the provisions of the present Appendix.

Advice of Stopping of Marketing
Indicates the notification made by the SUPPLIER who informs the CUSTOMER of the
stopping of the marketing of an Equipment, and this is in keeping with the provisions of
the present Appendix.

Complete Support
Means that the SUPPLIER must provide the CUSTOMER during periods indicated in the
Table of Protection of Investments, Equipment, Modules and services under the
conditions defined below:
a) For the Replaced Equipment, the support of the existing functions at the date of
the Stopping of Marketing, and this, for the corresponding period (including the
services due under the Long-term Support).
b) Besides, all levels of the Software, all extensions and updating of the Hardware
Equipment necessary for the correct operation of the successive software levels
(basic level and its options); ; guarantee that the implementation of the
capacities, functions and performances of the Replaced Equipment, in
agreement with technical specifications, will be maintained when a new Level
(basic level and its options), in coherence with a possible upgrade material
(necessary and registered), will be installed on the Replaced Equipment.
(necessary and recommended), will be installed on the Replaced Equipment.
c) Spare parts materially and functionally compatible with the Replaced
Equipment; the service for the repair of the Replaced Equipment according to
the provisions of paragraph 10.
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION

Long-term Support
Means that the SUPPLIER guarantees the interworking of the Software and provides the
benefits of software support for the correction of Critical Anomalies and the Major
Anomalies (see below, paragraph 3 - Support and long-term availability for Software),
for the availability of the spare parts, the repair of the Hardware (see below, paragraph 4
Long-term Support and availability for the Hardware), and this, for the corresponding
period appearing in the Protection of the Investments table.


Protection of the investments of the CUSTOMER

Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4, the commitments of the
SUPPLIER will be undertaken in accordance with the contents of the Protection of the
Investments table.
Long-term Support and availability for the Software

The SUPPLIER must be able to support the last versions of each of the Software in order
to allow the correct operation of the Subsystems, including interworking and the
interoperability in the Network of the CUSTOMER, and this, for the period specified in
the Protection of the Investments table.

The Long Term Support for the Software is the responsibility the SUPPLIER to the
CUSTOMER under the provisions related to Maintenance defined in the concerned
Contract of Execution.

If the SUPPLIER stops offering the benefits of support on the last software versions
provided to the CUSTOMER before the end of the Long-Term period, then the
SUPPLIER will hand over, free, to the CUSTOMER, the whole of the documentation and
the code-sources in his possession.

This information will have to be used by the CUSTOMER only as part of its own
network, it will remain the property of the SUPPLIER and will be subject to the
Agreement of Confidentiality signed by Parties.
Support and long-term availability for the Hardware

The SUPPLIER must be able to support the last versions of each of the Hardware to
allow for the correct operation of the Subsystem, including interworking and the
interoperability in the Network of the CUSTOMER, and this, for the period specified in
the Protection of the Investments table.
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
The Long-term Support for the Hardware is the responsibility of the SUPPLIER to the
CUSTOMER under the provisions related to Maintenance defined in the Contract of
Execution concerned, in particular with regard to the services of spare parts and repair.

If the SUPPLIER stops offering the services of support on the last Equipment versions
provided to the CUSTOMER before the end of the Long- Term Period of Support, then
the SUPPLIER will hand over, free to the CUSTOMER the whole of the documentation
of the manufacturing drawings, the technical specifications, and the code-sources in his
possession.

This information will have to be used by the CUSTOMER only as part of its own
network, it will remain the property of the SUPPLIER and will be subject to the
Agreement of Confidentiality signed by Parties.

However, if the rights related to the elements above were held by a third party, the
SUPPLIER will make his best efforts to allow the CUSTOMER to obtain his necessary
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Italian to English

EstrarrLo era valutato gli effetti di fucoidan, sui parametri biochimici ed immunologici,
sul non-steroidal la droga anti-infiammatorio, l'aspirina, ha indotto l'ulcera nei topi. Lo
stato di magazzino di glycogen di tessuto di stomaco ed i cambiamenti istologici erano
anche esaminati. L'esame di parametri fondamentali biochimici ha mostrato significativo
(p <0,01) le alterazioni nell'aspartate (AST) e l'alanine (ALT) il transaminases nell'ulcera
ha indotto i topi. Comunque, modera le alterazioni (p <0,05) erano osservato nei livelli di
urea di colesterolo e sangue azoto di (la PAGNOTTA). L'analisi di aspirina ha trattato il
cytokines di siero di topi ha mostrato una diminuzione moderata nell'interleukin-10 (IL-
10) con l'aumento considerevole di interleukin-6 (IL-6) e l'interferone- ^ (INF-^) come
ha paragonato per controllare. L'esame di Histopathological ha mostrato l'infiltrazione di
neutrophil, l'infiammazione nelle cellule di oxyntic col magazzino di glycogen alterato.
L'amministrazione di fucoidan ha mostrato considerevole (p <0,05) la protezione contro
l'ulcera inibindo le alterazioni acute di AST, ALT, il glycogen di cytokines e stomaco.
Ma nessun'inibizione significativa era osservata sullo stato di PAGNOTTA. Comunque,
INF di siero aggravato-^ era osservato nel gruppo trattato. Queste scoperte suggeriscono
che la propriet anti-ulcera di fucoidan potrebbe contribuire in proteggere che il cytokine
infiammatorio ha mediato il danno di oxidative al mucosa gastrico.

Le parole chiave: Il Fucoidan; l'Aspirina; l'Ulcera; Cytokines; il 1. di Glycogen.
L'Aspirina di introduzione, l'acido anche conosciuto come acetilsalicilico, una droga di
salicylate, spesso usato come un analgesico di alleviare i dolori minori ed i dolori, come
un antipiretico di ridurre la febbre, e come una medicazione anti-infiammatorio.
L'aspirina ha anche un antiplatelet o un effetto anti-clotting ed usata in a lungo termine
alle dosi basse per evitare gli attacchi di cuore, il grumo di colpi e sangue formazione di
nelle persone all'alto rischio per i grumi di sangue di sviluppare [1]. stato anche
stabilito del che le dosi basse di aspirina potrebbero essere date subito dopo che un
attacco di cuore di ridurre il rischio di un altro attacco di cuore o della morte di tessuto
cardiaco [2,3]. Non l'aspirina era il membro primo-scoperto della classe di droghe
conosciute come non-steroidal le droghe anti-infiammatori (NSAIDs), tutto sono il
salicylates, sebbene hanno degli effetti simili e la maggior parte di ha del meccanismo di
azione che coinvolge l'inibizione non selettiva del cyclooxygenase di enzima. Malgrado i
benefici cardiovascolari di aspirina, un danno potenziale gastrointestinale stato notato in
diversi clinico e negli studi di pre-clincal. Gli effetti collaterali principali indesiderabili di
aspirina sono delle ulcere e dell'emorragia di stomaci gastrointestinali, ed il ronzio
auricolare, soprattutto nelle pi alte dosi. Il Cytokines come l'interleukin di (TNF-\), di
fattore-alfa di necrosi di tumore-6 (IL-6) e l'interleukin-10 (IL-10) gioca i ruoli
importanti nell'infiammazione di fase acuta come pure nella manutenzione e nel
regolamento della severit di ulcera gastrica [4]. L'induzione di aspirina caratterizzata
dall'infiltrazione di neutrophils, dall'inibizione di fattore di crescita, e dall'elevazione di
cytokines, che prodotto dal macrophages attivato. [5,6]. Il Fucoidan un polysaccharide
di sulfated ha trovato principalmente nella varia specie di alghe marroni come il kombu,
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il moui di limu, la quercia marina, il wakame, il mozuku, e l'hijiki, e le forme di variante
di fucoidan sono stato anche trovati nella specie animale, compreso il cetriolo di mare.
Recentemente, le ricerche sostanziose farmaceutiche sono state fatte sul fucoidan. Come
una conseguenza di queste ricerche, questo fucoidan ora lanciato sul mercato come un
nutraceutical ed il cibo integrano [7,8]. Uno studio ha indicato quel fucoidan pu indurre
l'apoptosis nelle linee di cellula di linfoma umane, come bene i ricercatori hanno
mostrato anche quel fucoidan pu inibire l'hyperplasia nei conigli [9]. Pochi studi hanno
riferito l'effetto di fucoidan sul professionista ed il cytokines infiammatorio [10]. Nei
modelli animali, l'ingestione di fucoidan ha gli effetti di inibitore sui tumori, che
appaiono essere frequentato un'alba nell'interferone-gamma (IFN- ^), l'interleukin-12
(IL-12), e lo stimolo di immunit innata [11]. Allo stesso modo, uno studio ha riferito
quel fucoidan ha derivato dal tokida di okamuranus di Cladosiphon migliora il murine la
colite cronica attraverso il gi-regolamento di IL-6 produzione sulle cellule coloniche
epiteliali [12]. Recentemente, era dimostrato che il fucoidan una sostanza sicura col
potenziale per la protezione gastrica [13]. Quindi, l'obbiettivo in questo studio
investigare l'efficacia di fucoidan sull'aspirina l'ulcera indotta, un nuovo approccio per
l'ulcera causata da NSAID.

2. I materiali ed i metodi 2,1. Fucoidan di prodotti chimici ha procurato da Sigma C.ia
Chimico. (San. Il Louis, MO) era usato per lo studio. Il campione era immagazzinato in
una condizione propria secondo le istruzioni di Sigma. Tutti gli altri composti erano
comprati da Sigma (eccetto indicato altrimenti).

2,2. Gli animali sperimentali topi Adulti, maschi Albini di pesare di tensione di Wistar di
130V160 g erano procurato dall'Oriente Inc. (Seul, la Repubblica di Corea). I topi erano
alloggiato sei per la gabbia nella gabbia di polycarbonate chiara ed erano nutriti con
un'annuncio di dieta ed acqua libitum di standard animale sotto la temperatura controllata
condiziona (222 l'oC) con 12 h la luce ed i cicli scuri. Tutti gli animali hanno ricevuto
la cura propria secondo i metodi approvati sotto le linee guida istituzionali e gli
esperimenti era condotta secondo i principi enunciati nel l'Atto di Cura Animale,
preparato dal Ministero di Agricoltura e dall'Imboschimento, la Repubblica di Corea.

2,3. Nel vivo il Gruppo di protocollo sperimentale io topi hanno ricevuto il
carboxymethylcellulose (0.5%) come il veicolo, ed i topi di III di Gruppo erano dati la
dose orale di aspirina (Sigma, 400 peso corporeo di mg/kg) sul giorno 14 dopo 48
periodo digiunano. Raggruppare II i topi erano dati il fucoidan solo (0,02 peso corporeo
di g/kg, l'ufficio postale) per due settimane, IV di Gruppo ha compreso i topi erano dati il
fucoidan (0,02 peso corporeo di g/kg, l'ufficio postale) per due settimane e digiunato per
48 ore ed affiggere trattato verbalmente con l'aspirina (400 peso corporeo di mg/kg, ha
sospeso in 0,5% carboxymethylcellulose). Alla fine di periodo sperimentale, i topi erano
anestetizzato sotto l'etere e sacrificato dalla decapitazione cervicale. Il sangue saggia
portato dagli animali sperimentali senza qualunque anticoagulante erano centrifuged a
3.000 g per 10 minimo di ottenere il siero chiaro. I campioni di tessuto di stomaco
erano riparati in 10 % il formalin di buffered per l'histopathology. L'eSPONENTE di
acidita'di cambiamenti di peso corporeo gastrici contenti ed essere notati.

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2,4. L'analisi di Histochemical il tessuto Gastrico era riparato in 10% formalin di buffered
neutrale, disidratato, la paraffina incassata, ha elaborato, il sectioned in 5 lo spessore di
gm e macchiato con l'haematoxylin e con l'eosin (l'H&E). I criteri di valutazione del
punteggio istologico era secondo il metodo descritto precedentemente da Dokmeci ed
altri. [14] : 0 X il mucosa normale, 1 X il danno di cellula epiteliale, 2 X la rottura
ghiandolare, il vasocongestion o l'edema nel mucosa superiore, 3 X la rottura di
mucosal, il vasocongestion o l'edema nel mucosa di met-abbassa, e 4 X la rottura di
mucosal estesa coinvolgendo lo spessore pieno del mucosa. Il valore globale medio dei
punteggi di danno per ciascuno dei campi era portato come l'indice di ulcera istologico
per quella sezione. Per l'Acido-Schiff Periodico (la PRECEDENZA) macchiando, le
sezioni di dewaxed erano macchiate usando una PRECEDENZA commerciale
macchiando l'attrezzatura di sistema (Sigma) secondo il fabbricantes le indicazioni [14].

Translated to English

Abstract
It was evaluated the effects of fucoidan, on biochemical and immunological parameters,
on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, aspirin, induced ulcer in rats. The status of
stomach tissue glycogen storage and histological changes were also examined.
Examination of basic biochemical parameters showed significant (p < 0.01) alterations in
aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) transaminases in ulcer induced rats. However,
moderate alterations (p < 0.05) were observed in the levels of cholesterol and blood urea
nitrogen (BUN). Analysis of aspirin treated rats serum cytokines showed a moderate
decrease in interleukin-10 (IL-10) with considerable increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and
interferon- ^ (INF-^) as compared to control. Histopathological examination showed
neutrophil infiltration, inflammation in oxyntic cells with altered glycogen storage.
Administration of fucoidan showed considerable (p < 0.05) protection against ulceration
by inhibiting the acute alterations of AST, ALT, cytokines and stomach glycogen. But no
significant inhibition was observed on the status of BUN. However, aggravated serum
INF-^ was observed in the treated group. These findings suggest that the anti-ulcer
property of fucoidan might contribute in protecting the inflammatory cytokine mediated
oxidative damage to gastric mucosa.

Keywords: Fucoidan; Aspirin; Ulcer; Cytokines; Glycogen

1. Introduction
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid, is a salicylate drug, often used as an
analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an
anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet or anti-clotting effect and
is used in long-term at low doses to prevent heart attacks, strokes and blood clot
formation in people at high risk for developing blood clots [1]. It has also been
established that low doses of aspirin may be given immediately after a heart attack to
reduce the risk of another heart attack or of the death of cardiac tissue [2,3]. Aspirin was
the first-discovered member of the class of drugs known as non-steroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), not all of which are salicylates, although they all have
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similar effects and most have some mechanism of action which involves non-selective
inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase.
Despite the cardiovascular benefits of aspirin, a potential gastrointestinal harm has been
noted in several clinical and pre-clincal studies. The main undesirable side effects of
aspirin are gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach bleeding, and tinnitus, especially in higher
doses. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-\), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and
interleukin-10 (IL-10) play important roles in the acute phase inflammation as well as in
maintenance and regulation of the severity of gastric ulcer [4]. The induction of aspirin is
characterized by infiltration of neutrophils, growth factor inhibition, and elevation of
cytokines, which is produced by activated macrophages. [5,6].
Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide found mainly in various species of brown
seaweeds such as kombu, limu moui, bladderwrack, wakame, mozuku, and hijiki, and
variant forms of fucoidan have also been found in animal species, including the sea
cucumber. Recently, substantial pharmaceutical researches have been done on fucoidan.
As a consequence of these researches, fucoidan is now being marketed as a nutraceutical
and food supplement [7,8]. A study have indicated that fucoidan can induce apoptosis in
human lymphoma cell lines, as well researchers have also showed that fucoidan can
inhibit hyperplasia in rabbits [9]. Few studies have reported the effect of fucoidan on pro
and inflammatory cytokines [10]. In animal models, ingestion of fucoidan has inhibitory
effects on tumors, which appear to be associated with a rise in interferon-gamma (IFN-
^), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and stimulation of innate immunity [11]. Similarly, a study
has reported that fucoidan derived from Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida ameliorates
murine chronic colitis through the down-regulation of IL-6 production on colonic
epithelial cells [12].
Recently, it was demonstrated that fucoidan is a safe substance with potential for gastric
protection [13]. Therefore, the objective in this study is to investigate the effectiveness of
fucoidan on the aspirin induced ulceration, a new approach for ulceration caused by
NSAID.

2. Materials and methods
2.1. Chemicals
Fucoidan procured from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO) was used for the study.
The sample was stored in a proper condition as per Sigma instructions. All other
compounds were purchased from Sigma (except indicated otherwise).

2.2. Experimental animals
Adult male Albino rats of Wistar strain weighing about 130V160 g were procured from
the Orient Inc. (Seoul, Republic of Korea). Rats were housed six per cage in clear
polycarbonate cage and were fed with a standard animal diet and water ad libitum under
controlled temperature conditions (222 oC) with 12 h light and dark cycles. All
animals received proper care according to methods approved under institutional
guidelines and experiments was conducted according to principles enunciated in the
Animal Care Act, prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Republic of
Korea.

2.3. In vivo experimental protocol
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Group I rats received carboxymethylcellulose (0.5%) as vehicle, and Group III rats were
given oral dose of aspirin (Sigma, 400 mg/kg body weight) on day 14 after 48 period
fasting. Group II rats were given fucoidan alone (0.02 g/kg body weight, p.o) for two
weeks, Group IV comprised rats were given fucoidan (0.02 g/kg body weight, p.o) for
two weeks and fasted for 48 hours and post treated orally with aspirin (400 mg/kg body
weight, suspended in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose). At the end of experimental period,
rats were anesthetized under ether and sacrificed by cervical decapitation. The blood
samples taken from the experimental animals without any anticoagulant were centrifuged
at 3,000 g for 10 min to obtain clear serum. Stomach tissue samples were fixed in 10
% buffered formalin for histopathology. The pH of gastric content and body weight
changes were noted.

2.4. Histochemical analysis
Gastric tissue was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, dehydrated, paraffin
embedded, processed, sectioned in 5 gm thickness and stained with haematoxylin and
eosin (H&E). The assessment criteria of the histological score was according to the
method described previously by Dokmeci et al. [14]: 0 X normal mucosa, 1 X epithelial
cell damage, 2 X glandular disruption, vasocongestion or edema in the upper mucosa, 3
X mucosal disruption, vasocongestion or edema in the mid-lower mucosa, and 4 X
extensive mucosal disruption involving the full thickness of the mucosa. The overall
mean value of the damage scores for each of the fields was taken as the histological ulcer
index for that section. For the Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, dewaxed sections
were stained using a commercial PAS staining system kit (Sigma) according to the
manufacturers directions [14].


Spanish to English

ExtrcteLo fue evaluado los efectos de fucoidan, en parmetros bioqumicos e
inmunolgicos, en el no-steroidal droga antiinflamatoria, la aspirina, lcera inducida en
ratas. El estatus de almacenamiento de glicgeno de tejido de estmago y cambios
histolgicos tambin fue examinado. El examen de parmetros bioqumicos bsicos
mostr significativo (P <0,01) modificaciones en el aspartate (AST) y alanine (ALT)
transaminases en la lcera indujo ratas. Sin embargo, modera modificaciones (P <0,05)
fueron observados en los niveles de colesterol y nitrgeno de urea de sangre (BOLLO).
El anlisis de aspirina trat cytokines de suero de ratas mostr una disminucin moderada
en el interleukin-10 (IL-10) con aumento considerable de interleukin-6 (IL-6) y el
interfern- ^ (INF-^) compar como controlar. El examen de Histopathological mostr
neutrophil infiltracin, la inflamacin en clulas de oxyntic con almacenamiento alterado
de glicgeno. La administracin de fucoidan mostr considerable (P <0,05) la proteccin
contra ulceracin inhibiendo las modificaciones agudas de AST, ALT, glicgeno de
cytokines y estmago. Pero ninguna inhibicin significativa fue observada en el estatus
de BOLLO. Sin embargo, suero agravado INF-^ fue observado en el grupo tratado.
Estas conclusiones sugieren que la propiedad anti lcera de fucoidan quizs contribuya a
proteger el cytokine incitante medi dao de oxidative al mucosa gstrico.

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Las palabras clave: Fucoidan; Aspirina; Ulcera; Cytokines; 1. de Glicgeno. La Aspirina
de la introduccin, tambin conocido como cido de acetylsalicylic, es una droga de
salicilato, a menudo utilizado como un analgsico para aliviar dolores y dolores
secundarios, como un antipirtico para reducir fiebre, y cuando una medicina
antiinflamatoria. La aspirina tambin tiene un efecto de antiplatelet o anti coagulacin y
es utilizado en a largo plazo en dosis bajas prevenir infartos, los golpes y formacin de
cogulo de sangre en personas en riesgo alto para desarrollar sangre cogulos [1].
Tambin ha sido establecido que dosis bajas de aspirina pueden ser dadas
inmediatamente despus de que un infarto para reducir el riesgo de otro infarto o de la
muerte de tejido [2,3] cardiaco. La aspirina fue el miembro primer-descubierto de la clase
de drogas conocidas como drogas de antiinflamatorio de no-steroidal (NSAIDs), no todos
los cuales son salicilatos, aunque todos tengan efectos semejantes y la mayora del tiene
algn mecanismo de accin que implica inhibicin no-selectivo del cyclooxygenase de
enzima. A pesar de los beneficios cardiovasculares de aspirina, un dao gastrointestinal
potencial ha sido notado en varios clnico y estudios de pre-clincal. Los principales
efectos secundario indeseables de aspirina son lceras y estmagos gastrointestinales que
sangran, y el zumbido, especialmente en dosis ms altas. La necrosis de Cytokines como
tumor interleukin (TNF-\), factor-alfa-6 (IL-6) y interleukin-10 (IL-10) juega papeles
importantes en la inflamacin aguda de fase as como en el mantenimiento y la
regulacin de la severidad de lcera gstrica [4]. La induccin de aspirina es
caracterizada por infiltracin de neutrophils, de inhibicin de factor de crecimiento, y de
la elevacin de cytokines, que es producido por macrfagos activados. [5,6]. Fucoidan es
un polisacrido de sulfated encontrado principalmente en varias especie de algas
marrones como kombu, de moui de limu, de bladderwrack, de wakame, de mozuku, y de
hijiki, y formas variantes de fucoidan tambin han sido encontradas en la especie animal,
inclusive el pepino del mar. Recientemente, investigaciones farmacuticos substanciales
han sido hechas en el fucoidan. Como resultado de estas investigaciones, fucoidan ahora
es vendido como un nutraceutical y alimento suplementan [7,8]. Un estudio ha indicado
ese fucoidan puede inducir apoptosis en lneas humanas de clula de linfoma, como bien
investigadores tambin han mostrado ese fucoidan puede inhibir hyperplasia en conejos
[9]. Pocos estudios han informado el efecto de fucoidan en el profesional y cytokines
incitante [10]. En modelos animales, la ingestin de fucoidan tiene efectos inhibitorios en
tumores, que parece ser asociado con una subida en la interfern-gamma (IFN- ^),
interleukin-12 (IL-12), y el estmulo de la inmunidad innata [11]. Asimismo, un estudio
ha informado ese fucoidan deriv del tokida de okamuranus de Cladosiphon mejora
murine colitis crnica por la bajo-regulacin de IL-6 produccin en clulas epiteliales de
colon [12]. Recientemente, fue demostrado que fucoidan es una sustancia segura con
potencial para la proteccin gstrica [13]. Por lo tanto, el objetivo en este estudio es de
investigar la eficacia de fucoidan en la aspirina ulceracin inducida, un nuevo enfoque
para la ulceracin causada por NSAID.

2. Las materias y los mtodos 2,1. Las sustancias qumicas Fucoidan consigui de la
Sigma Qumica S.a. (El s. Louis, MO) fue utilizado para el estudio. La muestra fue
almacenada en una condicin apropiada de acuerdo con instrucciones de Sigma. Todos
los otros compuestos fueron comprados de la Sigma (menos indicado de otro modo).

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2,2. Los animales experimentales ratas masculinas Adultas de Albino de pesar de
esfuerzo de Wistar acerca de 130V160 que G fue conseguida del Oriente S.a. (Sel, la
Repblica de Corea). Las ratas fueron albergadas seis por jaula en la jaula clara de
polycarbonate y fueron alimentados con una dieta y libitum de anuncio de agua animal
estndar bajo temperatura controlada condiciona oC (22O2) con 12 ciclos de H luz y la
oscuridad. Todos animales recibieron cuidado apropiado segn mtodos aprobados bajo
pautas y los experimentos institucionales fueron realizados segn principios
pronunciados en el Acto Animal de Cuidado, preparado por el Ministerio de la
Agricultura y la Silvicultura, la Repblica de Corea.

2,3. En el vivo protocolo experimental Agrupa yo que ratas recibieron
carboxymethylcellulose (0.5%) como vehculo, y Agrupan III ratas fueron dadas dosis
oral de aspirina (Sigma, 400 peso del mg/kg) en el da 14 despus de 48 ayuno de
perodo. Agrupe ratas II fueron dadas fucoidan solo (0,02 peso del G/kg, P.O) para dos
semanas, el Grupo IV comprendi ratas fueron dadas fucoidan (0,02 peso del G/kg, P.O)
para dos semanas y fasted para 48 horas y anuncian tratado oralmente con aspirina (400
peso del mg/kg, suspendi en 0,5% de carboxymethylcellulose). A fines del perodo
experimental, las ratas fueron anestesiadas bajo ter y sacrificados por decapitacin
cervical. La sangre prueba tomado de los animales experimentales sin cualquier
anticoagulante fueron centrifugados en 3.000 g por 10 min de obtener suero claro. Las
muestras del tejido del estmago fueron fijadas en 10 % formalina de buffered para el
histopathology. El pH de gstrico contento y cambios de peso fueron notados.

2,4. El anlisis de Histochemical tejido que Gstrico fue fijado en 10% de formalina
neutral de buffered, deshidratado, la parafina empotrada, procesado, sectioned en 5 el
espesor de gm y manchado con haematoxylin y eosin (H&E). Los criterios de la
evaluacin de la cuenta histolgica estuvieron segn el mtodo descrito anteriormente
por Dokmeci et Al. [14] : 0 X mucosa normal, 1 X dao epitelial de clula, 2 X
interrupcin glandular, vasocongestion o edema en el mucosa superior, 3 interrupcin de
mucosal X, vasocongestion o edema en el mucosa medio-ms bajo, y 4 X interrupcin
extensa de mucosal que implica el espesor lleno del mucosa. El valor malo general de las
cuentas de dao para cada uno de los campos fue tomado como el ndice histolgico de
lcera para esa seccin. Para el Acido-Schiff Peridico (PAS) manchando, secciones de
dewaxed fueron manchadas utilizando un PAS comercial que mancha juego de sistema
(Sigma) segn el fabricantedirecciones de s [14].

Translated to English

Abstract
It was evaluated the effects of fucoidan, on biochemical and immunological parameters,
on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, aspirin, induced ulcer in rats. The status of
stomach tissue glycogen storage and histological changes were also examined.
Examination of basic biochemical parameters showed significant (p < 0.01) alterations in
aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) transaminases in ulcer induced rats. However,
moderate alterations (p < 0.05) were observed in the levels of cholesterol and blood urea
nitrogen (BUN). Analysis of aspirin treated rats serum cytokines showed a moderate
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
decrease in interleukin-10 (IL-10) with considerable increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and
interferon- ^ (INF-^) as compared to control. Histopathological examination showed
neutrophil infiltration, inflammation in oxyntic cells with altered glycogen storage.
Administration of fucoidan showed considerable (p < 0.05) protection against ulceration
by inhibiting the acute alterations of AST, ALT, cytokines and stomach glycogen. But no
significant inhibition was observed on the status of BUN. However, aggravated serum
INF-^ was observed in the treated group. These findings suggest that the anti-ulcer
property of fucoidan might contribute in protecting the inflammatory cytokine mediated
oxidative damage to gastric mucosa.

Keywords: Fucoidan; Aspirin; Ulcer; Cytokines; Glycogen

1. Introduction
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid, is a salicylate drug, often used as an
analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an
anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet or anti-clotting effect and
is used in long-term at low doses to prevent heart attacks, strokes and blood clot
formation in people at high risk for developing blood clots [1]. It has also been
established that low doses of aspirin may be given immediately after a heart attack to
reduce the risk of another heart attack or of the death of cardiac tissue [2,3]. Aspirin was
the first-discovered member of the class of drugs known as non-steroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), not all of which are salicylates, although they all have
similar effects and most have some mechanism of action which involves non-selective
inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase.
Despite the cardiovascular benefits of aspirin, a potential gastrointestinal harm has been
noted in several clinical and pre-clincal studies. The main undesirable side effects of
aspirin are gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach bleeding, and tinnitus, especially in higher
doses. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-\), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and
interleukin-10 (IL-10) play important roles in the acute phase inflammation as well as in
maintenance and regulation of the severity of gastric ulcer [4]. The induction of aspirin is
characterized by infiltration of neutrophils, growth factor inhibition, and elevation of
cytokines, which is produced by activated macrophages. [5,6].
Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide found mainly in various species of brown
seaweeds such as kombu, limu moui, bladderwrack, wakame, mozuku, and hijiki, and
variant forms of fucoidan have also been found in animal species, including the sea
cucumber. Recently, substantial pharmaceutical researches have been done on fucoidan.
As a consequence of these researches, fucoidan is now being marketed as a nutraceutical
and food supplement [7,8]. A study have indicated that fucoidan can induce apoptosis in
human lymphoma cell lines, as well researchers have also showed that fucoidan can
inhibit hyperplasia in rabbits [9]. Few studies have reported the effect of fucoidan on pro
and inflammatory cytokines [10]. In animal models, ingestion of fucoidan has inhibitory
effects on tumors, which appear to be associated with a rise in interferon-gamma (IFN-
^), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and stimulation of innate immunity [11]. Similarly, a study
has reported that fucoidan derived from Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida ameliorates
murine chronic colitis through the down-regulation of IL-6 production on colonic
epithelial cells [12].
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Recently, it was demonstrated that fucoidan is a safe substance with potential for gastric
protection [13]. Therefore, the objective in this study is to investigate the effectiveness of
fucoidan on the aspirin induced ulceration, a new approach for ulceration caused by
NSAID.

2. Materials and methods
2.1. Chemicals
Fucoidan procured from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO) was used for the study.
The sample was stored in a proper condition as per Sigma instructions. All other
compounds were purchased from Sigma (except indicated otherwise).

2.2. Experimental animals
Adult male Albino rats of Wistar strain weighing about 130V160 g were procured from
the Orient Inc. (Seoul, Republic of Korea). Rats were housed six per cage in clear
polycarbonate cage and were fed with a standard animal diet and water ad libitum under
controlled temperature conditions (222 oC) with 12 h light and dark cycles. All
animals received proper care according to methods approved under institutional
guidelines and experiments was conducted according to principles enunciated in the
Animal Care Act, prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Republic of
Korea.

2.3. In vivo experimental protocol
Group I rats received carboxymethylcellulose (0.5%) as vehicle, and Group III rats were
given oral dose of aspirin (Sigma, 400 mg/kg body weight) on day 14 after 48 period
fasting. Group II rats were given fucoidan alone (0.02 g/kg body weight, p.o) for two
weeks, Group IV comprised rats were given fucoidan (0.02 g/kg body weight, p.o) for
two weeks and fasted for 48 hours and post treated orally with aspirin (400 mg/kg body
weight, suspended in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose). At the end of experimental period,
rats were anesthetized under ether and sacrificed by cervical decapitation. The blood
samples taken from the experimental animals without any anticoagulant were centrifuged
at 3,000 g for 10 min to obtain clear serum. Stomach tissue samples were fixed in 10
% buffered formalin for histopathology. The pH of gastric content and body weight
changes were noted.

2.4. Histochemical analysis
Gastric tissue was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, dehydrated, paraffin
embedded, processed, sectioned in 5 gm thickness and stained with haematoxylin and
eosin (H&E). The assessment criteria of the histological score was according to the
method described previously by Dokmeci et al. [14]: 0 X normal mucosa, 1 X epithelial
cell damage, 2 X glandular disruption, vasocongestion or edema in the upper mucosa, 3
X mucosal disruption, vasocongestion or edema in the mid-lower mucosa, and 4 X
extensive mucosal disruption involving the full thickness of the mucosa. The overall
mean value of the damage scores for each of the fields was taken as the histological ulcer
index for that section. For the Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, dewaxed sections
were stained using a commercial PAS staining system kit (Sigma) according to the
manufacturers directions [14].
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION


Portuguese to English

Abstraia-O foi avaliado os efeitos de fucoidan, em parmetros bioqumicos e
imunolgicos, em no-steroidal droga antiinflamatrio, aspirina, lcera induzida em
ratos. O estado de armazenamento de glycogen de tecido de estmago e mudanas de
histological tambm foram examinados. O exame de parmetros bioqumicos bsicos
mostrou significativo (p <0,01) alteraes em aspartate (AST) e alanine (ALT)
transaminases em lcera induziu ratos. No entanto, modere alteraes (p <0,05) foram
observados nos nveis de colesterol e nitrognio de uria de sangue (PO). A anlise de
aspirina tratou cytokines de soro de ratos mostrou uma diminuio moderada em
interleukin-10 (IL-10) com aumento considervel de interleukin-6 (IL-6) e interferon- ^
(INF-^) como comparou controlar. O exame de Histopathological mostrou infiltrao de
neutrophil, inflamao em clulas de oxyntic com armazenamento alterado de glycogen.
A administrao de fucoidan mostrou considervel (p <0,05) proteo contra ulcerao
inibindo as alteraes agudas de AST, ALT, cytokines e glycogen de estmago. Mas
nenhuma inibio significativa foi observada no estado de PO. No entanto, agravou
soro INF-^ foi observado no grupo tratado. Estes resultados sugerem que a propriedade
de anti-lcera de fucoidan talvez contribua em proteger o cytokine inflamatrio mediou
estrago de oxidative a mucosa gstrico.

As palavras-chave: O Fucoidan; Aspirina; lcera; Cytokines; 1. de Glycogen. A Aspirina
de apresentao, tambm conhecida como cido de acetylsalicylic, uma droga de
salicylate, freqentemente usado como um analgsico aliviar dores menores e dores,
como um antipyretic reduzir febre, e como um medicamento antiinflamatrio. A aspirina
tambm tem um antiplatelet ou efeito de anti-clotting e usado em a longo prazo em
doses baixas prevenir ataques cardacos, golpes e formao de cogulo de sangue nas
pessoas em risco alto para desenvolver cogulos de sangue [1]. Tambm foi estabelecido
que doses baixas de aspirina podem ser dadas imediatamente depois que um ataque
cardaco reduzir o risco de outro ataque cardaco ou da morte de [2,3] cardaco de tecido.
A aspirina era o membro primeiro-descoberto da classe de drogas conhecido como drogas
de antiinflamatrio de no-steroidal (NSAIDs), no todo que so salicylates, embora tm
efeitos semelhantes e a maioria ter algum mecanismo de ao que envolve inibio no-
seletivo do cyclooxygenase de enzima. Apesar dos benefcios cardiovasculares de
aspirina, um dano potencial de gastrointestinal foi anotado em vrios clnico e estudos de
pre-clincal. Os efeitos colaterais indesejveis principais de aspirina so lceras de
gastrointestinal e hemorragia de estmago, e tinnitus, especialmente em doses mais altas.
O Cytokines tal como fator-alfa de necrose de tumor interleukin (TNF-\),-6 (IL-6) e
interleukin-10 (IL-10) joga papis importantes na inflamao aguda de fase assim como
em manuteno e regulamento da severidade de lcera gstrica [4]. A induo de aspirina
caracterizada por infiltrao de neutrophils, inibio de fator de crescimento, e elevao
de cytokines, que produzida por macrophages ativado. [5,6]. O Fucoidan um
polysaccharide de sulfated achou principalmente em vrias espcie de algas marrons tal
como kombu, moui de limu, bladderwrack, wakame, mozuku, e hijiki, e formas de
variante de fucoidan tambm foram achadas em espcie animal, inclusive o pepino de
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
mar. Recentemente, pesquisas farmacuticas substanciais foram feitas em fucoidan. Em
conseqncia destas pesquisas, fucoidan agora est sendo vendido como um nutraceutical
e alimento suplementam [7,8]. Um estudo indicou esse fucoidan induzir apoptosis em
linhas humanas de clula de linfoma, como bem pesquisadores tambm mostraram esse
fucoidan inibir hyperplasia em coelhos [9]. Poucos estudos informaram o efeito de
fucoidan em profissional e cytokines inflamatrio [10]. Em modelos animais, ingesto de
fucoidan tem efeitos de inhibitory em tumores, que aparecem ser associado com um
crescimento em interferon-gama (IFN- ^), interleukin-12 (IL-12), e estmulo de
imunidade inata [11]. Semelhantemente, um estudo informou esse fucoidan derivou de
tokida de okamuranus de Cladosiphon melhora murine colitis crnico pelo mais baixo-
regulamento de IL-6 produo em clulas colnicas de epithelial [12]. Recentemente, foi
demonstrado que fucoidan uma substncia segura com potencial para proteo gstrica
[13]. Portanto, o objetivo neste estudo investigar a eficcia de fucoidan na aspirina
ulcerao induzida, uma nova aproximao para ulcerao causada por NSAID.

2. Materiais e mtodos 2,1. Qumicas Fucoidan obteve de Sigma Co. Qumica. (St. O
Louis, MO) foi usado para o estudo. A amostra foi armazenada numa condio adequada
de acordo com instrues de Sigma. Todos os outros compostos foram comprados de
Sigma (exceto indicado contrariamente).

2,2. Animais experimentais que ratos de Albino masculinos Adultos de pesagem de
tenso de Wistar sobre g 130V160 foram obtidos da Inc. Oriental. (Seoul, a Repblica
de Coria). Os ratos foram abrigados seis por jaula em jaula clara de polycarbonate e
foram alimentados com uma dieta animal normal e libitum de anncio de gua sob
temperatura controlada condiciona oC (222) com 12 luz de h e ciclos de escurido.
Todos animais receberam cuidado adequado de acordo com mtodos aprovados sob
diretrizes institucionais e experincias foi conduzido de acordo com princpios
anunciados no Ato Animal de Cuidado, preparado pelo Ministrio de Agricultura e
Terra da floresta, a Repblica de Coria.

2,3. Em vivo Grupo experimental de protocolo eu ratos receberam
carboxymethylcellulose (0.5%) como veculo, e ratos de III de Grupo foram dados dose
oral de aspirina (Sigma, 400 peso de corpo de mg/kg) em dia 14 depois de 48 fasting de
perodo. Agrupe II ratos foram dados fucoidan s (0,02 peso de corpo de g/kg, p.o) para
duas semanas, Grupo IV abrangeu ratos foram dados fucoidan (0,02 peso de corpo de
g/kg, p.o) para duas semanas e fasted para 48 horas e colocam tratado oralmente com
aspirina (400 peso de corpo de mg/kg, suspendeu em 0,5% carboxymethylcellulose). No
fim de perodo experimental, ratos foram anestesiados sob ter e sacrificado por
decapitao cervical. As amostras de sangue tomadas dos animais experimentais sem
qualquer anticoagulante foram centrifugadas em 3.000 g para 10 min obter soro claro.
As amostras de tecido de estmago foram fixadas em 10 % amorteceu formalin para
histopathology. O pH de contedo gstrico e mudanas de peso de corpo foram anotados.

2,4. A anlise de Histochemical que tecido Gstrico foi fixado em 10% neutro amorteceu
formalin, desidratado, parafina enterrada, processado, secionou em 5 espessura de gm e
manchado com haematoxylin e eosin (H&E). O critrio de avaliao da contagem de
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
histological era de acordo com o mtodo descrito previamente por Dokmeci et al. [14] : 0
X mucosa normal, 1 estrago de clula de epithelial de X, 2 perturbao de glandular de
X, vasocongestion ou edema no mucosa superior, 3 perturbao de mucosal de X,
vasocongestion ou edema no mucosa mdio-mais baixo, e 4 X que perturbao extensa
de mucosal envolvendo a espessura plena do mucosa. O valor mesquinho total das
contagens de estrago para cada um dos campos foi tomado como o ndice de lcera de
histological para essa seo. Para o cido-Schiff Peridico (PAS) manchando, sees de
dewaxed foram manchadas usando um comercial PAS manchando estojo de sistema
(Sigma) de acordo com o fabricantedirees de s [14].

Translated to English
Abstract
It was evaluated the effects of fucoidan, on biochemical and immunological parameters,
on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, aspirin, induced ulcer in rats. The status of
stomach tissue glycogen storage and histological changes were also examined.
Examination of basic biochemical parameters showed significant (p < 0.01) alterations in
aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) transaminases in ulcer induced rats. However,
moderate alterations (p < 0.05) were observed in the levels of cholesterol and blood urea
nitrogen (BUN). Analysis of aspirin treated rats serum cytokines showed a moderate
decrease in interleukin-10 (IL-10) with considerable increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and
interferon- ^ (INF-^) as compared to control. Histopathological examination showed
neutrophil infiltration, inflammation in oxyntic cells with altered glycogen storage.
Administration of fucoidan showed considerable (p < 0.05) protection against ulceration
by inhibiting the acute alterations of AST, ALT, cytokines and stomach glycogen. But no
significant inhibition was observed on the status of BUN. However, aggravated serum
INF-^ was observed in the treated group. These findings suggest that the anti-ulcer
property of fucoidan might contribute in protecting the inflammatory cytokine mediated
oxidative damage to gastric mucosa.

Keywords: Fucoidan; Aspirin; Ulcer; Cytokines; Glycogen

1. Introduction
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid, is a salicylate drug, often used as an
analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an
anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet or anti-clotting effect and
is used in long-term at low doses to prevent heart attacks, strokes and blood clot
formation in people at high risk for developing blood clots [1]. It has also been
established that low doses of aspirin may be given immediately after a heart attack to
reduce the risk of another heart attack or of the death of cardiac tissue [2,3]. Aspirin was
the first-discovered member of the class of drugs known as non-steroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), not all of which are salicylates, although they all have
similar effects and most have some mechanism of action which involves non-selective
inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase.
Despite the cardiovascular benefits of aspirin, a potential gastrointestinal harm has been
noted in several clinical and pre-clincal studies. The main undesirable side effects of
aspirin are gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach bleeding, and tinnitus, especially in higher
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
doses. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-\), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and
interleukin-10 (IL-10) play important roles in the acute phase inflammation as well as in
maintenance and regulation of the severity of gastric ulcer [4]. The induction of aspirin is
characterized by infiltration of neutrophils, growth factor inhibition, and elevation of
cytokines, which is produced by activated macrophages. [5,6].
Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide found mainly in various species of brown
seaweeds such as kombu, limu moui, bladderwrack, wakame, mozuku, and hijiki, and
variant forms of fucoidan have also been found in animal species, including the sea
cucumber. Recently, substantial pharmaceutical researches have been done on fucoidan.
As a consequence of these researches, fucoidan is now being marketed as a nutraceutical
and food supplement [7,8]. A study have indicated that fucoidan can induce apoptosis in
human lymphoma cell lines, as well researchers have also showed that fucoidan can
inhibit hyperplasia in rabbits [9]. Few studies have reported the effect of fucoidan on pro
and inflammatory cytokines [10]. In animal models, ingestion of fucoidan has inhibitory
effects on tumors, which appear to be associated with a rise in interferon-gamma (IFN-
^), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and stimulation of innate immunity [11]. Similarly, a study
has reported that fucoidan derived from Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida ameliorates
murine chronic colitis through the down-regulation of IL-6 production on colonic
epithelial cells [12].
Recently, it was demonstrated that fucoidan is a safe substance with potential for gastric
protection [13]. Therefore, the objective in this study is to investigate the effectiveness of
fucoidan on the aspirin induced ulceration, a new approach for ulceration caused by
NSAID.

2. Materials and methods
2.1. Chemicals
Fucoidan procured from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO) was used for the study.
The sample was stored in a proper condition as per Sigma instructions. All other
compounds were purchased from Sigma (except indicated otherwise).

2.2. Experimental animals
Adult male Albino rats of Wistar strain weighing about 130V160 g were procured from
the Orient Inc. (Seoul, Republic of Korea). Rats were housed six per cage in clear
polycarbonate cage and were fed with a standard animal diet and water ad libitum under
controlled temperature conditions (222 oC) with 12 h light and dark cycles. All
animals received proper care according to methods approved under institutional
guidelines and experiments was conducted according to principles enunciated in the
Animal Care Act, prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Republic of
Korea.

2.3. In vivo experimental protocol
Group I rats received carboxymethylcellulose (0.5%) as vehicle, and Group III rats were
given oral dose of aspirin (Sigma, 400 mg/kg body weight) on day 14 after 48 period
fasting. Group II rats were given fucoidan alone (0.02 g/kg body weight, p.o) for two
weeks, Group IV comprised rats were given fucoidan (0.02 g/kg body weight, p.o) for
two weeks and fasted for 48 hours and post treated orally with aspirin (400 mg/kg body
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
weight, suspended in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose). At the end of experimental period,
rats were anesthetized under ether and sacrificed by cervical decapitation. The blood
samples taken from the experimental animals without any anticoagulant were centrifuged
at 3,000 g for 10 min to obtain clear serum. Stomach tissue samples were fixed in 10
% buffered formalin for histopathology. The pH of gastric content and body weight
changes were noted.

2.4. Histochemical analysis
Gastric tissue was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, dehydrated, paraffin
embedded, processed, sectioned in 5 gm thickness and stained with haematoxylin and
eosin (H&E). The assessment criteria of the histological score was according to the
method described previously by Dokmeci et al. [14]: 0 X normal mucosa, 1 X epithelial
cell damage, 2 X glandular disruption, vasocongestion or edema in the upper mucosa, 3
X mucosal disruption, vasocongestion or edema in the mid-lower mucosa, and 4 X
extensive mucosal disruption involving the full thickness of the mucosa. The overall
mean value of the damage scores for each of the fields was taken as the histological ulcer
index for that section. For the Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, dewaxed sections
were stained using a commercial PAS staining system kit (Sigma) according to the
manufacturers directions [14].



Norwegian to English

Abstraher Det ble evaluert virkningene av fucoidan, p biokjemisk og immunological
parametre, p ikke-steroidal anti-inflammatory rusgift, aspirin, forrsaket pent sr i
rotter. Statusen av magevev glycogen lagring og histological forandringer ble ogs
underskt. Underskelse av grunnleggendee biokjemiske parametre viste signifikant (p
<0,01) forandringer i aspartate (AST) og alanine (ALT) transaminases i pent sr
forrsaket seg rotter. Men modererer forandringer (ble p <0,05) observert i nivene av
kolesterol og blodurinsyrenitrogen (BOLLE). Analyse av aspirinen behandlet rotter
serum cytokines viste et modererer nedgang i interleukin-10 (IL-10) med betydelig
kning av interleukin-6 (IL-6) og interferon- ^ (INF-^) sammenliknet som til styre.
Histopathological underskelse viste neutrophil infiltrasjon, inflammation i oxyntic celler
med forandrt glycogen lagring. Administrasjon av fucoidan viste seg betydelig (p <0,05)
beskyttelse mot ulceration ved hemme de akutte forandringene av AST, ALT, cytokines
og mage glycogen. Men ingen signifikant hemning ble observert p statusen av BOLLE.
Men, irritert serum INF-^ ble observert i den behandlede gruppen. Disse skingene
foreslr at anti-pent sr eiendomen av fucoidan kunne bidra ved beskyttelsen meglet
inflammatorys cytokine oxidative skade p magemucosa.

Stikkord : Fucoidan ; Aspirin ; pent sr ; Cytokines ; Glycogen 1. Innledning Aspirin,
ogs vite som acetylsalicylic syre, er en salicylate rusgift, som ofte blir brukt som en
analgesic til lette underordnete smerter og smerter, som en antipyretic til redusere
feber, og som en anti-inflammatory medisinering. Aspirin har ogs en antiplatelet eller
anti-clotting virkning og er brukt i langsiktig p lav dose til forhindre hjerteangrep, slag
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
og blodklumpdanning i folk p hy risiko for utvikleene av blodklumper [1]. Det ha ogs
blitt etablert at lav dose av aspirin kan bli gitt straks etter et hjerteangrep til redusere
risikoen av enda et hjerteangrep eller av dden av hjertevev 2,3. Aspirin var det frst-
oppdagede medlemet av klassen av rusgiftene visste som ikke-steroidal anti-
inflammatory rusgifter (NSAIDs), kunner ikke som er salicylates av, skjnt de kunner har
virkninger liknende og mest har noe mekanisme av tiltaket som involverer ikke--selektiv
hemning av enzymet cyclooxygenase. Tross de kardiovaskulre fordelene av aspirinen
ha blitt bemerket en potensiell gastrointestinal skade i adskillige klinisk og pre-clincal
studier. De hovedunskete bivirkningene av aspirinen er gastrointestinal pent sr og
mage bl, og tinnitus, spesielt i hyere dose. Cytokines slik som svulst necrosis faktor-
alfa (TNF-), interleukin-6 (IL-6) og interleukin-10 (IL-10) leker viktige roller i den
akutte fasen inflammation ogs som i vedlikehold og regulering av strengheten av
magepent sr [4]. Induksjonen av aspirinen blir karaktisert av infiltrasjon av neutrophils,
vekstfaktorehemning, og hyde av cytokines, som er produsert ved aktivisert
macrophages. 5,6. Fucoidan er en sulfated polysaccharide som blir funnet
hovedsakelig i forskjellig art av brun seaweeds slik som kombu, limu moui,
bladderwrack, wakame, mozuku, og hijiki, og avvikende former av fucoidan ogs ha blitt
funnet i dyrart, samt sjen agurken. Nylig ha blitt gjort vesentlig kvalifikasjonsforskning
p fucoidan. Som blir en konsekvens av disse forskningene, fucoidan n markedsfrt som
en nutraceutical og mat supplerer 7,8. Et studium har angitt den fucoidan kan
forrsake apoptosis i menneskelige lymfekreftcelleledninger, som godt forskere ogs har
vist den fucoidan kan hemme hyperplasia i kaniner [9]. F studier har rapportert
virkningen av fucoidan p pro og inflammatory cytokines [10]. I dyrmodeller har
pfylling av fucoidan hemmende virkninger p svulster, som kommer fram til vre
tilknyttet med en oppstigning i interferon-gamma (IFN- ^), interleukin-12 (IL-12), og
stimulering av medfdt immunitet [11]. Liknende har rapportert et studium den fucoidan
som blir derivert fra Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida ameliorates murine kronisk colitis
gjennom ned-reguleringen av IL-6 produksjon p colonic epithelial celler [12]. Nylig ble
det demonstrert at fucoidan er en sikker substans med potensial for magebeskyttelse [13].
Derfor er formlet i dette studiet til underske effektiviteten av fucoidan p aspirinen
forrsaket ulceration, en ny tilnrming for ulceration som ha blitt forrsaket av NSAID.

2. Stoff og metoder 2,1. Kjemikalier Fucoidan skaffet fra Sigma Kjemisk Co. (Str. Louis,
MO) ble brukt for studiet. Prven ble lagret i et skikkelig forhold som pr. Sigma
instruksjoner. Alle andre blandinger ble anskaffet fra Sigma (unntar anga ellers).

2,2. Eksperimentale dyr Voksent hann Albino rotter av Wistar belastnings veiing om
130V160 ble g skaffet fra den stlige Inc. (Seoul, Republikk av Korea). Rotter ble huse
seks pr. bur i klart polycarbonate bur og ble matet med en normal dyrdiett og
vannavertissement libitum under styrt temperatur betinger (222 oC) med 12 h lys og
mrk sykluser. Alle dyr mottok skikkelig bekymring gir til metoder som blir godkjent
under institusjonsretningslinjer og eksperimenter ble ledet gir til prinsipp enunciated i det
Dyr bekymringsLov, forberedt ved landbrukDepartementet og Forestry, Republikk av
Korea.

COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
2,3. I vivo eksperimental protokoll Gruppe jeg mottok rotter carboxymethylcellulose
(0.5%) som kjrety, og Gruppe III rotter ble gitt oral dose av aspirin (Sigma, 400 mg/kg
kroppvekter) p dag 14 etter 48 periode fasting. Gruppe II rotter ble gitt fucoidan alene
(0,02 g/kg kroppvekter, p.o) for to ukers, Gruppe IV omfattet rotter ble gitt fucoidan
(0,02 g/kg kroppvekter, p.o) for to ukers og fasted i 48 timer og posterer behandlet oralt
med aspirin (400 mg/kg kroppvekter, suspenderte i 0,5% carboxymethylcellulose). P
slutten av eksperimental periode ble rotter anesthetized under eter og ofret ved cervical
decapitation. Blodet prver tatt fra de eksperimentale dyrene uten noe antikoagulerende
ble centrifuged p 3.000 g for 10 minimum til f klar serum. Magevevprver var faste
i 10 % sttte formalin for histopathology. PH av mageinnhold og kroppvektforandringer
ble bemerket.

2,4. Histochemical analyseMagevev var fast i 10% nytral sttt formalin, trket, nedlagt
parafin, bearbeidet, sectioned i 5 gm tykkelse og flekket med haematoxylin og eosin
(H&E). Vurderingene kriteriene av histological stillingen ga til metoden som ha blitt
beskrevet tidligere av Dokmeci et al. [14] : 0 X normal mucosa, 1 X epithelial
celleskade, 2 X kjertelavbrudd, vasocongestion eller edema i den vre mucosa, 3 X
mucosal avbrudd, vasocongestion eller edema i den midtnedre mucosa, og 4 X vidt
mucosal avbrudd involverende den fulle tykkelsen av mucosa. Totalgjennomsnittet
verdien av skadene stillingene for hvert av feltene ble tatt som histological pent sret
indeksen for det kapittelet. For den Periodiske Syre-Schiff (HYTALERE) ble flekking,
dewaxed kapittler flekket bruke en kommersielle HYTALERE som flekker
systemutstyr (Sigma) gi til produsentens retninger [14].

Translated to English

Abstract
It was evaluated the effects of fucoidan, on biochemical and immunological parameters,
on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, aspirin, induced ulcer in rats. The status of
stomach tissue glycogen storage and histological changes were also examined.
Examination of basic biochemical parameters showed significant (p < 0.01) alterations in
aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) transaminases in ulcer induced rats. However,
moderate alterations (p < 0.05) were observed in the levels of cholesterol and blood urea
nitrogen (BUN). Analysis of aspirin treated rats serum cytokines showed a moderate
decrease in interleukin-10 (IL-10) with considerable increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and
interferon- ^ (INF-^) as compared to control. Histopathological examination showed
neutrophil infiltration, inflammation in oxyntic cells with altered glycogen storage.
Administration of fucoidan showed considerable (p < 0.05) protection against ulceration
by inhibiting the acute alterations of AST, ALT, cytokines and stomach glycogen. But no
significant inhibition was observed on the status of BUN. However, aggravated serum
INF-^ was observed in the treated group. These findings suggest that the anti-ulcer
property of fucoidan might contribute in protecting the inflammatory cytokine mediated
oxidative damage to gastric mucosa.

Keywords: Fucoidan; Aspirin; Ulcer; Cytokines; Glycogen

COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
1. Introduction
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid, is a salicylate drug, often used as an
analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an
anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet or anti-clotting effect and
is used in long-term at low doses to prevent heart attacks, strokes and blood clot
formation in people at high risk for developing blood clots [1]. It has also been
established that low doses of aspirin may be given immediately after a heart attack to
reduce the risk of another heart attack or of the death of cardiac tissue [2,3]. Aspirin was
the first-discovered member of the class of drugs known as non-steroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), not all of which are salicylates, although they all have
similar effects and most have some mechanism of action which involves non-selective
inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase.
Despite the cardiovascular benefits of aspirin, a potential gastrointestinal harm has been
noted in several clinical and pre-clincal studies. The main undesirable side effects of
aspirin are gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach bleeding, and tinnitus, especially in higher
doses. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-\), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and
interleukin-10 (IL-10) play important roles in the acute phase inflammation as well as in
maintenance and regulation of the severity of gastric ulcer [4]. The induction of aspirin is
characterized by infiltration of neutrophils, growth factor inhibition, and elevation of
cytokines, which is produced by activated macrophages. [5,6].
Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide found mainly in various species of brown
seaweeds such as kombu, limu moui, bladderwrack, wakame, mozuku, and hijiki, and
variant forms of fucoidan have also been found in animal species, including the sea
cucumber. Recently, substantial pharmaceutical researches have been done on fucoidan.
As a consequence of these researches, fucoidan is now being marketed as a nutraceutical
and food supplement [7,8]. A study have indicated that fucoidan can induce apoptosis in
human lymphoma cell lines, as well researchers have also showed that fucoidan can
inhibit hyperplasia in rabbits [9]. Few studies have reported the effect of fucoidan on pro
and inflammatory cytokines [10]. In animal models, ingestion of fucoidan has inhibitory
effects on tumors, which appear to be associated with a rise in interferon-gamma (IFN-
^), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and stimulation of innate immunity [11]. Similarly, a study
has reported that fucoidan derived from Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida ameliorates
murine chronic colitis through the down-regulation of IL-6 production on colonic
epithelial cells [12].
Recently, it was demonstrated that fucoidan is a safe substance with potential for gastric
protection [13]. Therefore, the objective in this study is to investigate the effectiveness of
fucoidan on the aspirin induced ulceration, a new approach for ulceration caused by
NSAID.

2. Materials and methods
2.1. Chemicals
Fucoidan procured from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO) was used for the study.
The sample was stored in a proper condition as per Sigma instructions. All other
compounds were purchased from Sigma (except indicated otherwise).

2.2. Experimental animals
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Adult male Albino rats of Wistar strain weighing about 130V160 g were procured from
the Orient Inc. (Seoul, Republic of Korea). Rats were housed six per cage in clear
polycarbonate cage and were fed with a standard animal diet and water ad libitum under
controlled temperature conditions (222 oC) with 12 h light and dark cycles. All
animals received proper care according to methods approved under institutional
guidelines and experiments was conducted according to principles enunciated in the
Animal Care Act, prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Republic of
Korea.

2.3. In vivo experimental protocol
Group I rats received carboxymethylcellulose (0.5%) as vehicle, and Group III rats were
given oral dose of aspirin (Sigma, 400 mg/kg body weight) on day 14 after 48 period
fasting. Group II rats were given fucoidan alone (0.02 g/kg body weight, p.o) for two
weeks, Group IV comprised rats were given fucoidan (0.02 g/kg body weight, p.o) for
two weeks and fasted for 48 hours and post treated orally with aspirin (400 mg/kg body
weight, suspended in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose). At the end of experimental period,
rats were anesthetized under ether and sacrificed by cervical decapitation. The blood
samples taken from the experimental animals without any anticoagulant were centrifuged
at 3,000 g for 10 min to obtain clear serum. Stomach tissue samples were fixed in 10
% buffered formalin for histopathology. The pH of gastric content and body weight
changes were noted.

2.4. Histochemical analysis
Gastric tissue was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, dehydrated, paraffin
embedded, processed, sectioned in 5 gm thickness and stained with haematoxylin and
eosin (H&E). The assessment criteria of the histological score was according to the
method described previously by Dokmeci et al. [14]: 0 X normal mucosa, 1 X epithelial
cell damage, 2 X glandular disruption, vasocongestion or edema in the upper mucosa, 3
X mucosal disruption, vasocongestion or edema in the mid-lower mucosa, and 4 X
extensive mucosal disruption involving the full thickness of the mucosa. The overall
mean value of the damage scores for each of the fields was taken as the histological ulcer
index for that section. For the Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, dewaxed sections
were stained using a commercial PAS staining system kit (Sigma) according to the
manufacturers directions [14].



Turkish to English

ZET
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Meme tberklozu (TB), nadir grlen bir TB formudur. lkemizde genelde vaka
sunumlar eklinde yaynlar yaplmtr. Fakat ksa zaman aralnda ciddi vaka gruplarn
ieren raporlar mevcut deildir.
2004 -2008 yllar arasnda Diyarbakrda bulunan drt verem sava dispanserinde (VSD)
tedavi alan meme TB hastalar retrospektif olarak incelenmitir. Demografik veriler, TB
anamnezleri, semptomlar ve muayene bulgular da kaydedilmitir. Tan yntemleri,
tedavi rejimleri incelenmitir.
27 kadn hastann ya ortalamas 31,51 8,39 idi. Hastalarn 26 yeni meme TB idi, Bir
hasta daha nce lenfadenit TB geirdii iin nks TB olarak kaydedildi. Hastalarn biri
meme aknt kltryle, dierleri ise histopatolojik yntemlerle tan almt.
26 hasta tedavisini ifa ile tamamlamt. Bir hasta baka bir VSD nakil olmutu.
Dorudan gzetimli tedavi (DGT) uygulamas alan 14 hasta ortalama 6,67 1,65 ay,
DGT uygulanmadan tedavi alan 12 hasta ise ortalama 8,50 1,62 ay tedavi almt ve bu
fark istatistiksel olarak anlamlyd (p = 0.01). Yedi hastaya ek olarak segmental
rezeksiyon uygulanmt. En sk hasta saptanan yl 2007 idi. DGT uygulamas sonras ilde
akcier d TB oranlar ve buna bal olarak meme TB oranlar artmt.
Meme TB klinikte fazla karlalmayan bir antitedir. Tanda gecikme olmamas iin TB
prevalansnn yksek olan blgelerde memede kitle, ilik ve aknt ikayetleri olan
hastalarda meme TB dnlmelidir. Son yllarda uygulanan DGT ile bu hastaln ksa
sreli rejimle baarl bir ekilde tedavi edilebilmektedir.

Translated to English

ABSTRACT
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Breast tuberculosis (TB) is a rarely observed form of TB. To the best of our knowledge,
there are no reports on serious case groups treated within a short time period although
general case presentations have been published in our country.
Between 2004 and 2008, breast TB patients who have been receiving treatment in the
four tuberculosis control dispensaries (TCDs) located in Diyarbakir have been
retrospectively examined. Demographic data, TB anamnesis, symptoms and examination
findings were recorded. Further, the diagnostic methods and treatment regimes were
analyzed.
In this study, 27 female patients with an average age of 31.51 8.39 years were
examined. Out of 27 patients, 26 patients had TB. Since one patient previously had
lymphadenitis TB, this case was recorded as relapse TB. One patient was diagnosed by
breast flix culture, and the rest of them by histopathological methods.
Treatment of 26 patients ended with cure. The patient with relapse TB was transferred to
TCD. Fourteen patients received treatment with directly supervised application (DST) for
an average of 6.67 1.65 months, and 12 patients received treatment without DST for an
average of 8.50 1.62 months. This difference was meaningful statistically (p = 0.01). In
addition, segmental resection was performed on 7 patients. Most frequently encountered
year was 2007. After the application of DST, non-lung TB rates and accordingly breast
TB rates were found to increase in the province.
Breast TB cases are rarely encountered in this clinic. In order to prevent the delay in
diagnosis, breast TB should be considered for the patients having bulk, tubercle and flix
complaints in breasts with high TB prevalence. Recently, the application of DST has
shown that this illness can be successfully treated with a short-term regime.
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
German to English

Ziehen Sie Es wurde bewertet die Wirkungen von fucoidan, auf biochemischen und
immunologischen Parametern, auf nicht steroidal inflammationsverhtender Droge,
Aspirin, veranlassten Geschwr in Ratten ab. Der Status von
Magengewebeglykogenaufbewahrung und histologische nderungen wurden auch
untersucht. Untersuchung grundlegender biochemischer Parameter hat bedeutsam gezeigt
(p <0,01) Vernderungen in aspartate (AST) und alanine (ALT) transaminases in
Geschwr hat Ratten veranlasst. Jedoch Vernderungen (wurde p <0,05) in den Hhen
von Cholesterin und Blutharnstoffstickstoff (BRTCHEN) beobachtet. Analyse des
Aspirins hat Ratten Serum cytokines hat gezeigt ein migt Abnahme in interleukin-10
(IL-10) mit betrchtlicher Zunahme von interleukin-6 (IL-6) und Interferon behandelt- ^
(INF-^) im Vergleich zu Steuerung. Histopathological hat Untersuchung neutrophil
Eindringen gezeigt, Entzndung in oxyntic Zellen mit vernderter
Glykogenaufbewahrung. Verwaltung von fucoidan hat betrchtlich gezeigt (p <0,05)
Schutz gegen ulceration durch Hemmen der akuten Vernderungen von AST, ALT,
cytokines und Magenglykogen. Aber keine bedeutsame Hemmung wurde auf dem Status
des BRTCHENS beobachtet. Jedoch, gereiztes Serum INF-^ wurde in der behandelten
Gruppe beobachtet. Diese Ergebnisse schlagen vor, dass das Antigeschwreigentum von
fucoidan drfte beitragen beim Schutz der aufrhrerische cytokine oxidative Schaden an
magen mucosa vermittelt hat.

Stichwrter: Fucoidan; Aspirin; Geschwr; Cytokines; Glykogen 1. Einfhrungsaspirin,
auch bekannt als acetylsalicylic Sure, ist eine salicylate Droge, die oft benutzt wird, als
ein analgetisches, kleine anhaltende Schmerzen zu entlasten, und Schmerzen, als ein
Fiebermittel, Fieber zu verringern, und als eine inflammationsverhtende Medikation.
Aspirin hat auch einen antiplatelet oder Anti gerinnende Wirkung und ist in langfristig an
niedrigen Dosen benutzt, Herzinfarkte, Schlge zu verhindern, und Blutgerinnselformung
in Leuten an hohem Risiko fr Entwickelnblutgerinnsel [1]. Es ist auch eingerichtet
worden, dass niedrige Dosen des Aspirins sofort gegeben werden drfen, nachdem ein
Herzinfarkt, das Risiko von einem anderen Herzinfarkt zu verringern, oder vom Tod von
Herzgewebe [2,3]. Aspirin war das erstentdeckte Mitglied von der Klasse der Drogen
bekannt als nicht steroidal inflammationsverhtende Drogen (NSAIDs), nicht alle, von
denen salicylates sind, obwohl sie alle haben hnliche Wirkungen und am meisten einen
Mechanismus der Handlung hat, der nicht selektive Hemmung vom Enzym
cyclooxygenase verwickelt. Trotz der kardiovaskulren Vorteile des Aspirins ist ein
potenzieller gastrointestinaler Schaden in mehrerer klinisch und vorclincal studien
gemerkt worden. Die Haupt unerwnschten Nebenwirkungen des Aspirins sind
gastrointestinale Geschwre und Magen blutend, und tinnitus, besonders in hheren
Dosen. Cytokines wie zum Beispiel Tumor Nekrose Faktoralpha (TNF-\), interleukin-6
(IL-6) und interleukin-10 (IL-10) spielen wichtige Rollen in der akuten
Phasenentzndung sowie in Wartung und Regelung von der Ernst des Magengeschwrs
[4]. Der Einlass des Aspirins wird von Eindringen von neutrophils,
Wachstumsfaktorhemmung, und Erhhung von cytokines charakterisiert, der von
aktivierten Makrophagen hergestellt wird. [5,6]. Fucoidan ist ein sulfated polysaccharide,
wird gefunden der hauptschlich in verschiedener Spezies brauner Seetange wie zum
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Beispiel kombu, limu moui, bladderwrack, wakame, mozuku, und hijiki, und
abweichende Formen von fucoidan auch in Tierspezies gefunden worden ist,
einschlielich der Seengurke. Krzlich ist wesentliche pharmazeutische Forschung auf
fucoidan gemacht worden. Infolge dieser Forschung wird fucoidan jetzt auf den Markt als
ein nutraceutical und Speise ergnzen [7,8] gebracht. Ein Studium hat angezeigt, dass
jener fucoidan apoptosis in menschlichen Lymphomzellenlinien veranlassen kann, als gut
Forscher auch jenen fucoidan gezeigt haben, hyperplasia in Hasen [9] kann hemmen.
Wenige Studien haben die Wirkung von fucoidan auf Profi und aufrhrerischem
cytokines [10] berichtet. In Tiermodellen wirkt Eingabe von fucoidan auf Tumoren, die
erscheinen, mit einem Steigen in Interferongamma (IFN- ^) verbunden zu werden,
interleukin-12 (IL-12), und Anregung angeborener Immunitt [11]. hnlich hat ein
Studium berichtet, dass jener fucoidan, der von Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida
abgeleitet wird, murine chronischen colitis durch den Untenregelung von IL-6
Produktionen auf kolon epithelial Zellen [12] verbessert. Krzlich wurde es vorgefhrt,
dass fucoidan eine sichere Substanz mit Potential fr Magenschutz [13] ist. Daher ist das
Ziel in diesem Studium, die Wirksamkeit von fucoidan auf dem Aspirin veranlasst
ulceration zu untersuchen, hat eine neue Annherung fr ulceration durch NSAID
verursacht.

2. Materialien und Methoden 2,1. Chemikalien Fucoidan haben von Sigma Chemischem
Co verschafft. (Str. Louis, MO) wurde benutzt fr das Studium. Die Probe wurde in einer
passenden Bedingung als pro Sigma Anweisungen gespeichert. Alle anderen
Zusammensetzungen wurden von Sigma (auer angezeigt sonst) gekauft.

2,2. Experimentelle Tiere Erwachsene mnnliche Albino Ratten von Wistar Belastung
Wiegen um 130V160 wurde g vom stlichen Inc verschafft. (Seoul, Republik von
Korea). Ratten wurden sechs pro Kfig in klarem Polykarbonatkfig unterbracht und
wurden mit einer normalen Tierdit und Wasser Kleinanzeige libitum unter kontrollierter
Temperatur (222 oC) mit 12 h Licht und Finsterniszyklen zugefhrt gewhnt. Alle
Tiere haben passende Sorge gem Methoden empfangen, die unter institutionellen
Richtlinien genehmigt worden sind, und Versuche wurden gem Prinzipien geleitet, die
im artikuliert worden sind, Tiersorgentat, vorbereitet durch das Ministerium von
Landwirtschaft und Forstwirtschaft, Republik von Korea.

2,3. In vivo experimentellem Protokoll Gruppe ich haben Ratten carboxymethylcellulose
(0.5%) als Fahrzeug empfangen, und Gruppen III Ratten wurden mndlicher Dosis des
Aspirins (Sigma, 400 mg/Kgkrpergewicht) auf Tag 14 nach 48 Periode fastend gegeben.
Gruppen II Ratten wurden fucoidan allein (0,02 g/Kgkrpergewicht, p. O) fr zwei
Wochen, Gruppen IV hat eingeschlossen Ratten wurden gegeben fucoidan (0,02
g/Kgkrpergewicht, p. O) fr zwei Wochen gegeben und haben fr 48 Stunden gefastet
und stellt behandelt mndlich mit Aspirin auf (400 mg/Kgkrpergewicht, hat in 0,5%
carboxymethylcellulose suspendiert). Am Ende experimenteller Periode wurden Ratten
unter ther ansthesiert und haben durch zervikale Enthauptung geopfert. Die
Blutproben, die von den experimentellen Tieren ohne irgendeinen anticoagulant
genommen worden sind, wurden an 3.000 centrifuged Ng fr 10 min, klares Serum zu
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
erhalten. Magengewebeproben wurden in 10 repariert% hat formalin fr histopathology
gepuffert. Das pH von Mageninhalt und Krpergewichtnderungen wurden gemerkt.

2,4. Histochemical Analyse wurde Magengewebe in 10% neutralem gepuffertem
formalin, ausgetrocknetem, eingebettetem Paraffin, bearbeitet repariert, hat in 5 gm
Dicke geteilt und hat mit haematoxylin und eosin befleckt (H&E). Die
Einschtzungskriterien vom histologischen Ergebnis waren gem der Methode, die
vorher von Dokmeci et Al beschrieben worden ist. [14] : 0 X normal mucosa, 1 X
epithelial Zelle Schaden, 2 X drsige Unterbrechung, vasocongestion oder dem im
oberen mucosa, 3 X mucosal Unterbrechung, vasocongestion oder dem im mittlerunter
mucosa, und 4 X umfangreiche mucosal Unterbrechung verwickelnd die volle Dicke
vom mucosa. Der Gesamtmittelwert von den Schadenergebnissen fr jedes von den
Feldern wurde als der histologische Geschwrindex fr jenen Abschnitt genommen. Fr
den Periodischen Sauer Schiff (LAUTSPRECHER) Beflecken, dewaxed wurden
Abschnitte benutzend eine gewerblichen LAUTSPRECHER befleckt, die Systemsatz
(Sigma) gem dem Hersteller befleckens Richtungen [14].

Translated to English

Abstract
It was evaluated the effects of fucoidan, on biochemical and immunological parameters,
on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, aspirin, induced ulcer in rats. The status of
stomach tissue glycogen storage and histological changes were also examined.
Examination of basic biochemical parameters showed significant (p < 0.01) alterations in
aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) transaminases in ulcer induced rats. However,
moderate alterations (p < 0.05) were observed in the levels of cholesterol and blood urea
nitrogen (BUN). Analysis of aspirin treated rats serum cytokines showed a moderate
decrease in interleukin-10 (IL-10) with considerable increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and
interferon- ^ (INF-^) as compared to control. Histopathological examination showed
neutrophil infiltration, inflammation in oxyntic cells with altered glycogen storage.
Administration of fucoidan showed considerable (p < 0.05) protection against ulceration
by inhibiting the acute alterations of AST, ALT, cytokines and stomach glycogen. But no
significant inhibition was observed on the status of BUN. However, aggravated serum
INF-^ was observed in the treated group. These findings suggest that the anti-ulcer
property of fucoidan might contribute in protecting the inflammatory cytokine mediated
oxidative damage to gastric mucosa.

Keywords: Fucoidan; Aspirin; Ulcer; Cytokines; Glycogen

1. Introduction
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid, is a salicylate drug, often used as an
analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an
anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet or anti-clotting effect and
is used in long-term at low doses to prevent heart attacks, strokes and blood clot
formation in people at high risk for developing blood clots [1]. It has also been
established that low doses of aspirin may be given immediately after a heart attack to
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
reduce the risk of another heart attack or of the death of cardiac tissue [2,3]. Aspirin was
the first-discovered member of the class of drugs known as non-steroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), not all of which are salicylates, although they all have
similar effects and most have some mechanism of action which involves non-selective
inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase.
Despite the cardiovascular benefits of aspirin, a potential gastrointestinal harm has been
noted in several clinical and pre-clincal studies. The main undesirable side effects of
aspirin are gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach bleeding, and tinnitus, especially in higher
doses. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-\), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and
interleukin-10 (IL-10) play important roles in the acute phase inflammation as well as in
maintenance and regulation of the severity of gastric ulcer [4]. The induction of aspirin is
characterized by infiltration of neutrophils, growth factor inhibition, and elevation of
cytokines, which is produced by activated macrophages. [5,6].
Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide found mainly in various species of brown
seaweeds such as kombu, limu moui, bladderwrack, wakame, mozuku, and hijiki, and
variant forms of fucoidan have also been found in animal species, including the sea
cucumber. Recently, substantial pharmaceutical researches have been done on fucoidan.
As a consequence of these researches, fucoidan is now being marketed as a nutraceutical
and food supplement [7,8]. A study have indicated that fucoidan can induce apoptosis in
human lymphoma cell lines, as well researchers have also showed that fucoidan can
inhibit hyperplasia in rabbits [9]. Few studies have reported the effect of fucoidan on pro
and inflammatory cytokines [10]. In animal models, ingestion of fucoidan has inhibitory
effects on tumors, which appear to be associated with a rise in interferon-gamma (IFN-
^), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and stimulation of innate immunity [11]. Similarly, a study
has reported that fucoidan derived from Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida ameliorates
murine chronic colitis through the down-regulation of IL-6 production on colonic
epithelial cells [12].
Recently, it was demonstrated that fucoidan is a safe substance with potential for gastric
protection [13]. Therefore, the objective in this study is to investigate the effectiveness of
fucoidan on the aspirin induced ulceration, a new approach for ulceration caused by
NSAID.

2. Materials and methods
2.1. Chemicals
Fucoidan procured from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO) was used for the study.
The sample was stored in a proper condition as per Sigma instructions. All other
compounds were purchased from Sigma (except indicated otherwise).

2.2. Experimental animals
Adult male Albino rats of Wistar strain weighing about 130V160 g were procured from
the Orient Inc. (Seoul, Republic of Korea). Rats were housed six per cage in clear
polycarbonate cage and were fed with a standard animal diet and water ad libitum under
controlled temperature conditions (222 oC) with 12 h light and dark cycles. All
animals received proper care according to methods approved under institutional
guidelines and experiments was conducted according to principles enunciated in the
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
Animal Care Act, prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Republic of
Korea.

2.3. In vivo experimental protocol
Group I rats received carboxymethylcellulose (0.5%) as vehicle, and Group III rats were
given oral dose of aspirin (Sigma, 400 mg/kg body weight) on day 14 after 48 period
fasting. Group II rats were given fucoidan alone (0.02 g/kg body weight, p.o) for two
weeks, Group IV comprised rats were given fucoidan (0.02 g/kg body weight, p.o) for
two weeks and fasted for 48 hours and post treated orally with aspirin (400 mg/kg body
weight, suspended in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose). At the end of experimental period,
rats were anesthetized under ether and sacrificed by cervical decapitation. The blood
samples taken from the experimental animals without any anticoagulant were centrifuged
at 3,000 g for 10 min to obtain clear serum. Stomach tissue samples were fixed in 10
% buffered formalin for histopathology. The pH of gastric content and body weight
changes were noted.

2.4. Histochemical analysis
Gastric tissue was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, dehydrated, paraffin
embedded, processed, sectioned in 5 gm thickness and stained with haematoxylin and
eosin (H&E). The assessment criteria of the histological score was according to the
method described previously by Dokmeci et al. [14]: 0 X normal mucosa, 1 X epithelial
cell damage, 2 X glandular disruption, vasocongestion or edema in the upper mucosa, 3
X mucosal disruption, vasocongestion or edema in the mid-lower mucosa, and 4 X
extensive mucosal disruption involving the full thickness of the mucosa. The overall
mean value of the damage scores for each of the fields was taken as the histological ulcer
index for that section. For the Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, dewaxed sections
were stained using a commercial PAS staining system kit (Sigma) according to the
manufacturers directions [14].



French to English

Soustraire L'a t valu les effets de fucoidan, sur les paramtres biochimiques et
immunologiques, sur non-steroidal le drogue anti-incendiaire, l'aspirine, induit l'ulcre
dans les rats. Le statut d'emmagasinage de glycogen de tissu d'estomac et de changements
histologiques a t aussi examin. L'examen de paramtres biochimiques fondamentaux a
montr significatif (p <0,01) les changements dans aspartate (heure normale de
l'Atlantique) et alanine (ALT) transaminases dans l'ulcre a induit des rats. Cependant,
modrer des changements (p <0,05) ont t observ dans les niveaux de cholestrol et
d'azote d'ure de sang (le PETIT PAIN). L'analyse d'aspirine a trait du srum de rats
cytokines a montr une diminution modre dans interleukin-10 (IL-10) avec
l'augmentation considrable d'interleukin-6 (IL-6) et l'interfron- ^ (INF-^) comme a
compar pour contrler. L'examen de Histopathological a montr l'infiltration
neutrophil, l'inflammation dans les cellules d'oxyntic avec l'emmagasinage de glycogen
chang. L'administration de fucoidan a montr considrable (p <0,05) la protection contre
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
l'ulcration en gnant les changements aigus d'heure normale de l'Atlantique, ALT,
glycogen de cytokines et estomac. Mais aucune inhibition significative a t observe sur
le statut de PETIT PAIN. Cependant, INF aggrav de srum-^ a t observ dans le
groupe trait. Ces conclusions suggrent que la proprit anti- ulcre de fucoidan
contribue dans protger le cytokine incendiaire a agi en mdiateur les dommages
d'oxidative mucosa gastrique.

Mots rserves : Fucoidan ; l'Aspirine ; l'Ulcre ; Cytokines ; Glycogen 1. L'Aspirine
d'introduction, aussi connu comme l'acide d'acetylsalicylic, est un drogue de salicylate, a
utilis souvent comme une analgsique pour soulager des doleurs mineures, comme un
antipyrtique pour rduire la fivre, et comme un mdicaments anti-incendiaires.
L'aspirine a aussi un effet d'antiplatelet ou anti-coagule et est utilise dans long terme
aux doses basses pour empcher les assauts de coeur, les coups et la formation de caillot
de sang dans les gens l'haut risque pour dvelopper de caillots de sang [1]. Il a t aussi
tabli que les doses basses d'aspirine pourraient tre donnes immdiatement aprs qu'un
assaut de coeur pour rduire le risque d'un autre assaut de coeur ou de la mort de tissu
cardiaque [2,3]. L'aspirine tait le membre premier-dcouvert de la classe de drogues
connus comme non-steroidal les drogues anti-incendiaires (NSAIDs), qui tous n'est pas
salicylates, bien qu'ils ont des effets similaires et la plupart d'a du mcanisme d'action qui
implique l'inhibition non slective du cyclooxygenase d'enzyme. Malgr les avantages
cardio-vasculaires d'aspirine, un mal gastro-intestinal potentiel a t not dans plusieurs
cliniques et tudes de pr-clincal. Les effets secondaires indsirables principaux
d'aspirine sont des ulcres gastro-intestinaux et du saignement d'estomacs, et l'acouphne,
surtout dans les plus hautes doses. Cytokines comme l'interleukin de (TNF-\), de
facteur-alpha de ncrose de tumeur-6 (IL-6) et interleukin-10 (IL-10) joue des rles
importants dans l'inflammation de phase aigu de mme que dans l'entretien et le
rglement de la svrit d'ulcre gastrique [4]. L'induction d'aspirine est caractrise par
l'infiltration de neutrophils, l'inhibition de facteur de croissance, et l'lvation de
cytokines, qui est produit par macrophages activ. [5,6]. Fucoidan est un sulfated
polysaccharide a trouv principalement dans la diverse espce d'algues marines brunes
comme kombu, limu moui, bladderwrack, wakame, mozuku, et hijiki, et les formes de
variante de fucoidan a t aussi trouv dans l'espce animale, y compris la courgette de
mer. Rcemment, les recherches pharmaceutique substantielles ont t faites sur
fucoidan. Comme une consquence de ces recherches, fucoidan maintenant est mis sur le
march comme un nutraceutical et la nourriture complte [7,8]. Une tude a indiqu que
ce fucoidan peut induire apoptosis dans les lignes de cellule de lymphome humaines,
aussi les chercheurs ont montr aussi ce fucoidan peut gner hyperplasia dans les lapins
[9]. Peu d'tudes ont rapport l'effet de fucoidan sur le professionel et cytokines
incendiaire [10]. Dans les modles animaux, l'ingestion de fucoidan a des effets
inhibiteurs sur les tumeurs, qui ont l'air d'tre associes avec une hausse dans l'interfron-
gamma (IFN- ^), interleukin-12 (IL-12), et stimulation d'immunit inne [11]. De
mme, une tude a rapport ce fucoidan a driv de Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida
amliore murine la colite chronique par l'en bas-rglement d'IL-6 production sur les
cellules pithliales du clon [12]. Rcemment, il a t dmontr que fucoidan est une
substance sre avec le potentiel pour la protection gastrique [13]. Donc, l'objectif dans
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
cette tude est d'examiner l'efficacit de fucoidan sur l'aspirine l'ulcration induite, une
nouvelle approche pour l'ulcration cause par NSAID.

2. Les matriels et les mthodes 2,1. Fucoidan de produits chimiques a procur du
Produit chimique de Sigma Co. (St. Louis, MO) a t utilis pour l'tude. L'chantillon a
t emmagasin dans une condition correcte comme par les instructions de Sigma. Tous
autres composs ont t achets de Sigma (sauf indiqu autrement).

2,2. Les animaux exprimentaux les rats Albinos, mles et Adultes de peser de tension de
Wistar de 130V160 g a t procur de l'Orient Inc. (Soul, la Rpublique de Core). Les
rats ont t logs six par la cage dans la cage de polycarbonate claire et ont t nourris
avec un rgime et une eau animales standard ad libitum sous la temprature contrle
conditionne (22O2 oC) avec 12 lumire de h et les cycles d'obscurit. Tous animaux ont
reu le soin correct selon les mthodes approuves sous les indications et les expriences
institutionnelles a t dirig selon les principes prononcs dans le l'Acte de Soin
Animal, prt par le Ministre d'Agriculture et d'Exploitation des forts, la Rpublique de
Core.

2,3. Dans vivo le Groupe exprimental de protocole je rats ont reu
carboxymethylcellulose (0.5%) comme le vhicule, et Grouper des rats III ont t donns
la dose orale d'aspirine (Sigma, 400 poids de corps de mg/kg) sur le jour 14 aprs 48
fasting de priode. Grouper des rats II ont t donns fucoidan seul (0,02 poids de corps
de g/kg, p.o) pour deux semaines, IV de Groupe a compris des rats ont t donns
fucoidan (0,02 poids de corps de g/kg, p.o) pour deux semaines et fasted pour 48 heures
et poste trait oralement avec l'aspirine (400 poids de corps de mg/kg, a suspendu dans
0,5% carboxymethylcellulose). A la fin de priode exprimentale, les rats ont t
anesthsi sous l'ther et sacrifi par la dcapitation cervicale. Le sang essaie pris des
animaux exprimentaux sans n'importe quel anticoagulant ont t centrifuged 3.000
Ng pour 10 minimum pour obtenir du srum clair. Les chantillons de tissu d'estomac
ont t rpars dans 10 % buffered formalin pour histopathology. Le pH de contenu
gastrique et de changements de poids de corps a t not.

2,4. L'analyse de Histochemical le tissu Gastrique a t rpar dans 10% buffered
formalin neutre, dshydrat, la paraffine enfonce, a trait, a sectionn dans 5 l'paisseur
de gm et tach avec haematoxylin et eosin (H&E). Les critres d'valuation du score
histologique taient selon la mthode dcrite auparavant par Dokmeci et al. [14] : 0 X
mucosa normal, 1 X dommages de cellule pithliaux, 2 X interruption glandulaire,
vasocongestion ou l'oedme dans le mucosa suprieur, 3 l'interruption de mucosal de X,
vasocongestion ou l'oedme dans le mucosa mi-plus bas, et 4 X interruption de mucosal
vaste impliquant l'paisseur pleine du mucosa. La valeur moyenne gnrale des scores de
dommages pour chacun des champs a t prise comme l'indice d'ulcre histologique pour
cette section. Pour l'Acide-Schiff Priodique (le PAS) tachant, les sections de dewaxed
ont t taches utilisant un PAS commercial tachant la trousse de systme (Sigma) selon
le fabricantles directions de s [14].

Translated to English
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION

Abstract
It was evaluated the effects of fucoidan, on biochemical and immunological parameters,
on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, aspirin, induced ulcer in rats. The status of
stomach tissue glycogen storage and histological changes were also examined.
Examination of basic biochemical parameters showed significant (p < 0.01) alterations in
aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) transaminases in ulcer induced rats. However,
moderate alterations (p < 0.05) were observed in the levels of cholesterol and blood urea
nitrogen (BUN). Analysis of aspirin treated rats serum cytokines showed a moderate
decrease in interleukin-10 (IL-10) with considerable increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and
interferon- ^ (INF-^) as compared to control. Histopathological examination showed
neutrophil infiltration, inflammation in oxyntic cells with altered glycogen storage.
Administration of fucoidan showed considerable (p < 0.05) protection against ulceration
by inhibiting the acute alterations of AST, ALT, cytokines and stomach glycogen. But no
significant inhibition was observed on the status of BUN. However, aggravated serum
INF-^ was observed in the treated group. These findings suggest that the anti-ulcer
property of fucoidan might contribute in protecting the inflammatory cytokine mediated
oxidative damage to gastric mucosa.

Keywords: Fucoidan; Aspirin; Ulcer; Cytokines; Glycogen

1. Introduction
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid, is a salicylate drug, often used as an
analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an
anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet or anti-clotting effect and
is used in long-term at low doses to prevent heart attacks, strokes and blood clot
formation in people at high risk for developing blood clots [1]. It has also been
established that low doses of aspirin may be given immediately after a heart attack to
reduce the risk of another heart attack or of the death of cardiac tissue [2,3]. Aspirin was
the first-discovered member of the class of drugs known as non-steroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), not all of which are salicylates, although they all have
similar effects and most have some mechanism of action which involves non-selective
inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase.
Despite the cardiovascular benefits of aspirin, a potential gastrointestinal harm has been
noted in several clinical and pre-clincal studies. The main undesirable side effects of
aspirin are gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach bleeding, and tinnitus, especially in higher
doses. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-\), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and
interleukin-10 (IL-10) play important roles in the acute phase inflammation as well as in
maintenance and regulation of the severity of gastric ulcer [4]. The induction of aspirin is
characterized by infiltration of neutrophils, growth factor inhibition, and elevation of
cytokines, which is produced by activated macrophages. [5,6].
Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide found mainly in various species of brown
seaweeds such as kombu, limu moui, bladderwrack, wakame, mozuku, and hijiki, and
variant forms of fucoidan have also been found in animal species, including the sea
cucumber. Recently, substantial pharmaceutical researches have been done on fucoidan.
As a consequence of these researches, fucoidan is now being marketed as a nutraceutical
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
and food supplement [7,8]. A study have indicated that fucoidan can induce apoptosis in
human lymphoma cell lines, as well researchers have also showed that fucoidan can
inhibit hyperplasia in rabbits [9]. Few studies have reported the effect of fucoidan on pro
and inflammatory cytokines [10]. In animal models, ingestion of fucoidan has inhibitory
effects on tumors, which appear to be associated with a rise in interferon-gamma (IFN-
^), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and stimulation of innate immunity [11]. Similarly, a study
has reported that fucoidan derived from Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida ameliorates
murine chronic colitis through the down-regulation of IL-6 production on colonic
epithelial cells [12].
Recently, it was demonstrated that fucoidan is a safe substance with potential for gastric
protection [13]. Therefore, the objective in this study is to investigate the effectiveness of
fucoidan on the aspirin induced ulceration, a new approach for ulceration caused by
NSAID.

2. Materials and methods
2.1. Chemicals
Fucoidan procured from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO) was used for the study.
The sample was stored in a proper condition as per Sigma instructions. All other
compounds were purchased from Sigma (except indicated otherwise).

2.2. Experimental animals
Adult male Albino rats of Wistar strain weighing about 130V160 g were procured from
the Orient Inc. (Seoul, Republic of Korea). Rats were housed six per cage in clear
polycarbonate cage and were fed with a standard animal diet and water ad libitum under
controlled temperature conditions (222 oC) with 12 h light and dark cycles. All
animals received proper care according to methods approved under institutional
guidelines and experiments was conducted according to principles enunciated in the
Animal Care Act, prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Republic of
Korea.

2.3. In vivo experimental protocol
Group I rats received carboxymethylcellulose (0.5%) as vehicle, and Group III rats were
given oral dose of aspirin (Sigma, 400 mg/kg body weight) on day 14 after 48 period
fasting. Group II rats were given fucoidan alone (0.02 g/kg body weight, p.o) for two
weeks, Group IV comprised rats were given fucoidan (0.02 g/kg body weight, p.o) for
two weeks and fasted for 48 hours and post treated orally with aspirin (400 mg/kg body
weight, suspended in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose). At the end of experimental period,
rats were anesthetized under ether and sacrificed by cervical decapitation. The blood
samples taken from the experimental animals without any anticoagulant were centrifuged
at 3,000 g for 10 min to obtain clear serum. Stomach tissue samples were fixed in 10
% buffered formalin for histopathology. The pH of gastric content and body weight
changes were noted.

2.4. Histochemical analysis
Gastric tissue was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, dehydrated, paraffin
embedded, processed, sectioned in 5 gm thickness and stained with haematoxylin and
COPY EDITING INDEXING LANGUAGE EDITING PROOF READING TRANSLATION
eosin (H&E). The assessment criteria of the histological score was according to the
method described previously by Dokmeci et al. [14]: 0 X normal mucosa, 1 X epithelial
cell damage, 2 X glandular disruption, vasocongestion or edema in the upper mucosa, 3
X mucosal disruption, vasocongestion or edema in the mid-lower mucosa, and 4 X
extensive mucosal disruption involving the full thickness of the mucosa. The overall
mean value of the damage scores for each of the fields was taken as the histological ulcer
index for that section. For the Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, dewaxed sections
were stained using a commercial PAS staining system kit (Sigma) according to the
manufacturers directions [14].