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Theorist

Title of
their
theory

Central
theory

Person


Health


Environment


Nursing


What their
theory is
all about

Hildegard Peplau
Theory of
interpersonal
Relationships


Describe the dynamic
relationship between
the nurse and the
patient.

Man is an organism
that lives in an
unstable equilibrium,
psychological,
physiological, and
social fluidity.

Life is the process of
striving in the
direction of stable
equilibrium. It is the
forward movement
of the personality.

Fluid context of the
nurse-client relationship.



Nursing is the
therapeutic
interpersonal process
carried out through
the relationship
between the person
and the nurse.

The nurse listens to
her client she or he
develops a general
impression of the
client's situation.


Imogene King
Interaction system
framework and
theory of goal
attainment


Process of Human
Interaction



Humans are open
systems who are
social, rational,
perceiving,
controlling,
purposeful, action
and time oriented.

Health is purposeful,
adaptive response to
internal and external
stimuli to maintain
balance and comfort.





Internal and external
environment continually
interacts to assist in
adjustment to change.

It is perceiving,
thinking relating,
judging, and acting
with an individual
who comes to
nursing situations.

The theory describes
dynamic,
interpersonal
relationship in which
a person grows and
develops to attain
certain life goals.

Josephine Paterson
and Loreta Zderad
Humanistic Theory



Concerned with the
phenomenological
experiences of
individuals and the
exploration of human
experiences.

Man is an individual
being capable of
opening options,
values and the
unique manifestation
of their past, present
and future.

A matter of personal
survival, a process of
experiencing ones
potential for well-
being and more
being. A quality of
living and dying.

The phenomenon of
society or environment
is the community.



A nurturing response
of one person to
another in a time of
need that aims
toward development
of well-being and
more being.

An abstract
statement
formulated to
predict, explain or
describe the
relationships among
concepts, constructs
or events.







Theorist

Title of
their
theory

Central
theory

Person


Health


Environment


Nursing


What their
theory is
all about

Martha Rogers
Science of Unitary
Human Beings



The Science of Unitary
Human Beings (SUHB)
theory allowed
nursing to be
considered one of the
scientific disciplines.


Humans who are
unified beings with
individuality, in
continuous exchange
of energy with the
environment.


It is not specially
addressed but
emerges out of
interaction between
human and
environment, moves
forward and
maximizes human
potential.
All of the patterns that
exist external to the
individual.




It is an art and science
directed toward the
unitary human and
concerned with the
nature and direction
of human
development.


The purpose of nurses
is to promote health
and wellbeing for all
persons wherever
they are.


Margaret Neuman
Health as an
Expanding
Consciousness



The theory of health
as expanding
consciousness stems
from Rogers' theory
of Unitary Human
Beings.

Open being who is
more than and
different from the
sum of the parts.


Open process of
being and becoming.
Involves synthesis of
values.




Everything in the person
and his environment.
Inseparable,
complimentary to and
evolving with.
A human science and
art that uses an
abstract body of
knowledge to serve
people.

Theory of pattern
recognition provides
the basis for the
process of nurse-
client interaction.


Rosemarie Parse
Theory of Human
Becoming



The main focus of this
theory is on the
HUMAN with a
constant connection
between all concepts
and themes.

Intentional beings
involved with their
world, having a
fundamental nature
of knowing, being
present, and open to
their world.

A way of being in the
world, it is not a
continuum of healthy
to ill, nor a dichotomy
of health or illness;
rather it is the living
of day-day ways of
being.

The world, the universe
and those who occupy
spaces along with
others who freely
choose to be in the
situation.


Guiding humans
toward ways of being,
finding meaning in
situations, choosing
ways of creating their
own health, living
true presence in the
day-today of the
person.
The goal of nursing is
to try to treat quality
of life as each patient
sees it for him or
herself.