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Chapter 2 : Transport Phenomena in Semiconductors

Section 2.7 :
Ex. 2.7.4 : The resistivity of intrinsic silicon is 3 10
5
-cm at 30

C. Calculate the intrinsic


concentration at 100

C. Assume the following data :


1. n = 0.13 m

! "-sec. at 30

C
. # = 0.05 m

! "-sec at 30

C. .Page No. 2-24.


Soln. :
Step 1 : Intrinsic concentration ni at 30

C or 303

K :
To calculate ni at 303

K we are going to use the following equation :


i = ni ( n + p ) q ...(1)
But to calculate ni we need to find the alue of i.
i = = = 3.33 10
! "
( ! c#)
! 1

i = 3.33 10
! $
( ! #)
! 1
...(%)
&ence intrinsic concentration'
ni = = 1.1" 10
1"
per #
3
at 303

K ...(3)
Step 2 : Intrinsic concentration at 100C or 373K :
To calculate ni at 3(3

K let us use the following equation (refer to )quation (%.(.*)) :


= +o T
3
e
! ),- . /T
...($)
where' ),- = 1.%1 e0
/ = Bolt1#ann2s constant = 3."% 10
! 4
e0 .

K
and T1 = 303

K
5irst of all let us calculate 6+o7 89 su8stituting the te#perature to 8e 303

K and the alue of ni


at 303

K fro# )quation (3).


+o =
= ".3( 10
$$
...(4)
+o is a constant the alue of which does not depend on te#perature.
:o let us calculate 6ni7 at 3(3

K.
( ni )
%
= +o e
! ),- . /T%

+nita : ;:<%013<,u=arat<Katre<Basic )lectronics>,-%%+ (?ith @;)<@; )Aa#ples<chp%<
@hapB%.doc 2
nd
proof
$asic %lectronics &'T() - Trans#ort *henomena in +emiconductors
:u8stituting the alues we get'
( ni )
%
= ".3( 10
$$
(3(3)
3
e
! ( 1.%1 . 3."% 10! 4 3(3 )

= 1.$*( 10
3"

ni = 1.%%3 10
13
per #
3
...Ans.
This is the intrinsic concentration at 100

@ or 3(3

K.
Ex. 2.7.5 : A ,ar of intrinsic silicon having a cross-sectional area of .5 10
- .
m

has an electron
density of 1.5 10
1/
electrons!m
3
. 0f the electron mo,ility is 0.1. m

! "-sec and hole mo,ility


is 0.05 m

! "-sec1 what is the length of the ,ar in order to have a current of 1. mA when 2
"olts are a##lied across its ends 3 .Page No. 2-25.
Soln. :
Given : 1. + = %.4 10
! $
#
%
%. n = 1.4 10
1"
. #
3

3. n = 0.1$ #
%
. 0Bs and p = 0.04 #
%
. 0Bs $. C = 1.% #+' 0 = * 0olts
Step 1 : Conductivity of the intrinsic silicon :
+s we /now' the conductiit9 of intrinsic silicon is gien 89 :
i = ni (n + p ) q ...(1)
5or an intrinsic se#iconductor
n = p = ni
ni = 1.4 10
1"
. #
3
...(%)
:u8stituting the alues into )quation (1) we get'
i = 1.4 10
1"
(0.1$ + 0.04) 1." 10
! 1*

i = $.4" 10
! $
( ! #)
! 1
...(3)
Step 2 : esistivity of the intrinsic silicon :
Desistiit9' i = ...($)
:u8stituting the alue of i fro# )quation (3) we get'
i =
i = %1*3 ! # ...(4)
Step 3 : !en"th #l$ of the se%iconductor &ar :
Desistance of the se#iconductor 8ar = = = (400 ...(")
+nd eApression for resistance is D = ...(()
:u8stituting the alues we get (400 =
l = 3.44 10
! $
#. = 0.344 ## ...Ans.
Ex. 2.7. : Calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration of +ilicon and 'ermanium at .00

4.
.Page No. 2-25.
Soln. : The alue of +o and ),- for the :ilicon and ,er#aniu# are as follows :
'aterial (alue of Ao )G*
$asic %lectronics &'T() -3 Trans#ort *henomena in +emiconductors
:ilicon %.(34 10
31
1.1 e0
,er#aniu# %.(44 10
30
0.(34 e0
/ = 3."% 10
! 4
e0 .

K and T = $00

K
?e /now that = +o T
3
e
! ),- . /T

1. +or Silicon :
= %.(34 10
31
($00)
3
e
! 1.1 . 3."% 10! 4 $00

= %.$$ 10
%4

ni = $.*$ 10
1%
per #
3
... Ans.
2. +or Ger%aniu% :
= %.(44 10
30
($00)
3
e
! 0.(34 . 3."% 10! 4 $00

= %.%3$4 10
%3

ni = 1.41 10
1$
per #
3
... Ans.
Comment :
+t the sa#e te#perature' the intrinsic carrier concentration of ,er#aniu# is higher than that
of silicon.
Ex. 2.7.7 : The intrinsic concentration of +ilicon at .00

4 is ..2. 10
1
! m
3
. Calculate its carrier
concentration at 500

4 if %'5 for silicon is 1.1 e". .Page No. 2-25.


Soln. :
Given : ni1 = $.*$ 10
1%
. #
3
' ),- = 1.%1 e0' T1 = $00

K
T% = 400

K and K = 3."% 10
! 4
e0 .

K
,o +ind : ni% at 400

K
?e /now that'
= +o T
3
e
! ),- . /T
...(1)
:o
( ni1 )
%
= +o e
! ),- . /T1
...(%)
and ( ni% )
%
= +o e
! ),- . /T%
...(3)
;iide )quation (3) 89 )quation (%) to get'
=
=
= %131.*3*
( ni% )
%
= %131.*3* ( ni1 )
%

= %131.*3* ( $.*$ 10
1%
)
%
= 4.3%$3 10
%3

ni% = %.30(4 10
1$
. #
3
...Ans.
Comment :
The alue of ni% shows that the intrinsic concentration increases with increase in te#perature.
$asic %lectronics &'T() -. Trans#ort *henomena in +emiconductors
Section 2.! :
Ex. 2.!.2 : A sam#le of germanium is do#ed with 10
1.
! cm
3
of donor im#urity and 6 10
13
! cm
3
of
acce#tor im#urity. 7esistivity of #ure 'e is /0 ohms-cm at room tem#erature. 0f the total
current density of the sam#le is 5 mA!cm

determine the a##lied electric field.


&Assume : n = 3800 cm

! "-s and # = 1800 cm

! "-sec). .Page No. 2-"#.


Soln. :
,ien that'
;onor i#purities' E; = 10
1$
. c#
3

+cceptor i#purities' E+ = ( 10
13
. c#
3

Desistiit9 of pure' ,e = "0 Bc#
Total current densit9' F = 4% #+.c#
%

?hat is ) G
The total current densit9 F is gien 89 :
F = ( n n + p p ) q) ...(1)
Cn this equation we can su8stitute'
F = 4% #+ . c#
%
' q = 1." 10
! 1*
@' n = 3300 c#
%
. 0Bsec and p = 1300 c#
%
. 0Bsec.
But to o8tain the alue of 6)7 we #ust find the alues of n and p.
Step 1 : ,o o&tain the values of n and p :
5or an intrinsic (pure) #aterial' the conductiit9 is gien 89'
i = ni q ( n + p ) ...(%)
+lso i = = = 0.01"( (B#)
! 1
...(3)
:u8stitute this and other alues in )quation (%) to get'
ni = = 1.3" 10
13
. c#
3
...($)
ni is the intrinsic concentration.
Eow use the #ass action law to write'
n p = ...(4)
Deferring to )quation (%.".3) we can write that'
p + E; = n + E+
n ! p = E; ! E+
:u8stituting the alues we get' (n ! p) = 10
1$
! ( 10
13
= 3 10
13

or n = ( p + 3 10
13
) ...(")
:u8stitute this into )quation (4) we get'
( p + 3 10
13
) p = = ( 1.3" 10
13
)
%

p
%
+ 3 10
13
p = 3.$" 10
%"

p
%
+ 3 10
13
p ! 3.$" 10
%"
= 0
:oling this quadratic equation we get'
$asic %lectronics &'T() -5 Trans#ort *henomena in +emiconductors
p = 3.* 10
1%
. c#
3
...(()
and n = p + 3 10
13

= 3.* 10
13
. c#
3
...(3)
Thus we hae o8tained the alues of n and p.
Step 2 : ,o o&tain the value of ) :
Eow su8stitute these alues of n and p along with other alues into )quation (1) to write'
) =
) = 1.*3 0olt.c# ...Ans.
Ex. 2.!." : A sam#le of silicon is do#ed to the e9tent of 10
1.
donor atoms #er cm
3
and 6 10
13
acce#tor
atoms #er cm
3
. At the room tem#erature the resistivity of #ure silicon is /0 -cm.
0f the a##lied electrostatic field is "!cm.1 find the total current density.
'iven : n = 1300 cm

! "-sec1 # = 500 cm

! "-sec. .Page No. 2-"#.


Soln. :
Given :
;onor i#purit9 E; = 10
1$
. c#
3
'+cceptor i#purit9 E+ = ( 10
13
. c#
3

Desistiit9 of pure silicon' = "0 Bc#' )lectrostatic field ) = % 0.c#
?hat is F = G
The total current densit9 F is gien 89'
F = ( n n + p p ) q ) ...(1)
Cn this equation we /now the alues of n' p' q and ). But we do not /now the alues of n and p.
Step 1 : ,o o&tain the values of n and p :
5or an intrinsic (pure) #aterial' the conductiit9 is gien 89'
i = ni q ( n + p ) ...(%)
+lso i = = = 0.01"( (B#)
! 1
...(3)
$asic %lectronics &'T() -/ Trans#ort *henomena in +emiconductors
:u8stituting this and other alues in )quation (%) we get'
ni =
= 4.(*3 10
13
. c#
3
...($)
Eow use the law of #ass action to write'
n p = ...(4)
Deferring to )quation (%.".3) we can write that'
p + E; = n + E+
n ! p = E; ! E+
:u8stituting the alues we get'
n ! p = 10
1$
! ( 10
13
= 3 10
13

or n = ( p + 3 10
13
) ...(")
:u8stitute this alue of n into )quation (4) we get'
( p + 3 10
13
) H p = ( 4.(*3 10
13
)
%

p
%
+ 3 10
13
p = 3.3" 10
%(

p
%
+ 3 10
13
p ! 3.3" 10
%(
= 0 ...(()
Iet us sole it as' p =
Eeglecting the negatie sign.
p = $.$3 10
13
per c#
3
...(3)
:u8stitute this alue in )quation (") to get'
n = ( $.$3 10
13
+ 3 10
13
) = (.$3 10
13
...(*)
Thus we hae o8tained the alues of n and p.
Step 2 : ,o calculate the total current density -./ :
:u8stituting the alues into )quation (1) we get'
F =
F = 0.033%3$3 +#p.c#
%
= +#p.#
%

F = 33%.3$ +#p.#
%
...Ans.
Ex. 2.!.4 : A ,ar of silicon 0.1 cm long has a cross-sectional area of 8 10
- 8
m

1 heavily do#ed with


#hos#horus. :hat will ,e the ma;ority carrier density resulting from do#ing if the ,ar is to
have a resistance of 1.5 < 3 'iven for silicon at room tem#erature : n = 0.1. m

! "-sec1
# = 0.05 m

! "-sec1 ni = 1.5 10
10
! cm
3
. .Page No. 2-"#.
Soln. :
Given : l = 0.1 c# = 1 10
! 3
#' D = 1.4 /' n = 0.1$ #
%
. 0Bsec.
+ = 3 10
! 3
#
%
p = 0.04 #
%
. 0Bsec. ni = 1.4 10
10
. c#
3

The #a=orit9 carrier densit9 ( E; ) as the phosphorous is a donor i#purit9 can 8e calculated fro#
the following equation :
n = nn n q
$asic %lectronics &'T() -6 Trans#ort *henomena in +emiconductors
-D
n = E; n q ...(1)
?e do not /now n so let us calculate it.
To o8tain n we will hae to calculate resistiit9 n.
Step 1 : ,o o&tain the value of resistivity -n / :
Desistance' D =
n =
:u8stituting the alues we get'
n = = 0.1% B# ...(%)
Step 2 : ,o o&tain the value of conductivity - n / :
n = = = 3.33 (B#)
! 1
...(3)
Step 3 : ,o o&tain the value of 01 :
5ro# )quation (1) we can write that'
E; =
:u8stituting the alues we get'
E; = = 3.(1* 10
%0
. #
3
...Ans.
Ex. 2.!.5 : =ind the resistivity of intrinsic silicon. :hat will ,e the resistivity when the silicon is do#ed
with a #entavalent im#urity to the e9tent of 1 im#urity atom for each 10
8
atoms of silicon 3
'iven for silicon :
1. >um,er of silicon atoms #er cm
3
= 5 10


. 0ntrinsic carrier concentration = 1.5 10
10
! cm
3
= 1.5 10
1/
! m
3

3. %lectron charge = 1./ 10
- 12
Coulom,.
.. %lectron mo,ility = 0.135 m

! "olt-sec. ?ole mo,ility = 0.0.8 m

! "-s.
7esistivity of intrinsic silicon and after do#ing is to ,e o,tained. .Page No. 2-"$.
Soln. :
Step 1 : esistivity of intrinsic silicon :
The conductiit9 of intrinsic silicon is gien 89'
i = ni ( n + p ) q ...(1)
$asic %lectronics &'T() -8 Trans#ort *henomena in +emiconductors
:u8stituting the alues we get'
i = 1.4% 10
1"
(0.134 + 0.0$3) 1." 10
! 1*

i = $.$4 10
! $
( B#)
! 1
...(%)
Desistiit9 of the intrinsic silicon = i = = = %%$(.% B# ...Ans.
Step 2 : esistivity of doped silicon :
Deferring to )quation (%.3.1$) we can write that the conductiit9 of an 6n7Bt9pe se#iconductor is
gien 89'
n = E; n q ...(3)
This equation has 8een written with an assu#ption that the concentration of electrons in an
nBt9pe se#iconductor is #uch higher than that of the holes.
The nu#8er of i#purit9 ato#s is 1 in 10
3
.
Therefore the nu#8er of i#purit9 (donor) ato#s in 4 10
%%
silicon ato#s is gien 89'
E; = = 4 10
1$
. c#
3

@onert it into ato#s.#
3
as'
E; = 4 10
1$
10
"
. #
3

E; = 4 10
%0
. #
3
...($)
:u8stituting this alue in )quation (3) we get'
n = 4 10
%0
0.134 1." 10
! 1*
= 10.3 (B#)
! 1

Therefore resistiit9 of doped silicon is gien 89'
n = = = 0.0*%4* = *%.4* 10
! 3
B#.
n = *%.4* 10
! 3
B# ...Ans.
Ex. 2.!. : A donor im#urity is added to intrinsic silicon and the resistivity at room tem#erature is
o,served to ,e 2./ -cm. Calculate the ratio of donor atoms to silicon atoms #er unit
volume. Assume n as 1300 cm

! "-s. .Page No. 2-"$.


Soln. : The gien data is as follows :
Desistiit9' = *." Bc# = *." 10
! %
B#.
Jo8ilit9' n = 1300 c#
%
. 0Bs = 0.13 #
%
. 0Bs
Cn order to calculate the ratio of donor ato#s to silicon ato#s per unit olu#e' we #ust o8tain the
alue of 6E;7 i.e. the concentration of donor ato#s first. Iet us use the equation for the
conductiit9 of 6n7 t9pe #aterial which states that :
n = E; n q (Defer to )quation (%.3.1$)) ...(1)
But we do not /now 6n7' so let us find it as follows :
n = = = 10.$% (B#)
! 1
...(%)
Therefore' E; = =
E; = 4 10
%0
ato#s.#
3
...(3)
The ato# densit9 of silicon is 4 10
%%
ato#s.c#
3
that #eans 4 10
%3
ato#s.#
3
.
Therefore the ratio of donor ato#s to silicon ato#s per unit olu#e = = 10
! 3
...Ans.
$asic %lectronics &'T() -2 Trans#ort *henomena in +emiconductors
Ex. 2.!.7 : @erive an e9#ression for conductivity of e9trinsic semiconductor. *rove that the resistivity of
intrinsic germanium is .5 -cm.
'iven for 'e at room tem#erature :
0ntrinsic concentration = .5 10
13
! cm
3

Ao,ility for hole = 1800 cm

! "-s
Ao,ility for electrons = 3800 cm

! "-s
Charge on an electron = 1./ 10
- 12
C .Page No. 2-"$.
Soln. : The conductiit9 of an intrinsic se#iconductor is gien 89'
i = ni (n + p ) q ...(1)
To o8tain the resistiit9 of the intrinsic ger#aniu#' we need to calculate its conductiit9.
:u8stitute the alues into )quation (1) to get'
i = %.4 10
13
(3300 + 1300) 1." 10
! 1*

= 0.0%%$ (Bc#)
! 1

The resistiit9 is gien 89'
i = = = $$."$ (Bc# ) $4 Bc#. ...Ans.
&ence proed.
Ex. 2.!.! : A ,ar of silicon has intrinsic concentration of 1. 10
1/
#er m
3
. The silicon is so do#ed that
the hole concentration ,ecomes 10

#er m
3
. @etermine :
1. %lectron concentration of do#ed silicon
. Conductivity of do#ed silicon
3. Ty#e of resulting silicon &# or n ty#e)
'iven : n = 1350 cm

! "-sec1 # = 500 cm

! "-sec. .Page No. 2-"$.


Soln :
Step 1 : ,o calculate the electron concentration -n/ :
?e /now that intrinsic concentration' ni is gien 89'
( ni )
%
= n p ...(1)
The electron concentration' n = =
n = 1.$$ 10
10
per #
3
...Ans.
Step 2 : ,ype of resultin" silicon :
The hole concentration p = 10
%%
per #
3
and the electron concentration n = 1.$$ 10
10
per #
3
. +s
the concentration of holes is higher than that of electrons' the resulting silicon is 6p t9pe7
se#iconductor.
Step 3 : Conductivity of doped silicon :
@onductiit9 = ( n n + p p ) q ...(%)
n = 1340 c#
%
. 0Bsec. = 0.134 #
%
. 0Bsec
and p = 400 c#
%
. 0Bsec = 0.04 #
%
. 0Bsec.
$asic %lectronics &'T() -10 Trans#ort *henomena in +emiconductors
q = 1." 10
! 1*
@.
:u8stituting all these alues into )quation (%) we get'
= K ( 1.$$ 10
10
0.134 ) + ( 1 10
%%
0.04 ) L 1." 10
! 1*

= 30 (B#)
! 1
...Ans.
Ex. 2.!.% : A 1 mm long ,ar of silicon is do#ed with donor im#urity of 5 10
10
! cm
3
. =ind the voltage
dro# across the ,ar if the current density within the ,ar is 1 mA ! cm

.
'iven : =or +i at 300

41 ni = 1.5 10
10
! cm
3
.
n = 1300 cm

! "-sec1 # = 500 cm

! "-sec .Page No. 2-"$.


Soln. :
Given : l = 1 ##' E; = 4 10
10
. c#
3
'
F = 1 #+.c#
%
' n = 1300 c#
%
. 0Bsec'
ni = 1.4 10
10
. c#
3
' p = 400 c#
%
. 0Bsec
Steps to &e follo2ed :
Step 1 : Calculate the hole concentration -p/ :
p = . E; where E; = n = 4 10
10

p = = $.4 10
*
...(1)
Step 2 : Calculate ) :
?e /now that the total current densit9 F is gien 89
F = Fn + Fp = nq n ) + pq p )
F = q) K n n + p p L
:u8stitute n = E;
F = 1." 10
! 1*
)
But F = 1 #+ . c#
%

) =
= *%.*3 0.c#
$asic %lectronics &'T() -11 Trans#ort *henomena in +emiconductors
Step 3 : Calculate the volta"e drop :
The electric field ) is defined as 0olts.c#. Cts alue is *% 0.c#. That #eans the oltage across a 1
c# piece of se#iconductor would 8e *% 0.
But the gien piece of se#iconductor is 1 ## long.
0oltage across it = = *.%*3 0olts ...Ans.
Ex. 2.!.$# : +how that the resistivity of intrinsic 'ermanium at 300

4 is .../. cm. 0f a donor im#urity
is added to an e9tent of 1 atom #er 10
8
'ermanium atoms1 #rove that the resistivity dro#s
to 3.6 cm.
Assume :
n = 3800 cm

! "-sec # = 1800 cm

! "-sec
ni = .5 10
13
! cm
3
Atoms #er cm
3
for 'e = ... 10

. .Page No. 2-"$.


Soln. : 5or the first part of the pro8le# refer to the solution of )A. %.3.(.
Part &&
Given : n = 3300 c#
%
. 0Bsec' p = 1300 c#
%
. 0Bsec
ni = %.4 10
13
. c#
3
' +to#s.c#
3
for ,e = $.$ 10
%%

Step 1 : Calculate the donor concentration 01 :
E; = n = 1 ato# per 10
3

E; = n =
E; = n = $.$ 10
1$
. c#
3

Step 2 : Conductivity of doped "er%aniu% :
The gien se#iconductor is an n B t9pe se#iconductor. Cts conductiit9 is gien 89'
n = nq n = E; q n
= ( $.$ 10
1$
10
"
. #
3
) 1." 10
! 1*
3300 10
! $
#
%
. 0Bsec
= %".(4% (B#)
! 1

Step 3 : esistivity of doped "er%aniu% :
n = =
= 0.03(33 B#
= 0.03(33 10
%
Bc# = 3.(33 Bc# ...Ans.
Thus we hae proed that the resistiit9 drops to 3.(33 Bc#.
Ex. 2.!.$$ : The intrinsic carrier concentration of silicon sam#le of 300

4 is 1.5 10
1/
! m
3
. 0f after
do#ing1 the num,er of ma;ority carriers is 5 10
0
! m
3
1 calculate the minority carrier density.
.Page No. 2-"$.
Soln. :
Given : ni = 1.4 10
1"
. #
3
' n = 4 10
%0
. #
3
' p = G
Iet the se#iconductor after doping 8e n t9pe. :o the #a=orit9 carriers will 8e electrons and #inorit9
carriers will 8e holes.
Msing the law of #assBaction we get'
$asic %lectronics &'T() -1 Trans#ort *henomena in +emiconductors
= n p
p =
= = $.4 10
11
. #
3
...Ans.
This is the #inorit9 carrier densit9.
Ex. 2.!.$2 : A sam#le of silicon of 1 cm length and 1 mm

cross-sectional area is do#ed with


>d = 8 10
15
cm
- 3
at 6

C.
1. Calculate electron and hole concentrations.
. 0f e9cess holes and electrons are generated with concentrations of
# = n = 10
1.
cm
- 3
1 determine the total concentrations of holes and electrons.
3. =or the same semiconductor sam#le with e9cess charge carriers1 calculate current
flowing through it if the voltage a##lied across its length is ".
'or silicon :
ni = 1.5 10
10
cm
- 3
n = 1.00 cm

! "-sec # = 500 cm

! "-sec .Page No. 2-"2.


Soln. :
Given : ni = 1.4 10
10
per c#
3
' n = 1$00 c#
%
. 0Bsec
p = 400 c#
%
. 0Bsec' l = 1 c#' a = 1 ##
%

3art I : )lectron and hole concentration :
Given : Ed = 3 10
14
c#
! 3
at T = %(

@ or 300

K
:ince Ed NN ni we assu#e that the electron concentration n Ed
n = Ed = 3 10
14
electrons per c#
3
...Ans.
Msing the law of #ass action we can write'
= n p
&ole concentration p = =
p = %.31%4 10
$
holes per c#
3
...Ans.
3art II : ,otal concentration of electrons and holes :
;ue to the eAcess holes and electrons' the electron and hole concentrations are'
nT = Ed + n = ( 3 10
14
) + 10
1$
= 3.1 10
14
c#
! 3

and pT = p + p
= ( %.31%4 10
$
) + 10
1$
= 1 10
1$
c#
! 3

$asic %lectronics &'T() -13 Trans#ort *henomena in +emiconductors
3art III : Calculate current :
Given : 0oltage across the se#iconductor = % 0.
Step 1 : Calculate conductivity :
@onductiit9 = ( nT n + pT p ) q
= K (3.1 10
14
1$00) + (1 10
1$
400) L 1." 10
! 1*

= 1.3%%$ (Bc#)
! 1

Step 2 : Calculate resistivity and resistance :
Desistiit9 = = 0.4$3( (Bc#)
Desistance D = = 0.4$3( (Bc#)
D = 4$.3(
Step 3 : Calculate current I :
C = = = 0.03"$$ +#p
= 3".$$ #+ ...Ans.
Ex. 2.!.$" : A silicon sam#le is non-uniformly do#ed with donor im#urity of 10
1.
m
- 3
. A current density of
10 mA ! cm

is generated when electric field of 3"!cm is a##lied across it. =ind the
concentration gradient at 6

C.
'iven : n = 1500 cm

! "-sec. .Page No. 2-"2.


Soln. :
Given : E; = 10
1$
per #
3
' Fn = 10 #+ . c#
%
' ) = 3 0 . c#
T = %(

@ = 300

K' n = 1400 c#
%
. 0Bsec
,o find : @oncentration gradient dn.dA
Step 1 : Calculate the diffusion constant 1n :
+s per )instein2s relationship
n = 3* ;n ...at roo# te#perature
;n = = = 33.$"
Step 2 : Calculate the concentration "radient :
The total current densit9 due to electrons is gien 89'
Fn = nq n ) + q ;n
&ere n = E; = 10
1$
#
! 3

= K 10
1$
1." 10
! 1*
1400 10
! $
3 10
+ %
L + K 1." 10
! 1*
33.$" L
100 = (.% 10
! $
+ ( ".143" 10
! 13
)
= 1."%4 10
1*
...Ans.
Section 2.% :
Ex. 2.%.$ : An n-ty#e silicon ,ar is used in ?all e9#eriment has >@ = 10
13
! cm
3
1 $B = 0. :, ! m

1
d = 5 mm and % = 5 "!cm. :hat is the magnitude of ?all voltage "? 3 .Page No. 2-"5.
Soln. :
?e /now that the &all oltage 0& is gien 89'
$asic %lectronics &'T() -1. Trans#ort *henomena in +emiconductors
0& = ...(1)
Step 1 : ,o o&tain the char"e density #$ :
@harge densit9 67 = n q = E; q
= 10
13
1." 10
! 1*
= 1." 10
! "
@. c#
3
...(%)
Step 2 : ,o o&tain the value of current density #.$ :
Deferring to )quation (%.*.$) we can write that'
F = ...(3)
:u8stituting = ;rift elocit9 = n ) we get'
F = n )
+ssu#ing n = 1300 c#
%
. 0Bsec we get'
F = 1." 10
! "
1300 4 = 0.010$ +#p . c#
%
...($)
Step 3 : ,o o&tain the hall volta"e (4 :
:u8stitute )quations (%) and ($) into )quation (1) and su8stitute the alues of 6B7 and 6d7 into
)quation (1).
B = 0.% ?8 . #
%
= 0.% 10
! $
?8.c#
%

and d = 4 ## = 4 10
! 1
c#
0& =
0& = 0.0"4 olts or "4 #0 ...Ans.
Ex. 2.%.2 : The ?all e9#eriment is used for a silicon ,ar <nown to ,e #-ty#e. The resistivity of the ,ar is
0 10
3
-cm . :idth of the ,ar is mm and distance ,etween the two surfaces of the ,ar
is . mm. The magnetic field used has intensity of 0.1 :,!m

. 0f measured value of current


and ?all voltage are 5 micro-am# and 8 m" res#ectively calculate the mo,ility of holes.
.Page No. 2-"5.
Soln. :
Given : 1. = %%0 10
3
Bc# = %%0 10 B# . %. d = %.% ## = %.% 10
! 3
#.
3. w = width = % ## = % 10
! 3
#. $. B = 0.1 ?8.#
%
'
4. C = 4 a#p = 4 10
! "
+#p " 0& = %3 #0 = %3 10
! 3
0olts
Step 1 : ,o calculate the %o&ility of holes :
Jo8ilit9 = D& ...(1)
?here' = @onductiit9 and D& = &all coefficient.
?e do not /now 8oth these alues so let us find the#.
Step 2 : Conductivity - / :
@onductiit9' = =
= $.4$ 10
! $
(B#)
! 1
...(%)
Step 3 : ,o find the 4all coefficient - 4 / :
D& = ...(3)
$asic %lectronics &'T() -15 Trans#ort *henomena in +emiconductors
:u8stituting the alues we get' D& = = 11% ...($)
Section 2.$" :
Ex. 2.$".$ : The hole concentration in a semiconductor s#ecimen is shown in =ig. *. .13.1&a). =ind the
e9#ression and s<etch the hole current density C# &9) for the case in which there is no
e9ternally a##lied electric field. .Page No. 2-45.
-+52200/+i". 3. 2.13.1-a/
Soln. : +s there is no eAternall9 applied field' we are eApected to o8tain the eApression for the
diffusion hole current densit9 Fp (A). Defer to section %.1%.1 for the deriation. ?e get the following
eApression for Fp (A).
Fp (A) = ! q ;p ...(1)
The negatie sign indicates that the concentration 6p7 decreases with increase in 6A7. ?e can
o8tain the alue of as follows :
= for 0 A ?
= 0 for A N ?
:u8stitute )quation (%) in )quation (1) to get'
Fp (A) = ! q ;p for 0 A ?
= 0 for A N ?
This is the required eApression for the hole current densit9.
-+52661/+i". 3. 2.13.1-&/ : S7etch for .p -8/

O(%)