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Build a Safe House with

CONFINED MASONRY
Kamu Iyer
Shibani M. Kulkarni
Shantanu Subramaniam
C. V. R. Murty
Rupen Goswami
A. R. Vijayanarayanan
Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority
Government of Gujarat
Build a Safe House with
CONFINED MASONRY
Kamu Iyer
Shibani M. Kulkarni
Shantanu Subramaniam
C. V. R. Murty
Rupen Goswami
A. R. Vijayanarayanan
Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority
Government of Gujarat

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6
5

Contents
Preamble 1
Acknowledgment 5
Confined Masonry 7
Options for a Confined Masonry House 15
Basics of Construction 79
Construction of House Option 1 99
Preamble
A village house
with unreinforced masonry
Most houses in rural India are masonry houses. The masonry walls are built with
burnt clay brick or natural stone masonry. Many choices are made across India for the
roof. For instance, a sloping roof with wood truss and burnt clay tile is adopted in
Kachchh region of Gujarat (western state of India), and a flat roof with reinforced
concrete (RC) slab in Tehri Region of Uttarakhand (northern state of India). These
houses are constructed in the conventional manner known to masons. Technically,
they are called Unreinforced Masonry (URM) Houses; it has plain masonry walls with
no steel reinforcement embedded in them to improve their behaviour during
earthquakes. Today, of the existing building stock in India, about 45% of houses are
made of burnt clay brick and about 10% of natural stone. Thus, over half of Indias
population lives in URM houses.
#
1
Unreinforced masonry (URM) walls are pushed sideways during a strong
earthquake, along their length and thickness directions. When shaken along their
thickness, they collapse. And, when shaken along their length, they develop
diagonal cracks along their length and/or separate at wall junctions. When walls
collapse, they bring down the roof along with them. This is the main reason for large
loss of lives during earthquakes that have occurred in different regions of the country.



In-plane Walls
Shaking
Direction
In-plane Compression
In-plane Tension


Shaking
Direction
Out-of-plane Walls
Out-of-plane
Bending
Out-of-plane
Bending
Shaking along length direction of masonry wall results in diagonal cracking
Shaking along thickness direction of masonry wall can result in collapse
Despi t e houses col l apsi ng i n
earthquakes, people still continue to
reconstruct their houses in the age old
method of unreinforced masonry, thereby
making their houses vulnerable to future
earthquakes.
I n ci t i es , RC bui l di ngs ar e
constructed first by making the RC frame,
and then by infilling the spaces between
beams and columns with masonry walls
made of burnt clay bricks or cement
blocks, and cement mortar. To build a
house this way requires high levels of
technical skills, which usually are not
available in small towns and villages. But,
everyone, whether residing in a town or a
village, wants a pucca house - a house
with brick walls and RC roof, just like the
buildings in larger towns and cities. This is
reason enough to improve earthquake
safety measures in these houses.
An RC frame building
commonly built in cities
A villager rebuilding his house
with unreinforced masonry


1

2

3
Sequence of
RC frame construction with URM infill walls

2
3
Unreinforced masonry (URM) walls are pushed sideways during a strong
earthquake, along their length and thickness directions. When shaken along their
thickness, they collapse. And, when shaken along their length, they develop
diagonal cracks along their length and/or separate at wall junctions. When walls
collapse, they bring down the roof along with them. This is the main reason for large
loss of lives during earthquakes that have occurred in different regions of the country.



In-plane Walls
Shaking
Direction
In-plane Compression
In-plane Tension


Shaking
Direction
Out-of-plane Walls
Out-of-plane
Bending
Out-of-plane
Bending
Shaking along length direction of masonry wall results in diagonal cracking
Shaking along thickness direction of masonry wall can result in collapse
Despi t e houses col l apsi ng i n
earthquakes, people still continue to
reconstruct their houses in the age old
method of unreinforced masonry, thereby
making their houses vulnerable to future
earthquakes.
I n ci t i es , RC bui l di ngs ar e
constructed first by making the RC frame,
and then by infilling the spaces between
beams and columns with masonry walls
made of burnt clay bricks or cement
blocks, and cement mortar. To build a
house this way requires high levels of
technical skills, which usually are not
available in small towns and villages. But,
everyone, whether residing in a town or a
village, wants a pucca house - a house
with brick walls and RC roof, just like the
buildings in larger towns and cities. This is
reason enough to improve earthquake
safety measures in these houses.
An RC frame building
commonly built in cities
A villager rebuilding his house
with unreinforced masonry


1

2

3
Sequence of
RC frame construction with URM infill walls

2
3
Small, but significant, changes
should be made in current method of
construction of masonry houses in rural
India. This improved method of house
construction is called Confined Masonry
Construction. Loss of life can be reduced
considerably in masonry houses during
future earthquakes. For this, masonry walls
are confined on all four sides with (a) stiffer
and stronger vertical elements made in
RC, and (b) RC horizontal bands at
discrete levels in the masonry walls along
the perimeter of all the rooms of the house.

Confined Masonry House
with clay brick walls and RC slab
Books providing technical information on confined masonry construction are
exhaustive, but largely offer generic details. They have to be adapted for specific
conditions at site. Often, this is difficult for a man building his house. An illustrated
manual such as this is required, that follows the requirements of Confined Masonry
Construction in an easy-to-follow language, and provides guidance on how to build
a confined masonry house with specific functional design. Such a manual will enable
the individual house owner or a 'practical technician' to build such a house. Also, the
manual will help local authorities to construct houses under any social housing
scheme sponsored by the Governments.
This book illustrates the step-by-step construction of a Confined Masonry House
of a specific design. It provides precautions to be taken and amount of material
required to construct the house. Also, alternate specific designs are presented.
Acknowledgements
The authors are grateful to the Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority
(GSDMA), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar (Gujarat, India), for readily
agreeing to support the preparation of this book; the generous financial grant
provided by GSDMA towards this effort is gratefully acknowledged. The authors also
extend their appreciation to Dr. R. Bannerji, IAS, Chief Executive Officer-GSDMA, Dr. V.
Thiruppugazh, IAS, Additional Chief Executive Officer, GSDMA and Mr. S. I. Patel,
Additional Chief Executive Officer, GSDMA for their invaluable inputs and guidance
during the course of preparing and finalizing this book. Ms. Alpa R. Sheth, Managing
Director, Vakil Mehta Sheth Consulting Engineers Private Limited, Mumbai, and
Seismic Advisor, GSDMA, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, supported idea of developing this
book, and guided us throughout the course of this project from discussing the
contents, mid-course feedback on the contents, to getting the book reviewed. The
authors sincerely thank Mr.Birju Patel, Deputy Director, GSDMA, Gandhinagar, for
providing necessary details of government-driven social housing schemes being
undertaken in Gujarat, and for the administrative support from GSDMA .

Dr. Svetlana N. Brzev, British Columbia Institute of Technology, Vancouver,
CANADA, readily agreed to review the early manuscript and provided valuable
comments for improving the quality of the publication. The authors are grateful to her
for this special contribution. Ms. Betsy Ponnachan, III Year B.Tech. (Civil Engineering)
Student of MNIT, Jaipur, played a pivotal role in bringing the document to publishable
standards by significantly simplifying many graphics presented in this document; this
special contribution is gratefully acknowledged. The authors acknowledge with
thanks the support offered by various sections of IIT Madras in administering this book
writing project. In particular, the authors gratefully acknowledge support offered by
Mrs.S.Kavita, Project Assistant, Department of Civil Engineering, and of Mrs.C.Sankari
and Mr.Anand Raj of the Structural Engineering Laboratory of the Institute.
The authors remain indebted to their family members for the unconditional
support and understanding throughout the of development of the book This book is
dedicated to all the people of India, who lost their kith and kin in masonry house
collapses during past earthquakes in the country

4
5
Small, but significant, changes
should be made in current method of
construction of masonry houses in rural
India. This improved method of house
construction is called Confined Masonry
Construction. Loss of life can be reduced
considerably in masonry houses during
future earthquakes. For this, masonry walls
are confined on all four sides with (a) stiffer
and stronger vertical elements made in
RC, and (b) RC horizontal bands at
discrete levels in the masonry walls along
the perimeter of all the rooms of the house.

Confined Masonry House
with clay brick walls and RC slab
Books providing technical information on confined masonry construction are
exhaustive, but largely offer generic details. They have to be adapted for specific
conditions at site. Often, this is difficult for a man building his house. An illustrated
manual such as this is required, that follows the requirements of Confined Masonry
Construction in an easy-to-follow language, and provides guidance on how to build
a confined masonry house with specific functional design. Such a manual will enable
the individual house owner or a 'practical technician' to build such a house. Also, the
manual will help local authorities to construct houses under any social housing
scheme sponsored by the Governments.
This book illustrates the step-by-step construction of a Confined Masonry House
of a specific design. It provides precautions to be taken and amount of material
required to construct the house. Also, alternate specific designs are presented.
Acknowledgements
The authors are grateful to the Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority
(GSDMA), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar (Gujarat, India), for readily
agreeing to support the preparation of this book; the generous financial grant
provided by GSDMA towards this effort is gratefully acknowledged. The authors also
extend their appreciation to Dr. R. Bannerji, IAS, Chief Executive Officer-GSDMA, Dr. V.
Thiruppugazh, IAS, Additional Chief Executive Officer, GSDMA and Mr. S. I. Patel,
Additional Chief Executive Officer, GSDMA for their invaluable inputs and guidance
during the course of preparing and finalizing this book. Ms. Alpa R. Sheth, Managing
Director, Vakil Mehta Sheth Consulting Engineers Private Limited, Mumbai, and
Seismic Advisor, GSDMA, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, supported idea of developing this
book, and guided us throughout the course of this project from discussing the
contents, mid-course feedback on the contents, to getting the book reviewed. The
authors sincerely thank Mr.Birju Patel, Deputy Director, GSDMA, Gandhinagar, for
providing necessary details of government-driven social housing schemes being
undertaken in Gujarat, and for the administrative support from GSDMA .

Dr. Svetlana N. Brzev, British Columbia Institute of Technology, Vancouver,
CANADA, readily agreed to review the early manuscript and provided valuable
comments for improving the quality of the publication. The authors are grateful to her
for this special contribution. Ms. Betsy Ponnachan, III Year B.Tech. (Civil Engineering)
Student of MNIT, Jaipur, played a pivotal role in bringing the document to publishable
standards by significantly simplifying many graphics presented in this document; this
special contribution is gratefully acknowledged. The authors acknowledge with
thanks the support offered by various sections of IIT Madras in administering this book
writing project. In particular, the authors gratefully acknowledge support offered by
Mrs.S.Kavita, Project Assistant, Department of Civil Engineering, and of Mrs.C.Sankari
and Mr.Anand Raj of the Structural Engineering Laboratory of the Institute.
The authors remain indebted to their family members for the unconditional
support and understanding throughout the of development of the book This book is
dedicated to all the people of India, who lost their kith and kin in masonry house
collapses during past earthquakes in the country

4
5

Confined Masonry
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7
What will happen to my house in an earthquake,
If masonry is not confined?
Moderate Shaking
Walls Crack
Severe Shaking
Walls collapse and slab falls
How do I prevent this?
During an earthquake, when the ground shakes moderately, unconfined walls
are pushed sideways and therefore develop cracks. When the ground shakes
violently, unconfined masonry walls collapse bringing down the roof, either partly or
fully.
By confining masonry walls of the
house. This is achieved by using:
(a) vertical RC elements interlocked with
bricks at all wall junctions and door
and window openings, and
(b) horizontal RC bands at plinth, sill and
lintel levels.
Masonry confined thus is resistant to
earthquakes.
8
9
Confined masonry (CM) consists of RC confining vertical and horizontal
confining elements that are cast in-situ around URM wall segments built in small
heights. Concrete in these RC elements is poured after the walls are made. This in-situ
concrete fills all gaps and covers vertical bars protruding out from the foundation. On
hardening of concrete, the RC elements hold the masonry wall segments snugly
without any gap between them. This snug action is created by the toothing left in the
masonry walls at wall corners and junctions, and adjoining door, window and
ventilator openings.
What is Confined Masonry ?
Small-sized vertical reinforced concrete (RC) confining elements are cast in-
situ at all wall junctions and adjoining all openings. Horizontal RC elements (called
bands) are cast in-situ above and below all openings and at floor levels. Normally,
Plinth, Sill and Lintel Bands are provided; in buildings with pitched roofs, two more
bands are provided, namely the Roof and Gable Bands. Longitudinal reinforcement
bars in vertical RC elements are anchored into the plinth masonry at the bottom and
roof slab (when roof is flat), or into the roof band (when the roof is pitched) at the top.
Longitudinal reinforcement bars in horizontal RC bands run through all walls of the
house; sill band alone is discontinued at door openings.

Lintel Band
RC Vertical Elements Toothing in Wall
Plinth Band
Under earthquake shaking, the
l oads ar e car r i ed pr i mar i l y by the
composite system of masonry wall and RC
elements through load-bearing action.
These RC confining elements are small in
size and grip the whole width of the wall at
door and window openings and wall
junctions. They have sufficient stiffness to
resist to dilation of masonry wall that
otherwise happens during earthquake
shaking. Thus, each wall panel bound by
the confining RC elements stays as an
integral unit without disintegrating into its
constituent materials.

Only nominal bending
in RC vertical and horizontal elements
Compression
NO
Gap
RC elements holds masonry walls snugly
during earthquake shaking
Sill Band
10
11
Confined masonry (CM) consists of RC confining vertical and horizontal
confining elements that are cast in-situ around URM wall segments built in small
heights. Concrete in these RC elements is poured after the walls are made. This in-situ
concrete fills all gaps and covers vertical bars protruding out from the foundation. On
hardening of concrete, the RC elements hold the masonry wall segments snugly
without any gap between them. This snug action is created by the toothing left in the
masonry walls at wall corners and junctions, and adjoining door, window and
ventilator openings.
What is Confined Masonry ?
Small-sized vertical reinforced concrete (RC) confining elements are cast in-
situ at all wall junctions and adjoining all openings. Horizontal RC elements (called
bands) are cast in-situ above and below all openings and at floor levels. Normally,
Plinth, Sill and Lintel Bands are provided; in buildings with pitched roofs, two more
bands are provided, namely the Roof and Gable Bands. Longitudinal reinforcement
bars in vertical RC elements are anchored into the plinth masonry at the bottom and
roof slab (when roof is flat), or into the roof band (when the roof is pitched) at the top.
Longitudinal reinforcement bars in horizontal RC bands run through all walls of the
house; sill band alone is discontinued at door openings.

Lintel Band
RC Vertical Elements Toothing in Wall
Plinth Band
Under earthquake shaking, the
l oads ar e car r i ed pr i mar i l y by the
composite system of masonry wall and RC
elements through load-bearing action.
These RC confining elements are small in
size and grip the whole width of the wall at
door and window openings and wall
junctions. They have sufficient stiffness to
resist to dilation of masonry wall that
otherwise happens during earthquake
shaking. Thus, each wall panel bound by
the confining RC elements stays as an
integral unit without disintegrating into its
constituent materials.

Only nominal bending
in RC vertical and horizontal elements
Compression
NO
Gap
RC elements holds masonry walls snugly
during earthquake shaking
Sill Band
10
11
Confi ned masonry i s most sui tabl e and
practical method for construction of houses by
individual home owners in earthquake areas. The
level of engineering required is embedded in
empirical rules for planning, design and construction
of these houses. Two prominent features of confined
masonry construction are:
(1) Use of a regular grid of walls in both directions with
RC vertical members at all wall junctions and in
straight walls of longer lengths, and RC vertical
el ements (toothed i nto the masonry wal l
segments) and RC horizontal bands (resting on the
masonry walls of the whole house). These items
together confine the wall segments and prevent
them from dilating along the length direction of
the wall and from falling out-of-plane along the
thickness direction of the wall..
(2) Sequence of first making the masonry walls and
then pouring in-situ the RC vertical elements and
horizontal bands. This choice of construction
sequence is responsible for enhancing the
integrity of the masonry units and mortar in
Confined Masonry, which in turn makes Confined
Masonry Construction superior to regular RC frame
buildings with plain masonry walls as infills.
Earthquake performance is good of confined
masonry construction. While confined masonry
constructions sustained severe damage during past
earthquakes, complete collapse has not been
observed in this typology of construction.

1

3

4

2

6

5

Sequence of
Confined Masonry Construction
What are the main elements of a Confined Masonry House ?
Walls
Roof
Ground
Foundation and
Plinth
Foundation
All elements of construction from soil level to ground level
Plinth
All elements of construction from ground level to floor level
Wall
Masonry wall, vertical RC elements and horizontal RC bands
Roof
RC slab with all finishes on it in a flat roof, wood/steel truss, clay tiles/sheeting
and all finishes on it in a pitched roof
Confining Elements
Vertical RC elements, Horizontal RC bands at plinth, sill and lintel levels in a
house with flat roof, and RC eaves and gable bands in a house with pitched
roof
12
13
Confi ned masonry i s most sui tabl e and
practical method for construction of houses by
individual home owners in earthquake areas. The
level of engineering required is embedded in
empirical rules for planning, design and construction
of these houses. Two prominent features of confined
masonry construction are:
(1) Use of a regular grid of walls in both directions with
RC vertical members at all wall junctions and in
straight walls of longer lengths, and RC vertical
el ements (toothed i nto the masonry wal l
segments) and RC horizontal bands (resting on the
masonry walls of the whole house). These items
together confine the wall segments and prevent
them from dilating along the length direction of
the wall and from falling out-of-plane along the
thickness direction of the wall..
(2) Sequence of first making the masonry walls and
then pouring in-situ the RC vertical elements and
horizontal bands. This choice of construction
sequence is responsible for enhancing the
integrity of the masonry units and mortar in
Confined Masonry, which in turn makes Confined
Masonry Construction superior to regular RC frame
buildings with plain masonry walls as infills.
Earthquake performance is good of confined
masonry construction. While confined masonry
constructions sustained severe damage during past
earthquakes, complete collapse has not been
observed in this typology of construction.

1

3

4

2

6

5

Sequence of
Confined Masonry Construction
What are the main elements of a Confined Masonry House ?
Walls
Roof
Ground
Foundation and
Plinth
Foundation
All elements of construction from soil level to ground level
Plinth
All elements of construction from ground level to floor level
Wall
Masonry wall, vertical RC elements and horizontal RC bands
Roof
RC slab with all finishes on it in a flat roof, wood/steel truss, clay tiles/sheeting
and all finishes on it in a pitched roof
Confining Elements
Vertical RC elements, Horizontal RC bands at plinth, sill and lintel levels in a
house with flat roof, and RC eaves and gable bands in a house with pitched
roof
12
13

Options of
Confined Masonry Houses
14
15
What are the available options ?
Option 2
2
Built-up area: 32.03 m
2
Carpet area: 20.18 m
Option 1
2
Built-up area: 24.67 m
2
Carpet area: 18.78 m
Roof Line Roof Line
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
16
17
Option 5
2
Built-up area: 30.53 m
2
Carpet area: 18.92 m
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
Option 4
2
Built-up area: 32.47 m
2
Carpet area: 19.21 m
Option 3
2
Built-up area: 25.54 m
2
Carpet area: 18.60 m
Roof Line
Roof Line
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
18
19
Option 5
2
Built-up area: 30.53 m
2
Carpet area: 18.92 m
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
Option 4
2
Built-up area: 32.47 m
2
Carpet area: 19.21 m
Option 3
2
Built-up area: 25.54 m
2
Carpet area: 18.60 m
Roof Line
Roof Line
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
18
19
Option 7
2
Built-up area: 30.53 m each
2
Carpet area: 18.92 m each
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
House 1 House 2
Option 6
2
Built-up area: 24.67 m each house
2
Carpet area: 18.78 m each house
House 1 House 2
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
20
21
Option 7
2
Built-up area: 30.53 m each
2
Carpet area: 18.92 m each
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
House 1 House 2
Option 6
2
Built-up area: 24.67 m each house
2
Carpet area: 18.78 m each house
House 1 House 2
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
20
21
Option 1
100
625
75
1000
75
925
450
3250

230
900
150
115
230
230
630
550
900
750
5150
7
12
11
Brick Masonry
Courses
Front Elevation
Main Room
2.90m x 4.69m
Kitchen
1.20m x 2.31m
Bath
1.2m x 1.1m
Toilet
1.2m x 0.9m
Plan
B
A
230 1315 115 900 1885 230
4790
Open Platform
B
A
235
115
115
115
230 230
335
115
750
115
550
230
230
630
550
900
115
115
Toilet
1.2 m x 0.9 m
2
(1.08 m)
Bath
1.2 m x 1.1 m
2
(1.32 m) Main Room
2.9 m x 4.69 m
2
(14.54 m)
Kitchen
1.2 m x 2.31 m
2
(2.77 m)
5
.
1
5

m
4
.
9
7

m
Option 1
22
23
Option 1
100
625
75
1000
75
925
450
3250

230
900
150
115
230
230
630
550
900
750
5150
7
12
11
Brick Masonry
Courses
Front Elevation
Main Room
2.90m x 4.69m
Kitchen
1.20m x 2.31m
Bath
1.2m x 1.1m
Toilet
1.2m x 0.9m
Plan
B
A
230 1315 115 900 1885 230
4790
Open Platform
B
A
235
115
115
115
230 230
335
115
750
115
550
230
230
630
550
900
115
115
Toilet
1.2 m x 0.9 m
2
(1.08 m)
Bath
1.2 m x 1.1 m
2
(1.32 m) Main Room
2.9 m x 4.69 m
2
(14.54 m)
Kitchen
1.2 m x 2.31 m
2
(2.77 m)
5
.
1
5

m
4
.
9
7

m
Option 1
22
23
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
Section BB
1000
2800
150
50
675
75
900
300
925
75
2000
2800
150
50
550
150
900
300
Section AA
Option 1
100
1350
100
1350
Left Elevation
450
675
3300
Right Elevation
Option 1
450
2000
800
3250
450
2000
100
600
150
450
1000
100
550
150
75
925
2000
75
100
450
450
450
450
24
25
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
Section BB
1000
2800
150
50
675
75
900
300
925
75
2000
2800
150
50
550
150
900
300
Section AA
Option 1
100
1350
100
1350
Left Elevation
450
675
3300
Right Elevation
Option 1
450
2000
800
3250
450
2000
100
600
150
450
1000
100
550
150
75
925
2000
75
100
450
450
450
450
24
25
Option 1
Pivoted Window
Closed Position
Pivoted Window
Open Position
Option 1
Ventilator
with Built-in Steel Grill
Round Steel Bars
(10mm diameter)
along vertical and horizontal directions
Plan
Elevation Section XX
X
X
X
X
Roof Slab
Lintel Band
Vertical RC Elements
26
27
Option 1
Pivoted Window
Closed Position
Pivoted Window
Open Position
Option 1
Ventilator
with Built-in Steel Grill
Round Steel Bars
(10mm diameter)
along vertical and horizontal directions
Plan
Elevation Section XX
X
X
X
X
Roof Slab
Lintel Band
Vertical RC Elements
26
27
Option 1
Lintel Band
75 mm deep over windows
Primary Timber Frame
75 mm x 25 mm
Secondary Timber Frame
50 mm x 25 mm
Window Shutter
12 mm thick E Board
Vertical RC Element
around Opening
Timber Frame
75mm x 25mm
Timber Frame
50mm x 25mm
Detail Q
Sectional Plan
Detail R
Sectional Elevation
MS Rods
20 mm diameter
Option 1
Window Details
1000
1800
550
75
100
75
Ventilator with
MS Grill
RC Roof Slab
12mm thick E Board
R
W
W
Section WW
230
550
Q
Sill Band
Lintel Band
28
29
Option 1
Lintel Band
75 mm deep over windows
Primary Timber Frame
75 mm x 25 mm
Secondary Timber Frame
50 mm x 25 mm
Window Shutter
12 mm thick E Board
Vertical RC Element
around Opening
Timber Frame
75mm x 25mm
Timber Frame
50mm x 25mm
Detail Q
Sectional Plan
Detail R
Sectional Elevation
MS Rods
20 mm diameter
Option 1
Window Details
1000
1800
550
75
100
75
Ventilator with
MS Grill
RC Roof Slab
12mm thick E Board
R
W
W
Section WW
230
550
Q
Sill Band
Lintel Band
28
29
Option 1
Detail T
Sectional Plan
Detail V
Sectional Elevation
Detail U
Sectional Elevation
T.W. member
100 mm x 36mm
MS Angle
65mm x 65mm x 6mm
I.P.S Threshold
38mm x100 mm
E Board
12mm thick
T.W. member
100 mm x 36mm
MS Angle
65mm x 65mm x 6mm
E Board
12mm thick
I.P.S Threshold
38mm x100 mm
MS Angle
65mm x 65mm x 6mm
E Board
12mm thick
T.W. member
100 mm x 36mm
Option 1
2000
2850
550
100
150
50
S
S
Door Details
230
900
RC Roof Slab
Lintel Band
Section SS
T
U
V
30
31
Option 1
Detail T
Sectional Plan
Detail V
Sectional Elevation
Detail U
Sectional Elevation
T.W. member
100 mm x 36mm
MS Angle
65mm x 65mm x 6mm
I.P.S Threshold
38mm x100 mm
E Board
12mm thick
T.W. member
100 mm x 36mm
MS Angle
65mm x 65mm x 6mm
E Board
12mm thick
I.P.S Threshold
38mm x100 mm
MS Angle
65mm x 65mm x 6mm
E Board
12mm thick
T.W. member
100 mm x 36mm
Option 1
2000
2850
550
100
150
50
S
S
Door Details
230
900
RC Roof Slab
Lintel Band
Section SS
T
U
V
30
31
Option 1
450
1000
1075
3600
75
75
925
965 mm
12
11
Brick Masonry
Courses
3070 mm
300
1000
1200
3600
75
75
925
150
325
1350
900
Right Elevation
Section CC
House with sloping roof
Option 1
Plan
Ridge Line
Main Room
2.90m x 4.69m
Kitchen
1.20m x 2.31m
Bath
1.2m x 1.1m
Toilet
1.2m x 0.9m
C
C
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
32
33
Option 1
450
1000
1075
3600
75
75
925
965 mm
12
11
Brick Masonry
Courses
3070 mm
300
1000
1200
3600
75
75
925
150
325
1350
900
Right Elevation
Section CC
House with sloping roof
Option 1
Plan
Ridge Line
Main Room
2.90m x 4.69m
Kitchen
1.20m x 2.31m
Bath
1.2m x 1.1m
Toilet
1.2m x 0.9m
C
C
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
32
33
Option 1 Extended
Option 1 Extended
2
Built-up area: 40.14 m
2
Carpet area: 31.77 m
Option 1 Extended
How to extend my house ?
While extending the house,
chip only the concrete
from the projected lintel band
left for future expansion
To extend the house,
leave a 600mm projection
from the Lintel Band
in the direction of
proposed expansion
34
35
Option 1 Extended
Option 1 Extended
2
Built-up area: 40.14 m
2
Carpet area: 31.77 m
Option 1 Extended
How to extend my house ?
While extending the house,
chip only the concrete
from the projected lintel band
left for future expansion
To extend the house,
leave a 600mm projection
from the Lintel Band
in the direction of
proposed expansion
34
35
Option 1 Extended
1000
3000
150
50
625
75
900
300
100
1350
75
925
Section DD

5150
730
1490
115
230
3230
Plan
550
115
Option 1 Extended
D
D
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
Additional Room
36
37
Option 1 Extended
1000
3000
150
50
625
75
900
300
100
1350
75
925
Section DD

5150
730
1490
115
230
3230
Plan
550
115
Option 1 Extended
D
D
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
Additional Room
36
37
Option 2
100
625
75
1000
75
925
450
3250
7
12
11
Brick Masonry
Courses
Front Elevation

230
900
150
1100
230
230
765
550
765
5150
Main Room
3.20m x 4.69m
Kitchen
1.20m x 2.31m
Bath
1.2m x 1.1m
Toilet
1.2m x 0.9m
B
230
1315
115
900 1610
230
6220
230
230 230
335
115
750
115
550
230
115
1955
115
115
A
A
810
115
550
115
Plan
B
Option 2
6
.
2
2

m
5
.
1
5


m
Toilet
1.20 m x 0.90 m
2
(1.08 m)
Bath
1.20 m x 1.10 m
2
(1.32 m)
Main Room
3.20 m x 4.69 m
2
(14.54 m)
Kitchen
1.20 m x 2.31 m
2
(2.77 m)
38
39
Option 2
100
625
75
1000
75
925
450
3250
7
12
11
Brick Masonry
Courses
Front Elevation

230
900
150
1100
230
230
765
550
765
5150
Main Room
3.20m x 4.69m
Kitchen
1.20m x 2.31m
Bath
1.2m x 1.1m
Toilet
1.2m x 0.9m
B
230
1315
115
900 1610
230
6220
230
230 230
335
115
750
115
550
230
115
1955
115
115
A
A
810
115
550
115
Plan
B
Option 2
6
.
2
2

m
5
.
1
5


m
Toilet
1.20 m x 0.90 m
2
(1.08 m)
Bath
1.20 m x 1.10 m
2
(1.32 m)
Main Room
3.20 m x 4.69 m
2
(14.54 m)
Kitchen
1.20 m x 2.31 m
2
(2.77 m)
38
39
1000
2800
150
50
625
75
900
300
925
75
100
1350
1000
2850
150
50
600
150
900
300
925
75
100
1350
Option 2
Section BB
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
Section AA
Option 2
450
1000
625
3250
100
75
50
75
925
450 450
Back Elevation
450
675
3300
2000
75
150
450
1000
150
625
75
75
925
450
450
Right Elevation
40
41
1000
2800
150
50
625
75
900
300
925
75
100
1350
1000
2850
150
50
600
150
900
300
925
75
100
1350
Option 2
Section BB
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
Section AA
Option 2
450
1000
625
3250
100
75
50
75
925
450 450
Back Elevation
450
675
3300
2000
75
150
450
1000
150
625
75
75
925
450
450
Right Elevation
40
41
Option 2
450
1000
1225
3750
75
75
925
3000 mm
1085 mm
Right Side Elevation
450
1000
3300
150
1150
150
900
300
925
75
1350
450
Option 2
House with sloping roof
Main Room
3.20m x 4.69m
Kitchen
1.20m x 2.31m
Bath
1.2m x 1.1m
Toilet
1.2m x 0.9m
C
C
Plan
Section CC
Ridge Line
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
42
43
Option 2
450
1000
1225
3750
75
75
925
3000 mm
1085 mm
Right Side Elevation
450
1000
3300
150
1150
150
900
300
925
75
1350
450
Option 2
House with sloping roof
Main Room
3.20m x 4.69m
Kitchen
1.20m x 2.31m
Bath
1.2m x 1.1m
Toilet
1.2m x 0.9m
C
C
Plan
Section CC
Ridge Line
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
42
43
Option 2 Extended
Option 2 Extended
2
Built-up area: 43.85 m
2
Carpet area: 29.78 m
Option 2 Extended
How to extend my house ?
To extend the house,
leave a 600mm projection
from the Lintel Band
in the direction of
proposed expansion
While extending the house,
chip only the concrete
from the projected lintel band
left for future expansion
44
45
Option 2 Extended
Option 2 Extended
2
Built-up area: 43.85 m
2
Carpet area: 29.78 m
Option 2 Extended
How to extend my house ?
To extend the house,
leave a 600mm projection
from the Lintel Band
in the direction of
proposed expansion
While extending the house,
chip only the concrete
from the projected lintel band
left for future expansion
44
45
1000
3000
150
50
750
75
900
300
100
1350
150
925
Section DD
Option 2 Extended
Overlap of Roof Slab done for extension
Option 2 Extended

230
5150
115
550
230
115
1540
3230
1350
230
900
115
405
680
D
D
Plan
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
Additional Room
46
47
1000
3000
150
50
750
75
900
300
100
1350
150
925
Section DD
Option 2 Extended
Overlap of Roof Slab done for extension
Option 2 Extended

230
5150
115
550
230
115
1540
3230
1350
230
900
115
405
680
D
D
Plan
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
Additional Room
46
47
Option 3
7
12
11
Brick Masonry
Courses
150
550
150
1000
75
925
450
3300
Front Elevation

230
1200
230
1100
1110
550
6220
115
115 115
550
230
230
1100
B
230 115
590
230
5220
900 760
115
550
115
Plan
B
230
230 150 150
750
A A
115
510
230
760
1100 900
Kitchen
2.30m x
1.10m
Bath
1.1m x 1.2m
Toilet
0.9m x
1.2m
Main Room
4.76m x 3.00m
230
1110
230
230
995
230
115
230
750
335
1110
Option 3
6
.
2
2

m
5
.
2
2


m
Toilet
1.2 m x 0.9 m
2
(1.08 m)
Bath
1.2 m x 1.1 m
2
(1.32 m)
Main Room
3.00 m x 4.76 m
2
(14.54 m)
Kitchen
1.10 m x 2.23 m
2
(2.77 m)
48
49
Option 3
7
12
11
Brick Masonry
Courses
150
550
150
1000
75
925
450
3300
Front Elevation

230
1200
230
1100
1110
550
6220
115
115 115
550
230
230
1100
B
230 115
590
230
5220
900 760
115
550
115
Plan
B
230
230 150 150
750
A A
115
510
230
760
1100 900
Kitchen
2.30m x
1.10m
Bath
1.1m x 1.2m
Toilet
0.9m x
1.2m
Main Room
4.76m x 3.00m
230
1110
230
230
995
230
115
230
750
335
1110
Option 3
6
.
2
2

m
5
.
2
2


m
Toilet
1.2 m x 0.9 m
2
(1.08 m)
Bath
1.2 m x 1.1 m
2
(1.32 m)
Main Room
3.00 m x 4.76 m
2
(14.54 m)
Kitchen
1.10 m x 2.23 m
2
(2.77 m)
48
49
Option 3
1000
2850
150
50
600
150
900
300
925
75
100
1350
450
1000
150
550
150
75
925
Section AA
1000
2800
150
50
550
150
900
300
925
75
100
1350
Section BB
450
1000
675
3300
100
75
50
75
925
Front Elevation
450
450
625
3300
2000
75
150
Right Elevation
7
12
11
Brick
Masonry
Courses
Option 3
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
50
51
Option 3
1000
2850
150
50
600
150
900
300
925
75
100
1350
450
1000
150
550
150
75
925
Section AA
1000
2800
150
50
550
150
900
300
925
75
100
1350
Section BB
450
1000
675
3300
100
75
50
75
925
Front Elevation
450
450
625
3300
2000
75
150
Right Elevation
7
12
11
Brick
Masonry
Courses
Option 3
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
50
51
Option 3
450
1000
1050
3650
150
75
925
Front Elevation
12
11
Brick
Masonry
Courses
Section CC
1000
3200
150
1050
150
900
300
925
75
1350
450
3100 mm
975 mm
Option 3
House with sloping roof
C
C
Kitchen
2.30m x
1.10m
Bath
1.1m x 1.2m
Toilet
0.9 m x
1.2 m
Main Room
4.76m x 3.00m
Plan
Ridge Line
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
52
53
Option 3
450
1000
1050
3650
150
75
925
Front Elevation
12
11
Brick
Masonry
Courses
Section CC
1000
3200
150
1050
150
900
300
925
75
1350
450
3100 mm
975 mm
Option 3
House with sloping roof
C
C
Kitchen
2.30m x
1.10m
Bath
1.1m x 1.2m
Toilet
0.9 m x
1.2 m
Main Room
4.76m x 3.00m
Plan
Ridge Line
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
52
53
Option 3 Extended
Option 3 Extended
2
Built-up area: 47.94 m
2
Carpet area: 32.20 m
Option 3 Extended
How to extend my house ?
To extend the house,
leave a projection of 600mm
from the Lintel Band
in the direction of proposed
extension
While extending the house,
chip only the concrete
from the projected lintel band
left for future expansion
54
55
Option 3 Extended
Option 3 Extended
2
Built-up area: 47.94 m
2
Carpet area: 32.20 m
Option 3 Extended
How to extend my house ?
To extend the house,
leave a projection of 600mm
from the Lintel Band
in the direction of proposed
extension
While extending the house,
chip only the concrete
from the projected lintel band
left for future expansion
54
55
1000
3000
150
50
750
75
900
300
100
1350
150
925
Section D-D
Option 3 Extended Option 3 Extended

230
1200
230
1110
550
6220
115
115
1100
230
115
550
115
550
5220 3000 230
D D
Plan
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
Additional Room
56
57
1000
3000
150
50
750
75
900
300
100
1350
150
925
Section D-D
Option 3 Extended Option 3 Extended

230
1200
230
1110
550
6220
115
115
1100
230
115
550
115
550
5220 3000 230
D D
Plan
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
Additional Room
56
57
Option 4
150
625
75
1000
75
925
450
3300
Front Elevation
7
12
11
Brick Masonry
Courses
230
1275 900
230
6220
595 1100
230
1200
Plan

230
900
230
230
230
1100
1215
5150
115
760
550
230
230
230
1100
115
B
230 230
750
A
A Main Room
4.69m x 3.00m
Kitchen
1.10m x 2.23m
Bath
1.2m x 1.1m
Toilet
1.2m x 0.9m
B
115 115 230
230 230 115 115
550 550 945 495
115
335
115
690
900
6
.
2
2

m
5
.
1
5


m
Option 4
Toilet
1.2 m x 0.9 m
2
(1.08 m)
Bath
1.2 m x 1.1 m
2
(1.32 m)
Main Room
3.00 m x 4.69 m
2
(14.54 m)
Kitchen
1.10 m x 2.23 m
2
(2.77 m)
58
59
Option 4
150
625
75
1000
75
925
450
3300
Front Elevation
7
12
11
Brick Masonry
Courses
230
1275 900
230
6220
595 1100
230
1200
Plan

230
900
230
230
230
1100
1215
5150
115
760
550
230
230
230
1100
115
B
230 230
750
A
A Main Room
4.69m x 3.00m
Kitchen
1.10m x 2.23m
Bath
1.2m x 1.1m
Toilet
1.2m x 0.9m
B
115 115 230
230 230 115 115
550 550 945 495
115
335
115
690
900
6
.
2
2

m
5
.
1
5


m
Option 4
Toilet
1.2 m x 0.9 m
2
(1.08 m)
Bath
1.2 m x 1.1 m
2
(1.32 m)
Main Room
3.00 m x 4.69 m
2
(14.54 m)
Kitchen
1.10 m x 2.23 m
2
(2.77 m)
58
59
Option 4
Section JJ
1000
2850
150
50
675
75
900
300
925
75
100
1350
Option 4
3300
Left Elevation
75
1000
75
450
150
625
925
Section AA
1000
2850
150
50
675
75
900
300
925
75
100
1350
2000
2800
150
50
550
150
900
300
100
1350
Section BB
2000
2800
150
50
550
150
900
300
100
1350
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
60
61
Option 4
Section JJ
1000
2850
150
50
675
75
900
300
925
75
100
1350
Option 4
3300
Left Elevation
75
1000
75
450
150
625
925
Section AA
1000
2850
150
50
675
75
900
300
925
75
100
1350
2000
2800
150
50
550
150
900
300
100
1350
Section BB
2000
2800
150
50
550
150
900
300
100
1350
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
60
61
Option 4
300
1000
1500
3900
75
75
925
150
325
1350
900
Section CC
3400 mm
1300 mm
Front Elevation
1000
1500
3900
75
925
450
150
Option 4
House with sloping roof
C
C
Main Room
4.69m x 3.00m
Kitchen
1.10m x 2.23m
Bath
1.2m x 1.1m
Toilet
1.2m x 0.9m
Ridge Line
Plan
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
62
63
Option 4
300
1000
1500
3900
75
75
925
150
325
1350
900
Section CC
3400 mm
1300 mm
Front Elevation
1000
1500
3900
75
925
450
150
Option 4
House with sloping roof
C
C
Main Room
4.69m x 3.00m
Kitchen
1.10m x 2.23m
Bath
1.2m x 1.1m
Toilet
1.2m x 0.9m
Ridge Line
Plan
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
62
63
Option 4 Extended
Option 4 Extended
2
Built-up area: 40.38 m
2
Carpet area: 26.69 m
Option 4 Extended
How to extend my house ?
While extending the house,
chip only the concrete
from the projected lintel band
left for future expansion
To extend the house,
leave a 600mm projection
from the Lintel Band
in the direction of
proposed expansion
64
65
Option 4 Extended
Option 4 Extended
2
Built-up area: 40.38 m
2
Carpet area: 26.69 m
Option 4 Extended
How to extend my house ?
While extending the house,
chip only the concrete
from the projected lintel band
left for future expansion
To extend the house,
leave a 600mm projection
from the Lintel Band
in the direction of
proposed expansion
64
65
Option 4 Extended
1000
3000
150
50
825
75
900
300
100
1350
75
925
Section DD
Option 4 Extended

230
5150
230
6220
550
230
3230
115
900
115 115
1110 1110
1985
D
D
Plan
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
Additional Room
66
67
Option 4 Extended
1000
3000
150
50
825
75
900
300
100
1350
75
925
Section DD
Option 4 Extended

230
5150
230
6220
550
230
3230
115
900
115 115
1110 1110
1985
D
D
Plan
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
Additional Room
66
67
Option 5
150
625
75
1000
75
925
450
3300
Front Elevation
7
12
11
Brick Masonry
Courses

230
1110
115
115
1110
230
550
3460
230
750
230
1660
335
115
230
1315
115
900 650
230
6090
230 115
550
230 115
550 860
900
235
230
2690
230 750 230 115
B
Plan
230 230 1200
B
A
A
Main Room
4.20m x 3.00m
Kitchen
1.20 x 3.00m
Bath
1.1m x 1.2m
Toilet
0.9m x
1.2m
Option 5
3
.
4
6

m
Bath
1.2 m x 1.1 m
2
(1.32 m)
Main Room
4.20 m x 3.00 m
2
(14.54 m)
Kitchen
1.20 m x 3.00 m
2
(2.77 m)
Toilet
1.2 m x 0.9 m
2
(1.08 m)
6
.
0
9

m
68
69
Option 5
150
625
75
1000
75
925
450
3300
Front Elevation
7
12
11
Brick Masonry
Courses

230
1110
115
115
1110
230
550
3460
230
750
230
1660
335
115
230
1315
115
900 650
230
6090
230 115
550
230 115
550 860
900
235
230
2690
230 750 230 115
B
Plan
230 230 1200
B
A
A
Main Room
4.20m x 3.00m
Kitchen
1.20 x 3.00m
Bath
1.1m x 1.2m
Toilet
0.9m x
1.2m
Option 5
3
.
4
6

m
Bath
1.2 m x 1.1 m
2
(1.32 m)
Main Room
4.20 m x 3.00 m
2
(14.54 m)
Kitchen
1.20 m x 3.00 m
2
(2.77 m)
Toilet
1.2 m x 0.9 m
2
(1.08 m)
6
.
0
9

m
68
69
Option 5
000
2800
150
50
550
150
900
300
100
1350
75
925
Section AA
Section BB
2500
150
50
1250
900
300
1075
75
100
1350
2000
450
Option 5
Right Elevation
450
675
3300
2000
75
150
450
1000
100
625
150
75
925
450
600 600
Right Elevation
Left Elevation of Toilet
2500
150
1250
300
1075
75
150
450
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
70
71
Option 5
000
2800
150
50
550
150
900
300
100
1350
75
925
Section AA
Section BB
2500
150
50
1250
900
300
1075
75
100
1350
2000
450
Option 5
Right Elevation
450
675
3300
2000
75
150
450
1000
100
625
150
75
925
450
600 600
Right Elevation
Left Elevation of Toilet
2500
150
1250
300
1075
75
150
450
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
70
71
Option 5
1185 mm
3230 mm
12
11
Brick
Masonry
Courses
450
1000
1400
3850
75
75
925
Front Elevation
300
1000
1000
3400
150
75
925
150
250
1350
900
Section CC
Option 5
House with sloping roof
Plan
C
C
Main Room
4.20m x 3.00m
Kitchen
1.20 x 3.00m
Ridge Line
Bath
1.1m x 1.2m
Toilet
0.9m x
1.2m
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
72
73
Option 5
1185 mm
3230 mm
12
11
Brick
Masonry
Courses
450
1000
1400
3850
75
75
925
Front Elevation
300
1000
1000
3400
150
75
925
150
250
1350
900
Section CC
Option 5
House with sloping roof
Plan
C
C
Main Room
4.20m x 3.00m
Kitchen
1.20 x 3.00m
Ridge Line
Bath
1.1m x 1.2m
Toilet
0.9m x
1.2m
Backfilled
earth
Unexcavated
Ground
72
73
Option 5 Extended
Option 5 Extended
2
Built-up area: 40.22 m
2
Carpet area: 30.86 m
Option 5 Extended
How to extend my house ?
To extend the house,
leave a projection of 600mm
from the Lintel Band
in the direction of proposed
extension and
while extending the house,
chip only the concrete
from the projected lintel band
left for future expansion
74
75
Option 5 Extended
Option 5 Extended
2
Built-up area: 40.22 m
2
Carpet area: 30.86 m
Option 5 Extended
How to extend my house ?
To extend the house,
leave a projection of 600mm
from the Lintel Band
in the direction of proposed
extension and
while extending the house,
chip only the concrete
from the projected lintel band
left for future expansion
74
75
1000
3000
150
50
750
75
900
300
100
1350
150
925
Section DD
Option 5 Extended Option 5 Extended

230
1110
115
115
1110
550
3460
1660
3230
D
D
Plan
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
Additional Room
76
77
1000
3000
150
50
750
75
900
300
100
1350
150
925
Section DD
Option 5 Extended Option 5 Extended

230
1110
115
115
1110
550
3460
1660
3230
D
D
Plan
Main Room
Toilet
Bath
Kitchen
Access Road
Additional Room
76
77

Basics of Construction
78
79
Cement
Grade 33 cement is required in foundation and plinth (in plain
concrete mat, and flooring), walls (in mortar, RC bands and RC
vertical elements) and roof (reinforced concrete).
Sand
Well graded clean river sand is required in foundation and
plinth (in plain concrete mat, plinth fill, and flooring), walls (in
mortar, RC bands and RC vertical elements) and roof (reinforced
concrete).
Aggregate
Well graded 20mm down stone aggregate is required in
foundation and plinth (in plain concrete mat, and flooring), walls
(in RC bands and RC vertical elements) and roof (reinforced
concrete).
Steel
Steel reinforcing bars of two types are required, namely high
yield strength ribbed bars of 10mm diameter and mild steel
smooth bars of 6mm diameter. It is required in walls (in RC bands
and RC vertical elements) and roof (reinforced concrete).
Masonry Units
Masonry units can be burnt clay bricks, natural stone (that is
dressed), fly ash bricks or cement blocks. It is required in
foundation and plinth (in masonry) and walls (in masonry).
Water
Clean potable water is required for all components of the
house, namely foundation and plinth, walls and roof.
What basic materials are required to build my house ?
80
81
Natural stone with no or little porosity (like granite) need not be soaked before use,
but should be cleaned. But, the burnt clay bricks, fly ash bricks, cement blocks and
sandstone blocks are porous, and hence should be watered for about 4 hours before
laying. This can be done by
(a) Submerging them in a tub, or
(b) Watering them regularly with a hose to keep them wet all through.
Should masonry units be watered before I use ? Which masonry units can I use ?
Masonry walls/foundation using cement mortar can
be built with following materials:
Burnt Clay Bricks
Class B or better bunt clay bricks with compressive
strength of at least 7-10 MPa. The size of the bricks
considered are the standard brick available in India,
namely of size 230mm 115mm 75mm.
Fly Ash Bricks
Fly Ash bricks from nearby Thermal Power Plants with
compressive strength of at least 7-10 MPa. The size of these
units should be similar to that of the burnt clay bricks,
namely 230 mm 115 mm 75 mm.
Sandstone Blocks
Naturally available sandstone units can be used.
Usually, it is relatively light and easy to shape by hand using
a steel edge. The compressive strength of such units should
be at least 7-10 MPa. The size of such hand-shaped units
shall not exceed 300 mm 150 mm 100 mm.
Cement Blocks
Machine-made cement blocks with 12.5 mm and down
aggregated (in 1:3:6 mix of cement, sand and aggregate)
can be used. These units should be properly cured to result
in a compressive strength of such units of at least 7-10 MPa.
The size of such hand-shaped units shall be similar to that of
the burnt clay bricks, namely 230 mm 115 mm 75 mm.
82
83
Natural stone with no or little porosity (like granite) need not be soaked before use,
but should be cleaned. But, the burnt clay bricks, fly ash bricks, cement blocks and
sandstone blocks are porous, and hence should be watered for about 4 hours before
laying. This can be done by
(a) Submerging them in a tub, or
(b) Watering them regularly with a hose to keep them wet all through.
Should masonry units be watered before I use ? Which masonry units can I use ?
Masonry walls/foundation using cement mortar can
be built with following materials:
Burnt Clay Bricks
Class B or better bunt clay bricks with compressive
strength of at least 7-10 MPa. The size of the bricks
considered are the standard brick available in India,
namely of size 230mm 115mm 75mm.
Fly Ash Bricks
Fly Ash bricks from nearby Thermal Power Plants with
compressive strength of at least 7-10 MPa. The size of these
units should be similar to that of the burnt clay bricks,
namely 230 mm 115 mm 75 mm.
Sandstone Blocks
Naturally available sandstone units can be used.
Usually, it is relatively light and easy to shape by hand using
a steel edge. The compressive strength of such units should
be at least 7-10 MPa. The size of such hand-shaped units
shall not exceed 300 mm 150 mm 100 mm.
Cement Blocks
Machine-made cement blocks with 12.5 mm and down
aggregated (in 1:3:6 mix of cement, sand and aggregate)
can be used. These units should be properly cured to result
in a compressive strength of such units of at least 7-10 MPa.
The size of such hand-shaped units shall be similar to that of
the burnt clay bricks, namely 230 mm 115 mm 75 mm.
82
83
What materials are required to build my floor ?
Earth Fill
Sand Fill
Plain Concrete
Flooring
Earth Fill
Sand Fill
Plain Concrete
Flooring
What materials are required to build my roof ?
Flat Roof
Reinforced Concrete
Sloping Roof
Metal Sheet roofing
supported on steel angles
84
85
What materials are required to build my floor ?
Earth Fill
Sand Fill
Plain Concrete
Flooring
Earth Fill
Sand Fill
Plain Concrete
Flooring
What materials are required to build my roof ?
Flat Roof
Reinforced Concrete
Sloping Roof
Metal Sheet roofing
supported on steel angles
84
85
Clean Sand
1 Boxes
Cement
1 Box
Water
22 Litres
Aggregate
4 Boxes
Concrete for roof slab
Concrete for RC vertical element and bands
Cement
1 Box
Clean Sand
2 Boxes
Water
22 Litres
Aggregate
6 Boxes
Concrete for foundation mat and flooring
Cement
1 Box
Clean Sand
3 Boxes
Water
22 Litres
How do I measure materials for construction?
400
350
250
Each cement bag has 50 kg of cement
Inner dimensions of the box made of local wood for measuring sand and
aggregates
What proportions of materials do I need?
Aggregate
3 Boxes
1
2 /
86
87
Clean Sand
1 Boxes
Cement
1 Box
Water
22 Litres
Aggregate
4 Boxes
Concrete for roof slab
Concrete for RC vertical element and bands
Cement
1 Box
Clean Sand
2 Boxes
Water
22 Litres
Aggregate
6 Boxes
Concrete for foundation mat and flooring
Cement
1 Box
Clean Sand
3 Boxes
Water
22 Litres
How do I measure materials for construction?
400
350
250
Each cement bag has 50 kg of cement
Inner dimensions of the box made of local wood for measuring sand and
aggregates
What proportions of materials do I need?
Aggregate
3 Boxes
1
2 /
86
87
Course 1, 3, 5, ...
Course 2, 4, 6, ...
Build walls in Flemish Bond
Do not build walls in English Bond
Course 1, 3, 5, ...
Course 2, 4, 6, ...
How do I make confined masonry walls ?
Clean Sand
4 Boxes
Cement
1 Box
Water
20 Litres
Mortar for masonry
Provide 10mm thick cement mortar joints between brick courses
10 mm thick
cement mortar joint
88
89
Course 1, 3, 5, ...
Course 2, 4, 6, ...
Build walls in Flemish Bond
Do not build walls in English Bond
Course 1, 3, 5, ...
Course 2, 4, 6, ...
How do I make confined masonry walls ?
Clean Sand
4 Boxes
Cement
1 Box
Water
20 Litres
Mortar for masonry
Provide 10mm thick cement mortar joints between brick courses
10 mm thick
cement mortar joint
88
89
Provide vertical formwork with supports for pouring concrete
of RC vertical elements at brick masonry wall junctions
Formwork and supports
Build a maximum of 1.2 m of masonry wall segments in a day
DAY 1
1.2m
DAY 2
1.2m
DAY 4
1.2m


Build the walls leaving slots for RC elements
Day1 Day
2

Day
3


Day
4
DAY 3
1.2m
90
91
Provide vertical formwork with supports for pouring concrete
of RC vertical elements at brick masonry wall junctions
Formwork and supports
Build a maximum of 1.2 m of masonry wall segments in a day
DAY 1
1.2m
DAY 2
1.2m
DAY 4
1.2m


Build the walls leaving slots for RC elements
Day1 Day
2

Day
3


Day
4
DAY 3
1.2m
90
91
Vertical RC elements and horizontal RC bands hold masonry wall segments
together (like a strap holding a package)
Masonry wall segments
confined on all sides with RC elements
RC elements
prevent masonry form collapsing
Earthquake
ground
movement
Vertical RC elements keep brick masonry segments in place at the corners
Lintel, Sill and Plinth bands pass though the vertical RC elements
RC bands and elements support the brick masonry at openings
Vertical and Horizontal
confining elements
around all openings
prevent early cracking
at wall corners
92
93
Vertical RC elements and horizontal RC bands hold masonry wall segments
together (like a strap holding a package)
Masonry wall segments
confined on all sides with RC elements
RC elements
prevent masonry form collapsing
Earthquake
ground
movement
Vertical RC elements keep brick masonry segments in place at the corners
Lintel, Sill and Plinth bands pass though the vertical RC elements
RC bands and elements support the brick masonry at openings
Vertical and Horizontal
confining elements
around all openings
prevent early cracking
at wall corners
92
93
How do I make vertical RC elements ?
10 mm diameter
Longitudinal HYSD bars
6 mm diameter ties
bars @ 200mm c/c
Reinforcement in Vertical RC
confining members around door
openings
(230mm X 115mm)
230
230
230
115
60 60
60
Straight length is given
of hook ends beyond bend


How do I make horizontal RC bands ?
Sill and Lintel Bands
Plinth Band
Two 10 mm longitudinal Bars
6 mm diameter ties @ 200mm c/c
Four 10mm diameter longitudinal bars
6 mm diameter ties @ 200mm c/c
75
230
60
60
150
230
60
94
95
How do I make vertical RC elements ?
10 mm diameter
Longitudinal HYSD bars
6 mm diameter ties
bars @ 200mm c/c
Reinforcement in Vertical RC
confining members around door
openings
(230mm X 115mm)
230
230
230
115
60 60
60
Straight length is given
of hook ends beyond bend


How do I make horizontal RC bands ?
Sill and Lintel Bands
Plinth Band
Two 10 mm longitudinal Bars
6 mm diameter ties @ 200mm c/c
Four 10mm diameter longitudinal bars
6 mm diameter ties @ 200mm c/c
75
230
60
60
150
230
60
94
95

Straight Walls
Reinforcement bars will be at one level

How do I pass longitudinal bars of horizontal RC bands
through vertical RC elements ?
TJunction of Walls
Reinforcement bars will be at two levels, one above the other
LJunction of Walls
Reinforcement will be at two levels, one above the other
600 600




600
600
600 600
Window opening
Sill Band
Reinforcement detail at junction of RC element and RC sill
band
Elevation
Plan
96
97

Straight Walls
Reinforcement bars will be at one level

How do I pass longitudinal bars of horizontal RC bands
through vertical RC elements ?
TJunction of Walls
Reinforcement bars will be at two levels, one above the other
LJunction of Walls
Reinforcement will be at two levels, one above the other
600 600




600
600
600 600
Window opening
Sill Band
Reinforcement detail at junction of RC element and RC sill
band
Elevation
Plan
96
97

Construction of
Confined Masonry House
Option 1
98
99
Stepwise Procedure
Construction of a Confined Masonry House entails 3 major phases, namely
Foundation and Plinth
Superstructure
Roof
In this section, sequence of construction is elaborated pictorially in a step-wise
procedure to recall all salient steps in the making of a Confined Masonry House.
The following colour code is adopted for the above three phases of construction:
How do I build my Confined Masonry House ?
100
101
PC Mat
Steel reinforcement grill
Step 3
Prepare reinforcement grill of RC vertical elements. Use steel reinforcement bars of
full height till the roof level, up to which RC vertical elements are required. Provide
lateral supports to hold these reinforcement grills during construction.
600
Foundation and Plinth
900
900
150
600
Foundation and Plinth
Step 1
Dig a pit 900 mm wide and 900mm deep along the wall line of the house.
Step 2
Pour in this pit plain cement concrete (1:3:6 mix of cement, sand and aggregate)
of 150 mm thickness
900
900
900
150
900
102
103
PC Mat
Steel reinforcement grill
Step 3
Prepare reinforcement grill of RC vertical elements. Use steel reinforcement bars of
full height till the roof level, up to which RC vertical elements are required. Provide
lateral supports to hold these reinforcement grills during construction.
600
Foundation and Plinth
900
900
150
600
Foundation and Plinth
Step 1
Dig a pit 900 mm wide and 900mm deep along the wall line of the house.
Step 2
Pour in this pit plain cement concrete (1:3:6 mix of cement, sand and aggregate)
of 150 mm thickness
900
900
900
150
900
102
103
Foundation and Plinth
350 450
Step 6
Place the next four masonry courses with cement mortar (1:4 mix of cement and
sand) above the earlier brick masonry wall
Brick Masonry Stone Masonry
900
300
150
300
Step 5
Pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand and aggregate) in gaps between brick
masonry and steel reinforcement bars.
FIRST part of
RC vertical element
Brick Masonry
Steel
Reinforcement Grill
Step 4
Lay the first three masonry courses with cement mortar (1:4 mix of cement and sand)
over the plain concrete mat leaving gaps near steel reinforcement provided for RC
vertical elements.
Foundation and Plinth
Brick Masonry
900
300
150
900
450
900
600
Stone Masonry
104
105
Foundation and Plinth
350 450
Step 6
Place the next four masonry courses with cement mortar (1:4 mix of cement and
sand) above the earlier brick masonry wall
Brick Masonry Stone Masonry
900
300
150
300
Step 5
Pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand and aggregate) in gaps between brick
masonry and steel reinforcement bars.
FIRST part of
RC vertical element
Brick Masonry
Steel
Reinforcement Grill
Step 4
Lay the first three masonry courses with cement mortar (1:4 mix of cement and sand)
over the plain concrete mat leaving gaps near steel reinforcement provided for RC
vertical elements.
Foundation and Plinth
Brick Masonry
900
300
150
900
450
900
600
Stone Masonry
104
105
Foundation and Plinth
THIRD part of
RC vertical element
Step 9
Pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand and aggregate) around steel
reinforcement grill up to the top level of masonry course made so far.
Foundation and Plinth
900
300
150
300
350 450
Step 8
Place the next four masonry courses with cement mortar (1:4 mix of cement and
sand)
230 230
300 450
SECOND part of
RC vertical element
Step 7
Pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand and aggregate) around steel
reinforcement grill up to the top level of masonry course made so far.
Brick Masonry Stone Masonry
106
107
Foundation and Plinth
THIRD part of
RC vertical element
Step 9
Pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand and aggregate) around steel
reinforcement grill up to the top level of masonry course made so far.
Foundation and Plinth
900
300
150
300
350 450
Step 8
Place the next four masonry courses with cement mortar (1:4 mix of cement and
sand)
230 230
300 450
SECOND part of
RC vertical element
Step 7
Pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand and aggregate) around steel
reinforcement grill up to the top level of masonry course made so far.
Brick Masonry Stone Masonry
106
107
Foundation and Plinth
View of my Confined Masonry House
after Step 10
Plain Concrete Mat
Brick Masonry
Vertical
RC element
Plinth Band
150
Foundation and Plinth
900
300
150
300
450
230
450
450
Brick Masonry Stone Masonry
350
230
Plinth Band
Step 10
Place steel reinforcement grill for the plinth beam, and pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of
cement. sand and aggregates) for plinth band above brick masonry
108
109
Foundation and Plinth
View of my Confined Masonry House
after Step 10
Plain Concrete Mat
Brick Masonry
Vertical
RC element
Plinth Band
150
Foundation and Plinth
900
300
150
300
450
230
450
450
Brick Masonry Stone Masonry
350
230
Plinth Band
Step 10
Place steel reinforcement grill for the plinth beam, and pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of
cement. sand and aggregates) for plinth band above brick masonry
108
109
Foundation and Plinth
For the construction of Foundation and Plinth, the materials required are:
Cement
36 bags
Sand
3
6.8 m
Aggregates
3
20 mm (Nominal) : 3.1 m
Steel
High Strength Steel : 180 m of 10 mm diameter bars
Mild Steel : 190 m of 6 mm diameter bars
Burnt Clay Bricks
3,600
Step 11
Fill the plinth with earth up to 225 mm above native ground level.
Step 12
Top the earth fill with 150mm thick sand bed.
Step 13
Place the plain concrete (1:3:6 mix of cement, sand and aggregate) over the
layer of sand.
150
75
225
Step 11 Step 12
Step 13
225
Earth Fill
Sand Fill
Plain Concrete Flooring
Earth Fill
Sand Fill
Foundation and Plinth
110
111
Foundation and Plinth
For the construction of Foundation and Plinth, the materials required are:
Cement
36 bags
Sand
3
6.8 m
Aggregates
3
20 mm (Nominal) : 3.1 m
Steel
High Strength Steel : 180 m of 10 mm diameter bars
Mild Steel : 190 m of 6 mm diameter bars
Burnt Clay Bricks
3,600
Step 11
Fill the plinth with earth up to 225 mm above native ground level.
Step 12
Top the earth fill with 150mm thick sand bed.
Step 13
Place the plain concrete (1:3:6 mix of cement, sand and aggregate) over the
layer of sand.
150
75
225
Step 11 Step 12
Step 13
225
Earth Fill
Sand Fill
Plain Concrete Flooring
Earth Fill
Sand Fill
Foundation and Plinth
110
111
Direct wetting with water hose
Keeping the jute sheets moist
Step 17
Cure the vertical RC elements and horizontal RC bands for at least 7 days. Two
options are available, namely (a) wetting the RC elements with direct water jet
every hour, and (b) cover the RC elements with jute sheets and keeping the jute
sheets moist throughout.
Walls
Step 16
Sill Band
Step 15
Vertical RC Elements
Step 14
Masonry Wall Segments
Step 14
Build masonry wall segments till 75 mm below sill level.
Step 15
Pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand and aggregate) of vertical RC elements
around steel reinforcement grill up to the level of top masonry course.
Step 16
Place the steel reinforcement cage and pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand
and aggregate) for Sill Band.
Walls
112
113
Direct wetting with water hose
Keeping the jute sheets moist
Step 17
Cure the vertical RC elements and horizontal RC bands for at least 7 days. Two
options are available, namely (a) wetting the RC elements with direct water jet
every hour, and (b) cover the RC elements with jute sheets and keeping the jute
sheets moist throughout.
Walls
Step 16
Sill Band
Step 15
Vertical RC Elements
Step 14
Masonry Wall Segments
Step 14
Build masonry wall segments till 75 mm below sill level.
Step 15
Pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand and aggregate) of vertical RC elements
around steel reinforcement grill up to the level of top masonry course.
Step 16
Place the steel reinforcement cage and pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand
and aggregate) for Sill Band.
Walls
112
113
Walls
Step 21
Build masonry wall segments with cement mortar (1: 4 mix of cement and sand) till the
soffit of the roof slab
Step 22
Pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand and aggregate) around steel
reinforcement cage of vertical RC elements up to the level of top masonry course.
Step 22
Vertical RC
Elements
Step 21
Masonry Wall Segments
Walls
Step 18
Masonry Wall Segments
Step 19
Vertical RC Elements
Step 20
Lintel Band
Step 18
Build masonry wall segments till 75 mm below lintel level.
Step 19
Pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand and aggregate) of vertical RC elements
around steel reinforcement grill up to the level of top masonry course.
Step 20
Place the steel reinforcement cage and pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand
and aggregate) for Lintel Band.
114
115
Walls
Step 21
Build masonry wall segments with cement mortar (1: 4 mix of cement and sand) till the
soffit of the roof slab
Step 22
Pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand and aggregate) around steel
reinforcement cage of vertical RC elements up to the level of top masonry course.
Step 22
Vertical RC
Elements
Step 21
Masonry Wall Segments
Walls
Step 18
Masonry Wall Segments
Step 19
Vertical RC Elements
Step 20
Lintel Band
Step 18
Build masonry wall segments till 75 mm below lintel level.
Step 19
Pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand and aggregate) of vertical RC elements
around steel reinforcement grill up to the level of top masonry course.
Step 20
Place the steel reinforcement cage and pour concrete (1:2:4 mix of cement, sand
and aggregate) for Lintel Band.
114
115
Walls
Wall Edge
Detail C
Inside Wall
Detail B
Wall Corner
Detail A
600 600
600
Walls
Step 23
Bend longitudinal bars of vertical RC elements at the ends into the roof slab
A
C
B
How do I bend reinforcement bars into roof slab?
Details of A on next page
116
117
Walls
Wall Edge
Detail C
Inside Wall
Detail B
Wall Corner
Detail A
600 600
600
Walls
Step 23
Bend longitudinal bars of vertical RC elements at the ends into the roof slab
A
C
B
How do I bend reinforcement bars into roof slab?
Details of A on next page
116
117
Walls
For the construction of Superstructure till Roof Level, the materials required are:
Cement
30 bags
Sand
3
2.5 m
Aggregates
3
20 mm (Nominal) : 1.5 m
Steel
High Strength Steel : 260 m of 10 mm diameter bars
Mild Steel : 230 m of 6 mm diameter bars
Burnt Clay Bricks
4,200
118
119
Reinforcement at Slab Corner Edge
Section AA
230 450 2000 230 400 450
Bottom Steel grid
Top Steel grid
Roof
1100
2000
1100
6 mm diameter
MS bars
on 3 sides
10 mm
diameter
HYSD bars
on 3 sides
1100
Longitudinal reinforcement
grid placed at bottom of slab
with 25 mm clear cover
10 mm diameter bars
on 4th side
A
A
Bottom Layer of
Reinforcing Steel
Step 24
Place reinforcement cage of RC roof slab
Y
X
10 mm diameter HYSD bars
@ 200mm centers
(Along Ydirection:
below)
10 mm diameter HYSD bars
@ 240mm centers
(Along Xdirection:
above)
Top Layer of
Reinforcing Steel
Along X-direction: below
Along Y-direction: above
Extra bars for
(1) Kitchen and Toilet area, and
(2)Cantilever part of Roof Slab
Confined Masonry Walls
How do I Build my house with a Flat roof
Roof
120
121
Reinforcement at Slab Corner Edge
Section AA
230 450 2000 230 400 450
Bottom Steel grid
Top Steel grid
Roof
1100
2000
1100
6 mm diameter
MS bars
on 3 sides
10 mm
diameter
HYSD bars
on 3 sides
1100
Longitudinal reinforcement
grid placed at bottom of slab
with 25 mm clear cover
10 mm diameter bars
on 4th side
A
A
Bottom Layer of
Reinforcing Steel
Step 24
Place reinforcement cage of RC roof slab
Y
X
10 mm diameter HYSD bars
@ 200mm centers
(Along Ydirection:
below)
10 mm diameter HYSD bars
@ 240mm centers
(Along Xdirection:
above)
Top Layer of
Reinforcing Steel
Along X-direction: below
Along Y-direction: above
Extra bars for
(1) Kitchen and Toilet area, and
(2)Cantilever part of Roof Slab
Confined Masonry Walls
How do I Build my house with a Flat roof
Roof
120
121
Step 26
Cure concrete in flat roof slab after a day of casting. To hold the water, make small
bunds of 25mm height to break the large slab into smaller ponds; use 1:8 cement-
sand mortar for making these bunds. Water the slab for 28 days.
Mortar bunds to pond water RC Slab
S
l
o
p
e

-

1
:
1
0
0
Step 25
Pour concrete (1:1 :3 mix of cement, sand and aggregates) of RC flat roof. Finish top
surface with a gentle slope of 1:100 to drain rain water to the back side of the house.
Roof Roof
1
2 /
S
l
o
p
e

1
:
1
0
0
122
123
Step 26
Cure concrete in flat roof slab after a day of casting. To hold the water, make small
bunds of 25mm height to break the large slab into smaller ponds; use 1:8 cement-
sand mortar for making these bunds. Water the slab for 28 days.
Mortar bunds to pond water RC Slab
S
l
o
p
e

-

1
:
1
0
0
Step 25
Pour concrete (1:1 :3 mix of cement, sand and aggregates) of RC flat roof. Finish top
surface with a gentle slope of 1:100 to drain rain water to the back side of the house.
Roof Roof
1
2 /
S
l
o
p
e

1
:
1
0
0
122
123
For the construction of Roof, the materials required are:
Cement
26 bags
Sand
3
1.1 m
Aggregates
3
20 mm (Nominal) : 2.1 m
Steel
High Strength Steel : 500 m of 10 mm diameter bars
Mild Steel : 60 m of 6 mm diameter bars
Burnt Clay Bricks
None
Roof Roof
124
125
For the construction of Roof, the materials required are:
Cement
26 bags
Sand
3
1.1 m
Aggregates
3
20 mm (Nominal) : 2.1 m
Steel
High Strength Steel : 500 m of 10 mm diameter bars
Mild Steel : 60 m of 6 mm diameter bars
Burnt Clay Bricks
None
Roof Roof
124
125
Perspective View
RC Gable Band
Corrugated Metal
Roofing Sheets (1 m
x 3 m)
Metal Ridge
Flashing
Ridge Beam
Purlin
Rafters
P
Wall Runner
5690
1430
450
3130
450
6050
540 1270 1250 1250 1150 540
How do I build my house with a sloping roof
MS Ridge Flashing
Purlin
ISA 65 x 65 x 6 Steel Angle
Corrugated Roofing Sheet
(3 m x 1 m)
Section SS
Plan
Ridge Beam
Two ISA 65 x 65 x 6 Steel
Angles back to back
Rafters
Two ISA 65 x 65 x
6 Steel Angles
Wall Runner
ISA 65 x 65 x 6
Steel Angle
Roof Roof
126
127
Perspective View
RC Gable Band
Corrugated Metal
Roofing Sheets (1 m
x 3 m)
Metal Ridge
Flashing
Ridge Beam
Purlin
Rafters
P
Wall Runner
5690
1430
450
3130
450
6050
540 1270 1250 1250 1150 540
How do I build my house with a sloping roof
MS Ridge Flashing
Purlin
ISA 65 x 65 x 6 Steel Angle
Corrugated Roofing Sheet
(3 m x 1 m)
Section SS
Plan
Ridge Beam
Two ISA 65 x 65 x 6 Steel
Angles back to back
Rafters
Two ISA 65 x 65 x
6 Steel Angles
Wall Runner
ISA 65 x 65 x 6
Steel Angle
Roof Roof
126
127
For the construction of entire house, the materials required are:
Cement
92 bags
Sand
3
10.4 m
Aggregates
3
20 mm (Nominal) : 6.7 m
Steel
High Strength Steel : 940 m of 10 mm diameter bars
Mild Steel : 480 m of 6 mm diameter bars
Burnt Clay Bricks
7800
Water
~1,630 liters for mortar and concrete
Extra for curing
Material required to build the complete house
Steel Channel Section
screwed to wall runner and purlin
Purlin
Wall Runner
Detail at P
Roof
128
129
For the construction of entire house, the materials required are:
Cement
92 bags
Sand
3
10.4 m
Aggregates
3
20 mm (Nominal) : 6.7 m
Steel
High Strength Steel : 940 m of 10 mm diameter bars
Mild Steel : 480 m of 6 mm diameter bars
Burnt Clay Bricks
7800
Water
~1,630 liters for mortar and concrete
Extra for curing
Material required to build the complete house
Steel Channel Section
screwed to wall runner and purlin
Purlin
Wall Runner
Detail at P
Roof
128
129
Confined Masonry House
Burnt clay brick masonry walls
RC vertical elements and horizontal bands
RC flat roof
: Walls first, RC elements next
Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority
Government of Gujarat