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Polygamy in Hinduism
This article is also available in Hindi at http://agniveer.com/4982/polygamy-hinduism-
Immediately after I published my analysis of Dr Zakir Naiks views on Hinduism, I
started receiving hate mails. However I also received a soft-copy of another book of
his Answers to Non-Muslims Common Questions about Islam. This is another
masterpiece of his sophism. I have already glimpsed through videos of his lectures
where he recites this book line by line. Many rebuttals of this book are already
However what perturbed me, was another set of misconceptions he attempts to breed regarding Hinduism through
his self-proclaimed research. I can understand why Dr Zakir Naik has to spend so much space discussing
Hinduism in an article on Muslims, and so much space discussing Islam in an article on Hinduism (See in FAQ on
Hinduism)! This apparent confusion emerges from the fact that in current political, social and cultural situation, 80
crore Hindus form the most ideal conversion ground for Islamic Research Foundation. Peace TV managed by Dr
Zakir Naik even announced this a few months ago that they would make Hindustan a Darul-Islam in next 5 years.
Further, many Muslims believe in a prophecy that once India is conquered, only then would Jesus Christ come
again and will bring end of the world. After that, Judgment Day would happen and they will go to Paradise to have
their virgins and luxuries forever! The lure is too tempting for the uncultivated mind to drop all sense of reasoning!
In this article, I shall cover the first question he addresses POLYGAMY.
Dr Zakir Naik has tried to prove that Hinduism is inherently a polygamous religion. He states on Page 4 of the
The Quran is the only religious book, on the face of this earth, that contains the phrase marry only one. There is
no other religious book that instructs men to have only one wife. In none of the other religious scriptures, whether
it be the Vedas, the Ramayan, the Mahabharat, the Geeta, the Talmud or the Bible does one find a restriction on
the number of wives. According to these scriptures one can marry as many as one wishes. It was only later, that
the Hindu priests and the Christian Church restricted the number of wives to one.
Many Hindu religious personalities, according to their scriptures, had multiple wives. King Dashrat, the father of
Rama, had more than one wife. Krishna had several wives.
He continues giving some census data from sources best known to him alone that polygamy is more popular
among Hindus than Muslims.
I shall not dwell into what Polygamy means in Islam of Zakir Naik whether marrying 4 wives in total in entire life,
or keeping the total number of existing wives at 4 by divorcing old ones as one marries new ones, or having
special provision of 9/11/16/++ for those having revelations, or permitting marriage with babies, or whether
keeping unlimited slaves and not counting them as legal wives and thus skewing census data. These issues have
been dealt with by a large number of people including women-rights organizations, Muslim reformers and ex-
Muslims worldwide. Internet lists a large number of such reference sources that you can google upon.
The 4 Vedas
Complete (English)
The focus of this article would be explode the myth that according to Hindu scriptures one can marry as
many as one wishes.
We start with the Vedas because Vedas are considered the foremost authority in matters of Dharma.
1. There is no single mantra in the entire 4 Vedas that even give a hint of supporting more than one wife or more
than one husband.
2. Three mantras of Rig Veda, 1.124.7, 4.3.2 and 10.71.4 contain Jaayeva Patya Ushatee Suvaasaah. This
means that knowledge comes to the scholar in same manner as a dedicated joyous wife comes only to her
husband. Jaaya means wife and Pati means husband. Both appearing in singular implies that only one
husband-one wife relation is considered ideal.
3. Rigveda 1.3.3 states that God is like a dedicated wife with high character and purity. This also implies that
monogamy alone is considered ideal.
4. Rigveda 10.149.4 compares love between God and devotee like that between dedicated wife and husband.
Both Jaaya meaning wife and Patim meaning husband are used in singular number implying strict monogamy.
5. Rigveda 10.85.20 appeals a bride to expand happiness for her husband. Again both husband and wife are
referred in singular.
6. Rigveda 10.85.23 appeals to wife and husband to always have self-control. Its obvious from reference to self-
control and singular numbers for both wife and husband that monogamy alone is recommended.
7. All mantras relating to marriage are addressed in dual number to a couple of husband-wife implying one wife for
husband and one husband for wife. Some examples are Rig Veda 10.85.24, 10.85.42, 10.85.47 and almost entire
14th Chapter of Atharva Veda which deals with subject of marriage. Most mantras pray for faithful relation for
entire life-time.
Please note that Sanskrit has a dual number apart from singular and plural, specifically to remove this confusion
that people may have.
8. In Atharva Veda 7.35.4 both husband and wife state that, You establish me in your heart so that our minds
become one and same.
9. In Atharva Veda 7.38.4, wife says that You should only be mine. You should not even discuss about other
women. What can be a more clear prohibition of polygamy than this!
10. Atharva Ved 3.30.2 and 14.2.64 also appeal husband and wife to be devoted and faithful to each other.
11. Perhaps Veda provider Ishwar knew that despite all this, some self-proclaimed experts may still find reasons to
justify polygamy. Thus certain mantras in Vedas describe demerits of Polygamy.
- Rig Veda 10.105.8 compares existence of multiple wives with multiple worldly miseries.
- Rig Veda 10.101.11 states that a man with two wives is pressed from both sides and weeps like a horse that
neighs when pressed from both sides by spokes while driving a chariot.
- Rig Veda 10.101.11 state that two wives make life aimless.
- Atharva Veda 3.18.2 prays that may a woman never face threat of another co-wife.
12. The only mantra that skeptics try to give in favor of polygamy in Vedas is Rig Veda 8.19.36 that contains
Vadhoonaam and Satpati words. However, Vadhoo does not mean bride here and instead means powers that
provide happiness. Satpati means protector of good, just as Bhoopati means protector of earth. This is also
evident from the Devata or Key subject of the Sukta in which this mantra comes prayers for charity and donation
(Daanastuti). The mantra means that Ishwar gives variety of powers to those who protect truth and good.
While it is admitted that Dashrath practiced polygamy, but the essence of entire Ramayan is that polygamy leads
to troubles. The polygamy of Dashrath is considered to be the cause of trouble and grief that everyone faced. Ram
is considered Maryada Purushottam or the Ideal Man because he re-established the Vedic norm of
monogamy. Same was followed by all his brothers.
By the time of Mahabharat, the moral values of society had declined a lot. Thus none of the characters, apart from
Krishna, is considered exemplary in Mahabharat. And that is exactly the reason why Krishna has been targeted
the most for character assassination by a variety of forces.
Mahabharat is an extremely adulterated text and is not taken as authentic in totality. The original text was much
smaller and over a period of time it expanded to include a lot of things. Unlike Vedas, there was no mechanism to
stop adulterations from it. However a close analysis easily exposes that certain popular stories in Mahabharat are
pure myths. I give a list here:
a. Krishna was wedded to none except Rukmini. The myth
of 16000 wives came from a story where he liberated 16000
captive girls from Narkasur. The story itself is questionable.
Further the story never states that Krishna married 16000
girls. It says he protected them, which is true if story is
correct. had Krishna married 16000 of them, it would have
taken him more than 10 years even at rate of 4 marriages a
day as per the prevailing rituals!
b. Krishna was so strictly disciplined that he observed
complete Brahmacharya for 12 years before planning to
be a father. That is why Krishna is such a role model for entire society. The narrator of Geeta had no time for
anything except nation-building in those testing periods.
c. Krishna never had any love-games with any Gopi. These are figments of imaginations which got popular
during dark age of foreign rule when rulers of small states indulged in wasteful enjoyments after accepting
supremacy of foreign rulers. Further the whole story of Radha is a figment of imagination. It exists only in Brahma
Vaivart Puran which is another unscrupulous book like Bhavishya Puran that insults legends like Krishna and
Ram. The concept of Radha grew popular only in very recent times during dark age of India when rulers of
princely states were busy only in considering themselves Krishna incarnate and indulging into lustful activities by
demeaning just a legendary Brahmachari character! Mahabharat does not contain these.
Please read this excellent article by Dr Satya Pal Singh, Police Commissioner of Police, Pune: Lord Krishna
Lord Krishna an enlightening personality
While polygamy was practiced by certain rulers at various points in time, it was restricted only to ruling class and
never became a mainstream in larger population. That is why Hindus had no discomfort or objection to formal
introduction of monogamy as a law after independence.
All the great legends of Hinduism, whom many consider to be near God, were purely monogamous or
brahmachari- Vishnu, Shankar, Ram, Lakshman, Bharat, Shatrughna, Hanuman and Krishna.
Thus it is a gross myth that Hinduism accepts Polygamy.
On contrary, Vedas are unambiguous over recommendation of monogamy alone. The same has been the trend
for general population and our role models.
If there is any philosophy that condemns polygamy and specifically demands monogamy, it is the Hindu
Dharma based on noble precepts of Vedas.
On an additional note, I would like to address a few sophism that Dr Zakir Naik indulges into to justify polygamy:
1. Naik Average life span of women is more than that of men.
By this logic, polyandry (one wife- multiple husband) should be allowed. Because, on average, one wife would
require more than 1 husband to cover her entire life!
2. Naik World female population is more than world male population.
This contradicts previous point. If one looks at 2008 data of World Population as published by UN Statistics
Division, there are 2% more males than females in the world! The same is also true for marriageable age
discarding children and elders. Does he recommend Polyandry now?
3. Before we get further, let us also look at the countries with worst gender ratio. You can view the list at
The table has facility to sort by fields. What we observe is that the top 9 countries with more men than women are
all Muslim countries. Stricter the Islamic Law, more adverse the gender ratio. There are 2.74 times more men in
UAE and 2.46 times in Qatar. India and Pakistan are also is not far off with their significant Muslim population!
4. Naik Muslim women in due faith could bear a small personal loss to prevent a greater loss of letting other
Muslim sisters becoming public properties.
We just saw the data above. Does Dr Naik recommend the inverse now?
5. In civilized societies like Vedic Dharma, each women apart from ones wife is viewed as mother, by default. The
basic rule is Matrivat Paradaareshu All except wife are like my mother. That is why the question of someone
becoming public property does not arise. In wars, legends like Shivaji would bow to imprisoned women and call
them mother! And in a society that respects women, the question of adverse gender ratio does not arise as is
happening in conservative Muslim countries.
6. What is important is use of word property for women. Dr Naik recommends that polygamy enables women
to be private property rather than public property at small personal loss. This small loss is a great insult to entire
The 4 Vedas
Complete (English)
womanhood. If sharing of husbands is haram, why is sharing of wife merely a small personal loss? Vedas do not
discriminate at all between men and women and provide them equal rights and privileges in all matters including
Next he lists 4 reasons why polygamy is permitted but polyandry is not permitted:
a. This will help identify father of the child!
(But now we have DNA testing available!)
b. Man by nature is more polygamous!
(What is the proof for this except that polyandry is stoned to death? Is this not a ploy to insult entire womanhood
by justifying polygamy?)
c. It is biologically difficult for women to be polyandrous and rear children!
(This is again another shameless reason to justify keeping multiple wives and concubines, in name of religion and
social service!)
d. High chance of acquiring sexual disease!
(On contrary, medical science proves that it is women who are more susceptible to contract such diseases from
polygamous men than vice versa. Being a medical student sometime, Dr Naik should have verified at least this
much before publication. Or perhaps he never got a chance to practice or get back to medical books!)
Wise can decide themselves the mentality of this admirer of Osama bin Laden.
In summary, Polygamy is a malpractice, quite aptly condemned by the Vedas. Hinduism guided by Vedas and its
role models has always emphasized on monogamy and self-control as the only way for humans.
Efforts to justify polygamy, through whatever reasons, is an insult to entire womanhood.
May such deviant minds introspect and come into the shade of Vedas. May they inculcate feeling of respect for
entire Matru-Shakti.
This article is also available in Hindi at http://agniveer.com/4982/polygamy-hinduism-hi/