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European

Photovoltaics
Projects
1999-2002
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EUR 20900
This compilation of synopses covers research and demonstration projects in the area of photovoltaics as
well as supporting actions related to the candidate countries, networks, pre-normative research and
studies. The projects included are those funded under the Thematic Programme "Energy, Environment and
Sustainable Development" of the 5th RTD Framework Programme (1999-2002). For each project, basic
information is provided with regard to scientific and technical scope, the participating organisations and
contact points. The projects cover the whole range of activities from basic material research, through
production techniques for cells and modules, building integration, concentration, balance of system, to
life-cycle assessment including recycling.
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ISBN 92-894-6323-6
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couv 23/12/03 13:21 Page 1
EUROPEAN COMMISSION
Directorate-General for Research
Directorate J Energy
Unit J-3 New and Renewable Energy Sources
B-1049 Brussels
Helpdesk: rtd-energy@cec.eu.int
For further information on energy research in the EU,
please, refer to the following Internet sites:
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Interested in European research?
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Information and Communication Unit
Directorate-General for Research
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Fax : (+32-2) 29-58220
E-Mail: research@cec.eu.int
Internet: http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/rtdinfo_en.html
European Commission
EUR 20900 EUROPEAN PHOTOVOLTAIC PROJECTS 1999-2002
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
2003 194 pp. 21.0 x 29.7 cm
ISBN 92-894-6323-6
couv 23/12/03 13:21 Page 2
2003 Directorate-General for Research EUR 20900
EUROPEAN COMMISSION
European Photovoltaics
Projects
1999-2002
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be
made of the following information.
The views expressed in this publication are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the
European Commission.
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It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int).
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2003
ISBN 92-894-6323-6
European Communities, 2003
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.
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5
Foreword
Renewable energy sources will play an increasingly important
role in future sustainable development, with the protection
of the environment and security of energy supply being the
main driving forces in the short term.
In 2001, 15% of the total electricity generation originated from
renewable energy sources. The contribution of photovoltaics
to the electricity production still remains very small. However,
it has expanded steadily over the past ten years, recording
an average 30% annual growth. The total installed PV
generating capacity in the EU-15 was close to 400 MW by
the end of 2002. The manufacturing of photovoltaic modules
is showing the same trend with world wide production in 2002
exceeding 550 MW per year, more than 25% of which is
produced in Europe.
Although the contribution today is still modest the overall
potential share for photovoltaic power supply has been
estimated by several studies to be considerably more than
10% of the total EU electricity generation. The objective of
the Commissions White Paper on Renewable Energy Sources
(November 1997) is to increase the installed generating
capacity of Photovoltaics to 3 GW by 2010.
Within the Fifth R&D Framework Programme (1998-2002),
photovoltaics was covered by two key actions of the specific
programme Energy, environment and sustainable
development: Cleaner energy systems including renewable
energies and Economic and efficient energy for a competitive
Europe.
The aim of this publication is to present to the industrial and
scientific community the projects supported by the European
Union under these two key actions. They cover activities from
material research and production techniques for photovoltaic
cells and modules to system development and demonstration
and building integration. Thematic Networks and other
accompanying measures in support of programme activities
and preparations for future collaboration in the European
Research Area are also included.
We hope that providing this information will help to enhance
scientific and technological excellence and boost co-operation
between researchers, enterprises and users who work in this
promising and technologically challenging sector of the
economy. Our goal is to speed up the progress towards
sustainable development.
Gnther Hanreich
Director
Pablo Fernndez Ruiz
Director
RESEARCH
European Research Area
Photovoltaic network for the development of a roadmap for PV PV-NET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Coordination of European and national RTD programmes on photovoltaic solar energy PV-EC-NET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Coordination of NAS and EU RTD programmes on photovoltaics PV-NAS-NET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Materials and technologies for photovoltaic applications from Estonia (PV-EST) PV-EST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Centre of photovoltaics PV CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Co-operation in PV and solid electrolytes CEPHOMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Material, cells and modules
Fast in-line characterisation for c-Si solar cells FAST-IQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Development of new production techniques for highly efficient polymorphous solar cells H-ALPHA SOLAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
A direct route to produce solar grade silicon at low cost SOLSILC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Suitable substrates and barrier layers for thin-film crystalline Si solar cell technology SUBARO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Mass production of PV modules HIPROLOCO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
MIB solar cells offer high-efficiency and low-cost PV MIBCELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
High-micromorph silicon solar modules DOIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Highly efficient thin-film CIS photovoltaic modules PROCIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
CISCuT solar cells sunny prospects CISLINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Image data in solar cell process optimisation PORTRAIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Lightweight and flexible PV for all METAFLEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Solar cells with extremely low environmental impact NEBULES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Fast, low thermal budget, large area system for high throughput solar cell production FLASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Nanocrystalline dye-sensitised solar cells offering maximum performance NANOMAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Silicon purification technology for solar cells at low costs and medium scale SPURT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Bright outlook for crystalline Si thin-film solar cells METEOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Matching the beauty of silicon wafers and thin film MOPHET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Environmentally clean, efficient, and easy contact crystalline silicon solar cells EC2CONTACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Faster production of thinner, better, cheaper PV cells FANTASI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Dry processes for low-cost, thin multicrystalline silicon solar cells ADVOCATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Efficient solar cells on low-cost silicon wafers: Ribbon-Growth-on-Substrate solar cell technology RG SELLS . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Towards 20% efficient industrial silicon solar cells TWINGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Recycling of silicon rejects from PV production cycle RE-SI-CLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Epitaxial silicon wafer equivalents on low-cost silicon substrates SWEET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
High-throughput epitaxial reactor development for solar cell manufacturing from Mg-silicon EPIMETSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Simplifying polycrystalline Si solar cells LATECS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
N-type solar grade silicon for efficient solar cells NESSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
High-performance Si solar cell from high-throughput LPE thin layers on low-cost
UMG-Si based cast wafers TREASURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Technology for super-high-efficiency mc-Si solar cells TOPSICLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Silicon solar cells: from lab-scale to on-line production INDHI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Lightweight and unbreakable solar panels LASSOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
New concept in high-efficiency low-cost solar cells HELSOLAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Connection technologies for thin-film solar cells CONSOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Systems
X500 concentration PV modules with front point contact cells HISICON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Industrialisation of ultra-flat concentrator module of high efficiency INFLATCOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Successful one-year tests on low-cost PV-AC-module PV2GO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
High-efficiency energy converter HEEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Advanced concepts for mass-produced, low-cost electricity HAMLET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Transferring PV concentrators to volume manufacture CONMAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Optical fibres cast 1000 suns on MJ solar cells PV FIBRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Searching for the best Si-cells PV concentrator IDEOCONTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Controlled atmosphere PV concentrator (CAC): an innovative PV concentration concept CAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
A self-rechargeable and flexible polymer solar battery EURO-PSB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Contents
7
Building integrated photovoltaics
CIS for BIPV: improved aesthetics, efficiency and reliability CIS-FAADE MODULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
TUV building integration of CIGS thin-film solar modules HIPERPB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Solar cooling with integrated hybrid photovoltaic systems AIRCOOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Power and aesthetics for the built environment AFRODITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Attractive PV for building faades ADVANTAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Electricity, heat and cooling in just one hybrid system PROTEAS PV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Building-integrated thermophotovoltaic system SOLARSKIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Standards - others
Improvement of the hot-spot safety of PV modules IMOTHEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Preparing the market for novel thin-film photovoltaic generators PYTHAGORAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Intelligent performance check of PV system operation based on satellite data PVSAT-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Sustainability evaluation and recycling development for thin-film solar cells SENSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Photovoltaics maintains its good cost-reduction potential PHOTEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
DEMONSTRATION AND DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES
Demonstrating economies of scale
Full integration of PV in urban planning SUNCITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Northern building integrated solar energy PV-NORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
The education and cultural organisations are not only a
source of knowledge but also a source of thought UNIVERSOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Fostering the European BIPV market penetration HIPHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Mediterraneo: 870 kWp of PV in buildings in Europe MEDITERRANNEO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Enlarging the PV market to central and eastern Europe PV ENLARGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Social acceptance of domestic PV- service PV-SALSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Innovative concepts for BIPV
PV cool-build, a design guide. PV-COOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Pan-European integration of photovoltaics in social housing RESURGENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Light weight PV-Louvres PV-LIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Integration of PV in public buildings TEAPUB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Integration of renewables in a multimedia ecobuilding IT-ECO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Building Demonstration project. Photovoltaics in refurbishment REVIVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Large scale PV plants
1.2 MWp solar photovoltaic plant in Tudela SLOPETRACK PV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
The world largest double concentration PV system
PV electricity for Southern Europe at lowest costs SEVILLA-PV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Photocampa: a grid connected PV system in a car parking PHOTOCAMPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Balance of the system and Measurements
Innovative battery for photovoltaics systems, based on a intrinsically conductive rubber IBPV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Best practices for PV pumping programmes PUMPADUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Harmonisation of PV concentrators C-RATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Solar driven desalination plants based on membrane distillation MEMDIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Tackling the quality in solar rural electrification TAQSOLRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Towards the harmonisation of PV module output
power measurements in production lines POWER SOLAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Education, dissemination, studies
Towards stairway to excellence in photovoltaic FIRST STEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Demonstrating the EUs commitment to PV solar technology EUROPEAN PV CONFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Alphabetical Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
EUROPEAN RESEARCH AREA
Objectives
A major priority for the European Union and
pre-accession countries is research on new
and renewable sources of energy and their
integration into decentralised systems. The
White Paper
1
for a Community Strategy and
Action Plan, "Energy for the Future:
Renewable Sources of Energy", calls for a
30-fold increase in photovoltaic (PV)
systems by the year 2010. To reach this
goal, a 30% increase per year in the
implementation of PV generation systems
is necessary.
The main objective is the draft of a
roadmap for PV R&D based on a broad
consensus within the European PV
community. This increases the vitality and
competitiveness of European PV industry
through the formation of a comprehensive
strategy for research, marketing, products,
human resources and development by
formulating a viable strategy for directing
the future of European RTD in
photovoltaics. It also widens the view of
industry and researchers inside
photovoltaics to technologies and
developments outside their specific field
which can accelerate the development of a
selfly sustaining PV market.
P V - N E T
10
Project structure
PV-NET brings together representatives of all
relevant R&D and production areas in
photovoltaics. Their main task is to stimulate
communication within the whole PV community
by organising expert meetings, workshops and
symposia. By doing so, a comprehensive
coverage of all technological, institutional and
developmental areas is ensured.
PV-NET develops a roadmap for PV R&D based
on a broad consensus among the dif ferent
technologies, among industr y and research
institutions, across the whole range from
materials to systems. To achieve this ambitious
goal, PV-NET has to represent and involve the PV
community as a whole. As it is not possible in
the organisational structure of an EU-Network that
all interested parties can be contractors, the task
of the consortium members will be to collect the
input from all the different players in the field and
disseminate the results back to them. For this
purpose, exper t meetings, workshops and
symposia are organised and the results made
public via the web pages (http://www.pv-net.net).
Draft strategy papers and questionnaires in the
different areas are disseminated and feedback
gathered from the whole PV community. The
development of the PV roadmap is an iterative
process. The result will be a paper based on the
visions of the European PV-community indicating
the main issues for future photovoltaics research
and development. PVNET is an open platform for
all interested parties to get their opinion heard
and comment on the different strategy papers.
For the first time PV-NET brings together basically
all major players in European PV to formulate a
comprehensive strategy for research and
industry.
Exploitation plan
The development of a roadmap will increase
coherence, will focus resources and improve
communication and effectiveness in the field
of photovoltaics. This will lead to an increased
vitality and competitiveness of the whole
European PV industry and research. The road-
map will give national and European decision-
makers a sound basis for their decisions and
promote the achievement of the White Paper
targets for photovoltaics. The cross fertilisation
of PV with other technologies and the wide
dissemination of results through PV-NET are
expected to widen the views of all researchers
and industries involved to accelerate the
achievement of a self-sustaining PV market.
This market has a huge potential to create new
and highly qualified jobs within the European
Union.
Photovoltaic network for the
development of a roadmap
for PV
1
Energy for the Future: Renewable sources of
energy; White Paper for a Community Strategy and
Action Plan, COM(97)599 final (26/11/97)
Progress to date
In February 2002, PV-NET established a web
page, www.pv-net.net, where the relevant project
and partner information can be found.
PV-NET organised two workshops on "Cross-
Fertilisation between the Photovoltaic Industry
and other Technologies"
2
and "RTD Strategies for
Photovoltaics"
3
which took place at the JRC
Ispra site in May 2002. To prepare the discussion
during this workshops, two questionnaires were
drafted and sent out to more than 500 scientists
and company representatives in Europe, the US
and Japan. The proceedings are available on
the PV-NET web page or from the coordinator as
Special JRC publications.
A first draft of the roadmap was presented at the
"PV for Europe" conference in Rome in October
2002
4
.
The second workshop on "European RTD
Strategies and Cross-Fer tilisation for
Photovoltaics", which was organised together with
PV-EC-NET, PV-NAS-NET and EPIA, was held from
12 to 14 February 2003 at the University of
Ljubljana, Slovenia. The presentations are
available on the PV-NET webpage and the printed
proceedings are under preparation.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2001-20400
Title:
Photovoltaic Network for the
Development of a Roadmap
for PV PV-NET
Start date: December 2001
Duration: 24 months
Contact point:
Arnulf Jger-Waldau
Tel: +39-332 789119
Fax: +39-332 789268
Arnulf.Jaeger-Waldau@cec.eu.int
Partners:
Hahn-Meitner Institute (DE)
JRC - Ispra (IT)
CIEMAT (ES)
ECN (NL)
CEA - GENEC (FR)
IMEC (BE)
Teksolar Ltd (UK)
University of Hull (UK)
University of Ljubljana (SI)
Utrecht University (NL)
Wrth Solar GmbH & Co KG (DE)
Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
ZSW (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
11
Figure 1.: Organisation of network management. Figure 2.: PVNET partner distribution in Europe.
2
PVNET Workshop Proceedings RTD Strategy for PV; held at
JRC Ispra, 30/31 May 2002
Editor: Arnulf Jger-Waldau, European Commission, DG JRC;
Special Publication: S.P.I.02.117, Ispra 2002
3
PVNET Workshop Proceedings Cross-Fertilisation between the
Photovoltaic Industry & other Technologies held at JRC Ispra,
15/16 November 2001
Editor: Arnulf Jger-Waldau, European Commission, DG JRC;
Special Publication: S.P.I.02.91, Ispra 2002
4
PVNET R&D Roadmap for European PV, Arnulf
Jger-Waldau, Proceedings of the International
Conference PV in Europe, Rome, Italy, 7 11
October 2002, p. 924
5
Photovoltaic Network - PVNET II; JRC Technical note
I.03.71
EUROPEAN RESEARCH AREA
A second draft of the roadmap was presented
at the 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic
Energy Conversion in Osaka, Japan in May
2003. The proceedings are in print.
In order to continue this project a proposal for
a coordination action was submitted for the
call in December 2002 (2002/C 315/01)
5
.
Currently the final draft of the roadmap is under
preparation and it is planned that a final
workshop to discuss it will take place in autumn
2003.
Objectives
The main goal of PV-EC-NET is to increase
the effectiveness and coherence of the PV
RTD Programmes of the EU and the
independent EU member and Associated
States (hereafter indicated as 'European
PV RTD programmes'). Since the most
important prerequisite for coherence is the
exchange of information, PV-EC-NET will
first collect, analyse and disseminate
information about these European PV RTD
programmes. Based on the analyses,
PV-EC-NET will formulate a commonly
accepted European PV RTD roadmap.
PV-EC-NET consists of the organisations
coordinating the PV RTD programmes in
the different countries of the EU and some
of the Associated countries. All members
are deeply involved in the strategies of
their countries concerning PV. Most
members have a highly appreciated
advisory function concerning the PV
strategies in their countries.
P V - E C - N E T
12
Project work plan
The activities of PV-EC-NET are divided into seven
work packages:
Work Package 1: Network Management
Within the work package Network Management
all activities concerning the coordination of the
different work packages and the management
of the whole project are assembled.
Work Package 2: Co-ordination with other
Platforms
To avoid undesired overlap, PV-EC-NET is
coordinating its activities with those of other
existing and future platforms. The platforms of
importance to PV-EC-NET can be divided into
two groups:
Independent international
networks and organisations, such as EPIA,
CENELEC, IEA, etc. and
EC funded networks such as PV-NET, aSiNet,
etc.
Work Package 3: Collection of Information
Collection of information is the basis for
increased coherence. Within work package 3,
information on national programmes, the visions
and strategies behind them, the budgets and
methods available for them and the results
achieved with them are collected. A Central
European Photovoltaic Information Office has
been opened as the central office in Europe for
all information concerning all European PV RTD
programmes.
Work Package 4: Analysis of the national and
EU programmes
In order to increase the coherence of the
European PV RTD programmes, profound
knowledge of the programmes and their
effectiveness is required. PV-EC-NET will therefore
perform a benchmark of the European PV RTD
Programmes and a survey of the non-European
activities in the field of PV. In order to safeguard
the objectiveness, both the benchmark and the
international survey will be carried out by an
independent subcontractor.
The result of this work will be a report, giving an
overview of the programmes, describing for each
of them the advantages and disadvantages and
the effectiveness in relation to the targets.
Work Package 5: Formulation of a European PV
RTD roadmap
Given the results of the benchmark and the
international survey PV-EC-NET will formulate a
commonly shared PV RTD roadmap for European
PV RTD Programmes. This will describe targets
and approach for PV RTD for the European Union
and the independent European governments
involved.
Coordination of European and
national RTD programmes on
photovoltaic solar energy
Note: This information has not been updated !
Work Package 6: Dissemination of Information.
This work package concentrates on one of the
most important aspects of this Accompanying
Measure: the improvement of the accessibility
of information on the above-mentioned
programmes.
An important part of this work package will be
the improvement of the uniformity of the
information. Making available an easily accessible
database of all larger projects running under
the European PV RTD programmes will be a part
of this effort. A search will be done to find the
most appropriate set of channels for
dissemination of the acquired information to
the target groups.
Work Package 7:
Based on the benchmark and the European PV
RTD roadmap, PV-EC-NET will formulate a
proposal for a set of recommendations for both
the national governments and the European
Commission concerning the national and EC PV
RTD programmes. The actual formulation of the
recommendations will be done in close
consultation with representatives of the EC
during a three-day workshop, preferably organised
in one of the candidate member countries of the
EU.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2001-80578
Title:
Thematic Network for Coordination of
European and National
RTD Programmes on Photovoltaic Solar
Energy PV-EC-NET
Start date: January 2002
Duration: 18 months
Contact point:
Job Swens
Tel: +31-30 2393744
Fax: +31-30 2316491
j.swens@novem.nl
Partners:
NOVEM (NL)
NET (CH)
ENS (DK)
CRES (EL)
ADEME (FR)
ENEA (IT)
DTI (UK)
FP (AT)
IWT (BE)
CIEMAT (ES)
NAPS (SF)
INETI (PT)
WUT (PL)
FORMAS (SE)
STEM (SE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
13
EUROPEAN RESEARCH AREA
Objectives
The main objective of the proposed project
is the better coordination of the science
and technology activities in the sector of
photovoltaics in the Newly Associated
States (NAS) into the European Research
Area. Sharing visions, exchanging results
and harmonising the PV RTD priorities
amongst the NAS and EU will bring a
common strategy for development of PV in
the whole of Europe thus making it more
competitive.
With the goal to compare and, where
possible, to improve, the efficiency of the
NAS research programmes and activities,
the benchmark of these programmes is
part of the activities of this project. Based
on this, the Network aims to provide
recommendations for NAS and EC PV RTD
programming.
P V - N A S - N E T
14
Challenges
In Europe, national and EC-funded PV RTD
programmes are lacking coordination between
them, while in Japan and the USA great attention
is given to the coherence of the programme. To
retain an important role in the world PV market,
it is therefore necessary to use the relatively
modest funding in the EU in the most efficient
way, and to formulate a common, PV RTD strategy
for the new enlarged EU, including a
recommendation for the budgets required to
achieve the targets set within the EC strategy
concerning PV.
The new enlarged European PV industr y and
the energy market require ver y deliberate
emphasis on technology transfer and
dissemination, if new and improved energy
technologies are to have the maximum impact.
It is of strategic importance to have up-to-date
information, to use the available results, to
avoid mistakes made by others earlier, etc.,
and, if possible, to orientate ongoing research
activities towards the problems which are typical
and impor tant for both, the NAS and EU
countries.
Project structure
PV-NAS-NET is the network of the representatives
of ten Newly Associated States, four EU Member
States and Switzerland. It is a complementary
network to the PV-EC-NET which brings together
the coordinating institutions of the national PV
RTD programmes of the 11 members of the
European Union, Switzerland and Poland in order
to increase the efficiency and coherence of the
PV RTD Programmes of the EU. The activities of
the PV-NAS-NET are strongly correlated with the
activities of PV-EC-NET.
The activities of PV-NAS-NET take place in five
Work Packages: network management; collection
of information on PV RTD programmes and
activities in the NAS; benchmarking of the PV RTD
programmes and activities in NAS; dissemination
of information; and recommendations for NAS
national governments and the European
Commission.
Exploitation plan
The project is crucial for further development of PV
in NAS. In particular it provides a framework to:
assist the NAS in the process of upgrading
their RTD PV, prior the entry into the
European Union and examine non-technical
barriers to the take-up of research,
raise awareness and promote NAS
participation in the European Commission
RTD Programmes,
better link the NAS to the EU Member States
and vice versa,
promote the participation of
partners from the NAS to project consortia.
Spreading the PV technology to the Newly
Associated States is the European dimension of
Coordination of NAS and EU
RTD programmes on
photovoltaics
the proposal, plus Community added value and
contribution to EU energy-related policies. The
Network has been created to bring
complementar y exper tise at European scale
and ef fective and operational tools for the
success of the "Take-off Campaign". This action
will also make EU research results more readily
available to the NAS.
Progress to date
The document "Review and analyses of PV
activities in NAS countries" has been prepared
during the first six months of the project. The
document presents the state of art in the field
of PV and depicts PV programming, organisational
structure, PV policies and dif ferent suppor t
mechanisms, and successes and failures in PV
RTD activities. Based on this, PV-NAS-NET will
perform benchmarking of PV programmes and
activities in the NAS. This information will then
be used for the analysis of the position of NAS
in the field of PV in comparison to EU countries.
The results from benchmarking will be helpful to
formulate common PV recommendations for
NAS countries and the European Commission.
One of the preliminary results was the survey
concerning installed power of PV systems. Such
analysis was prepared for the first time. It showed
that there are significant dif ferences in the
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2002-80646
PROGRAMME: EESD
Title:
Accompanying Measure for Co-ordination
of NAS and European Union RTD
Programmes on Photovoltaic Solar
Energy PV-NAS-NET
Start date: January 2003
Duration: 18 months
Contact point:
Stanislaw M. Pietruszko
Tel/Fax: +48-22 660 7782
pietruszko@imio.pw.edu.pl
Partners:
Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Central Laboratory of Solar
Energy and New Energy Sources BAS (BG)
Solartec (CZ)
Tallinn Technical University (EE)
Solart-System (HU)
Institute of Physical Energetics (LV)
Semiconductor Physics Institut (LT)
Romanian Agency for Renewable Energy (RO)
Slovak University of Technology (SK)
Energy Restructuring Agency (SI)
NOVEM (NL)
Nowak Energy & Technology Ltd (CH)
CRES (EL)
sterreichisches Forschungs-
und Prfzentrum Arsenal (AT)
NAPS Systems Oy (SF)
EC Scientific Officer:
Georges Deschamps
Tel: +32-2 2951445
Fax: +32-2 2993694
georges.deschamps@cec.eu.int
15
extent of PV among the Newly Associated
States and even more in comparison with
those in the EU Member States. Compared to
approximately 430 MW of installed power in
European Union (including Switzerland and
Norway) as of the end of 2002, only 0.56 MW
was installed in ten Associated States.
EUROPEAN RESEARCH AREA
Objectives
The accompanying measure project aims to
strengthen the Photovoltaic Research
Centre at Tallinn Technical University,
supporting its position in fundamental and
applied research in the area of photovoltaic
materials and cells. Additionally the
current project aims to improve the
international attraction of the Centre.
The project supports collaborative research
in three areas, thin films, polycrystalline
monograin powders and composite
structures for photovoltaic applications.
The project aims to consolidate its current
interdisciplinary approach: enhancing and
realising competences in physics,
chemistry, material sciences and interface
engineering in applied research and
technology development. Building
complementary skills in intellectual
property management and technology
transfer management will contribute to the
realisation of technology development
potential.
P V - E S T
16
Challenges
European countries are facing the challenges
related to the exploitation of photovoltaic
technologies and there is a need to use the
competences in the efficient way. This project
aims to integrate one of the strongest research
centres in PV materials and technologies in the
CEE countries for the better use of its capabilities
for European benefits. The Photovoltaic Research
Centre has performed considerably well during
recent years. Further integration of the Centre into
the European network of centres of excellence
is addressed by this project. There is a need to
provide specific training opportunities for young
researchers, improve doctoral studies and offer
better career oppor tunities for talented
researchers. Furthermore, the current project
aims to uncover new research topics and explore
new research areas in the PV field.
Project structure
It is envisaged that the project will intensify
current research and technology development
activities at the Photovoltaic Research Centre via
a package of suppor tive means. Project is
outlined in seven work packages. Four work
packages are thematically oriented: three work
packages are targeting specific PV science and
technology areas thin films, monograin powders
and composite materials for PV and one is
devoted to cross-cutting fundamental research.
Substantial mobility and networking activities
are contributing to better collaborative research.
Thematic workshops will broaden dissemination
possibilities. A graduate and postgraduate
training work package will be implemented by
providing PhD and postgraduate fellowships.
One summer school is foreseen for graduate and
postgraduate students. Particular efforts will
be made to support postdoctoral studies.
The sixth work package aims to improve
complementar y skills in IPR and technology
transfer management. The final work package is
devoted to advancing research management
skills and exploiting best practice in this area.
The project will be implemented by the
Photovoltaic Research Centre, and project
management will be advised by the Scientific
Advisory Board consisting of professors from
Helsinki University of Technology (Finland),
University of Helsinki (Finland), Stuttgar t
University (Germany), Loughborough University
(Great Britain), Johannes Kepler Linz University
(Austria) and University of Tartu (Estonia).
Exploitation plan
This current project will lead to an improvement
in the fundamental knowledge in PV materials
through studies of photoluminescence and defect
structure of different PV materials, stoichiometry
and composition formation in these materials,
and interface engineering and physical processes
in solar cells.
Materials and technologies for
photovoltaic applications from
Estonia
In the monograin powder materials, this project
will contribute to the research exploring the
regularities of recr ystallisation of powder
materials, modified flux compositions,
development of monograin materials, regularities
of formation of Cd-free buffer layers, transparent
electrodes and new designs of monograin layer
based solar cells.
In the thin films research area, the project will
boost the European and particularly Estonian
knowledge in PV materials through studies of the
chemistry of formation compound semiconductor
materials in the thermal destruction of different
complex materials. Regularities of thin film
formation in chemical spray processing, of thin
film formation in electrochemical deposition
process, and the development of new all
chemical sprayed or electrochemically deposited
thin film solar cells are being studied.
In the field of composite materials, regularities
in the formation of thin films of electrically
conductive polymers in dif ferent chemical
processes and parameters of flat thin film and
composite organic-inorganic solar cells will be
studied during the course of the project.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2002-80664
Title:
Materials and Technologies for
Photovoltaic Applications from Estonia
PV-EST
Start date: January 2003
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Enn Mellikov
Tallinn Technical University - Centre for
Photovoltaic Research (EE)
Tel: +372-620 2798
Fax: +372-620 2798
enn@ediu.ttu.ee
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
17
Progress to date
The project will intensify fundamental research
and technology development activities in the
field of PV materials and devices at Tallinn
Technical University and strengthen international
attraction of the Photovoltaic Research Centre.
Medium-term and shor t-term researcher
exchange visits for collaborative research and a
seminar in three thematic areas will increase the
competence level of scientists and visibility of the
Centre in the research community.
PhD/postdoc placements and summer school will
intensify links between young researchers of
TTU and other European centres in the field of
photovoltaic research and technology
development.
In the long term, the current project will enhance
the attractiveness of the Centre to fully realise
its potential as the European centre of excellence
in the field of photovoltaic research.
During the first year, the Centre has initiated
international research exchange schemes. There
are six outward graduate and postgraduate and
three inward visits currently under
implementation.
Distribution of elements in developed thin
film structure.
Monograin powder and surface of monograin layer solar cell
EUROPEAN RESEARCH AREA
Objectives
The overall objective of the project
Photovoltaic Centre in Poland is the better
integration of science and technology in
the sector of photovoltaics in Poland into
the European Research Area. It is an
appropriate time to highlight the potential
of solar (PV) research and technologies,
due to the growing awareness in energy
and environmental issues in Poland.
The activities connected with the usual
activities of the PV Centre promote
the widespread use of solar energy as a
realistic, reliable, and economic form of
energy, thus encouraging the integration of
photovoltaic solar energy into Poland's
research, economy and everyday life.
P V C E N T E R
18
Challenges
PV systems
The PV Centre designs, installs, and monitors
grid-connected and stand-alone PV systems.
One of the major activities of the Centre is
research on PV systems in Polish meteorological
and environmental conditions. We are
continuously monitoring the first grid-connected,
building-integrated, 1-kW PV system in Poland and
PV systems at four BP petrol stations. The PV
Centre also continuously monitors performance
of the first stand-alone PV system for roads.
This system was successfully replicated
approximately 150 times by a private company.
Research also focuses on evaluation of local
solar resources and climate conditions affecting
the operation of PV systems.
Amorphous silicon (a-Si) for electronic devices
We focus on the technology and characterisation
of a-Si material for solar cells and thin-film
transistors. It is known that hydrogen plays a
fundamental role in the properties of a-Si but, at
the same time, that it causes metastability
effects. Therefore our work concentrates on the
issue to find a hydrogen concentration which
gives good quality films but with small
metastability changes.
Education
The PV Centre is involved in teaching about
solar energy through a programme that includes
lectures, classes, laboratories and training/visits
of students and researchers from and to the
Centre. These activities allow work on real-world
PV solar energy issues, including experimentation
and training with various systems and
technologies.
Strategy, promotion, and dissemination
PV Centre staff members promote photovoltaics
in Poland. The PV Centre took part in preparing
reports on the current status, perspectives, and
strategy of developing renewable energy in Poland
for the Polish Parliament and Polish Academy of
Sciences. It also organises symposia for
specialists. And at the request of ECOFUND,
the Centre prepared the concept of the "100
Solar Schools" programme, an educational
programme to promote and demonstrate solar
PV energy.
Exploitation plan
The success of this project should encourage the
widespread use of solar energy and its integration
into the economy and ever yday life, thus
contributing to capacity building of PV in Poland.
Fur thermore, it will also integrate Polish PV
research into the European Research Area.
Protection of the environment is one of the
constitutional obligations of the State. Due to the
Kyoto Protocol, Poland is obliged to reduce its
carbon dioxide emissions. Poland will also join
the European Union and must meet the European
standards on pollution as well as significantly
increasing the share of renewable energy
sources. Finally, Poland must develop a more
balanced mix of primar y energy sources.
Therefore, the objectives of the PV Centre support
the solution for the economic and social needs
of Poland, in conformity with the interest of the
Union as a whole.
Participation in the ERA in the framework of FP6
is extremely impor tant to researchers from
Centre of photovoltaics
Poland. Therefore this project will address their
needs and help them to get in touch with EU
institutions. We plan missions to meetings/
conferences/schools/workshops to establish
links with consortia submitting proposals. Also
participating in conferences on RES in Poland is
planned.
There is an urgent need to formulate the basis
for a national Programme to develop, promote,
and implement renewable energy technologies.
It is therefore necessary to continue efforts to
establish an adequate institutional and
organisational framework to promote better use
of solar energy in Poland.
Project structure
The work is organised in the following work
packages: management of the PV Centre;
networking with the European Research Area;
national networking; networking with NAS
countries; organising workshops; increasing
participation in FP6; dissemination of information.
The International Advisor y Board comprises
world-renown scientists and manages the
following aspects:
helping PV Centre to determine the best ways
of promoting PV research and demonstration
activities in Poland and other CEEC countries,
facilitating visits of researchers and students
to their institution,
visiting Poland to give lectures during
workshops and seminars,
helping to establish scientific co-operation
between Polish or CEEC institutions and EU
institutions.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2002-80665
Title:
Photovoltaic Centre of
Competence PV-CENTER
Start date: November 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Stanislaw M. Pietruszko
Warsaw University of Technology
Institute of Microelectronics and
Optoelectronics (PL)
Tel/Fax: +48-22 660 7782
pietruszko@imio.pw.edu.pl
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
19
Progress to date
improving of the links between the PV Centre
in Poland and other European centres through
networking, exchange, training and twinning
will draw upon European Union experience and
demonstrate the potential of PV solar energy in
Poland. Co-operation with the outstanding
European institutions, and in par ticular the
sharing of expertise and information, will greatly
strengthen the capacity of the PV Centre in
solving environmental problems.
The activities of the PV Centre attract young
students and researchers and allow them to
work on real-world PV solar energy issues,
including experimentation and training with
various systems and technologies. It will also
bring together multi-disciplinary working teams.
It will stimulate research and demonstration
activities that serve as a basis for ensuring the
replication of the solutions adopted, identifying
and realising new projects for the short, medium
and long term.
Thanks to the project the awareness and public
understanding of PV will increase. The project
answers the need for more education and
public information on energy and the
environment through demonstration projects,
in the media, in universities and schools.
Figure 1. The first grid-connected 1-kW PV
system in Poland.
Figure 2. Traffic warning light.
EUROPEAN RESEARCH AREA
Objectives
The main objective of the CEPHOMA
Centre is to promote closer co-operation
between scientists from Poland, Newly
Associated States and EU countries, active
in the field of photovoltaics and the physics
of materials for novel energy sources.
These areas are part of the most
prospective fields in solid-state physics and
engineering.
An important aspect of the centre's
activity is its networking with leading EU
research institutions within the European
Research Area (ERA).
The proposed activities aim at adjusting
the centre's capabilities to meet the
highest research standards and to enable
the joining up of projects within the
European Union's Sixth Framework
Programme.
A very important goal at the centre is the
training of PhD students and young
scientists in both the centre's and in
partners' laboratories.
C E P H O M A
20
Challenges
CEPHOMA's activity is concentrated on topics
closely related to novel materials used in energy
conversion and storage devices. Two main pillars
of that activity are: photovoltaics (conversion of
solar energy to electricity), and solid state ionics
(conversion of chemical energy to electrical
energy or vice versa).
Photovoltaic compounds developed and studied
in the centre are (CuInSe2) and Cu(In,Ga)Se2. The
investigation of these materials includes their
characterisation by optical methods and
advanced junction techniques.
Among the materials of special interest
developed for solid state ionics are: lithium,
oxygen and proton conductors, and materials
exhibiting mixed electronic-ionic conductivity.
Purely ionic conductors are used as solid
electrolytes in advanced lithium batteries, fuel
cells, gas sensors, oxygen pumps and
electrolysers. Mixed electronic-ionic conductors
are applied as cathode materials in novel
batteries and electrochromic devices. The
investigation into solid state ionics includes
impedance spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry
(XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
and X-ray absorption techniques.
Project structure
CEPHOMA stands for Centre for Photonics and
Materials for Prospective Applications.
Its programme is divided into seven work
packages:
WP1: Training of young scientists;
WP2: Photovoltaic links;
WP3: XVII School of Optoelectronics on
"Photovoltaics - Solar Cells and Detectors";
WP4: Improvement of co-operation in solid state
ionics;
WP5: Strengthening of co-operation in the area
of oxide ion conductors;
WP6: Impedance spectroscopy workshop and
training of young scientists; and
WP7: Coordination of the centre's activities
Work package WP1 is intended to promote
international European exchange of young
promising scientists and PhD students.
Work packages WP2 and WP3 are directly related
to the field of photovoltaics.
Three work packages WP4, WP5 and WP6
are focusing on tightening international European
research collaboration on solid electrolyte and
electrode materials for applications in batteries
and fuel cells.
Progress in the CEPHOMA programme is being
monitored by the International Advisory Board.
Co-operation in PV and solid
electrolytes
Progress to date
In the period under discussion, activity at the
CEPHOMA Centre has progressed according to
the approved plans.
In February 2003, a first meeting of the centre's
International Advisor y Board took place in
Warsaw.
In the area directly related to photovoltaics,
intensive preparations have been going on for the
XVII School of Optoelectronics on "Photovoltaics
- Solar Cells and Detectors" (WP3), held on for
12-16 October 2003 in Kazimierz, a beautiful
small town in Poland.
To date there have been several visits by Polish
PhD students to European research centres to
carry out experiments (London, Lille, Brussels).
There have also been exchange visits of senior
scientists initiating or continuing co-operation in
the areas of mutual interests (visits from London
and Lille, and visits to Trento, Vienna and Paris).
Scientists and students at the centre have
presented their results at international
conferences: ISES Solar World Congress, June
2003, Gteborg and XAFS12, June 2003,
Malmo.
An important event organised by the CEPHOMA
Centre was the International Workshop on
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2002-80666
Title:
Centre for Photonics and Materials for
Prospective Applications CEPHOMA
Start date: December 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Jerzy Garbarczyk
Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Tel: +48-22 660 7267
Fax: +48-22 628 21
centrum@if.pw.edu.pl
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
21
Figure 1. Raman Spectroscopy Laboratory at the CEPHOMA
Centre. Photovoltaic materials and solid electrolytes are
studied in this laboratory.
Figure 2. Solid State Ionics Laboratory - glove-box to study
moisture and oxygen-sensitive advanced materials used in
lithium batteries.
EUROPEAN RESEARCH AREA
"Impedance Spectroscopy for Characterisation
of Materials and Structures" (WP6: Warsaw
University of Technology, 24-28 September
2003). It was oriented towards the application
of impedance spectroscopy methods for the
characterisation of solid electrolytes, fuel cells,
batteries and solar cells.
MATERIALS,
CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
The Fast-IQ project focuses on a total
quality control in the PV industry, including
feedstock, ingot, wafer, cell process and
cell, as well as module characterisation, by
inventing adapted and automated systems
for quality measurement and tracking.
These systems have to be fast in order not
to reduce production throughput. Fast
experimental and industrial
characterisation prototypes are to be
developed. The implementation of industrial
characterisation prototypes includes an
appropriate analysis methodology into
industrial PV-production lines. It must be
demonstrated that 3 sec/wafer quality
monitoring and control is achievable for
experimental prototypes. The Si-material
will be improved due to feedstock
characterisation and classification. In
addition, the cell processes will be
improved due to Statistical Process Control
(SPC). The objective is to achieve an
increased uptime of production machines,
resulting in end-device cost reductions.
F A S T - I Q
24
Challenges
The reason for the lack of quality control systems
is that the PV industry is still a small market.
Earlier, there had been little to motivate
equipment manufacturers to develop
characterisation machines suitable for the PV
industry. This is no longer the case now that the
PV industry has expanded; during the last decade
it grew by 15% annually and the target set in the
White Paper of 3 GWp installed PV capacity by
2010 is expected to be reached. However, time
is needed for the development of characterisation
techniques, the design and construction of fast
characterisation machines and the technology
transfer into industry, and for all this development
to be affordable. This task places demands on
the co-operative work between the PV industry
(producers of silicon materials and cells),
equipment developers and research institutes.
This project focuses on a total quality control for
the PV industry covering feedstock, ingot, wafer,
cell process and cell, as well as module
characterisation, by inventing adapted and
automated systems for quality measurement
and tracking. These systems have to be fast in
order not to reduce production throughput.
Project structure
The consortium consists of:
two cell manufacturers Photowatt (PW) and
RWE Schott Solar (RSS);
two equipment manufacturers: Semilab (SL)
and Assing (ASS);
three research institutes: Joint Research
Centre-European Solar Test Installation (JRS-
ESTI) Netherlands Energy Research Foundation
(ECN) and (IMEC);
three universities: University of Konstanz
(UKN), University of Milano (UMI), University of
Bologna (INFM-UBO).
Strong links have been established in the project
between the partners from universities, research
institutes and industry. The industrial partners
determine the required parameters which are
estimated to have the greatest influence on the
cell process, and are therefore predestined for
quality control. Based on this list of parameters,
the different characterisation techniques for
each parameter will be investigated on an
experimental level by the participating institutes
and universities. Together with the institutes,
universities, their subcontractors or assistant
contractors, and also the participating equipment
manufacturer, the industrial partners will draw up
Fast in-line characterisation
for c-Si solar cells
for each characterisation technique a set of
selection criteria that will guide the decision on
further development; such criteria will include
quantitative and qualitative targets for each
process parameter of interest.
Exploitation plan
The project is expected to deliver experimental
and industrial prototypes for fast characterisation
of feedstock, ingot and wafer material, fast in-
line cell-process monitoring and fast end-device
characterisation (cells and modules), software for
data collection, data analysis and statistical
process control adapted to the PV industr y.
Once they have been developed, the advanced
solar cell characterisation technologies will be
introduced into the production lines of the RWE
group. Since RWE makes all kinds of photovoltaic
products and production lines, all European
photovoltaic producers and customers will be able
to benefit from the improved processing.
Photowatt will exploit the results of this project
to minimise material and energy consumption
and to optimise the actual ingot and cell
fabrication process. Semilab will be able to offer
the latest equipment and technologies to solar
cell manufacturers. Moreover, new marketing
oppor tunities are anticipated in the
semiconductor technology and optoelectronic
industry.
INFORMATION
Contract: ERK6-CT-1999-00002
Title:
Fast in-line Characterisation Tools for
Crystalline Silicon Material and Cell
Process Quality Control in the Photovoltaic
Industry FAST-IQ
Start Date: April 2000
Duration: 42 months
Contact point:
Kristian Peter
Tel: +49-7531 882080
Fax: +49-7531 883895
kristian.peter@uni-konstanz.de
Partners:
Universitt Konstanz (DE)
RWE Schott Solar GmbH (DE)
Joint Research Centre Ispra (IT)
ECN (NL)
IMEC (BE)
Photowatt International (FR)
Semilab Ltd (HU)
Universit di Bologna (IT)
Universit degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (IT)
Assing SpA (IT)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
25
Progress to date
A feedstock type (n/p) SPV tester has been
developed and successfully tested by an
industrial partner (see Figure 1). The feedstock
and brick resistivity was determined by eddy
current measurements and implemented in
the production line. A low-cost version of a
wafer thickness measurement system has
been created, based on capacitance probes in
combination with an eddy current wafer
resistivity measurement system, using the
thickness information (see Figure 2). Using
an X-ray technique based on parallel
monochromatic X-ray beam Bragg reflection
measurements, various crystal defects have
been detected such as dislocations and a
crack 40 m wide (see Figure 3). A solar cell
test algorithm has been developed, allowing
electrical parameters to be extracted from the
measured IV curve as outputted by standard IV-
testers in industry. There is also a new handling
system, developed by RWE Schott Solar, for the
automated pick-up of samples out of the
production line into operation. In addition,
several experimental results on crack detection
have been achieved by using laser scanning
vibrometr y (LSV), organic impurity detection
by Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) for work function
measurements, lifetime determination
by _PCD, QSSPC, SPV, PL and quality control
during stringing by fast LBIC and thermal
imaging. SPC has been applied.
Figure 3. Microcrack in wafer detected by X-ray transmission.
Left: normal picture, right: filtered picture
Figure 1. Semilab SPV polarity type tester.
Figure 2. Semilab tester for wafer thickness
measurement by capacitance probe and for wafer
resistivity measurement by eddy current technique.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
One of the main problems of the use of
amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) for
photovoltaic applications is its
metastability which, in today's commercial
modules, results in a decrease of module
efficiency in the first 100 hours of usage by
20-30%. We have introduced a new
material, called polymorphous silicon (pm-
Si:H), in which silicon clusters produced in
the plasma contribute to the deposition.
This new material, produced by plasma
enhanced chemical vapour deposition under
conditions close to powder formation,
combines the high absorption of a-Si:H with
the improved transport properties of
microcrystalline silicon. Indeed, it has been
shown that pm-Si:H:H films have defect
densities below 1015 cm
3
.eV-1 and
mobility-lifetime products for electrons and
holes higher than in a-Si:H. Moreover, the
superiority of pm-Si:H films over a-Si:H is
maintained after light-soaking tests.
Preliminary solar cells have proven the
potential of this new material: on small
areas, stable efficiencies of 10% were
reached in single junction p-i-n solar cells.
This project is based on the exploration of
large-scale application of pm-Si:H using
environmentally sustainable production
technologies. The know-how to be acquired
to this end will also contribute to enhancing
the production yield.
H - A L P H A S O L A R
26
Challenges
General challenge
The general aim of the project consists in the
development of industrially applicable production
techniques for solar cells using polymorphous
silicon with stable ef ficiencies above 10%,
exploring in-line batch as well as continuous
roll-to-roll techniques, aiming ultimately to obtain
a system cost of 1/Watt-peak (1/Wp). The
module manufacturing cost reduction aimed at
will be reached by simultaneously increasing
the photovoltaic ef ficiency, improving the
production yield, increasing the feedstock
utilisation efficiency, and decreasing the cost of
ownership by enhancing the growth rate.
In this project we will cover the two mainstreams
of production technology: in-line batch processing
and continuous roll-to-roll processing. On the
one hand, the in-line batch process allows for fast
progress since the technology is mature. On
the other hand, the continuous roll-to-roll process
of fers a potential for dramatically reducing
production costs, but it requires much more
process development time.
In both cases, the projected improvements will
be obtained in existing deposition hardware,
where only the operational protocols and the
configuration will be modified. This modification
will be controlled by applying robust plasma
process monitors, which will be developed and
calibrated during the project.
Specific scientific/technical objectives
Laboratory-scale production of polymorphous
silicon solar cells with a stable photovoltaic
efficiency exceeding 12%.
New robust process monitor techniques,
calibrated against new advanced plasma
diagnostics.
Successful transfer of both laboratory-scale
deposition technology and process monitors
to the in-line batch as well as the continuous
roll-to-roll pilot lines.
Production of 30*40 cm polymorphous
modules in a batch pilot line. This will provide
the know-how which will be required for
achieving substantially reduced production
costs per Wp in a future upscaled 1m
2
production facility.
Production of 30 cm width, continuous length
polymorphous solar cells on flexible substrates
in a roll-to-roll pilot line. This will provide the
know-how which will be required for achieving
substantially reduced production costs per
Wp in a next-generation upscaled 120 cm
wide roll-to-roll production facility.
Assessment of the economic and ecological
benefits which are the results of the
introduction of the new materials, devices
and production techniques.
Creation of the technological and scientific
foundation for further improvements after
conclusion of the project, based on the new
materials, process monitoring techniques,
and process expertise acquired in this project.
This will be of benefit for both industry and
academia, and may have an impact where
this technology is used for other applications
like TFT-LCD, IC technology, sensors, etc.
Development of new production
techniques for highly efficient
polymorphous solar cells
Project structure
The work proposed in this project covers several
RTD fields. This implies that the consor tium
should be able to congregate par tners with
complementar y backgrounds, besides being
active in dif ferent multi-sectors (industr y,
technical and scientific), imposible to achieve at
a national level or to be carried out by a single
partner. A clear complementarity is required in
the field of technology, manufacturing, materials,
devices development, cer tification and test,
aiming at a specific goal in the field of thin film
silicon for PV applications, including environment
studies. Thus, the consor tium established
brought together experts from the research and
development field and combines them with
experts in the field of manufacturing equipment
and end-users of the technology. Therefore, the
partnership can be highly complementarity and
multi-disciplinar y by combining effor ts of PV
modules manufacturers with an equipment
manufacturer, complemented with developers
of new technologies and processes, assisted by
researchers and testers of modules, including,
environmentalists.
The consor tium is well balanced between
developers of new deposition processes for cell
applications, end-users of the technology,
manufacturer of equipments (impor tant, to
assist the upgrade of the existing technology and
to build the final technical prototype) and
characterisation and qualification activities. The
consortium will establish research co-operation
between partners belonging to three different UE
countries (Portugal, The Netherlands and France)
that also includes subcontractors from Spain
and Switzerland most of them have already
proved their competence in being involved in
highly innovative projects.
INFORMATION
Contract: ERK6-CT-1999-00004
Title:
Development of New Production
Techniques for Highly Efficient
Polymorphous Solar Cells H-ALPHA
SOLAR
Start Date: March 2000
Duration: 48 months
Contact point:
G.M.W. Kroesen
Tel: +31-40 2474357
Fax: +31-40 2456050
g.m.w.kroesen@tue.nl
Partners:
Eindhoven University of Technology (NL)
Universitt Konstanz (DE)
Angewandte Solarenergie - ASE GmbH (DE)
CNRS (FR)
Instituto de Desenvolvimento
de Novas Tecnologias (ES)
AKZO NOBEL Chemicals BV (NL)
Universit d'Orlans (FR)
Companhia Portuguesa de
Sistemas Fotovoltaicos, lda (PT)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
27
Strategic impact
The international scientific and technical
leadership in photovoltaic technology is in the
hands of Japan and the USA. We believe
however that the "temporar y superstrate
technology", as it is called, has the potential
to cope and even outpass existing
manufacturing concepts. Its competitive
situation will be highly increased by yield
enhancement and higher efficiencies, which
should come out of this project. This will
obviously create new market oppor tunities,
which at this moment are not yet cost effective.
On top of that, this process has the advantage
of generating low-weight and flexible cells, such
that applications where the weight, or flexibility
is impor tant will become more and more
interesting.
Expected achievements
Improving module stability towards 100% at
photovoltaic efficiencies (10% in stacked
polymorphous cells produced in an in-line
batch pilot line.
Scaling up polymorphous silicon deposition
technology from 1200 cm
2
towards
2200 cm
2
in preparation for the continuous
roll-to-roll process.
Establishing a production yield above 60% for
a continuous roll-to-roll process.
Improving the photovoltaic efficiency towards
6% for a single junction solar cell produced
in a continuous roll-to-roll process.
Installation of robust calibrated process
monitors on the pilot line.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
28
Objectives
General objectives of the project are to
research and develop a new two-step high-
temperature process for solar grade silicon
(sog-Si) production, to test the processing
and conversion efficiency of solar cells
made from SolSilc material, to evaluate an
approach for scale-up and to investigate
relevant technical, environmental and
economical aspects. After the SolSilc
project a pilot demonstration on scale
(several 100 tonnes/a, 2 years) is
anticipated, in order to achieve a
competitive market price below 20/kg
sog-Si at a scale of 5.000 mt/y.
In the new two-step high-temperature
process, silicon metal is formed from high-
purity quartz from natural deposits and
from very pure carbon black, with silicon
carbide as an intermediate product. In a
rotary plasma furnace, pellets of quartz and
carbon black are reacted to form silicon
carbide. In the second furnace, an electric
arc furnace, the reaction of quartz and
silicon carbide leads to the formation of
silicon melt. This melt is saturated with
carbon which is removed in a subsequent
purification process. The attractive
features of the SolSilc process are its
expected low cost and low energy
consumption.
SOL SI L C
Challenges
The consensus amongst par ties in the PV
business is that cr ystalline silicon wafer
technology will continue to be the main technology
for at least the next decade. Alternative
technologies such as thin film silicon and organic
solar cells may start to play an important role in
low-cost/large-scale PV after 2010. The growth
of PV capacity for the next 15 years (as planned
in the White Paper) will therefore mainly be
based on c-Si wafer technology.
Thus far, the PV industry uses as feedstock for
manufacturing wafers mainly scrap material and
material from excess capacity of producers of
electronic grade silicon for the semiconductor
industr y. The volumes from this source are
limited and vary in quality. Changing requirements
for semiconductors (highly doped materials) and
increased recycling of waste material by the
electronics industry itself have caused shortages
in scrap EG-silicon, leading to substantial price
increases over the last couple of years.
As shown in table 1, the need for sog-Si is
growing rapidly. Shortages of silicon feedstock
for the PV industry had already been expected,
but are currently masked by the excess capacity
at the EG-silicon producers. Based on the above-
mentioned growth rates and an improvement in
Si utilisation of 5%/a, a world-wide shortage of
2600-4300 tonnes/a is foreseen in 2005.
Reaching EU White Paper goals on PV requires
that feedstock is available in sufficient quantities
at a price that allows further reduction of module
costs. Against this background, the need for
new and cheaper routes to solar grade silicon is
obvious.
Project structure
The project consortium comprises the Energy
Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN, NL,
coordinator), Sintef Materials Technology (NO), ScanArc
Plasma Technologies (SE), and S'Energy (NL).
The three RTD partners (ECN, Sintef and ScanArc)
have specific and complementary expertise and
co-operate on a very direct basis. The role of
Sintef is the development of the Si technology
(production steps and purification). ScanArc with
Sintef is developing the second high-temperature
step of the Si production. ECN provides a
specification for silicon feedstock, and tests
materials in a solar cell process and by other
techniques. S'Energy, the demonstrator
application partner, is mainly responsible for
direct market evaluation and feedback, and for
creating market options for exploitation.
A direct route to produce
solar grade silicon at low
cost
29
Exploitation plan
The availability of sog-Si is an absolute
prerequisite for a continued rapid growth of the
production of PV systems. The installation of a
dedicated sog-Si production plant will help to
secure the availability of silicon feedstock for PV
wafers and will enable the development of lower
cost modules. Furthermore, a dedicated sog-Si
production plant will give the European PV
industry a strategic advantage and will set a
new industry standard. The reliable supply of raw
materials at low cost will encourage PV cell
manufacturers and other parties to invest in
production facilities for competitive PV systems.
The contribution to lowering PV module costs
facilitates the entr y of solar energy in the
deregulated European energy market.
Results
For the second high-temperature step, a furnace
was designed and constructed at ScanArc for a
production of 20 kg silicon per hour.
This furnace, shown in figure 1, has been
operated with high-purity linings but not yet
completely clean starting materials. Hence, the
metal produced thus far had not yet the required
purity for solar grade silicon. This furnace has
been operated under steady-state conditions
for periods up to 36 hours, during which more
than 80 kg of silicon was produced, with multiple
tappings of the formed metal. The furnace was
placed in a newly constructed cleanroom at the
ScanArc premises.
The carbon-saturated melt is subsequently
treated by a combination of three methods to
reduce the carbon concentration from several
hundred to 2-5 ppmw. These methods are,
respectively, controlled SiC precipitation, oxidative
gaseous purging and directional solidification.
Individual purification tests of the dif ferent
methods were performed in SOLSILC and the
effectiveness was demonstrated.
From literature data and from chemical analysis
of commercially available PV wafers, a minimum
specification for solar grade silicon has been
derived. The chemical composition of SolSilc
silicon has been estimated from the composition
of the star ting materials and the expected
segregation during the process. The tolerance of
cell per formance for specific impurities has
been investigated by making solar cells from
intentionally contaminated EG-silicon. The results
indicate that it should be possible to obtain
good cell per formance on wafers made from
SolSilc silicon.
An environmental evaluation and an LCA were
made of the SolSilc process and competing
routes towards solar grade silicon. Criteria used
are availability of resources, energy consumption,
safety and emissions into the environment. The
SolSilc process is expected to be the most
benign process environmentally.
INFORMATION
References: ERK6-CT-1999-00005
Title:
A Direct Route to Produce Solar Grade
Silicon at Low Cost SOLSILC
Start Date: March 2000
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
G. Paul Wyers
Tel: +31-224 564407
Fax: +31-224 568214
wyers@ecn.nl
Partners:
ECN (NL)
SINTEF (NO)
ScanArc (SE)
S'Energy (NL)
Willems & van den Wildenberg (NL)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Figure 1. The electric arc furnace for silicon
metal production at ScanArc. Visible are the
pelletised charge and the graphite electrode. The
development of the process parameters to
pelletise and react the pure raw materials has
been an important achievement in SolSilc.
Figure 2. Removal of carbon from
silicon melt.
PRODUCTION
(MWp/a)
Spec. Si
cons (t Si/MWp)
25%GR
YEAR TOTAL Si
Consumption (t/a)
Si available
(t/a)
Si deficit
(t/a)
20%GR
235 235
717 585
2200 1450
2000
2005
2010
17
13
10
25%GR 20%GR
4000 4000
9300 7600
22000 14500
4000
5000
3500
25%GR 20%GR
0 0
4300 2600
18500 11000
Table 1. Expected shortages of silicon feedstock for growth rates (GR)
of the PV industry of 20% and 25% per annum. (Source: EPIA Industry
Roadmap Workshop, Alzenau, 12-13 September 2001)
30
Objectives
Crystalline Si solar cells are dominating the
actual PV-market with a share of more than 90%.
In order to reduce Si material costs, it is
attractive to go from the self-supporting Si
substrate technology towards a thin-film
approach in which a thin layer of Si is
grown on a low-cost substrate, like a
ceramic or low-cost Si-substrate. This
approach is expected to result eventually
in a cost reduction to levels between 0.5
and 1/Wp
S U B A R O
Challenges
The European White paper on Energy calls for
3 GWp to be installed in Europe by 2010. This
implies that annual production rates in Europe
must be at the level of 500 MWp pa by 2010.
To achieve this in cr ystalline silicon requires
around 5000 tonnes per year of silicon feedstock.
The dependence of the photovoltaic industry on
the supply of electronic grade Si represents a
major impediment for its rapid expansion. The
further growth of photovoltaics, dominated by bulk
Si at the moment, is also hindered by the
relatively large cost/Wp of photovoltaic modules.
One of the main cost components (about 50%)
is caused by the cost of the bulk Si-substrate,
made from electronic grade Si. The project aims
at the development of a low-cost substrate,
either based on a Si-ribbon approach (RGS-
approach) or a SiN-based ceramic, which can be
either conductive or non-conductive. The
development of a substrate cannot be
disconnected from a suitable barrier layer to
prevent contaminant diffusion in the active Si-
layer. Finally, the project aims at proving the
feasibility of a high-throughput continuous CVD-
system to achieve a breakthrough in specific
equipment development for high-temperature
thin-film crystalline Si solar cell manufacturing.
Progress to date
Conductive substrate/barrier layer options
p+-type B- and Ga-doped RGS-substrates were
produced at ECN. These substrates were
delivered to IMEC, where epitaxial layers were
grown. Cells in these epitaxial layers had
ef ficiencies between 7 and 8%. Significant
progress was made however for the application
of an industrial solar cell process to epitaxial cells
on highly doped multicrystalline Si substrates with
efficiencies for large-area cells between 12 and
13%.
Conductive substrates based on both SiSiC and
SiN were obtained by tape casting. The SiN-
substrates were only conductive in a thin top
layer, whereas the tape-casted SiSiC-substrates
were ver y rough. Commercial substrates
delivered by TeCe to the project turned out to be
dense and smooth. In connection with the
conductive substrates, progress is also being
made with conductive SiC barrier layers,
deposited by plasma-enhanced deposition. These
Suitable substrates and barrier
layers for thin-film crystalline
Si solar cell technology
Partner Role in the project
IMEC
Si-deposition on ribbons Solar cell processing on epitaxial
cells and cells on ceramic (RIE-texturing, interdigitated contacts)
PHASE-CNRS
Si-deposition on non-conductive ceramic
ECN
Ceramic substrate preparation (tape casting, sintering)
RGS-ribbon production (taken over from Bayer)
ISE
Conductive SiC-layer preparation Zone-Melting
recrystallisation Cell process development
DIMES Defect analysis
RWE Schott Solar Solar cell process upscaling Costing
ENEA
Laser processing for interdigitated cells Laser doping, screenprinting
Shell Solar Cost evaluation
31
layers were used in a process where the Si-
layers were melted during a zone-melting
recrystallisation treatment. Cells with efficiencies
above 7% could be achieved despite problems
with the mechanical stability of the SiC-layers.
Non-conductive substrate/barrier layer options
Impressive progress was made on the SiN-
substrate preparation by tape casting starting
from Si3N4-powder. These substrates up to
10x10 cm
2
were dense and flat and had a
homogeneous outlook (see picture 1). A
remaining problem is the non-matched thermal
expansion coef ficient (3e-6/C). Adding TiN
allows the thermal expansion coefficient
(> 5x10
-6
/C), but this value is above the value
for Si (4x10
-6
/C) to be increased. These
substrates were later covered with an ONO-
buffer layer. As a result, cell efficiencies up to
8% were obtained on tape-casted SiN-substrates
with recr ystallised Si-layers (see picture 2),
which can be considered as a real breakthrough
for the project. A second route to obtain tape-
casted SiN-substrates is based on reaction
bonding. During reaction bonding Si3N4 is formed
by direct reaction between N2 gas and Si particles
at high temperature. The Si3N4 grows into the
pores and bonds the particles. First, green tapes
were produced at ECN and were sent back to H.C.
Starck for reaction bonding treatment. The tapes
bent significantly.
In addition, cells were also processed on SiSiC-
substrates covered with a non-conductive ONO-
barrier. World record efficiencies up to 11.6%
were reached with a large spread on the
characteristics.
High-throughput CVD-reactor development
After the installation of the new jet pumps in May
2002, the operating conditions of the gas curtain
system were thoroughly investigated. A stable
and reliable behaviour could be demonstrated,
but the safety concept was not adequate and had
to be modified. In the new safety concept, bypass
gas lines with "normally open" needle valves also
provide the right gas flows in case of power
breakdown in order to replace the reactive gases
by nitrogen. This concept has been developed
and successfully tested. A remaining problem
is the high oxygen background in the reactor
tube when hydrogen is introduced. A thorough
investigation showed that this is not caused by
diffusion through the slits allthough the real
cause remains unclear.
The first deposition experiments were made in
April 2003. The deposited silicon-layer seems to
be epitaxial, but fur ther system tuning is
necessary.
INFORMATION
Contract : ERK-1999-00014
Title:
Substrate and Barrier Layer Optimisation for
CVD-Grown Thin-Film Crystalline Si Solar
Cells SUBARO
Start Date: April 2000
Duration: 48 months
Contact point:
J. Poortmans
Tel: +32-16 281501
Fax: +32-16 281302
poortman@imec.be
Partners:
IMEC (BE)
CNRS-PHASE (FR)
ECN (NL)
Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft-ISE (DE)
Technische Universiteit Delft (NL)
Angewandte Solarenergie GmbH (DE)
Ente per le Nuove ENEA (IT)
Shell Solar Energy BV (NL)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
Figure 2. Thin-
film crystalline
Si solar cells in
recrystallised
layers.
(Courtesy of
FhG-ISE,
Germany)
Figure 1. Tape-casting facility
and process.
(Courtesy of ECN, the
Netherlands)
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
The state-of-the-art encapsulation
technology for thin-film solar cells of
double-glass encapsulation with
encapsulant EVA should be significantly
changed in order to reduce consumption of
materials, energy, handling time and cost.
New flexible encapsulating materials will
be developed and combined into one
composite. 'One component encapsulants'
will include all encapsulating functions
such as:
- sealing/embedding
- barrier systems against UV, moisture, gas
- mechanical protection/stability
- electrical insulation
- weatherability.
The new encapsulants will be specified
according to the specific requirements of
the different thin-film solar cells CIS and
a-Si. New, cost-effective, automated
encapsulating processes for rigid
substrates and for flexible thin-film solar
cells will be developed and demonstrated
at a laboratory scale. It is the aim of this
project to bring encapsulation costs down
by 50%.
H I P R O L O C O
32
Challenges
A lot of new knowledge is needed to cover all
necessar y characteristics such as high light
transmittance, high water-vapour barrier, electrical
insulation, mechanical protection, weatherability
and adhesion in one flexible, composite material,
and also to increase the water vapour barrier
using transparent thin layers which can remain
stable for a minimum of ten years. The substrate
films need to be investigated and the different
coating processes evaluated. New, fast-reacting
adhesives have to be generated and tested on
different solar cell surfaces. All process steps
must be applicable to roll-to-roll processes in
order to achieve effective overall production.
New processes and equipment for automated
encapsulation with high output have to be
designed and constructed for demonstrating the
complete encapsulation process with new
encapsulation materials.
Project structure
Three specialist groups are working on the
project.
The first group are material specialists: Alcan
Packaging Services Ltd., Fraunhofer-Institut fr
Silicatforschung, Fraunhofer-Institut fr
Ver fahrenstechnik und Verpackung, Slovak
University of Bratislava and Isovolta AG. These
partners are responsible for improving the water
vapour barrier and the fully integrated, flexible
encapsulating composite material.
The second group consists of solar cell and
module specialists: Zentrum fr Sonnenenergie
und Wasserstofforschung, Baden Wrttemberg,
and Free Energy Europe, dealing with the specific
efforts of the thin-film solar cells, a-Si and CIS-
cells. They also have to investigate the
performance of the new encapsulating materials.
A third group is competent in equipment design
and construction: Klpper Maschinentechnik
GmbH&CoKG is responsible for the design and
construction of the automated encapsulating
line.
Mass production of PV
modules
Exploitation plan
Most work has been carried out on improving the
water vapour barrier on different substrate films
and on different coating processes of SiOx-
layers and Ormocer-lacers, using dif ferent
combinations of these layers.
The most interesting substrate films are PET
(cost-effective) and ETFE (highly transparent).
The best barrier achievements for water vapour
are:
- 0.035 g/m
2
d for ETFE coated with SiOx and
Ormocer;
- 0.017 g/m
2
d for PET coated with SiOx and
Ormocer.
Further improvement is expected.
It is possible to develop flexible CIGS-cells on thin
PI-film and on stainless steel foil. Damp heat
tests are being run on CIGS-cells encapsulated
with new material.
Investigation of the compatibility of Ormocers with
different resins and hotmelts are revealing good
adhesion properties.
The pressing parameters for the encapsulating
line have been evaluated and the design of the
encapsulating line is available.
The next stage will be the trial runs for automated
encapsulation of rigid and flexible solar cells
using the new developed encapsulating materials.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2000-00325 + NAS
Extension
Title:
High Productivity and Low Cost for the
Encapsulation of Thin Film Solar
Cells HIPROLOCO
Start Date: September 2001
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Albert Plessing
Tel: +43-3135 5431418
Fax: +43-3135 5431482
plessing.a@isovolta.com
Partners:
ISOVOLTA (AT)
Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft-ISE (DE)
Lawson Mardon Packaging Services Ltd (CH)
ZSW (DE)
ANTEC Technology GmbH (DE)
Free Energy Europe (NL)
Klpper Maschinentechnik GmbH & Co KG (DE)
Slovak University of Technology (SK)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
33
Figure1. Continuous roll-to-roll encapsulation of
flexible thin-film solar cells.
Figure 2. Composite structure of
a CIS and a-Si module.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
34
Objectives
The general objective of this project is to
put into practice the metallic intermediate
band (MIB) concept to increase the
efficiency of solar cells and to approach
the European Commission's long-term goal
of a cell cost below 0.5/Wp. The
proposed MIB devices are based on the
concept of a material capable of absorbing
two sub-bandgap energy photons to
produce one electron-hole pair.
A substantially higher efficiency potential
exists for the MIB solar cell arising
from its higher theoretical limiting
efficiency 63.2% vs 40.7%
of conventional cells.
M I B C E L L
Challenges
The intermediate band (IB) solar cell is a novel
solar cell proposal with the potential of achieving
an efficiency of 63.2% (detailed balance limit)
under full concentration. Its operation is based
on a semiconductor-like material that, thanks to
the existence of an intermediate electronic band
located within what in ordinary semiconductors
constitutes the bandgap, is capable of absorbing
two below-bandgap photons to generate one
extra electron-hole pair (figure 1). This band
should be half-filled with electrons in order to
supply both empty states for electrons pumped
from the valence band (VB) and electrons to be
pumped to the conduction band (CB). Because
of this characteristic, this band is often described
as "metallic".
The MIB cell bases its superior potential over
single-gap conventional solar cells (the efficiency
of which is limited to 40.7% under the same
operating conditions) on its capability to increase
the photogenerated current without degrading its
open-circuit voltage. Current is increased because
sub-bandgap photons, which are lost in a
conventional single-gap solar cell, are now
absorbed and converted into electrical current.
Open-circuit voltage is not degraded because,
thanks to the fact that the intermediate band
material is sandwiched between two ordinary
high-bandgap semiconductors, p and n doped,
the output voltage is determined by the split of
quasi-Fermi levels of electrons in the conduction
band and holes in the valence band. This split
is limited by the total bandgap EG of the IB
material rather than by any of the sub-bandgaps
EL or EH.
When the project started, the first challenge
was to elucidate whether such a material could
exist and, if so, to envisage ways of synthesising
it. Other equally important challenges were to
prove the physical principle of operation behind
the MIB cell and to find cheap ways of making
it work.
The basic principles of operation having already
been established, the path towards its practical
implementation star ted by following three
strategies:
Engineering the intermediate band material
through quantum dot technology;
Direct synthesis of the intermediate band
material; and
Creation of a localised absorber layer within
a highly porous large-bandgap semiconductor.
Project structure
The Instituto de Energa Solar (Solar Energy
Institute) within the Escuela Tcnica Superior de
Ingenieros de Telecomunicacin of the Polythecnic
University of Madrid is coordinating the project (IES-
UPM; www.ies-def.upm.es). The other partners
in the consortium are the University of Glasgow
(UG; www.elec.gla.ac.uk), the Hahn Meitner
Institute (HMI; www.hmi.de) and the companies
Compound Semiconductor Technologies Ltd (CST,
www.compoundsemi.co.uk) and ISOFOTON S.A.
(ISOFOTON; www.isofoton.es).
To succeed in the challenges, the project is
structured according to three strategies:
Engineering the intermediate band material
through quantum dot technology (see generic
figure);
Direct synthesis of the intermediate band
material; and
Creation of a localised absorber layer within a
highly porous large-bandgap semiconductor.
MIB solar cells offer high-stat
efficiency and low-cost PV
35
IES-UPM, UG and CST are working specifically
in the first strategy, IES-UPM on the second, and
HMI on the third. ISOFOTON is contributing
with cost analysis and advising on possible
industrialisation procedures at the very early
stages of the project.
Exploitation plan
The concept of the MIB cell is to be
experimentally evaluated in this project by proving
or refuting its validity. Were it successful, it
would constitute a breakthrough in photovoltaics
since this would be the first time the phenomena
has been observed. In the future, it could be
exploited in two ways: one is by producing very-
high-efficiency solar cells which would probably
be produced at high cost but would be adequate
for use in concentrators. Another way is to
produce low-cost thin films that, based on a
principle more effective than that of the ordinary
cells, may lead to low-cost thin-film solar cells of
rather high efficiency.
Progress to date
The first prototypes of the quantum dot version
of the MIB solar cells have been manufactured
by UG and CST (figure 2 and generic figure). In
principle, the intermediate band should arise
from the energy levels of the confined electrons
in an array of quantum dots. The band is half-filled
by introducing some n-type doping. The
per formance is currently being evaluated
according to the intermediate band operation
principles. An attempt will be made to publish the
results of the analysis and the research in
international journals at the appropriate time.
Within the other lines of research, the GaAsTi
system has been identified as the one with the
potential for its energy band gap diagram to
exhibit the intermediate band. The nanoporous
structure of the TiO2 has been revealed as one
possible structure for hosting quantum dots
that could eventually lead to the low-cost
implementation of the metallic intermediate
band concept.
The consortium is also active in publishing their
results in international publications.
INFORMATION
Contract : ENK6-CT-2000-00310
Title:
Metallic intermediate band solar cells for
high efficiency and low cost in
photovoltaics MIBCELL
Start Date: February 2001
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Antonio Luque
Tel: +34-91 544 1060
Fax: +34-91 544 6341
luque@ies-def.upm.es
Partners:
Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (ES)
Hahn-Meitner Institut Berlin (DE)
University of Glasgow (UK)
ISOFOTON SA (ES)
Compound Semi-conductor
Technologies Ltd (UK)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
Figure 2.
Figure 1.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Figure 3.
Objectives
The project aims to develop an innovative
silicon thin-film solar module, exhibiting a
stabilised aperture efficiency of 11% on a
30x30 cm
2
area. The device consists of an
amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)/microcrystalline
silicon (c-Si:H) tandem solar cell
(micromorph cell) prepared on a low-cost
TCO (transparent conductive oxide) coated
glass substrate. In view of industrial
requirements, a deposition rate of at least
4 /s is to be achieved for the intrinsic
layer of the c-Si:H bottom cell. In addition
to the scale-up of state-of-the-art small
area micromorph cells prepared by Very
High Frequency Glow Discharge, an
alternative approach will be followed using
lower plasma excitation frequencies, which
are more compatible with current a-Si:H
production technology. The developments
include: the module fabrication technology;
efficient light-trapping schemes;
appropriate characterisation techniques;
and advanced plasma control, diagnostics
and modelling ensuring successful
scale-up.
D O I T
36
Challenges
The central challenge of this project is to prove
the feasibility of scaling-up the very promising
micromorph technology, and thus to extend the
well-established amorphous silicon solar cell
technology to higher stable efficiencies while
still maintaining the unique advantages of a-
Si:H solar cells.
Microcrystalline silicon films are produced using
deposition techniques (modified PE-CVD) very
similar to those applied in a-Si:H deposition, at
low substrate temperatures (TS<300C). The
main problem here is the achievement of high c-
Si:H deposition rates to counterbalance the
lower light absorption in the visible range
compared to a-Si:H.
The project is based on superstrate technology
(glass/TCO substrates) and aims to improve
and scale-up the innovative concept of
micromorph Si thin-film solar cells (a-Si:H/(c-
Si:H tandem cells). On a laborator y scale,
micromorph solar cells with >11% confirmed
stable solar cell efficiency have already been
fabricated, while enhancements in the structure
of the device have lead to efficiencies in the
range of 14% worldwide.
Technical and scientific targets:
Fully integrated 30x30 cm
2
solar module with
11% stable aperture efficiency.
1cm
2
micromorph cells from 30x30 cm
2
depositions exhibiting 11.5% stable efficiency.
c-Si:H i-layer deposition rate of at least 4 /s
(aiming at 10 /s) with thickness homogeneity
better than 10% by exploiting both the RF and
VHF deposition regimes.
Micromorph test cells and modules deposited
on several types of TCO, including Asahi U, and
other commercially available SnO2 and also
ZnO substrates supplied by consortium
members.
Project structure
The project consor tium consists of PTL/UP
(Greece) Project Coordinator, IMT (Switzerland),
JFZ-ISI (Germany), LPICM (France), IPP (Czech
Republic), ASE-PST (Germany) and FEE (France).
Exploitation plan
The achievement of the project goals will
potentially lead to >10% stabilised-efficiency
large area modules. Considering the possibility
of achieving a cost/Wp similar to amorphous
silicon, this technology could make a significant
contribution to the goal of <1/Wp.
The stabilised micromorph module efficiency of
11% is at least 3% (absolute) higher than what
can be projected for conventional a-Si multi-
junction superstrate technology. While this
efficiency still remains below that of competing
technologies, favourable implications deriving
from the spectral response, as well as from the
projected module manufacturing cost, are to be
stressed:
The extended spectral response can better
exploit lower air mass values that occur during
high insulation periods and hence high energy
inputs (i.e. during midday, summertime, and
inlow geographical latitudes).
Already today, the module manufacturing costs
for the conventional a-Si:H technology, based
on multi-MWp shipments, are at least 20%
below those for c-Si (today's market price is
High-micromorph silicon solar
modules
around 4/Wp). The projected module cost for
micromorph technology is estimated as
1.60/Wp. The cost advantage of a-Si
modules (and even more so, of micromorph
modules) compared to c-Si, if transferred to
the buyer, may be applied towards the higher
area-related system cost for micromorph
modules that derive from the lower total-area
efficiency.
In conclusion, the project provides the scientific
and technological know-how for a new generation
of thin-film silicon based PV systems that
incorporate abundant and non-toxic materials. On
achieving the targeted ef ficiencies, this
technology extends beyond the conventional a-
Si:H technology and, as long as the scale-up is
successful, can be transferred into mass
production and serve as one of the 'workhorses'
for photovoltaic energy conversion during the
next few decades.
Progress to date
The classification of available large area (at
least 30x30 cm) TCO/glass substrates for
micromorph solar cells has been completed,
and large area TCO from both IMT and FZJ have
been found to clearly surpass the TCO/glass that
is commercially available.
Characterisation of lateral homogeneity of large
(30x30 cm) layers was performed by different
methods in IPP, IMT and FZJ. Continuous and
quick feedback support for solar cell development
has been achieved. The results proved the
successful upscaling of microcrystalline solar
cells in both IMT and FZJ.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2000-00321
Title:
High-micromorph Silicon
Solar Modules DOIT
Start Date: January 2001
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Dimitrios Mataras
Tel: +30-2610 997857
Fax: +30-2610 993361
dim@plasmatech.gr
Partners:
University of Patras (EL)
Universit de Neuchtel (CH)
Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH (DE)
RWE Schott Solar (DE)
CNR-LPICM (FR)
Institute of Physics - Academy
of Sciences of the Czech Republic (CZ)
Free Energy Europe (FR)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
37
Microcrystalline bottom cells were developed
with an efficiency of 8.9% at a deposition rate
of 4/s using 13.56 MHz excitation frequency.
The upscaling of these cells, existing a-Si:H top
cells and a-Si:H/c-Si:H tandem cells to the
large area deposition system was successfully
supported. The a-Si:H/c-Si:H tandem cells
were developed on SnO2 and texture-etched ZnO
substrates, yielding 11.2% stabilised efficiency
for 1 cm
2
test cells on the latter substrates (see
Figure 2).
The first solar modules on SnO2-coated glass
substrates were realised using the established
production technology of RWE SCHOTT Solar for
patterning and back contact preparation. An
aperture area (689 cm
2
) initial efficiency of
9.7% (stabilised at 8.3%) has been achieved,
proving that the a-Si:H/c-Si:H cell concept is
compatible with existing a-Si:H module
production technology. Very recently, a process
technology star ted operation at the IPV,
including equipment for PECVD, sputtering,
texture-etching, laser scribing and module
characterisation for 30x30 cm
2
substrate size.
ZnO sputtering and wet-chemical etching, which
is well established on laboratory scale, were
successfully up-scaled to 30x30 cm
2
. Initial
modules on ZnO substrates were realised
showing aperture area initial efficiencies of
10.7% and 10.1% on 10x10 cm
2
and 30x30
cm
2
substrate size respectively. Light soaking
tests were performed for 10x10 cm
2
modules,
showing a stabilised efficiency of 10.2%.
Figure 1. First a-Si:H/_c-Si:H modules on
texture-etched ZnO substrates with 10x10
cm
2
and 30x30 cm
2
substrate size.
Figure 2. Distribution of the initial efficiencies
of 162 a-Si:H/_c-Si:H test cells of 1cm
2
size
on a 30x30 cm
2
SnO2-substrate.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
In general, photovoltaics are now
considered as one of the most effective
renewable energy sources with a great
potential for market penetration.
Prerequisite for this development is that
the production cost of photovoltaic
modules drops below a certain threshold,
at which point the market can grow almost
without limitation. Therefore, the Procis
consortium is working on photovoltaic cells
and modules which are and will continue to
be at the front end of development in this
field by for example, reducing the use of
material and energy for the production of
solar cells. The general objective of this
project is to combine the advantages of
highest efficiencies with low-cost and
large-scale production techniques. Thin-film
solar cells based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)
combine the highest efficiencies with low-
cost and large-scale production
techniques.
P R O C I S
38
Challenges
Current Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIS or CIGS) technology
has some restrictions. Even though a high
standard and star ting point for large-scale
production has been reached, there is still a need
for improvement. Handling of large-area glass
substrates is difficult at temperatures above
400C. Ver y large-scale production could be
limited by the availability of Indium. Chemical bath
deposition of CdS cannot be easily integrated into
an in-line production process and replacement
of CdS is advisable for environmental reasons.
In order to master these restrictions, the project
is focusing on overcoming present limitations of
this technology by including the experience with
production of modules on substrate sizes up to
120_60 cm
2
. The problem of substrate bending
increases with the substrate size, which has
consequences for the yield of large-scale module
production. Therefore, a low-temperature CIGS
process is advantageous for large-scale
production with high reproducibility. Reduction of
the thickness of the absorber layer has two
advantages, namely a reduced deposition time
and a reduced consumption of scarce Indium
resources. A further requirement is to make all
steps in the procedure coherent with in-line PVD
processes for large-area module production.
The wet deposition process for the CdS buffer
layer is being replaced by gas phase processes,
preferably with non Cd-containing compounds.
Such developments are suppor ted by the
provision of analytical tools for the
characterisation of processes and devices (see
figure 1). Furthermore, stability tests are being
carried out so as to assess the reliability of the
newly developed devices and modules.
Project structure
In the Procis project, the experience and
expertise on CIGS solar cells available within the
European framework has been collated by
including seven partners from three Member
States and one Associated country in the project,
each representing one of the most experienced
European research institutions in this field. The
collaboration and joint efforts of these institutes
within the project are most ef ficient for the
future development of Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based
photovoltaic cells in Europe. By supporting CIGS
production on large substrates, the project aims
to comply directly with the objectives to develop
a clean energy source. The new developments
will substantially extend the field of applications
of PV systems as the result of cost reductions
and flexible module design options. One further
objective is to replace toxic materials in order to
provide full compatibility with the environment.
This accounts for the production and use of the
photovoltaic modules of this type.
Exploitation plan
Reduction of substrate temperature, thickness
of the absorber layer, and new ways for junction
formation result in the reduced production cost
Highly efficient thin-film CIS
photovoltaic modules
of photovoltaic modules and increased flexibility
of product design. The goal is to implement the
newly developed process steps in an existing
pilot-line for the production of 120_60 cm
2
modules. In all these process steps, the
challenge is to maintain high module efficiency
well above 10%. In this way this project further
supports the development of CIGS-based solar
cells on the way to commercialisation. The
results from the project will contribute directly to
the pilot/manufacturing lines which are already
in operation. This input is necessary for reducing
the risk of fur ther upscaling of production
volumes of more than 10 MW/year. It will
contribute significantly to the competitiveness of
the European PV industry on the global market,
and will impact the material science of compound
semiconductors. The evaporation technology for
compound semiconductors will also profit from
the development. Most of the in-line evaporation
systems for solar cells built recently are based
on these developments and significant know-how
is being accumulated by European equipment
manufacturers in this field.
Progress to date
By lowering the substrate temperature by about
70C, a significant reduction in substrate bending
is found. Basic studies per formed in an
evaporation system with single crucibles show
that low substrate temperatures mainly reduce
the shor t circuit current, whereas the other
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2000-00331
Title:
Production of Large Area CIS-based
Modules PROCIS
Start Date: January 2001
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Hans-Werner Schock
Tel: +49-711 6857180
Fax: +49-711 6857206
schock@ipe.uni-stuttgart.de
Partners:
Universitt Stuttgart (DE)
ZSW (DE)
Wrth Solar GmbH & Co. KG (DE)
Uppsala University (SE)
CNRS-ENSCP (FR)
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (CH)
EDF (FR)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
39
The worlds largest CIS photovoltaic
generator in Marbach, Germany, composed
of 880 CIS modules produced by Wuerth
Solar, rated power 50 kWpeak. (Photograph:
Wuerth Solar)
parameters remain more or less constant. Na
incorporation is essential for maintaining high
performance at low temperatures.
Laborator y cells containing absorber layers
with an ef fective thickness of 0.75 m of
CuInSe
2
(CIS) reach 14.4% ef ficiency.
Compared to a CIGS solar cell with a 2 m thick
absorber layer, the decrease in In content is
62.5%. The In content/m
2
of a solar cell module
in this case corresponds to 1.1g compared to
about 3g in a standard module.
In comparison to the standard reference cells
with CBD CdS, the deposition of CdS buffer
layers by PVD has been studied leading to cell
efficiencies in the 10-12% range. Among Cd-free
materials deposited by PVD, ZnSe, ZnS and
In2S3, the best results are obtained with In2S3,
with the highest ef ficiency over 12%.
Optimisation of atomic layer chemical vapour
deposition of In2S3 (ALCVD) yields record
efficiencies of laborator y cell of more than
16% and 12.9% ef ficient 30x30 cm
2
encapsulated modules (see the comparison
of current voltage characteristics of standard
and the new Cd-free modules in figure 2). Both
results represent new world records for
cadmium-free dr y-deposited CIGS cells and
modules.
Figure 1. Electron microscope
image of a cross-section of the
newly developed Cd-free
heterojunction produced by
atomic layer chemical vapour
deposition of In2S3,
at CNRS/LECA.
Figure 2. Current voltage characteristics of high-
efficiency CIS modules with standard CdS and with a
Cd-free heterojunction produced at ZSW.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
A new approach to thin-film technology has
been introduced in which Cu/In/S-based
solar cells are continuously manufactured
on a Cu-tape in a series of consecutive roll-
to-roll processes (CISCuT). Flexible
modules encapsulated into polymer foils
are assembled by roof-tile interconnection
of stripes of this cell tape in an automated
assembly line. The basis of the technology
the quasi-endless solar cell tape must
have a reproducible high performance and
stability. This is why the project is mainly
concentrated on researching the absorber
and the cell. One of the main challenges of
this project is to detect the efficiency
losses in detail (recombination problems
and shunting). The achievement of a cell
efficiency of 7% on large areas, produced
completely roll-to-roll in the base line, and
a best efficiency of 9%, will be the most
important outputs of the project. The
stability of the cells will be another
essential criterion for the implementation
of this thin-film technology.
C I S L I N E
40
Challenges
The target of WP1 (CISCuT growth) is to arrive at
a better fundamental understanding of the phase
formation and also an improvement in the
electronic properties of the absorber layers in
order to meet the solar device requirements. The
preparation and analysis of samples of the
absorber layer will be focused on phase
composition and layer thickness as well as on
microscopic and macroscopic morphology, defect
physics, diffusion length of the minorities and
charge carrier concentration. The work will be
divided into four tasks in order to improve the
absorber quality in a step-by-step manner.
The target of WP2 (Device structure) is to achieve
a consistent model of the internal electronic
behaviour of the cells. The device and all the
several buffer layers and the window layer will be
investigated. The principal limitations of CISCuT-
based device structures will be determined, and
a prognosis made of the maximum value of the
performance which can be expected. The results
will be used directly for the experimental work for
optimisation of the cell performance.
In WP3 (Device stability), the shunt behaviour of
CISCuT solar cells will be studied with the main
emphasis put on local defects and impurities as
well as Cu migration inside the absorber. Local
defects are to be investigated to analyse critical
shunts with regard to the long-term stability of
the devices. As local shunts cannot be fully
excluded during cell preparation, a procedure for
shunt passivation will be investigated. The
possibility of stability limitations in CISCuT
devices due to the infinite Cu source, which is
currently being used, will be looked into. Finally,
it will be demonstrated that devices will be able
to reveal a stable per formance, suitable for
consideration for implementation.
In WP4 (Cell fabrication), the focus will be placed
on the technological process as a whole,
manufacturing complete devices. Photovoltaic
devices with improved properties will be made
by completion of the absorber in batch processes
as well as by roll-to-roll processes. Devices for
efficiency measurements will be prepared in
standard sizes of 5mm
2
, 10mm
2
and 400mm
2
.
The complete roll-to-roll technology for solar cell
fabrication will be developed into a stable
manufacturing process. Homogeneity of the layer
deposition will be investigated for efficiency
potential.
The main objective of WP5 (Project general
matters) is to ensure that the project is efficiently
managed. The second objective is the
development of a detailed exploitation plan.
Project structure
The project consor tium consists of the co-
ordinating par tner IST Institut fr
Solartechnologien (Germany), the Netherlands
Energy Research Foundation ECN (Netherlands),
the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin (Germany), the
Universiteit Gent RUG (Belgium), Free Energy
Europe SA (France), PGE Precisie in
Galvanotechniek en Etsen (Netherlands), and
INM Institut fr Neue Materialien (Germany).
All basic information is publicly available on the
website http://cisline.ist-ffo.de/. This public
website presentation is accompanied by
numerous internal pages providing individual
access for all partners and people responsible.
CISCuT solar cells sunny
prospects
Exploitation plan
The main argument for working on CISCuT-based
cells and modules is to arrive at low-cost solar
devices suitable for manufacture with regard to
market and manufacturing prospects. Therefore
the basis of the technology the quasi-endless
solar cell tape must have a reproducible high
performance and stability. This is why the project
is mainly focused on research of the absorber
and the cell.
Solar modules manufactured according to this
new approach are adaptable in output voltage,
current and power as well as in shape and size.
Thus the modules can easily be manufactured
for different applications.
A road map will be drawn up to describe the
continuing investigation and development of the
CISCuT technology in the middle and long term
with respect to the results of the research and
development tasks. The goal of the project is to
help transform the laboratory achievements of
the potential low-cost CISCuT technique into
affordable and durable photovoltaic modules.
The aims of CISLINE may be summarised as
follows:
to improve the efficiency and the stability of
solar cell tapes, which are being made using
the CISCuT technology, in the base line to a
level suitable for manufacturing for the market
and further prospects;
to find possible modifications to the base-
line concept;
to estimate the production costs of the solar
cells corresponding to the maximum cell
efficiency.
In so doing, CISLINE is making a contribution to
the exploitation of the road map for the further
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2001-00519
Title:
Improved CISCuT Solar Cells,
Manufactured Roll-to-Roll in a
Base Line CISLINE
Start Date: January 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Michael Winkler
Tel: +49-335 5633 209
Fax: +49-335 5633 150
winkler@ist-ffo.de
Partners:
Institut fr Solartechnologien GmbH (DE)
ECN (NL)
Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin (DE)
Universiteit Gent (BE)
Free Energy Europe SA (FR)
Philips Galvonotechniek Eindhoven (NL)
Institut fr Neue Materialien (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
41
medium-and long-term development of the
CISCuT technology.
Progress to date
The project work went successfully during the
first 18 months until the mid-term assessment.
Three meetings took place as planned. The
results of the work done (as planned in all five
work packages) have been presented. The mid-
term assessment meeting is currently in
preparation. The 18-month deliverables defined
in the contract have been basically fulfilled. In
par ticular, 370mm
2
CISCuT cells with an
efficiency of more than 9% and proven stability
of more than 10,000 hours will be presented
at the MTA-meeting (see figures.). The project
work was characterised by an intensive sample
transfer between the par tners and working
visits of different partners (RUG, PGE, INM) at
IST. The www-based communication inside the
project has proved to be a highly effective
information flow (see http://cisline.ist-
ffo.de/internal/).
A consortium agreement has been signed. The
new partner INM has been integrated, and the
contractual aspects of the change of ownership
of PGE are in progress.
On the initiative of the Commission, the former
information-exchange cluster between CISLINE
and METAFLEX has been extended to include
a cluster of seven running projects. The CISLINE
coordinator IST has organised the www-based
information platform of that cluster, to be found
on the website http://cis-cluster.ist-ffo.de/
CISCuT solar module (demonstration
object) lightweight, mechanically
flexible, freedom in terms of the basic
electrical data.
Figure 1. Encapsulated measurement sample of 370 mm
2
active area.
Figure 2. J-V curve of a sample of the best cell so far,
certificated at Frauenhofer Institut Solare Energiesysteme.
Voc = 657.3 mV
jsc = 20.87 mA/cm_
FF = 66.1 %
A = 3.70 cm_
h = 9.1 %
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
The aim of the Portrait project is to close a
gap in the control and optimisation chain
for future PV mass production: control
tools on the production equipment level
supervising proper equipment functioning
are already in use. Also global control tools
at the factory level are available. The
project provides the missing link for an
effective performance control and
optimisation, a tool at the solar cell level,
relating raw data measured on cell
precursors and finished cells to the final
cell performance. Since strong lateral
inhomogeneities of material as well as of
the process-related parameters are
frequently encountered, 2D data are
expected to be essential for a valid
prediction of performance variations.
Modelling assisted process monitoring on
the basis of 2D data will allow performance
limits and variations to be pinpointed to a
specific reason. The project will provide a
software package which, for the first time,
will allow for the lateral variation of
parameters into the performance
optimisation.
P O R T R A I T
42
Challenges
At present, image data taken during solar cell
production are mainly used for the qualitative
assessment of the outcome of a cer tain
production step (e.g. optical image to determine
irregularities in the anti-reflection coating). In
this project, as regards several decisive electrical
parameters (carrier lifetime, leakage currents,
series resistance) methods for determining the
quantitative impact on solar cell performance of
inhomogeneities in these parameters are
developed. This requires innovations in:
the potential instruments and methods for
the experimental determination of the relevant
parameters
the modelling tools, which should be able to
integrate image information, while remaining
easy and reasonably fast to use.
Project structure
The tool and model development at lab scale is
being done by the research institutes Fraunhofer
Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE
(coordinator), the Netherlands Energy Research
Centre (ECN), and Max Planck Institut fr
Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle. Two distinctly different
solar cell production lines have been chosen to
serve as a model for the development work:
the BP Solar Saturn process (laser grooved
buried grid cells on mono-crystalline silicon) and
the Photowatt International process using screen
printing metallisation on multicrystalline silicon.
Positronica SA is developing the commercial
version of the software.
Four efforts are being combined to achieve the
project goals:
2D data of cell precursors and cells are being
retrieved in a comprehensible way in the
production environment. For this purpose, a
set of imaging instrumentation needs to be
improved to a state where operator-
independent, fast and reliable results are
obtained. The factors which influence the
measurement need to be identified and
controlled. Consequently, for the first time, 2D
measurement data will be included. This
requires special attention to the spatial
correlation of measurement data from different
sources.
A software tool is being developed which is
capable of handling these data, establishing
interactively the spatial correlation, and relating
them to the actual performance of the solar
cells produced in a specific manufacturing
line.
The proof of correlation of specific parameter
variations to cell performance changes is
then followed at the next stage by minimisation
of measurement and calculation time by data
reduction methods but without sacrificing
significance.
The software code is being supervised and
finalised by Positronica, an experienced
software developer following best practice in
order to guarantee easy data interfacing,
reliability, maintainability and platform
independence.
Image data in solar cell
process optimisation
Instrument and software development will be
interacting with the two different production
types in order to deliver a widely applicable
tool. The goal is to prove the Portrait method
in production at the industrial partners by
demonstrating the optimisation capability
while, in parallel, the software is developed to
a state that makes it exploitable for solar cell
production lines outside the consortium.
Exploitation plan
Key deliverables of the project are:
the availability of characterisation techniques
necessary to provide laterally resolved
parameters in a reasonably short time;
a network model capable of handling 2D
parameters;
proof of the direct relevance for solar cell
performance in production; and
the final Portrait software tool.
A quantitative assessment of the cost benefits
in terms of performance and yield increase will
be done by the industrial partners. As a result
of this project, a transparent and proven set of
measurement tools and an analysis software
ready for optimisation tasks at the process
engineer level and suitable for interfacing to a
factory wide quality control system is expected
to be made available to the PV industry.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2001-00573
Title:
Solar Cell Performance Optimisation Relating
Process TRAcking by Imaging Techniques
with Modelling PORTRAIT
Start date: January 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Wilhelm Warta
Tel: +49-761 4588 5192
Fax: +49-761 4588 9000
wilhelm.warta@ise.fhg.de
Partners:
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft-ISE (DE)
Photowatt International (FR)
BP Solar (UK)
ECN (NL)
Max-Planck-Institut fr
Mikrostrukturphysik (DE)
Positronica SA (ES)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
43
Figure 1. Detection of an optically invisible crack using a new technique (Voc-scan) for
the Corescan instrument (ECN).
Progress to date
The network model was set up and tested.
The application to distributed shunts and
spatially var ying carrier life times was
demonstrated. The code was transferred to
Positronica; a revised version based on Java is
currently being developed. The instrument
development is making good progress:
calibration of the Corescan instrument and
quantitative analysis is being established, and
a method to determine series resistance
distributions from the Corescan data is being
developed. Also, the quantitative shunt
evaluation from lock-in thermography
measurements was developed, and an inter-
comparison of shunt evaluation with both
instruments performed. A method to extract
dark current distributions directly from lock-in
thermography measurements has been
introduced and is currently being improved
fur ther. The Carrier Density Imaging (CDI)
method was established for measurements of
carrier life time distributions of emitter diffused
and even as grown wafers. Several sets of
samples from each relevant production step
were produced and delivered by both industrial
partners on standard as well as FZ-material,
including special samples for the determination
of technological parameters as well as failed
cells and groups, which represent the full
performance spread observed in production.
Sample analysis is presently in progress, cell
models have been established successfully, and
first image data sets included.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
Thin-film CIGS solar modules with an active
layer thickness (contact layers plus
semiconductors) of a few m are known for
their low consumption of energy and
materials in the production of these layers.
On the other hand, when considering the
total structure, including the substrate and
encapsulation layer, energy as well as
material and weight can be drastically
reduced by substituting the standard glass
sheets several mm thick by thin and
flexible metal or polymer foils.
Low-weight, low-energy consumption during
manufacture, and high flexibility
combined with the possibility of roll-to-roll
production are significant features for
promoting cost reduction and reducing the
energy-pay-back time.
Appealing flexible and lightweight modules
will satisfy aesthetic aspects and can be
moulded along curved surfaces as well.
Thus, many novel areas of application will
be accessible.
The aim of this project is to develop all the
steps for the fabrication of flexible and
efficient CIGS devices, both on stainless
steel and polymer foils.
M E T A F L E X
44
Challenges
Replacing the glass substrate and glass
encapsulation using a flexible material creates
many challenges relating to each layer and
process, which must then be re-optimised or
even developed anew. For example, instead of
using the extremely smooth and stif f glass
substrate, the films are now grown on a soft (e.g.
polymer) or rough (e.g. steel) and flexible foil.
The high CIGS deposition temperatures of
400C<T<600C could enable the diffusion of
substrate elements into the growing absorber.
Thus, the stainless steel foils must be coated
with an appropriate dielectric or metallic diffusion
barrier. Furthermore, there is no desired and
beneficial sodium doping effect as obser ved
when using soda-lime glass substrates, therefore
Na must be supplied externally in an additional
process step.
Both the active conductors and semiconductors
should be deposited free of cracks and peeling.
In particular, the adhesion of the CIGS absorber
on the molybdenum back contact often fails,
especially on polymer foils, because of the very
different thermal expansion coefficients. Further
challenges to be met are the development of soft
patterning methods for the monolithic cell
integration on polymer substrates and the
efficient flexible encapsulation of foils, which
should have an extremely low water vapour
penetration rate protecting the module for a
period of more than ten years.
Project structure
The consor tium consists of seven principal
contractors. The two university institutes, IPE and
ETHZ, are mainly responsible for the basic
understanding of CIGS co-evaporation on steel
(IPE) and polymer (ETHZ) foils, as well as the
analysis of detrimental or beneficial effects.
Also, the introduction of novel semiconductor
layers, such as the vacuum deposition of a novel
Cd-free buffer layer or a novel Na doping process,
are being developed by these institutes. The
main task for ZSW is fabrication of the device on
a larger scale, and related tasks such as
patterning and contacting, as well as co-
ordination of the par tners' activities. The
industrial foundation INASMET provides the
partners with polished and pre-qualified metal
foils which are coated with a dielectric or metallic
dif fusion barrier by CIEMAT. The company
ISOVOLTA is developing a flexible encapsulation
process using transparent foils. The CIS pilot
production line at Wuerth Solar is mainly involved
in the fabrication and design of two
demonstrators relating to this area. The work
packages comprise all of the direct or indirect
process steps star ting with substrate pre-
qualification and ending with the testing of
complete devices both on polymer and metal
foils.
Exploitation plan
The availability of flexible, lightweight and cost-
effective modules will help to proliferate PV
energy and to increase the share of energy
produced from renewable sources, according
to the European Union's "Campaign-for-Take-
off" (Brussels 1999) and the goals of the Kyoto
Protocol.
Proliferation of PV and even more of flexible PV
will provide employment in the areas of modules
and systems production, distribution (including
export) of PV and parts associated therewith, in
Lightweight and flexible PV
for all
crafts for the installation of modules and system
components, and also in the industries delivering
components for PV modules (substrates, frames,
electronics, batteries, etc.).
The flexible modules to be supplied by this
project are of a complex nature with a broad
range of applications. PV may often be integrated
into electronic equipment, with the beneficial
ef fect of high added value and additional
employment chances. Possible new and
additional markets are in information technology
(e.g. charging the batteries of mobile devices
such as mobile phones and Global Positioning
Systems), in the leisure area (energy supply for
RVs and sailing boats, mobile TVs, etc.)
and in private and public transpor t (energy-
supplying sunroofs for cars, solar electricity
filling stations, etc.).
Progress to date
Several of the identified challenges and initial
problems have already been solved, while others
are still under investigation.
Both stainless steel foils (10cm x 10cm) from
different suppliers and titanium foils (5cm x 5cm)
could be mechanically polished to give a mirror-
like appearance (R
a
< 10nm). Electro-polishing
showed some drawbacks as a result of the
inhomogeneous removal of different metallic
phases which restricted the final results.
Thin SiOx and Cr diffusion barriers of d < 1m were
deposited by sol-gel, sputtering, and evaporation
techniques. All barriers tested showed a reduction
of contamination to a harmless level, as was
verified by efficiency tests with a defined metallic
contamination of a single element on a glass
substrate. Only significant concentrations of Fe and
Mn seem to have a certain relevance, whereas the
diffusion of Ni, Cr, Ti, Al and V plays a minor role
in the investigated Cr-based steel substrates.
SIMS analysis revealed that even relatively high
concentrations of Cr and Al in the absorber do not
affect the measured efficiencies. In any case, the
distinctive reduced efficiencies observed on metal
substrates as compared to glass substrates
cannot be explained by a metallic pollution effect,
and other features of the metal surface must
therefore be taken into account.
A novel post-deposition method for sodium doping
of the absorber was developed which has less
detrimental effects on the evaporated absorber as
compared to previous methods used.
First, large-area cells without monolithic cell
integration but with a metallic top grid for improved
current collection were fabricated (7cm x 7cm) on
steel foil and with an in-line CIGS deposition
process (efficiency: 7.3%).
Soft patterning methods for the monolithic cell
integration on polymer foils were developed
based on direct and indirect laser scribing of the
three patterning steps. As a result, the first
mini-modules (5cm x 5cm) on very thin polymer
foils of d < 15m could be processed.
The main goal for the second half of the project
is to enhance the efficiencies on a large scale
and to develop a suf ficiently flexible en-
capsulation which can survive the standard test
procedures.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2001-00516
Title:
Towards the Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing of
Cost-Effective Flexible CIS Modules -
Intermediate Steps METAFLEX
Start Date: December 2001
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Friedrich Kessler
Tel: +49-711 7870 201
Fax: +49-711 7870 230
friedrich.kessler@zsw-bw.de
Partners:
ZSW (DE)
Universitt Stuttgart (DE)
ETH Zrich (CH)
CIEMAT (ES)
INASMET (ES)
ISOVOLTA (AT)
AG Wrth Solar (AT)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
Figure 2. SIMS depth profile of a CIGS solar cell
deposited on an iron-coated glass substrate:
Comparably high cell efficiencies (hmax = 13%) even at a
high Fe contamination level (200 PPM).
Figure 3. Improvement of efficiency from 8.1% to
12.6% by NaF post-deposition treatment.
Substrate: polished steel foil.
Figure 1. Encapsulated and monolithically integrated CIGS
mini-module on polymer substrate.
45
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
Thin-film solar cells are being developed as
a low-cost, low-material-consumption, low-
energy-consumption alternative to silicon
solar cells. The most promising technology
among them is that of chalcopyrite solar
cells. Conventional chalcopyrite solar cells,
now entering mass production, are
equipped with a CdS buffer prepared by
chemical bath deposition (CBD). Due to
the toxicity of Cd and the handling
problems of large area liquid processes like
CBD, alternative materials as well as
alternative deposition processes are being
sought. The current pilot lines, including
those of the partners in this project, still
use CdS-CBD.
Therefore, the aim of the project is
threefold:
- to make CdS-CBD as safe as possible
and ensure optimal material yield by
recycling;
- to develop Cd-free buffer materials for
efficient sulfide solar cells; and
- to develop dry processes for buffers in
highly efficient solar cells.
N E B U L E S
46
Challenges
Currently, two chalcopyrite materials are used for
solar modules in industrial production or in
preparation for pilot production: Cu(In,Ga)Se2
(selenide) and CuInS2 (sulfide). Both use CdS
prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) as
a buffer material which, to date, has resulted in
the best efficiency and best stability results.
Although this CdS layer is extremely thin and
leakage experiments with broken modules have
shown it to be environmentally benign, it poses
a problem of reputation and requires higher
safety standards during production.
On the selenide absorbers, alternative buffers
mainly deposited by CBD have shown
comparable ef ficiencies but worse stability
results. Only limited work has been done so far
on the development of alternative, i.e. dr y,
processes for the buffer deposition which are
expected to be more easily integrated into a
production line. So here the main challenge is
to develop dry processes for alternative buffer
materials, resulting in highly ef ficient solar
modules.
As regards the solar cells employing a sulfide
absorber, so far all cells with alternative buffers
show inferior efficiency as compared to cells
with a CdS buffer. So the main challenge here
is to develop alternative buffer materials resulting
in efficiencies comparable to those obtained
with CdS buffers. Some effort has already been
put into the development of dry buffer deposition
processes for this type of solar cells, too.
Nevertheless, it is crucial to make the current
technology as safe and environmentally benign
as possible. Therefore, another challenge is to
develop cost-efficient recycling processes for
the wastes from CdS-CBD that will reduce the
amount of raw material needed and avoid the
production of toxic waste.
Project structure
Two of the par tners in the project are from
industr y, representing producers of selenide
and sulfide solar modules: Wr th Solar and
Sulfurcell. Their par ticipation ensures useful
developments and fast implementation of
developed processes.
The majority of other par tners come from
universities and research institutes with expertise
in semiconductor deposition processes and
solar cell development: HMI, a German research
institute with a focus on thin-film photovoltaics;
CIEMAT, the Spanish energy research lab.;
University of Uppsala; University of Nantes; ETH
Zurich; and ZSW, a German solar energy research
institute. Their task is the development of various
methods and materials for buffers in selenide
and sulfide solar cells. Each partner brings their
specific methodological experience into the
project. Among these research par tners are
also those which provide selenide and sulfide
absorbers, also to other partners, to develop the
buffers on them.
A further partner brings expertise in industrial
recycling processes: Ecole Centrale in Paris,
representated by CRSA.
Solar cells with extremely low
environmental hazard
Exploitation plan
Recycling will provide improved utilisation of raw
materials, reuse of potentially hazardous
materials, and the complete avoidance of
hazardous materials, and thus improve the
quality of life and safety. Reuse of materials
reduces production costs. The recycling of
hazardous materials and their avoidance also
contribute to European Union policies on water
quality.
The use of Cd-free materials as buffers in solar
cells will relax safety requirements and thus
reduce production costs, whereas the
implementation of dry processes will improve the
integrability of the buffer process into an in-line
production, and will thus simplify processes.
Any successfully developed new recycling or
deposition process can be implemented into
the two industrial partners pilot lines.
Progress to date
After the first six months the results are the
following:
on selenide absorbers using alternative buffers
prepared by a dry process, an efficiency of
16% has been obtained which is comparable
to that obtained with CdS as a buffer; however,
the stability of these cells is still an issue;
on sulfide absorbers using alternative buffers
prepared by CBD, an efficiency of 8% has
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2002-00664
Title:
New Buffer Layers for Efficient
Chalcopyrite Solar Cells NEBULES
Start Date: January 2003
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Susanne Siebentritt
Tel: +49-30 80 622 442
Fax: +49-30 80 623 199
siebentritt@hmi.de
Partners:
Hahn-Meitner Institute GmbH (DE)
CIEMAT (ES)
Uppsala University (SE)
Universit de Nantes (FR)
Centrale Recherche SA (FR)
ETH Zrich (CH)
ZSW (DE)
Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH (DE)
Wrth Solar GmbH & Co. KG (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Georges Deschamps
Tel: +32-2 2951445
Fax: +32-2 2993694
georges.deschamps@cec.eu.int
47
Figure 1. ERDA results (elastic recoil
detection ananlysis) for the investigation of
interdiffusion in solar cells/
(source: HMI)
been achieved which is still somewhat lower
than that of the cells with CdS buffers;
with a dry process for an alternative buffer
on sulfide absorbers, an efficiency of 7%
has been achieved; and
detailed investigations of the interface have
made clear the crucial role of oxide layers in
dry processes and show that alternative,
dry buffers resemble a surface treatment of
the absorber more than they resemble a
film.
Figure 2. IV curve of the best solar cell so far
within the project indicating the role of storage of
the absorber prior to buffer deposition.
(source: ASC at CNRS/LECA.)
Figure 3. Solar Tower Heilbronn.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
The potential of Rapid Thermal Processing
(RTP) in the field of photovoltaics has
already been demonstrated at laboratory
level. However, until now, no industrial RTP
system exists. The objectives of the FLASH
project are to design a new set of
technologies for the production of high
throughput/low-cost photovoltaic cells.
These objectives will be addressed by
research and development in new
production processes allowing a major
upgrading in available production
techniques. The feasibility of these new
technologies based on the principles of
Rapid Thermal Processing will address all
the diffusion/oxidisation parts as well as
the contact firing section with a targeted
throughput of 1 cell per second (i.e. up to
30 MWp/year).
F L A S H
48
Challenges
The consor tium is regrouping advanced
specialists in the core concerned technologies
includes four industrial partners (two equipment
manufacturers [JIPELEC & ACR], two end-users
[RWE-Solar & EUROSOLARE] and two research
par tners [FhG-ISE & CEA-GENEC]. The whole
work is divided into six Work Packages (WP).
In a first phase of the project (WP1), the most
advanced current knowledge on RTP processes
and available RTP systems is used to define
the optimum processes for contact firing, and to
highlight the conditions required for high
throughput and process reproducibility for
dif fusion, oxidation and contact firing. The
elements of this study are the basis for the
specification of the equipment. Two types of a
base equipment will be investigated: one for
RTO/RTD and one for RTF; these equipments may
require different characteristics.
In the second phase (WP2), the RTO/RTD furnace
has to be built and tested at the manufacturer's
site, in close collaboration with the two laboratory
par tners and end-users. The feasibility
assessment (WP 3) at the mid-term of the project
will be used for the integration of the RT Firing
functionality in order to built the RTF furnaces
(WP4) with the specific burning station. This will
allow an evaluation of the fully integrated line in
the last part of the project.
In the third phase, these two configurations of
the equipment will be tested on a production pilot
line (WP 5). This will ensure a complete
evaluation of the systems in a production
environment and a direct comparative thorough
assessment of cells produced with conventional
thermal processing and Rapid Thermal
Processing. This will also allow the economical
evaluation (WP6) of these systems under real
production conditions and to quantify, with the
help of the PV end-users, the beneficial impact
on the environment (less waste and management
costs).
Exploitation plan
FLASH is a medium-term project aiming at
implementing research carried out in recent
years to come up with a feasible technology
coherent production process.
Progress to date
The parameters having influence on the contact
firing process have been determined and are
within optimisation. The study of the furnace
and the transport device has been weighted in
respect of the specifications given by the end-
users. The prototype is now under construction
and will be installed in a cleanroom for testing.
Technologies for high
throughput/low-cost photovoltaic
cells
Note: This information has not been updated !
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2001-00529
Title:
Fast Low Thermal Budget large Area
System for High throughput Solar Cell
Production FLASH
Start Date: January 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Pierre-Emmanuel Hickel
Tel: +33-4 67 99 47 47
Fax: +33-4 67 99 47 48
hickel@jipelec.com
Partners:
Qualiflow (FR)
Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft-ISE (DE)
ACR (DE)
CEA-GENEC (FR)
RWE Schott Solar (DE)
EUROSOLARE (IT)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
49
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
In Nanomax, photoelectrode designs and
materials will be evaluated and a large
variety of test cells produced. In order to
increase the photovoltage, thinner layers
will be combined with efficient light-
scattering materials; multiple layer
structures of oxides with different bandgap
energies and surface properties will be
studied. Increase in photocurrent will be
achieved by better optical efficiency and
broader absorption spectra of the
sensitising dyes.
Nanocrystalline oxides with reduced
electron surface recombination will be
prepared by modifying the oxide surface
(capped oxides) and mixing of oxides and
surface selective as well as near-infrared
(NIR) enhanced sensitising dyes will be
applied.
N A N O M A X
50
Challenges
The research on Dye-sensitised Solar Cells (nc-
DSC) was triggered by the discovery in 1991 of
sensitising a nanocrystalline titanium dioxide
photoelectrode with a specific organometallic
dye. This increased the per formance of
electrochemical solar cells by a factor of 10.
Under full sun (AM1.5) illumination, overall
conversion efficiencies up to 11% have been
demonstrated for small (0.25 cm
2
) single cells
by EPFL (Lausanne, Switzerland). Power
conversion efficiencies of around 8% have been
reported for cells more than > 1 cm
2
.
Most of the last years work on nc-DSC has
been restricted to the optimisation of cells with
a standard photoelectrode design, i.e. a single
sensitising dye adsorbed on nanocr ystalline
titanium dioxide, in terms of long-term stability
and efficiency. Impor tant progress has been
made on technology development and stability,
largely due to work on electrolyte composition and
sealing, but no significant progress has been
made on efficiency.
Main factors currently limiting device performance
and requiring new cell and materials concepts
are:
inefficient light absorption by existing sensitiser
dyes in the near infrared (up to 800-900 nm).
With optimised dyes, an increase of
photocurrent from currently 15-20 mA/cm
2
to at least 23 mA/cm
2
seems feasible;
Sub-optimum photovoltage output. Current
state of the art yields output voltages of
~750 mV, less than half the energy of incident
photons, indicating improvements in
photovoltage could up to double cell
efficiencies. The photovoltage is limited
primarily by the photon electron density and
the surface recombination losses at the metal
oxide/electrolyte interface. An increase in
photovoltage from, currently, 750 mV to
900 mV, seems realistic if surface
recombination can be reduced significantly.
Several announcements in literature call for
imagination and exploration of new innovative
ideas. New concepts, both for cell design and
materials, are necessary to boost the efficiency
from the present 7-8% to ~15% in the near
future.
Exploitation plan
As a project goal for Nanomax, 2.5 cm
2
DSC cells
with stabilised 12% efficiency will be produced.
Based on this result and data from advanced
characterisation methods a process manual will
be compiled including realistic optimisation
procedures towards 15% efficient cells. The up-
scalability will be investigated with a
demonstrator module (100 cm
2
) with 9%
efficiency on the active area as an outcome. A
Nanocrystalline dye-sensitised
solar cells with maximum
performance
cost calculation (materials and manufacturing)
will be done, based on the design and the
computer simulation of a 10 MWpeak per year pilot-
production.
Progress to date
Up to mid-term, part of the consortium followed
a standardised approach for the processing of
nc-DSC on so-called masterplates with a common
design and size to create a basis for compatibility
of testing conditions and a comparable format
for measurements and processing data. Three
"baselines" at ECN, ISE and IVF to construct
these masterplates are now available in the
consortium. Exploratory research in the direction
of new concepts is being carried out initially on
laboratory single cells of smaller areas.
At present, maximum efficiencies up to 7.5%
are obtained for cells on masterplates with sizes
of 2.5 cm
2
using a photoelectrode design
consisting of a double layer of transparent and
scattering TiO2. On single cells, a maximum
efficiency of 8.4% was reached with an active
area of 1.74 cm
2
. Using novel materials and
improved fabrication protocols has led to a
maximum efficiency of 10.6% with a masked area
of 0.16 cm
2
.
Besides the hunt for higher efficiencies, several
new areas are presently being explored in the
direction of development of very novel concepts,
fabrication protocols for new scatterlayers, metal
oxide blocking layers, low-temperature processes
for platinum deposition, electrical modelling,
advanced characterisation and long-term stability
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2001-00575
Title:
Nanocrystalline Dye-Sensitised
Solar Cells Having Maximum
Performance NANOMAX
Start Date: January 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Jan Kroon
Tel: +31-224 564734
Fax: +31-224 568214
j.kroon@ecn.nl
Partners:
ECN (NL)
Cracow University of Technology (PL)
The Imperial College of Science,
Technology and Medicine (UK)
IVF Industrial Research
and Development Corporation (SE)
Albert-Ludwigs Universitt Freiburg (DE)
Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (CH)
Greatcell Solar SA (CH)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
51
with the following intermediate results:
Novel scatterlayers consisting of airspheres
are being developed and applied in cells;
preliminary results give 6.7% for cells on
masterplates;
Proof of the novel concept "TCO-less design":
3.5% efficiency has been achieved at
masterplate level;
Protocols for making metal oxide blocking
layers on TiO2 are resulting in an
improvement in the photovoltage of the
device;
Detailed understanding of interfacial
behaviour of TiO2 layers of different origin in
dye solar cells making use of advanced
characterisation methods like transient
optical studies, impedance spectroscopy,
and electrochemical analysis;
A 2D-electrical model is used for the
simulation and evaluation of new concepts
in terms of performance;
A low-temperature process for deposition of
Platinum on TCO using the POLYOL method,
resulting in counter-electrodes with low
charge-transfer resistances; and
Recovery of cell performance to initial values
after dark ageing at 55 and 85C.
Figure 1. Masterplate containing five single dye solar cells with
an active area of 2.5 cm
2
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Figure 2. Photocurrent action spectrum obtained with the N719 dye attached to a 16+5 um
nanocrystalline TiO2 film. The EQE of this cell is 83% and the short circuit current density is
16.9mA/cm
2
, at AM1.5 1000 W/cm
2
illumination.
Objectives
A low-cost solar grade silicon feedstock is
necessary to alleviate the PV industry's
dependence on silicon from the electronics
industry and at the same time reduce the
cost of PV. Spurt aims to develop an
economically attractive solution for the
purification of silicon produced via
carbothermic reduction of silica. By
combining experiments at a scale of up to
250 kg with hydrodynamic and thermo-
chemical simulations, parameters are
studied and optimised to enable selection
of the most economical large-scale
purification technique. The project will
provide a basis for design of a pilot plant
for sog-Si. This provides an opportunity for
the SMEs to set up large-scale production
of sog-Si.
The production of silicon in Spurt is based
on a new two-step high-temperature
process for silicon production developed in
the SOLSILC project. In a rotary plasma
furnace, pellets of quartz and carbon black
are reacted to form silicon carbide. In the
second furnace, an electric arc furnace,
the reaction of quartz and silicon carbide
leads to the formation of silicon.
S P U R T
52
Challenges
The consensus amongst par ties in the PV
business is that cr ystalline silicon wafer
technology will continue to be the main technology
for at least the next decade. Alternative
technologies such as thin-film silicon and organic
solar cells may start to play an important role in
low-cost/large-scale PV after 2010. The growth
of PV capacity for the next 15 years (as planned
in the White Paper) will therefore mainly be
based on c-Si wafer technology.
Thus far, the PV industry uses as feedstock for
manufacturing wafers mainly scrap material and
material from excess capacity of producers of
electronic grade silicon for the semiconductor
industr y. The volumes from this source are
limited and vary in quality. Changing requirements
for semiconductors (highly doped materials) and
increased recycling of waste material by the
electronics industry itself have caused shortages
in scrap EG-silicon, leading to substantial price
increases over the last couple of years.
As shown in table 1, the need for sog-Si is
growing rapidly. Shortages of silicon feedstock
for the PV industry had already been expected,
but are currently masked by the excess capacity
at the EG-silicon producers. Based on the above-
mentioned growth rates and an improvement in
Si utilisation of 5%/a, a worldwide shortage of
2600-4300 tonnes/a is foreseen in 2005.
Reaching EU White Paper goals on PV requires
that feedstock is available in sufficient quantities
at a price that allows further reduction of module
costs. Against this background, the need for
new and cheaper routes to solar grade silicon is
obvious.
Project structure
The project consor tium consists of S'Energy
(NL, coordinator), ScanArc Plasma Technologies
(SE), and ScanWafer (NO), with the RTD
per formers Sintef Materials Technology (NO)
and the Energy research Centre of the
Netherlands (ECN).
The partners have specific and complementary
expertise and co-operate on a very direct basis.
The role of Sintef is the development of the Si
technology (purification and further optimisation
of the production process). Sintef also provides
the conceptual fundamentals for the process
of solar grade silicon (chemistr y, thermo-
dynamics, kinetics, etc). ScanArc with Sintef
performs the second high-temperature step of
the Si production. ScanWafer provides silicon
analysis, large-scale ingot growth and wafering.
ECN provides a specification for silicon feedstock,
and tests materials in an industrial solar cell
process and by other techniques. Sunergy, the
demonstrator application par tner, is mainly
responsible for direct market evaluation and
feedback, and for creating market options for
exploitation.
Exploitation plan
The availability of sog-Si is an absolute
prerequisite for a continued rapid growth of the
production of PV systems. The installation of a
dedicated sog-Si production plant will help to
secure the availability of silicon feedstock for PV
wafers and will enable the development of lower
cost modules. Furthermore, a dedicated sog-Si
production plant will give the European PV
industry a strategic advantage and will set a
Silicon purification
technology for solar cells at
low cost and medium scale
new industry standard. The reliable supply of raw
materials at low cost will encourage PV cell
manufacturers and other parties to invest in
production facilities for competitive PV systems.
The contribution to lowering PV module costs
facilitates the entr y of solar energy into the
deregulated European energy market.
The SPURT project will lead to a basis of design
for a sog-Si pilot plant, with a capacity of 1000 t/a.
Progress to date
The carbon-saturated silicon melt is treated by
a combination of three methods to reduce the
carbon concentration from several hundred to 2-
5 ppmw. These methods are, respectively,
controlled SiC precipitation, oxidative gaseous
purging and directional solidification. Individual
purification tests of the different methods were
performed in Solsilc and the effectiveness was
demonstrated. Experiments in Spurt were done
to test and optimise the methods in combination,
and for melts at large scale. As a result,
modification of the equipment is presently taking
place.
The furnaces for Si production have been
operated under steady-state conditions for
prolonged periods. The furnaces are placed in a
cleanroom environment at the ScanArc and
Sintef premises. Because the furnace of the
second high-temperature step has not yet been
operated with completely clean starting materials,
the metal produced thus far has not had the
required purity for solar grade silicon.
INFORMATION
References: ENK6-CT-2001-30006
Title:
Silicon Purification Technology for Solar
Cells at Low Costs and Medium
Scale SPURT
Start Date: January 2002
Duration: 24 months
Contact point:
B. Wiersma
Tel: +31-10 4138590
Fax: +31-10 4133763
info@sunergy.nl
Partners:
Sunergy BV (NL)
ScanWafer ASA (NO)
ScanArc Plasma Technologies AB (SE)
SINTEF (NO)
ECN (NL)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
Table 1. Expected shortages of silicon feedstock for growth rates (GR)
of the PV industry of 20% and 25% per annum. (Source: EPIA Industry
Roadmap Workshop, Alzenau, 12-13 September 2001)
53
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Figure 1. Removal of carbon
from silicon melt.
PRODUCTION
(MWp/a)
Spec. Si
cons (t Si/MWp)
25%GR
YEAR TOTAL Si
Consumption (t/a)
Si available
(t/a)
Si deficit
(t/a)
20%GR
235 235
717 585
2200 1450
2000
2005
2010
17
13
10
25%GR 20%GR
4000 4000
9300 7600
22000 14500
4000
5000
3500
25%GR 20%GR
0 0
4300 2600
18500 11000
Objectives
Crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells hold
promise for considerable cost reduction
allowing the switch from crystalline bulk Si
to crystalline thin-film Si on a low-cost
substrate. However, the methods proposed
so far are either too slow, too complex or
do not yield the required cell performance.
To get out of this deadlock, this project
aims to develop fast and simple film-
formation techniques which can deliver thin
crystalline Si layers with sufficient
structural and electronic quality. To
achieve this a two-step process is used in
which a large-grained seed layer is created
by metal-induced crystallisation and
subsequently used as a template for an
epitaxial deposition process. By combining
a potentially fast process and an
inexpensive substrate it is hoped that this
approach will deliver a scheme to produce
efficient, low-cost crystalline Si thin-film
solar cells. This could result in a
competitive technology with a cost
potential below 1/Wp.
M E T E O R
54
Challenges
The project aims to solve the main problem
which prevents crystalline silicon thin-film solar
cell technology from finding its way to large-
scale production, i.e. how to produce silicon
layers with sufficient structural (e.g. grain size
larger than layer thickness) and electronic quality
with an industrially applicable process. The
following main tasks are being addressed to
solve this problem:
Formation of a large-grained polycrystalline Si
seed layer on a foreign substrate;
Epitaxial thickening of the seed layer with
sufficient quality; and
Preparation of Si thin-film solar cells based on
the films mentioned above.
Project structure
The consortium of this project which is entitled
"Metal-induced cr ystallisation and epitaxial
deposition for thin, ef ficient and low-cost
crystalline Si solar cells - (METEOR)" comprises
the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin (HMI) from
Germany, project coordinator, the Interuniversitair
Micro-Elektronika Centrum (IMEC) from Belgium,
British Photovoltaics (BRIPHO) from the United
Kingdom, Technische Universitt Wien (TUW)
from Austria, and the Katholieke Universiteit
Leuven (KUL) from Belgium.
The project follows two different concepts:
a low-temperature approach where all
processing is done on inexpensive glass
substrates, and
a high-temperature approach using heat-
resistant substrates such as mullite ceramic
and high-temperature glass.
The low-temperature approach is characterised
by a higher risk but also by a larger potential
for cost reduction.
The preparation is divided into four sections:
Formation of a seed layer by metal-induced
crystallisation (MIC). The proposed procedure
starts with the deposition of a metal and an
amorphous Si film on the substrates. The
stack is annealed at a moderate temperature
resulting in crystallisation of the amorphous
Si layer with grain sizes in the range > 5 m.
The focus in this study is mainly on the
aluminium-amorphous silicon system, although
other metals are also considered.
These large-grained polycrystalline Si films
are used as seed layers for Si homoepitaxy by
electron-cyclotron resonance chemical vapour
deposition (ECR-CVD, low-temperature
approach) and chemical vapour deposition
(CVD, high- temperature approach).
Efficient solar cells are processed using layers
obtained using the proposed methods. An
effective low-temperature emitter formation
technique is being developed and implemented
in both low- and high-temperature approaches.
Sub-cell isolation and series connection is
addressed and is expected to lead to the
demonstration of a mini-module.
Throughout the project, advanced material
characterisation techniques are applied to
provide appropriate feedback to the
experimental efforts.
Bright outlook for crystalline
Si thin-film solar cells
Exploitation plan
The expected results are the following:
Definition of an industrially applicable
procedure to create continuous Si seed layers
by metal-induced crystallisation.
Deposition of high-quality crystalline Si layers
at low (ECR-CVD) and high (CVD) temperatures
on seed layers obtained by metal-induced
crystallisation.
Preparation of solar cells targeting an efficiency
of 12% (device area: 1 cm2).
Preparation of a mini-module targeting an
efficiency of 10% (mini-module area: > 24 cm
2
).
If it succeeds, this project should lead to a low-
cost crystalline Si thin-film PV module with a
competitive cost below 1/Wp. Both s ma l l -
scale applications and power applications in
modules would profit from this technology.
However, the project does not aim to bring the
technique being explored all the way to an
industrial process. In this sense, it is a long-term
research project.
Progress to date
Continuous large-grained polycrystalline silicon
(poly-Si) seed layers have been prepared by the
aluminium-induced layer exchange (ALILE)
process. During the ALILE process, which is
based on aluminium-induced crystallisation (AIC)
of amorphous silicon (a-Si), a substrate/Al/a-Si
stack is transformed into a substrate/poly-
Si/Al+Si structure by a fast and simple annealing
step below the eutectic temperature of the Al/Si
system (< 577C). Continuous poly-Si seed
layers have been formed on both glass and
heat-resistant substrates. It has been shown
that the ALILE process can be per formed on
large areas. The surface treatment of the seed
layer prior to the subsequent epitaxial thickening
has been addressed and a suitable process
was found. The low-temperature epitaxial growth
by ECRCVD has been optimised on mono- and
multicr ystalline Si wafers. The first epitaxial
growth on poly-Si seed layers has been observed
at low temperatures (< 600C). At high
temperatures, the growth on poly-Si seed layers
has led to an enhancement of the grain size with
respect to deposition on bare substrates. Low-
temperature emitters have been deposited from
the gas phase on monocrystalline Si wafers to
optimise the deposition process: epitaxially
grown emitters and a-Si:H emitters. The latter
have been developed to a level where the
efficiency is controlled only by the quality of the
absorber layer. Furthermore, first Si thin-film
solar cells have been prepared at high
temperatures, resulting in an efficiency of 2.9%.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2001-00543
Title:
Metal-induced Crystallisation
and Epitaxial Deposition for Thin,
Efficient and Low-cost Crystalline
Si Solar Cells METEOR
Start Date: January 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Walther Fuhs
Tel: +49-30 67053 331
Fax: +49-30 67053 333
fuhs@hmi.de
Partners:
Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin (DE)
IMEC (BE)
British Photovoltaics (UK)
Technische Universitt Wien (AT)
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (BE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
Figure 1. Optical micrographs of seed-layer formation at three
different times during the aluminium-induced layer exchange. Dark
and bright areas correspond to crystalline Si and Al, respectively.
55
Figure 2. Film formation by aluminium-induced layer exchange and
subsequent epitaxial deposition.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
56
Objectives
The present project aims to develop a new
process for the automatic assembling of
photovoltaic (PV) modules. The purpose is
to develop a new technology for
manufacturing crystalline silicon (Si) based
solar modules in order to sustain the rapid
market growth and the rapidly decreasing
price of PV modules. This process
guarantees a higher production rate, the
possibility to work with large solar cells
and lower temperatures, and minor stress
for the cells compared to the present hand-
soldered methodology. This latter point
provides the opportunity to employ thin-film
heterostructures, such as (c-Si/c-Si, a-
Si/c-Si, and TCO/c-Si, which Sanyo has
demonstrated to be good structures for
high-efficiency cells (HIT cells). It will also
be interesting to substitute the traditional
p-type with the n-type substrate so as to
eliminate the degradation effects due to
B-O pairs which have been recognised as
being responsible for the initial degradation
of commercial PV modules.
M O P H E T
Project structure
The project activities are organised into one co-
ordination and five technical work packages
these have an independent work plan but strong
interactions with one another. In particular, the
development of n-type substrates (WP1)
optimises mc-Si and EFG wafers which will be
used in the development of high throughput a-
Si/c-Si devices based on screen printing (WP2),
or in testing high-efficiency structures (WP3).
WP4 deals with an automated assembly process
for the devices in solar modules, which
completely avoids the need for hand-soldering
tinned copper bands. WP5 addresses the design,
experimental testing and cost evaluation of a
completely automated process based on a
sequence of steps from the rapid development
of n-type wafers to completely interconnected
modules, with minimal handling. On the other
hand, separate exploitable advantages are to be
seen in the progress in each work package (e.g.
wafer manufacturers have a new optimised
product for the market, and all the partners can
benefit from a newly developed cell structure).
A separate work package deals with project
management, with the organisation of a Steering
Committee, and with the preparation of
documents, reports and the TIP.
Exploitation plan
The project team expects to obtain optimal n-type
silicon substrates in terms of doping, dimensions
and thickness. It aims to reach heterostructure
cells with > 15% average efficiency with the
screen-printed process and 17% in pilot-line cell
with buried contact process. Finally, the project
expects a 75% fill factor 36-cell module with
heterostructure cells. The intention is to achieve
all these goals using an automatic assembling
process that guarantees considerable time and
money saving. A projected production cost for a
process based on such technology is 1.5/Wp.
All the processing is low thermal budget allowing
less stress on wafers and lower usage of
electricity. Thus, on the whole, the project relates
to actions aiming for the development of an
economic, efficient, and environment-friendly
technology for photovoltaics.
Matching the beauty of
silicon wafers and thin film
57
Progress to date
The first n-type cast mc-Si ingot material was
developed and characterised. In order to realise
the initial devices, wafers measuring 250 m
thick and with a resistivity of about 1 cm were
chosen. Phosphorus-doped EFG-ribbon wafers
were also developed. A complete modelling
analysis of the heterostructure properties at
the inter faces was per formed which allowed
confirmation of n-type substrate as the best
choice. Initial heterojunction devices with
aluminium back contact were developed with
very good results (17% of efficiency on the lab.
scale). As regards the automatic assembling
process, a new array layout was created in order
to realise module samples to test the low-
temperature conductive and insulating pastes.
A fill factor of 78% was obtained for a module of
36 conventional cells.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2001-00552
Title:
PV Module Processing Based on Silicon
Heterostructures MOPHET
Start Date: December 2001
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Francesca Ferrazza
Tel: +39-06 98560403
Fax: +39-06 9850267
francesca.ferrazza@eurosolare.agip.it
Partners:
Eurosolare SpA (IT)
ScanWafer AS (NO)
CIEMAT (ES)
University of New South Wales (AU)
RWE Schott Solar GmbH (DE)
ENEA (IT)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
Figure 1. Process scheme for the first silicon
heterostructures developed.
Best module fabricated to date,
summary data: Isc=1.3 A,
Voc=21.5 V, Imp=1.2 A,
Vmp=18.4 V, FF=78.99%.
Figure 2. Performance characteristic of the best
devices achieved to date.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
The process of making the electrical
contacts on crystalline silicon solar cells
can be improved with regards to economic
and environmental issues. The thick-film
metallisation process is a very sensitive
process and is limiting the efficiency.
Improvement of the process stability would
be beneficial. Thick-film metallisation
comes out of Life Cycle Analysis as the
critical process regarding environment in
the production of crystalline silicon solar
cells. This is due to the use of lead
containing glass frits, the use of hazardous
solvents and binders, and the use of silver,
which is not abundantly available and is
hazardous to the environment. Topics that
deserve attention are therefore lead
containing glass frits, solvents and binders,
and the use of silver.
The objective of this project is to develop a
metallisation process for crystalline silicon
solar cells that is environmentally clean,
highly efficient, and easy and robust in
processing.
E C 2 C O N T A C T
58
Challenges
Environmentally clean
Three issues need to be solved for an
environmentally benign metallisation process:
Develop a successful paste without lead.
Currently lead is being used in the glass frit
of pastes for thick-film metallisation on
crystalline silicon solar cells to obtain low
contact resistance and high adhesion.
Develop solvent-free pastes for front and
rear side metallisation. Hazardous solvents
and binders are used in the pastes. These are
released as hazardous gases during printing,
drying and sintering.
Increase line conductivity by at least 50%
and thereby reduce silver usage by one-third.
Silver is not abundantly available, therefore
it should be used as effectively as
possible. Also methods to recycle all silver
economically are being evaluated.
Highly efficient
Thick film contacts are far from optimal. The
aim is to increase solar cell ef ficiency by
reduction of the associated resistance of the
metal contacts. This is done by contacting on low
doped emitters, by reduction of the contact
resistance, and improving the line resistance. In
total, this can lead to 3% efficiency increase.
Reduction of process sensitivity will increase
average cell efficiency (by 3%). BSF function is
currently poor. This can be improved by modifying
the sinter process to higher temperatures, by
using high-purity aluminium powder, and by
increased alloying and increased doping. This
increases efficiency by at least 4%.
Easy and robust
The ver y small process window and the
aluminium rear-side metallisation cause reduced
process yield and uptime. The aim is to widen
the process windows by a factor of two, leading
to an average efficiency increase of 3%, and
develop a new process to produce an aluminium
rear-side contact, without bending thin wafers.
Project structure
The consortium consists of the Energy research
Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the University
of Konstanz (UKN), Metalor Technologies France
and RWE Schott Solar.
The role of the University of Konstanz is to
establish the fundamentals and create models
of the formation of the electrical contacts on the
solar cell. Based on these models, new thick-film
metallisation components will be selected and
tested at ECN Solar Energy, using new and
advanced methods. Metalor, as a precious metal
and paste producer, works on the issues to
produce an environmentally clean paste. The
end-user RWE Schott Solar assesses the
environmental and efficiency aspects of the
developed metallisation systems. ECN Solar
Energy acts as a coordinator of the project.
Environmentally clean,
efficient, and easy contact
crystalline silicon solar cells
Exploitation plan
The project will result in a new front-side
metallisation, lead-free paste and with
environmentally friendly binder systems. Also, the
result will be a new rear-side metallisation paste,
with the same solvents and binders and with
increased BSF function. Finally, a process will
result that improves efficiency by 10%, relative
to an industrial reference process defined at
the star t of the project. The impact for this
project will be an environmentally benign
metallisation process and that all resources are
used effectively, avoiding waste.
Successful paste formulations developed in the
project will be produced and commercialised by
the paste manufacturer in the consor tium,
Metalor. Pastes and the added metallisation
processes for enhanced cell performances will
be available for PV cell manufacturers. The
impact will be that the PV industr y can be
environmentally clean and that all resources
are effectively used and waste is avoided.
Progress to date
In the first phase of the project, paste component
functions are determined and models are built
to describe the phenomena occurring during
screen printing, drying, and sintering. To develop
a model of the thick-film front contact formation
the approach by UKN is to separate several
competing processes during contact formation.
The investigations indicate that the glass frit
plays a major role during contact formation and
also af fects the electrical proper ties of the
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2001-00560
Title:
Environmentally Clean Efficient, and
Easy to Contact Crystalline Silicon
Solar Cells EC2CONTACT
Start Date: January 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Jan Bultman
Tel: +31-224 564786
Fax: +31-224 568214
bultman@ecn.nl
Partners:
ECN (NL)
Universitt Konstanz (DE)
Metalor Technologies SA (FR)
RWE Schott Solar GmbH (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
59
contact to a great extent. The focus of the
work has been on the sintering, the contact and
the contact formation.
The models are tested by simple experiments
and detailed characterisation. The current
model of the contact shows that the role of the
glass frit is more complex than commonly
assumed. Our focus is to separate the role of
the lead in order to replace lead with other
oxides.
Alternative components are tested by seeking
proof of principles based on simple
experiments, prior to star ting expensive
development. Several innovations will be tested
this way: two new solvent-free binder systems,
and three new ways to deposit aluminium.
Finally, prototype processes are being developed
and optimised. The new knowledge obtained by
modelling the occurring processes will then
be implemened.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
As stated in the EU's Fifth Framework
Programme, the cost targets for
photovoltaic (PV) systems are 7/Wp and
3/Wp for the short and medium term
respectively. The targeted PV module cost
is < 1/Wp by 2010, helping to reach the
White Paper target of 3GWp capacity by
2010. These issues are addressed in the
objectives of this proposal. The basic
project aim is make a significant reduction
of the manufacturing cost/Wp by
developing innovative cell structures and
related fast (>1dm_/3s) low-stress
manufacturing technologies suitable for
thin (200m) edge-defined film-fed grown
(EFG) silicon (Si) sheets and multi-
crystalline Si wafers, leading to efficiencies
of 15.0% (EFG) and 16.5% (multi-Si)
respectively. This should also lead to a
reduction in expensive Si-feedstock
consumption to values below 4g of Si per
Wp. The feasibility of reducing costs has to
be validated at the end of the project by
verification of the assumptions in the
MUSICFM study (CT94 0008).
F A N T A S I
60
Challenges
In order to achieve the project objectives, new
process technology will have to be developed for
thin large-area multicrystalline and EFG Si wafers.
This technology has to fulfil the following
requirements:
It has to be suited for high throughput industrial
production.
There should be no increased breakage rates
for the thin wafers (similar or better process
yield).
The resulting solar cell efficiencies should
be improved to achieve the values mentioned
in the objectives.
The biggest challenge is that all three above
requirements have to be met simultaneously
for the new processes for them to be of industrial
relevance.
Project structure
The work is logically divided into different work
packages that address all issues relevant to
the development, optimisation and evaluation of
low-stress solar cell processing for thin (~200m)
silicon solar cells from silicon wafers and EFG
sheets:
Advanced front surface processing: Solar cell
processes related to the front sur face (Iso-
texturing, cathodic texturing and pre-diffusion
cleaning, cost-effective formation of a shallow
homogeneous or selective emitter, formation of
front contacts to shallow emitters, etc.) have to
be optimised for fast and stress-free processing,
which is a necessity for thin solar cells. The
process development is accompanied by the
development of advanced characterisation
methods such as the transverse probe dual-
wavelength life time measurement technique
that was developed during this project.
Advanced rear surface processing: New process
steps for the rear surface have to be developed
for the application of sur face passivation
(extremely important for thin cells), the formation
of a rear local contact and the removal/avoidance
of the parasitic junction. Appropriate dopant
pastes, metallisation pastes and chemicals are
also being developed, taking into account the
specifics of multicr ystalline silicon material.
Alternatively, low stress Al contact formation
will be investigated, resulting in a small amount
of wafer bending of thin large-area wafers. This
process development is accompanied by the
development of advanced characterisation
methods.
Cell process integration: Once developed, the
processing techniques have to be integrated
into a processing sequence for the realisation of
an innovative thin solar cell structure. This
includes the development of equipment
prototypes such as, for instance, a wetbench
suited for iso-texturing and pre-diffusion cleaning
Faster production of thinner,
better, cheaper PV cells
or adapted handling and printing machines for
low-stress application of metal paste contacts.
Cost assessment and exploitation: This important
task is a very useful tool to help to identify the
best solution in case of dif ferent process
methods available and to assess the final
success of the activity. This work package also
serves as an important input to identify possible
exploitation chances and opportunities.
Exploitation plan
Expected (exploitable) results are:
Fast (> 1dm
2
/3seconds) low-stress
manufacturing technologies for the fabrication
of thin (200m) and highly efficient (>14.5%)
EFG ribbon and (>16%) conventionally cast
multicrystalline silicon solar cells with high
yield and at low cost.
Materials (pastes, chemicals), prototype
equipment and modified equipment suitable
for the innovative processing of thin wafers.
The validation of the feasibility of reducing
costs below 1/Wp in a projected large-scale
production.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2001-00561
Title:
Fast and Novel Manufacturing
Technologies for Thin Multicrystalline
Silicon Solar Cells FANTASI
Start Date: January 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Wilfried Schmidt
Tel: +49-6023 91 1730
Fax: +49-6023 91 1798
wilfried.schmidt@rweschottsolar.com
Partners:
RWE Schott Solar GmbH (DE)
IMEC (BE)
Merck KGaA (DE)
DuPont UK Limited (UK)
ASTEC Halbleitertechnologie GmbH (DE)
Universit di Napoli (IT)
Technion - Israel Institute of Technology (IL)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
61
Progress to date
Good progress has been achieved in the
development of iso-texturing (by chemical and
electrochemical means) and pre-dif fusion
cleaning for both multi-Si and EFG Si wafers.
The diffusion of a shallow homogeneous emitter
(60_/sq.) and the formation of suited front
contacts to this emitter with metal pastes
developed in this project have been successfully
integrated into an industrial pilot-line-processing
sequence. The same holds for the removal of
the parasitic junction by applying innovative
paste-etching techniques developed in this
project. A novel electrical wafer characterisation
tool by dual-wavelength transverse probe
measurement has been developed and
successfully demonstrated. Progress in
developing advanced structures for the
passivation of the rear side of solar cells is on
the way, while the existing passivation scheme
has been improved.
Figure 1. Scheme of novel dual-wavelength transverse probe measurement
set up for minority carrier lifetime characterisation.
Areas of achieved improvement for
conventional solar cell structures.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
Achieving a significant cost reduction of
multicrystalline solar cells and modules
requires the removal of the technological
barriers that currently impede the
development of a high throughput, low-cost
and reliable industrial process on thin
substrates. At the same time, the
perspective of large-scale production
implies that the environmental
sustainability of the production technology
for solar cells is a requirement, the
fulfilment of which can no longer be
postponed.
This project aims to reach this goal by
developing a dry, environmentally friendly
multicrystalline silicon cell fabrication
process based on plasma and screen
printing. The proposed novel,
unconventional cell fabrication technology
is capable of:
- processing large-area, thin (down to 100
microns) silicon wafers with a high
throughput and a low breakage rate;
- removing all wet-chemical and water-
rinsing processing steps;
- reducing the risks to health during
production;
- reaching cell efficiency of >16% on large-
area thin wafers.
The goal of this project is to reduce the
cost of multicrystalline solar cells down to
1/Wp.
A D V O C A T E
62
Challenges
Several technological barriers have to be removed
before a significant cost reduction of multi-
crystalline silicon solar cells and modules can
be achieved. This project intends to overcome
these barriers by developing a novel and
innovative technology for manufacturing ultra-
thin multicrystalline Si solar cells and modules
with a high yield and a low cost. It therefore
addresses three indicative RTD subjects:
the better use of expensive silicon feedstock;
development of new advanced manufacturing
techniques;
drastic cost-reduction in the cell and module
manufacturing processes.
Besides the cost reduction, the consortium aims
to use dry, environmentally friendly fabrication
processes to further promote the green image
of photovoltaics. Present-day technology, in fact,
involves many high-temperature processing steps,
and the excessive use of wet-chemical cleaning
and water-rinsing steps (around 3 million litres
of water per 1MWp cell production). The R&D part
of the project is accompanied by a work package
dedicated to an economic and environmental
evaluation of the developed processes and
equipment. The manufacturing cost will be
checked against the medium-term cost target of
1.5/Wp and long-term target of 1/Wp. It is
also expected that, through introducing thin
wafers, the energy pay-back-time will be much
shor ter. The goal of Advocate is twofold, to
contribute to cheaper and cleaner solar energy.
Project structure
The project consortium is composed of eight
partners from eight different EU Member and
Newly Associated States (NAS), coming from
universities, industries, SMEs and independent
research institutes, which together form an
important critical mass for R&D. The development
work on cell-processing steps has been
concentrated on the three challenges to be met
in order to execute the full dry-cell process on
ultra-thin wafers:
replacing all wet-processes existing at the
front end of the cell process;
replacing Al-alloyed BSF by novel back-surface
passivation processes suitable for thin wafers,
and introducing effective light-trapping
structures;
integrating the selected processes into one
generic cell processing sequence and
constructing the prototype of dedicated
processing equipment.
Since the new cell process will be based on
dry-processing techniques, the consortium will
perform a study of the long-term environmental
regulations with respect to the gaseous
emissions. The aim is to avoid the use of
hazardous materials in the newly developed
process. At the end of the project, the developed
process will be checked for compatibility with the
specific environmental and safety rules. Finally,
the consortium will perform a cost assessment
of the cell processes as a check against the cost
target of 1/Wp for a cell (0.65/Wp wafer
cost, 0.35/Wp cell processing cost.
Dry processes for low-cost,
thin multicrystalline silicon
solar cells
Exploitation plan
Dry processing on thin substrates will significantly
reduce cell processing costs and is expected to
produce relevant environmental benefits. The
universal and general character of the proposed
cell processes and equipment concept implies
that the proposed novel processing scheme and
equipment can be used equally to process solar
cells from single and multicr ystalline silicon,
silicon ribbons and, to some extent, even thin-
film silicon on low-cost substrates. It therefore
addresses more than 85% of the PV market. The
successful exploitation of the project results
could thus have a large strategic impact on the
whole PV market.
Progress to date
At the present stage, the projects achievements
may be summarised as follows:
Consolidated wafering process down to
150m;
Successful proof of concept for dry etching and
texturing process;
Prototype equipment for dry etching and
texturing installed in the pilot line;
Successful proof of concept for fast-rate
deposition of PECVD SiNx;
Prototype equipment for fast-rate deposition
of PECVD SiNx installed in the pilot line;
Plasma immersion emitter doping on single
crystal substrates, process for selective
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2001-00562
Title:
Advanced Dry Processes For Lowly, Cost
Thin Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cell
Technology ADVOCATE
Start Date: December 2001
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Guido Agostinelli
Tel: +32-16 281 555
Fax: +32-16 281 501
guido.agostinelli@imec.be
Partners:
IMEC (BE)
Photowatt International (FR)
Utrecht University (NL)
Research Institute for Technical
Physics and Material Science (HU)
Secon Semiconductor
Equipment GmbH (AT)
Forschung- und
Applikatonslabor Plasmatechnik GmbH (DE)
Central Laboratory of Solar
Energy and New Energy Sources (BG)
University of Ljubljana (SL)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
63
emitter on multicrystalline substrates;
Multiple-wafer process in a parallel plate
PECVD system for a-Si deposition;
Cells with HIT emitter on multicrystalline
substrate with 14% efficiency;
Full-cell process based on local Al BSF +
PECVD SiNx passivation on thin multi-
crystalline wafers
Back-surface passivation by means of a-Si
layers with a surface recombination velocity
<200 cm/sec on mc-Si substrates; and
Surface passivation by means of alternative
dielectric layers with a surface recombination
velocity <300 cm/sec on mc-Si substrates.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
64
Objectives
With a market share of over 90%,
crystalline silicon technology forms the
backbone of the photovoltaic solar energy
industry. Because of an excellent quality
and reliability profile as well as a large
potential for cost reduction, this position
will most probably be strengthened further
and kept for many years.
High-speed and material-efficient wafer
production has been identified as a key
ingredient for future large-scale
manufacturing. The avoidance of silicon
material losses and improved wafer
production efficiency are the main
ingredients for future PV module
manufacturing costs improvements.
The Ribbon-Growth-on-Substrate (RGS)
silicon wafer technology has a very high
potential to become this cost-effective,
high-throughput solar wafer manufacturing
method. The challenges for commercial
introduction are the transfer from
laboratory scale to a reliable production
technology and the demonstration of
competitive solar cell efficiencies. The
second challenge is the objective of this
project.
R G S E L L S
Challenges
The main challenge of this project is to develop
and demonstrate a solar cell process for Ribbon-
Growth-on-Substrate (RGS) wafers that is
compatible with existing industrial solar cell
process lines and reaches competitive solar
cell efficiencies.
In order to achieve this, a close co-operation
between solar cell processing, wafer
manufacturing and characterisation groups is
set up. RGS wafer characteristics and the
behaviour of RGS wafers in a solar cell process
are analysed. A specification for RGS wafers
with respect to oxygen and carbon contamination,
dislocation density and grain size has been
established. In particular, the relation between
hydrogen passivation during solar cell processing
and the oxygen concentration in the RGS wafer
turned out to be a key factor in ef ficiency
development. In a feedback loop between solar
cell processing, wafer characteristics and RGS
wafer manufacturing process, the ef ficiency
limiting factors will be successively removed.
The detailed objective for this project is to reach
RGS wafer-based solar cell efficiencies above
14% and to demonstrate an average efficiency
in a low-cost industrial process of more than 12%
on large number of solar cells.
Project structure
The project consortium consists of the Energy
Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the
University of Konstanz, the National
Microelectronic Research Centre (NMRC),
Sunways AG, Deutsche Solar AG and S'Energy
B.V.
While in the first part of the project the relation
between RGS wafer characteristics and solar
cell efficiency will be examined by ECN, UKN and
NMRC, the second part of the project will focus
on large-scale production, solar cell efficiency and
commercial implementation in co-operation with
the industrial partners Sunways AG, Deutsche
Solar AG and S'Energy B.V.
This project is closely related to the Dutch
Economy Ecology and Technology (EET) co-funded
RGSolar projects, where the transfer of the wafer
manufacturing technology from laboratory scale
to production technology has been developed.
Results from earlier German BMBF co-funded
projects as well as European projects (HexSi)
form the background for this project.
Exploitation plan
In recent years the PV industry demonstrated
annual module shipment growth rates well above
30%. This is accompanied by a strong PV module
cost decrease which, over many years, followed
a consistent learning cur ve reducing solar
electricity costs by about 20% with every doubling
in systems installed. The key for this development
is the implementation of many improvements into
the silicon solar module production chain. Cost-
ef ficient multi-cr ystalline silicon wafer
manufacturing, multi-wire sawing technology,
Efficient solar cells on
low-cost silicon wafers:
Ribbon-Growth-on-Substrate
solar cell technology
65
solar cell efficiency improvements and production
scaling up are just some examples.
It is expected that a successful commercialisation
of the RGS technology will form a major milestone
in the reduction of silicon wafer manufacturing
costs by avoiding silicon material losses and
increasing wafer throughput per machine by an
order of magnitude. A detailed analysis of the
economical and ecological impact of RGS wafer
manufacturing demonstrated its potential to cut
manufacturing costs by a factor of 2, while
reducing the energy pay-back time of RGS wafer
based PV modules from 5.3 to 2.3 years (RGS
in comparison to a multicrystalline silicon PV
module in a system installed in the Netherlands).
The compatibility of the RGS wafer with existing
solar cell and module technology and the
implementation team formed by the project
consor tium will guarantee a rapid market
introduction, with anticipated RGS wafer market
shares that could finally become comparable
to multicrystalline silicon wafers market shares
of today.
Progress to date
In a first step, the influence of different RGS
wafer characteristics on solar cell efficiencies was
determined and the limits for solar cell
efficiencies in an industrial as well as high-
efficiency process were demonstrated. By solar
cell process optimisation, solar cell efficiencies
of 10.5% with an industrial (screen-printing)
process and 12.8% in a high-efficiency process
were achieved (see figure 2). Analysing these
results, a road map for wafer technology
improvements and solar cell ef ficiency was
written.
In this analysis it turned out that the high oxygen
contamination in the RGS wafer was the main
limiting factor for reaching higher efficiencies in
a standard solar cell process. The formation of
oxygen-related recombination centres and the
influence of oxygen on the hydrogen passivation
during the solar cell process prohibited further
efficiency increases. Recent improvements in the
RGS wafer-manufacturing process resulted in
low oxygen contaminated RGS material that
showed drastically improved electrical properties
(minority carrier life times increased by a factor
3). It is expected that the potential of these
wafers for solar cell efficiencies in the 12% to
13% range (industrial process) will be available
after the next development step (reduction of
carbon contamination) is applied to the RGS
wafer manufacturing process.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2001-00574
Title:
Cost Effective, High Throughput Ribbon-
Growth-on-Substrate Solar Cell
Technologies RGSELLS
Start date: January 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Axel Schnecker
Tel: +31-224 564740
Fax: +31-224 568214
schonecker@ecn.nl
Partners:
ECN (NL)
Universitt Konstanz (DE)
National University of Ireland (IE)
Sunways AG (DE)
Deutsche Solar AG (DE)
Sunergy BV (NL)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
As-grown RGS wafers on top of a multicrystalline silicon PV
module.
Figure 1. Schematic principle of the RGS wafer
manufacturing process.
Figure 2. RGS wafer based solar cell
efficiency development with high efficiency
solar cell processing and screen-printing
solar cell process.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
66
Objectives
For greater increase in deployment of solar
PV electric generation, systems costs must
be reduced. The most effective way to
achieve cost reduction is to increase the
efficiency of the solar cells being used. The
use of very high efficiency cells increases
the module power density and reduces the
balance of systems costs through lower
area requirements, lower structure costs,
reduced module interconnection and less
installation time, which can contribute to
achieving the 3/Wp PV systems cost
target.
The project aims to develop
monocrystalline silicon cells of over 20%
efficiency by methods which lead to an
overall reduction in module cost towards
the 1/Wp target. The objective is to
develop new monocrystalline silicon
substrate materials that do not suffer light
induced degradation, and to use these
wafers to apply laboratory concepts to
industrial production to fabricate solar cells
over 20% efficiency with a cost saving of
30% module cost compared to present
manufacturing costs.
T W I N G O
Challenges
There is clearly a bridge that has to be built
between laborator y processes and industrial
production. This will require innovation at a
number of stages in the project. The challenge
is to develop materials which are not as good in
quality as the highest quality FZ materials but
which are cost effective and of sufficient quality
to make 20% efficient solar cells. Alternative
processing routes must be developed which can
be carried out at high throughput and low capital
and consumable costs, but yet give high
ef ficiency solar cells. An improved grade of
silicon wafer has to be developed which does not
show any light-induced degradation. This may be
either Ga doped Cz material, for which the crystal
growth will be refined and improved to
demonstrate a high yield of material suitable for
solar cell use, or the FZ process, which will be
simplified to achieve economics similar to Cz
growth. New cell device structures will be
developed which together with modifications to
cell processes will allow high efficiency solar cells
to be produced. The interactions between cell
processing conditions will be studied and new
procedures devised which allow the necessary
physical parameters of emitter doping, wafer
life time and surface passivation to be obtained
under industrial conditions.
Project structure
The project consor tium consists of three
industrial partners and two research institutes,
reflecting the industrial nature of the project
and the high potential for commercial exploitation.
Pillar JSC will address the growth of Ga-doped Cz
material, while Topsil will apply their knowledge
to produce FZ silicon wafers, with the aim of
reducing the cost of the process to make it
comparable to Cz growth. BP Solar will be
primarily concerned with development of solar cell
processes for the industrial line based on the
Laser-Grooved Buried-Grid (LGBG) technology.
Fraunhofer ISE will focus on characterising the
new silicon materials and demonstrating their
properties by making high efficiency cells as a
means of material qualification. Universidad
Politcnica de Madrid (IES-UPM) will lead activity
in defining the device structure of a 20% industrial
cell, demonstrating the structure in the laboratory
and providing characterisation input and failure
analysis of the industrially produced cells.
Exploitation plan
This project is directed specifically to the aims
of producing higher efficiency solar cells cost
effectively to lower both module and system
costs. The Thimoce project (JOR3 CT98 0287)
demonstrated that well passivated surfaces are
essential to high efficiency and, given good
passivation, thinner wafers will be as efficient or
more efficient than thick wafers. Hence cost
reduction will come in three areas: (1) higher
efficiency cells by cost-effective processing; (2)
lower wafer costs by using thinner wafers; and
(3) lower system cost from high ef ficiency
modules.
Due to the continuous growth of the PV market,
major manufacturers are building plants of 50
MWp or greater. For example, Sharp has
Towards 20% efficient
industrial silicon solar cells
67
announced its intention to increase
manufacturing capacity to 200 MWp, while BP
Solar has a current installed capacity of 50
MWp in Madrid with the potential for expansion
to 100 MWp, anticipating additional cost
reductions from manufacturing scale.
Recently, a revision of the Music FM project
conclusions have been made
1
. This project was
a multi-partner study carried out in 1995-1997
under the APAS programme of the European
Commission, which concluded that there were no
bottlenecks to 500 MWp manufacture and that
costs for crystalline silicon modules could be
around 1/Wp. The assumptions made then
have been verified by subsequent experience and,
in the area of wafer thickness and cell efficiency,
can now be judged to be pessimistic, if the
tendencies are maintained in the following years.
This project can be an important contribution to
creating these conditions. According to the
revision of Music FM, if a 20% LGBG solar cell
is produced on a 150 m monocrystalline wafer
in a 500 MWp plant, a cost of 0.97/Wp can be
reached at the module level (as compared to the
previous Music FM result of 1.15/Wp).
Progress to date
During the first half of the project, important
steps have been taken to achieve the final goal.
A Ga-doped Cz ingot has been grown, producing
more than 1000 wafers. No significant light-
induced degradation has been observed in these
samples, as expected. Due to the low
segregation coefficient of Gallium between the
solid and liquid phase, the ingot gives wafers in
a wide range of resistivities. To produce low-
cost FZ material, a process has been developed
to use low cost feedrods (with rough surface, non-
cylindrical...), producing ingots in a wide range
of resistivities. High carrier life times have been
measured both in FZ and Ga-doped Cz wafers,
and the quality of the material is confirmed by
the processing of test cells. For a PERC-LFC
process (Passivated Emitter Rear Contact - Laser
Fired Contact), 20.6% ef ficiency has been
achieved on the FZ material, and 19.7% on the
Ga-doped Cz. For LGBG technology, best results
on FZ and Ga-doped Cz are currently of 17.9%,
with no degradation observed after light soaking.
New approaches for LGBG solar cell production
are being explored in the pilot line. Improvements
in the rear structure of the cell enabled the
achievement of a 18.3% ef ficiency cell
(independently confirmed) on B-doped Cz
material.
These ver y encouraging results show the
potential of the approach under taken in the
project. 20% efficient industrial silicon solar
cells are now closer to production.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2001-00513
Title:
Fabrication of a 20% Efficient Silicon
Solar Cell By a Cost Effective Industrial
Process TWINGO
Start date: February 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Antonio Luque
Tel: +34-1 544 10 60
Fax: +34-1 544 63 41
luque@ies-def.upm.es
Partners:
Instituto de Energia Solar - UPM (ES)
BP Solar (UK)
Topsil (DK)
Joint Stock Company Pillar (UA)
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft-ISE (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
1
TM Bruton, Music FM five years of fantasy or reality? presented at the PV in Europe
Conference, Rome, Oct 2002.
Improved LGBG solar cell
measured at Fraunhofer ISE.
Czochralski ingot growth with
Gallium dopant, one of the
technologies being developed.
A SEM photograph of a laser-grooved
buried contact, a key aspect in the high
efficient LGBG cell technology.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
68
Objectives
The main objective of the RE-Si-CLE project
is to demonstrate new technologies
allowing for recycling of 75% of the silicon
rejects in exhausted wire cutting slurries
after the slicing of silicon wafers. The
economic goal is to demonstrate recycling
costs below 20/kg Si. Project
developments should also allow the PV
industry to reduce their industrial wastes
from the current 30 tonnes of exhausted
slurries per MW produced PV power to
5 tonnes.
The major components of fresh wire sawing
slurries are a liquid, usually polyethylene
glycol (PEG) or oil, and SiC grains. During
cutting, fine Si, Fe and other particles
accumulate in the slurry. The basic
technological objectives of the RE-Si-CLE
project are:
- separation of Si powders from the other
components of exhausted wafer cutting
slurries,
- purification and conditioning of
separated Si powders, and
- demonstration of highly efficient solar
cells on multicrystalline wafers
produced from the recycled Si.
R E - S I - C L E
Challenges
The major challenge is to reach the technological
objectives within the economical frame of direct
processing costs below 20/kg for the final
product purified and recycled Si from exhausted
wire cutting slurries.
Challenges: The Si which accumulates in the wire
sawing slurry during the wafer cutting operation
is in the form of micron size particles, some of
which might be oxidised. The Si particles need
to be separated from the two original slurr y
components: SiC grains, with a particle size of
10 m, at 50%m to 60%m, and the carrier liquid
at 50%m to 40%m, either polyethylene glycol
(PEG) or oil, as well as particles that accumulate
during the wire sawing operation.
The second challenge concerns the plasma
purification of the recovered Si. This process
should remove all remaining non-metallic
impurities and needs to be adapted to the
relatively high O and C content in the recovered
Si, while minimising Si losses in the form of SiO
at the same time. During the solidification of the
Si after plasma purification an additional
purification of metal impurities occurs due to
segregation. The overall goal is to obtain Si with
impurity concentrations as low as those found
in standard Si feedstock for the PV industry.
Finally, multicrystalline Si wafers will be produced
from the recycled Si and sophisticated industrial
solar cell processes will be applied to attain
highly efficient solar cells.
Project structure
The RE-Si-CLE consor tium groups three R&D
laboratories or institutes, three industrial
partners, and an equipment manufacturer:
The Photonics and Optoelectronics Research
Laboratory and the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar
Energy Systems (ISE) at the University of Cyprus
are responsible for characterisation and analysis
work. ISE is also working on solar cell processing
on the recycled Si. The CNRS laboratory EPM is
in charge of the plasma purification of the
recovered Si. The partners from the PV industry,
Photowatt and ScanWafer, provide exhausted
wire sawing slurry that is already partially pre-
treated with new and existing technology.
Scanwafer will also manufacture the multi-
crystalline Si ingots and wafers from the recycled
and purified Si. HCT provides equipment and
know-how for the mechanical solid/liquid
separation. The chemical firm Orgasynth provides
competence on chemical separation and
purification techniques.
Exploitation plan
The expected socio-economic impact of the
project is twofold:
Exploitation of internal silicon feedstock source
for the PV industry and a more rational use of
silicon raw material.
A successful recycling of 75% of the
approximately 5 tonnes of silicon per MWp
produced PV power, currently rejected as
waste, together with the exhausted wire sawing
slurries, would result in 3.8 tonnes of recycled
silicon per MWp produced. Based on the
current requirements of 16 to 18 tonnes of
silicon feedstock per MWp produced PV power,
the quantities of silicon feedstock that need
to be acquired on the silicon markets could be
reduced by 21% to 24%, taking into account
that the cost objectives of the RE-Si-CLE
process with 20/kg are below the current
market prices for silicon feedstock.
Reduction of the industrial waste resulting
from the PV wafer production.
The RE-Si-CLE technology will allow the PV
industry to drastically reduce their amount of
industrial waste from the current 30 tonnes
Recycling of silicon rejects
from PV production cycle
69
of slurry per MWp produced PV power to
approximately 5 tonnes. This waste also
comprises the recycling of the major
consumables of the wire sawing process, SiC
and liquid, for which the necessary technology
and equipment is already available.
Progress to date
During the first half of the project work focused
on basis process development of each step
accompanied by theoretical modelling work to
determine the most promising processing
windows.
Major results to date:
Mechanical separation of SiC and liquid (PEG
or oil) from exhausted slurries by a two-step
centrifugation process (the first step is SiC
elimination, the second is liquid elimination).
Based on their existing industrial centrifugation
equipment (see figure 1), HCT worked on
improvements of the centrifugation process
permitting a 90% elimination efficiency for
the solid particle mix containing up to 22% free
silicon, although there is still 8% Fe.
Chemical removal of Fe from the solid particle
mix. Using a process developed by Orgasynth,
the particle mix is diluted in water, a chemical
solution is added to remove the Fe, and the
remaining particles (mainly the Si) are
separated from the liquid by centrifugation in
the HCT equipment, then dried. The general
feasibility of this process has recently been
proven. Exact analysis data are not available
at the time of publication. About 20 kg of Si
powder have been produced so far.
Optimisation and adaptation of the plasma
purification process by EPM. Theoretical
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2001-00580
Start Date: January 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Etienne Bouley
Tel: +33-1 56 61 72 80
Fax: +33-1 56 61 72 99
etienne.bouley@orgasynth.com
Partners:
Orgasynth SA (FR)
ScanWafer A/S (NO)
CNRS-EPMG (FR)
HCT Shaping Systems SA (CH)
Photowatt International SA (FR)
University of Cyprus (CY)
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft-ISE (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
Plasma purification of recycled silicon
powders (EPM).
modelling narrowed down the process
windows (composition of plasma gases,
heat transfer mechanisms) for the optimum
removal of the characteristic impurity
mix found in the recovered Si.
Detailed analysis and characterisation of
samples produced.
Theoretical studies of maximum tolerable
impurity limits for the silicon at different
processing steps, including solar cell
processing.
Suppression of the originally foreseen
mechanical compacting process for the dried
silicon powder either by a pre-fusion
treatment or a direct melting of the powder
before the plasma purification.
The next project phase will be dedicated to
further optimisation and consolidation of the
processes developed. Since recycled Si powder
is now available, experimental work will start on
further processing steps, especially plasma
purification, to produce suf ficiently purified
silicon for a small multicrystalline silicon ingot
that can be cut into wafers for first solar cell
processing tests.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
High-throughput epitaxial silicon deposition
performed in a newly developed in-line
continuous Si deposition tool. Size of each
carrier is 200x400 mm
2
.
The short-age of suitable silicon is a
medium-to long-term threat for the PV
industry. It seems unavoidable to move
beyond the growth constraints imposed by
the current supply of feedstock. The
crystalline silicon thin-film technology
provides a solution since significantly less
silicon and, in addition, no wafer slicing is
needed. Due to its crystalline nature, the
silicon thin-films can in principle achieve
the same efficiency as silicon wafer solar
cells.
The main objective of the research project
Sweet is to develop "wafer equivalents",
i.e. cost-effective thin-film silicon solar
cells with crystalline silicon layers grown
on low-cost silicon substrates. Recycled
silicon wafers or wafers cast from highly
doped "off-spec" silicon feedstock not used
by the IC industry will be tested as
substrates. The aim is to achieve 16% cell
and 14% module efficiency.
S W E E T
70
Challenges
For the fabrication of a PV module made from
cr ystalline silicon solar cells, highest cost
reduction potential lies in the wafer and cell
processing steps. Using reduced-quality silicon
feedstock and thin silicon layers are two
impor tant steps to realise a cost reduction.
Both steps are addressed in the proposed project
work. The main goal is to achieve high efficiencies
and lowest cost for a wafer equivalent, which can
be introduced directly into a standard solar cell
production line. This requires removing a number
of technical/economic constraints before the
technology can be implemented on a large scale.
The work programme therefore includes
casting of crystals from off-spec silicon best
suited for a high-quality substrate;
cost reduction of crystal growth and use of
larger and thinner wafers;
usage of recycled wafers from IC industry as
"feedstock" source from "waste";
optimisation of innovative high-throughput
epitaxial CVD growth of silicon layers;
application of surface structuring methods
to increase light trapping;
application of innovative passivation
techniques to increase cell efficiency;
investigation of applicability of wafer
equivalents in standard cell production lines;
fabrication of modules made from wafer
equivalents based on crystalline silicon thin-
film solar cells;
calculation of cost-saving potentials provided
by this technology.
Project structure
The project consortium covers the whole range
from crystal growth to solar module processing.
Project par tners are Cr ystalox Ltd. (UK), PV
Silicon AG (DE), ATERSA (ES), IMEC (BE) and
Fraunhofer ISE (DE). The chain begins at
Cr ystalox Ltd, which is responsible for ingot
casting and brick cutting of highly doped off-
spec silicon. The blocks are sliced into wafers
by the PV Silicon AG. Monocrystalline, highly
doped reclaim wafers are provided by the Spanish
partner ATERSA. Main research work is done at
the R&D partners IMEC and Fraunhofer ISE, the
latter also coordinating the project. Solar cells
and modules from wafer equivalents
manufactured at those institutes are finally
produced at ATERSA.
The project is embedded in a cluster of six
running projects on c-Si thin-film named SWEET,
EPIMETSI, TREASURE, SUBARO, METEOR,
LATECS. Within this cluster, synergies are
exploited to improve progress of each single
project.
Exploitation plan
Key deliverables of the project are:
a 16% efficient solar cell 10x10 cm
2
on a
wafer equivalent made from low-cost silicon;
a 14% efficient solar cell module from wafer
equivalents made from low-cost silicon;
an economic assessment of thin-film silicon
solar cells/modules from low-cost Si
substrates with epi layers.
As a result of the project, a technology will be
available to manufacture cost-efficient silicon thin-
Epitaxial silicon wafer
equivalents on low-cost
silicon substrates
film solar cells based on double usage of silicon
wafers or otherwise wasted highly pure off-spec
silicon. Subject to good progress in the area of
development of high-throughput deposition tools
for epitaxial silicon layers, exploitation of the
project results is straightfor ward. Since the
wafer equivalents developed throughout the
project behave nearly identically to a standard
silicon wafer, any solar cell manufacturer can use
them in his cell production without any changes
to the process.
Progress to date
During the first project phase, two topics were
emphasised:
production of wafers from off-spec silicon and
test in standard epitaxy deposition
manufacturing of large-area epitaxial solar
cells for reference purposes
For production of off-spec wafers, a 150 kg
ingot of highly boron-doped silicon (tops and
tails from Cz growth) was produced and cut into
blocks 100x100 mm
2
by the partner Crystalox.
The crystallisation process showed no difference
to standard production. Also, slicing the blocks
into 330 m thick wafers could be done applying
the standard process.
Those wafers, along with reclaimed wafers, were
tested in a standard epitaxial growth process.
Different kinds of surface etchings were applied
to check the best pretreatment before epitaxy.
The quality of the epitaxial silicon layer varied
depending on substrate and etching procedure,
as test solar cells showed. Best efficiency values
of 23 cm
2
large production-type solar cells were
12.2% for epi on p+ Cz reference substrate,
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2002-00613
Title:
Silicon Wafer Equivalents Based on
Crystalline Silicon Thin-film Solar Cells
Grown Epitaxially on Low Cost Silicon
Substrates SWEET
Start Date: November 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Stefan Reber
Tel: +49-761 4588 5248
Fax: +49-761 4588 9250
reber@ise.fhg.de
Partners:
PV Silicon Froschungs-
und Produktions-AG (DE)
ATERSA (ES)
IMEC (BE)
Crystalox Limited (UK)
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft-ISE (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
71
12.3% for epi on p+ mc-Si, and 11.5% for epi
on reclaimed p+ Cz. It is important to mention
that the production-type process had to be
adapted to the epitaxial wafer equivalents only
slightly.
To probe the efficiency range of epitaxial wafer
equivalents, prime-quality p+ Cz wafers were
coated with a high-quality epitaxial silicon layer.
Such "perfect" wafer equivalents of 100 cm
2
area were processed to solar cells either using
a photolithography or a production-type process.
A maximum efficiency of 13.9% and 11.8%,
respectively, could be achieved, with little
standard deviation in efficiency. Open circuit
voltages of the epitaxial cells even exceeded the
values of the Cz reference (639 mV vs. 611 mV)
however, short circuit current was significantly
lower due to the limited layer thickness. This
experiment shows clearly, that both the
introduction of a textured sur face, and a
reflective growth inter face ("optical
confinement") for enhanced collection of light
are essential for reaching the project goals.
One possible measure to achieve a reflective
interface is the application of a porous interface
layer, where the incident light is scattered due
to difference in refractive index of silicon and
voids. Two approaches will be tested to achieve
such a layer: electrochemical porous silicon
etching, and anisotropic HCl-gas etching. With
both methods, nice porous layers could be
formed as figure 2 shows. Epitaxy on those
layers however yields ver y defective layers,
not applicable for high efficiency cells up to now.
Improvement of epitaxy on porous layers is
therefore an important task for the future.
Figure 1. Solar cell made from epitaxial wafer
equivalent on p+ Cz substrate of 10x10 cm
2
area.
Efficiency of the cell is 13.9%.
Figure 2. Porous silicon surface produced by
etching with HCl-gas.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
The objective of this proposal is to
fabricate silicon thin-film solar cells on
metallurgical silicon substrates with a high-
throughput epitaxial reactor of novel
design. This reactor will be able to be fed
with electronic grade source gases or with
gases obtained in situ from metallurgical
silicon (MG Si). In this way, MG Si will be
treated along two circuits, one producing
medium purified substrates and other
producing highly purified epitaxies where
the cell is fabricated, to directly obtain
solar cells starting from it.
Even if electronic grade epitaxy source
gases were used, important cost reduction
of the cells is expected in the medium term
when sufficient knowledge has been
gained. But more important in the shorter
term is the security of the supply of wafers
as starting material for solar cells thus
facing the problem of silicon feedstock
shortage in the near future.
E P I M E T S I
72
Challenges
The achievement of this R&D goal will be pursued
by addressing the following aspects: (1) upgrading
metallurgical silicon to a level suitable for epi-
cells substrates; (2) design and prototype
demonstration of a high-throughput epitaxial
reactor; (3) design and prototype demonstration
of re-circulation and synthesis of pure gases for
epitaxy growth; and (4) development of
appropriate processing for epi-cells. Industrial
perspective will be sought for by (5) conducting
manufacturability studies in a factory environment
and (6) cost and market analysis.
By the mid-term of the project it is expected to
have 12% efficient epitaxial solar cells fabricated
with conventional reactors on metallurgical
substrates, plus the design of the reactor and the
units for source gas treatment. By the end of the
project it is expected to fabricate in a pilot line
14% efficient epitaxial solar cells and 13% in the
factory, with which a module will be built. It is
expected also to have working prototypes of the
high-throughput epitaxial reactor with a high
packing density (more than 150 wafers in the
post-prototype stage) and of the recirculation
unit. The fulfillment of these objectives will
demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed Si
thin-film technology.
Project structure
The consortium includes a leading photovoltaic
manufacturing company (ISOFOTON) which acts
as coordinator and will ensure the industrial
compatibility of the developed techniques. A
metallurgical silicon manufacturer (ELKEM) and
a producer of cast silicon and casting equipment
(Crystalox) will work in the preparation of suitable
substrates from metallurgical silicon. IMEC is a
microelectronic and photovoltaic laboratory that
will develop the high efficiency thin-film solar cell
process and will optimise epitaxy parameters on
the substrates. IES-UPM is another photovoltaic
research laborator y that will under take the
design of the epitaxial reactor based on previous
studies. DIQ-UCM is a university group and will
deal with the basic chemistr y issues of the
epitaxy and source gases. Finally, CYTHELIA is
a specialised consultant agency that will assist
the coordinator in the cost and marketing studies.
Exploitation plan
This project is addressing a quickly growing
market that by the end of the study will amount
to 90 million. Ultimately, this market may be
of some 20 billion. It would involve the
unhampered growth of the PV industr y that
High-throughput epitaxial reactor
development for solar cell
manufacturing from Mg-silicon
ultimately might provide one-third of the worlds
electricity and so contribute, jointly with other
actions contemplated in the RIGES scenario
presented to the Rio Summit, to keeping GHG
below the level of 1985.
To ensure the exploitation of the results, the
consortium includes a silicon manufacturer, a
crystal growing equipment manufacturer and a
solar cell manufacturer, all of them with a leading
position in the PV market today, and thus all
range of applications of the technology has been
encompassed.
Progress to date
Work has been carried out in simultaneously
on different aspects of the project. On one hand,
upgraded metallurgical Si has been produced,
with an enhanced upgrading procedure. The
UMG Si was melted, crystallised and wafered.
Wafers are currently being tested as substrates
for CVD epitaxial growth. Different phases of
the solar cell production process are under
investigation.
On the other hand, the high-throughput epitaxial
reactor has already been pre-designed, including
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2002-00618
Title:
High Throughput Epitaxial Reactor
Development for Solar Cell
Manufacturing from
Mg-silicon EPIMETSI
Start Date: December 2002
Duration: 48 months
Contact point:
Jesus Alonso
Tel: +34-95 224 8600
Fax: +34-95 224 8649
j.alonso@isofoton.es
Partners:
Universidad Complutense de Madrid (ES)
Cythelia SARL (FR)
ELKEM ASA (NO)
Crystalox Limited (UK)
IMEC (BE)
Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (ES)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
73
a thorough calculation of the expected power,
water and gases consumptions. Dif ferent
alternatives for the recirculation of the
chlorosilanes are being investigated.
Finally, a preliminary market study has been
per formed to understand the role of silicon
feedstock in the current photovoltaic market and
its expected projection in the coming decades,
including an estimated projection of costs up
to 2012.
Figure 1. A schematic design of the high-throughput epitaxial
reactor.
Figure 2. UMG Si grains in a
crucible, ready for crystallisation.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
Crystalline Si solar cells are currently
dominating the actual PV market with a
share of more than 90%. In order to reduce
Si material costs, it is attractive to go from
the self-supporting Si substrate technology
towards a thin-film approach in which a
thin layer of Si is grown on a low-cost
substrate, such as a ceramic. This
approach is expected to result in a cost
reduction of between 0.5 and 1/Wp
and a technology with a lower start-up
threshold as compared to the actual
crystalline Si solar cell technology,
because its success relies less on mass
production to reach the lower costs.
L A T E C S
74
Challenges
The consortium wants to develop a cost-effective
thin-film crystalline Si solar cell technology based
on thermally assisted chemical vapour deposition
(CVD) as the deposition technique. The low-cost
substrate to be developed further within this
project is mullite, a ceramic consisting of Al2O3
and SiO2. This substrate is compatible with CVD
at high temperature because of its thermal
expansion coefficient, matched to Si. The project
wants to focus on the realisation of a solar
device-wor thy thin cr ystalline Si film on the
mullite substrate, by proposing a number of
innovative approaches. These approaches avoid
the complexity and cost of processes in which
zone melting recr ystallisation is involved to
increase the grain size.
Therefore, this project aims to control the
nucleation and grain size. This will done by using
specially designed spin-on layers which become
liquid or semi-liquid at the temperature at which
the active Si layer is deposited. As a result of the
enhanced mobility of the Si adatoms over the
surface of this low-viscosity layer (the surface
resembles the features of a liquid surface) and
the ability of the Si nuclei to rotate on this
sur face, large Si grains can be formed with
grain boundaries which take a low-energy
configuration. The potential of the approach will
be studied by developing a truly monocrystalline
Si film on the mullite substrate (grain size = by
lift-off and transfer of a porous Si film on to the
mullite substrate, allowing the Si substrate to be
reused several times.
Exploitation plan
The impact of the project would be a significant
simplification of the process flow to realise thin-
film cr ystalline Si solar cells on a low-cost
Simplifying polycrystalline
Si solar cells
Partner Role in the project
IMEC
CVD-growth of polycrystalline Si Solar cells
in poly- and monocrystalline Si-layers on mullite
Dow Corning, SA Development of spinnable dielectricum
VITO, Vlaamse Instelling voor
Technologisch Onderzoek
High-purity mullite development
Surface optimisation of mullite
CIM, Ceramica
Industrial Montgatina
Industrial mullite development
CNRS DR10, Centre National
de la Recherche Scientifique
CVD-growth
HIT-emitter implementation
RWE Schott
Solar GmbH
Tests with diffused emitters in the polycrystalline layers
Shell Solar CVD-reactor upscaling
ceramic substrate. The polycrystalline Si layer can
be grown by high-temperature CVD at rates in the
order of a 1 m/min, which is significantly higher
than those typically used for low-temperature
microcrystalline Si layers. The grain size of the
resulting layer of typically 1 m and the broad
grain size distribution make the achievement of
energy conversion ef ficiencies > 5% rather
difficult. This is often avoided by including a
melting step to increase the grain size. However,
the associated cost of this treatment is not
negligible. The avoidance of such treatment by
a better nucleation control would be a significant
breakthrough and would strongly enhance the
competitiveness of thin-film crystalline Si solar
cell technology. This technology can eventually
be implemented by the producer of solar cells in
the consortium (RWE Schott Solar). In addition,
it would allow the producer of the flowable oxides
(Dow Corning) to build up an additional customer
basis, the actual customer base comprising
mainly advanced microelectronic companies.
Finally, the existence of a commercial thin-film
crystalline Si solar cell technology on mullite
would allow CIM to move for ward with
investments required for building up a line for
substrates, suitable for use in PV modules.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2002-00640
Title:
Large-grain Thin-film Crystalline Si Solar
Cells on Ceramics LATECS
Start Date: December 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Jef Poortmans
Tel: +32-16 28 13 02
Fax: +32-16 28 15 01
jef.poortmans@imec.be
Partners:
IMEC (BE)
Dow Corning SA (BE)
VITO - Vlaamse Instelling
voor Technologisch Onderzoek (BE)
Ceramica Industrial Montgatina (ES)
CNRS (FR)
RWE Solar GmbH (DE)
EDF (FR)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
Figure 1. Deposition of Si layer on
industrial mullite; no oxide coating
present on the mullite substrate. The
polycrystalline Si layer was polished
and subjected to a SECCO-etch.
Figure 2. Deposition of Si layer on
industrial mullite; oxide coating
present on the mullite substrate. The
polycrystalline Si layer was polished
and subjected to a SECCO-etch.
75
Progress to date
The project has only been running for six months
during which time the main emphasis has been
on mullite substrate manufacturing and surface
improvement by VITO and CIM, flowable oxide
definition by Dow Corning, first deposition tests
on these flowable oxides, and the bonding of
monocrystalline thin Si layers of porous Si to
the mullite substrate. A large number of
substrates have been characterised from the
point of view of roughness and impurities. The
first deposition tests revealed that there was
a significant effect from the presence of the
flowable oxide on the grain size distribution, as
shown by figures 1 and 2. These effects are
being quantised now by deriving the average
grain size and grain size distribution, using
image-processing techniques. It has also been
shown that thin porous Si layers could be
successfully bonded to mullite substrates.
Epitaxial layers are actually grown on these
monocrystalline Si template layers on mullite
and solar cells are expected soon using this
approach.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
To date, the PV industry has used mainly
scrap silicon and silicon from excess
production capacity as feedstock for
manufacturing wafers for the
microelectronics industry. Changing
requirements for semiconductors (highly
doped materials) result in an increasing
part of the scrap being highly doped, and
so far that part cannot be used for PV. The
annual volume of highly n-doped scrap is at
least 2,000 tonnes.
The main objective of this project is to
make highly n-doped scrap silicon available
as a new source of low-cost feedstock for
solar cells. To this end, the technology for
cost-effective reduction of concentrations
of P, Sb and As in silicon is being
developed and tested up to pilot scale.
Also, a cell process technology for p
+
n-
type solar cells is being developed, which
has potential advantages over the
conventional n
+
p-type cells. The target is
an efficiency of 15.5% on 200m thick
wafers in an industrial process.
The project is aimed at rapid industrial
implementation.
N E S S I
76
Challenges
The project is divided into tasks on refining and
characterisation of feedstock (including wafer
production), cell process technology, modelling
and cell characterisation, module production
and testing, and economic and environmental
assessment.
Refining of feedstock starts with analysis of the
concentrations and blends of dopants to be
expected in the Si. Thermodynamic modelling and
previously obtained results are used to develop
a technology based on vacuum evaporation and
recover y techniques. Initial tests are at lab.
scale, followed by piloting at full ingot (200 kg)
scale. Due attention is given to safety and waste
treatments.
The cell process technology on n-type wafers has
started as both an industry-type scheme and a
high-efficiency scheme. To obtain high conversion
efficiency for thin wafers, focus is on advanced
process sequences for sur face passivation.
Process steps are transferred one by one to an
industrial cell line and tested. One task for the
industrial cell line is to achieve a high yield.
The modelling and cell characterisation work
package provides inputs for improving the cell
processes, and specifications for the refined
feedstock and wafers. Modules are produced by
several partners, and tested to assess the yearly
yield and possible degradation effects.
Results expected from the refining technology are
a reduction of n-type dopant concentration by two
orders of magnitude on an industrial scale at a
cost of < 10/kg.
Results expected from the cell process are an
efficiency of 15.5% for 125x125 mm
2
wafers in
an industrial process and 16.5% (4 cm
2
) in a
laboratory process, both for 200 micron wafer
thickness.
Project structure
The project consor tium consists of the
Netherlands Energy Research Centre (ECN,
coordinator), Deutsche Solar (DS), the University
of Konstanz (UKON), Isofoton, and the University
of Milano-Biccocca (UMIB). The role of DS is
the development of the feedstock purification
process. ECN and UKON are developing the p+n
cell process steps with emphasis at UKON on
high-ef ficiency schemes and at ECN on the
industrial cell process. Characterisation of
material and modelling of the cell process is
shared by UKON, UMIB and ECN. Isofoton is in
charge of testing cell process steps in an
industrial line and module development.
Exploitation plan
The consensus amongst par ties in the PV
business is that cr ystalline silicon wafer
technology will continue to be the main technology
for at least the next decade. Alternative
N-type solar grade silicon for
efficient solar cells
technologies, such as thin-film silicon and organic
solar cells, may start to play an important role
in low-cost/large-scale PV after 2010. The growth
of PV capacity over the next 15 years will
therefore be based mainly on c-Si wafer
technology.
Shortages of silicon feedstock for the PV industry
are currently masked by the excess capacity at
the EG-silicon producers. Based on an EPIA
Industry Roadmap Workshop in 2001, for a 20-
25% annual growth rate and an improvement in
Si utilisation of 5% pa, a worldwide shortage of
2,600-4,300 tonnes/pa is foreseen in 2005.
Against this background, the benefit of making
available 2,000 tonnes/pa or more of presently
unused scrap silicon is obvious.
There are also benefits associated with a p
+
n-
type instead of a n
+
p-type solar cell. These
include fundamental advantages concerning the
effects of impurities in silicon, and practical
advantages for implementing a high-efficiency cell
process.
The feasibility of exploiting the results of this
project is judged in economic feasibility studies
and life-cycle analyses for a 1,000 tonne/year
plant producing n-type Si wafers, and for a cell
line of 30 MWp/year. Action plans prepare for
immediate implementation if the outcome of
the project is positive.
An extra n-type feedstock quantity of 2,000-
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2002-00660
Title:
N-type Solar Grade Silicon for Efficient
p+n Solar Cells NESSI
Start Date: November 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Lambert Geerligs
Tel: +31-224 564 761
Fax: +31-224 568 214
geerligs@ecn.nl
Partners:
ECN (NL)
Deutsche Solar AG (DE)
Universitt Konstanz (DE)
ISOFOTON SA (ES)
Universit degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (IT)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
77
3,000 tonnes/year is estimated to be sufficient
for a cumulative installed PV capacity of 1.3-1.8
GWp in 2010, approximately 50% of the EU
target.
Progress to date
In the first six months of the project,
thermodynamic modelling was done to support
the development of the experimental set-ups for
the purification of the n-type scrap. The dopant
extraction process was simulated.
For the p
+
n-type cell process, simulations of cell
schemes were conducted in order to estimate,
for example, the effect of the doping level on
cell properties.
A phosphorus-doped n-type ingot was produced
with a resistivity of 0.5 - 3 cm, and used for
the development of the cell process. The
material was characterised and found to have
a homogeneous and high carrier life time.
Industrial as well as high-efficiency cell process
schemes are under development.
Figure 1. Electron microscope image of
a cross-section of the newly developed
Cd-free heterojunction produced by
atomic layer chemical vapour
deposition of In2S3,
at CNRS/LECA.
Figure 2. Current voltage characteristics of high-
efficiency CIS modules with standard CdS and with a
Cd-free heterojunction produced at ZSW.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
78
Objectives
Crystalline Si solar cells/modules today
share more than 90% of the PV market.
This trend set to last until next decade. It
is foreseen that the supply of off-spec Si
from the semiconductor industry will be
scarce in the years to come for the
production of PV power at large scale. For
the medium and long term, the UMG-Si
1
is
a promising alternative feedstock for the
production of low-cost and abundant
Sisubstrate.
The specific objective of this project is to
achieve silicon solar cell of high
performance by LPE
2
growth of the melt
back Si from and on the UMG-Si based
substrata. The technology concept is
shown in figure 1.
The mid-term target is to achieve 13%
efficiency on 5x5-cm
2
cast DS wafers.
At the end of the project, this will include
14% efficiency on 10x10 cm
2
wafers and
13% on a mini module of 36 cells.
The expected achievement is a module
cost of about 3/Wp for monofacial and
2.5/Wp for bifacial solar cells.
T R E A S U R E
High-performance Si solar
cell from high-throughput
LPE thin layers on low-cost
UMG-Si based cast wafers
Challenges
In the previous EU-funded project, LPE layers of
about 30 m were grown successfully from EG-Si
on cast UMG-Si based single wafers. Efficiencies
up to 10% have been achieved on wafers of
5x2.5 cm
2
. For higher cell performance on larger
wafer sizes, a series of problems remained to be
addressed, however. These include growth of
epilayer with the least wavy sur face and
roughness. To improve the cell efficiency it is
necessary that the diffusion length in the epilayer
is higher than its thickness. Study of the impurity
diffusion from the substrate and solvent on the
epilayer behaviour is not yet complete. The aim
was to extend the achieved results to wafers of
standard sizes.
Technical data
A new high-throughput LPE reactor was
constructed capable of handling up to 54 wafers
of 10x10 cm
2
wafers per run. Indium of 6N
purity is used as the solvent. To secure the
growth of p-type silicon with an appropriate
doping level, The charge is doped with gallium with
a concentration of about 5x10
16
- 1x10
17
cm-
3
. The
temperature could reach as high as 1000C
and about 900C at end of the growth. The real
temperatures are lower however as the
thermocouples are placed outside the process
tube. A cooling rate of about 0.5C/min is used.
The wafers are loaded back to back resulting in
a single-sided growth. The melt is saturated at
high temperatures for about 15 min by Si melt
back from the substrate wafers. The substrate
wafers are etched before loading by NaOH. The
etching time is about 1 min to clean the surface
and remove the saw damage. To avoid the
process of oxidation, both crucible and wafer
carrier are made from graphite of high quality. A
carrier for up to 54 wafers of 10x10 cm
2
was
developed.
Project structure
The project consortium consists of industrial
partner ELKEM, the Foundation for Technical
and Industrial Research at the Nor wegian
Institute of Technology (SINTEF), University of
Konstanz (UKON), and Cente National de la
Recherche Scientifique (CNRS.CMTR). Beside
coordinating the project, Elkems task is to
develop and provide a high-quality UMG-Si
feedstock suitable for cast ingos growth. The role
of Sintef is to square the ingot into blocks and
slice them into wafers of standard sizes of 100
cm
2
by wire saw. The role of Ukon is to realise
a high-throughput LPE reactor, and growth of
epilayer on these wafers. Ukon also has the
task of fabricating and characterising solar cell
smade on texturise wafers, which is carried out
by the partner CNRS.
This project is based on the research work "Thin
film crystalline silicon solar cell on metallurgical
silicon substrate.
1 Upgraded Metallurgical Grade Silicon.
2 Liquid Phase Epitaxy.
79
MG-Si
UMG-Si
Crystallization
DS
thin layer
UMG-Si
Substrate
LPE reactor
Indium
solvent
INFORMATION
Contract : ENK6-CT-2002-00677
Title:
Thin Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell
on Metallurgical Silicon
Substrate TREASURE
Start Date: November 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Cyrus Zahedi
Tel: +47-2245 0114
Fax: +47-2245 0152
cyrus.zahedi@elkem.no
Partners:
SINTEF (NO)
Universitt Konstanz (DE)
CNRS - IDFE (FR)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
Figure 1. Thin-film LPE Si deposition from and on UMG-Si substrate using the
melt back technique.
Figure 2. LPE layer grown on 10x10 cm
2
UMG-Si wafers with different cooling rates.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
80
Objectives
The overall objective of the Topsicle project
is to define an industrial process
to manufacture low-cost 20% efficient
multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells
and modules. For this we need to develop
advanced processes for:
- high-quality Si material that will reduce
the losses in a solar cell,
- super-high-efficiency mc-Si solar cells,
and
- novel PV module structures.
Furthermore, a road map will be made to
realise cost-effective 20% mc-Si PV
modules on industrial scale. To prove the
developed technology, a small size 19%
mc-Si solar cell and a 17% full size module
will be made.
The efficiency of the module corresponds
to a peak power of 95.6 W. The cells for
the module will be made using the pilot
lines at the industrial partners.
T O P S I C L E
Challenges
To keep the earth habitable the exhaust of green
house gases must be reduced significantly. This
has to be achieved by making international
agreements on reducing this emission, e.g. the
objectives agreed in Kyoto. Application of
renewable energy is, besides energy saving, the
most important option. As is known, the use of
PV (photovoltaic meaning the direct generation
of electricity from light) will be an indispensable
energy source in the second half of this century.
PV has the advantage that there is no exhaust
emissions during electricity production, it is
silent and can be integrated into the built
environment easily. However, implementation
of PV will be difficult with the current price of solar
electricity, which is about 0.60/kWh. Therefore
it is impor tant to reduce the cost of solar
electricity significantly.
Technical target
The technical targets of this project are:
high-quality 200 m thin mc-Si wafers with an
average diffusion length of 500 m;
a 17.5% mc-Si cell efficiency (156 cm
2
) in a
pilot line environment;
a 19% mc-Si cell efficiency (4 cm
2
) using
adapted high efficiency processing;
a full-size 17% mc-Si PV module (156 cm
2
cell size, 95.6 Wp) and
a road map moving towards 20% mc-Si
industrial solar cell processing.
The scientific results generated by the project will
be published in the literature. The industrial
par tners will use the results for fur ther
development of high-quality mc-Si wafers, super-
high-efficiency solar cells and modules.
Project structure
The project consortium consists of the Energy
Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, the
University of Konstanz UKON, the Institute of
Solar Energy of the Polytechnical University of
Madrid IES-UPM, ScanWafer, BP Solar and RWE
Schott Solar. The role of ScanWafer is to develop
the high-quality Si material. ECN, as coordinator,
will optimise and improve current general
industrial processes. UKON will optimise
advanced industrial processing and develop
novel technologies resulting in high efficiencies.
IES-UPM will adapt lab-scale processes for high
efficiency solar cells to processes that could be
suitable for industrial application. BP Solar and
RWE Schott Solar will industrialise the processes
developed by research institutes and universities.
Exploitation plan
Topsicle will contribute significantly to a
sustainable Europe. The project results will
facilitate the way towards:
A significant fraction of electricity production
from PV. The target of the European Union is
Technology for high-efficiency
multicrystalline Silicon solar
cells
81
3 GWp installed solar electricity in 2010 (1
GWp
1
corresponds to a power of 109 W
produced under full sun illumination in NW
Europe),
Low-cost solar electricity (technology
development resulting in costs for a PV system
below 2.5/Wp), and
3 million tonne reduction of the yearly CO2
emission
The technology developed in this project will
improve Europe's competitive position
considerably. At the moment, about 50% of the
world production capacity of PV modules is
Japanese. This project will result in an increase
in the European share of PV production capacity.
Furthermore, the results of Topsicle will reduce
the energy pay-back-time of mc-Si based PV
systems to two to three years, which makes
the PV a clean energy source.
Progress to date
ScanWafer took the first step in producing high-
quality Si material. First characterisation of that
new Si showed that the material quality is good
enough to make solar cells with an efficiency of
about 17%.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2002-00666
Title:
Towards 20 percent mc-Si Industrial
Solar Cell Efficiency TOPSICLE
Start date: December 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Arthur Weeber
Tel: +31-224 56 4113
Fax: +31-224 56 8214
weeber@ecn.nl
Partners:
ECN (NL)
Universitt Konstanz (DE)
Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (ES)
ScanWafer ASA (NO)
BP SOLAR Ltd (UK)
RWE Schott Solar GmbH (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Georges Deschamps
Tel: +32-2 2951445
Fax: +32-2 2993694
georges.deschamps@cec.eu.int
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
1
GWp means Giga Watt peak with Watt peak the unit of peak power at illumination
corresponding to full sun in NW Europe.
Objectives
The project aims to develop an innovative, cost-
effective industrial fabrication process of high-
efficiency, multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar
cells, therefore addressing the most diffused PV
technology, seen as being the most used over
the next ten years at least. At the same time, it
allows experience to be gained in the
industrialisation of new technologies.
The main objective of the project conversion
efficiency of up to 17% on large area cells is
being pursued via a step-by-step approach. The
credibility of this approach depends on getting
together many different strong types of
expertise, developed in the mainframe of
previous EU projects, in an environment of
industrial scalability.
The project expectations also concern cost
reduction of the whole fabrication process, in
that labour-intensive steps are largely avoided,
and most processing steps are low thermal
budget, allowing less stress on wafers and
lower usage of electricity. Thanks to the
increase of cell efficiency and by rationalising
the material and electricity consumption, a final
cost of <2/Wp is expected, which is the
fundamental goal to reach to achieve the
volume expansion indicated by the White Paper
for PV until 2010.
I N D H I
82
Challenges
The project relates to actions whose final goal
is to develop an economic, ef ficient and
environment-friendly technology for PV.
The large-scale penetration of PV into the total
energy production systems strongly depends on
the availability, in a shor t or medium-term
scenario, of fast and cost-effective crystalline
silicon solar cell process technologies.
So, the development of a high-ef ficiency,
industrially scalable and low-cost silicon cell
fabrication process is considered to be a key
issue for the PV community and for the future of
PV.
When comparing ef ficiency mean values of
industrial crystalline silicon cells (13%-14%) to
those of the highest efficiency (24.7%), it is
evident that one of the problems the PV
community should solve is how to reduce this gap
of efficiency (more than 10%). In fact, the very
high cost of silicon wafers (almost half of the total
cost of the cell) requires a very efficient treatment
which exploits the direct cost as much as
possible.
A great deal of work has been done during the
last decade on developing industrially feasible,
high-ef ficiency solutions, giving appreciable
efficiency values, in the range of 18-20%, at
laboratory level. In several cases, the work has
been carried out in the mainframe of EU's Fourth
and Fifth Framework Programmes, by important
consortia from research institutes and industry.
This project wants to provide a bridge between
these last results and industrial production.
Project structure
The consortium is made up of partners with
dif ferent and complementar y roles and/or
specialisations, as well as having very extensive
experience in both PV and European research
projects.
The project activities are organised into one co-
ordination and six technical work packages
(WPs). The increase of the cell efficiency is the
subject of WP1 to WP4, while module-related
issues are studied in WP5, and factory design
concepts and yield indicators (YI) are given in
WP6 which, of course, interacts strictly with all
work packages. More par ticularly, the most
important improvements in the mc-Si substrate,
such as quality material increase and surface
texturing, are studied in WP1, and innovative,
sophisticated, low-cost procedures of front
formation, based on screen-printed selective
emitters, and low-temperature sur face
passivation are developed in WP2 as a high-
efficiency alternative to the simple, titanium
dioxide covered, homogeneous emitter, industrial
step. New low-cost, effective techniques of back
electrical and optical confinement are set up in
WP3, and contact shadowing, which is considered
Silicon solar cells: from
lab-scale to on-line production
to be one insurmountable limit of screen-printing
technology, is reduced by the fine-line printing and
buried contacts developed in WP4. WP5 deals
with interconnections and module improvements,
while WP6 addresses all the most significant
results achieved in the different work packages
in a new, high-efficiency, on-line manufacturing
process, giving suitable YIs to assess the project
goals, as well as a detailed cost evaluation.
Exploitation plan
The development of an economic, efficient and
environmentally friendly technology for
photovoltaics is a fundamental issue for the
future of this renewable energy source.
A new cost-effective manufacturing process for
mc-Si high-efficiency solar cells is expected as
the result of the implementation at the industrial
level of novel process technologies, giving on-line
fabricated cells with >16.5% efficiency values.
Moreover, a continuous economical and technical
analysis of the process is provided, obtained
through YIs, to find the limit of efficacy of high-
efficiency cell production. The cost goal for the
new process is <2/Wp.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2002-00705
Title:
Industrially Scalable High-Efficiency
Silicon Solar Cells INDHI
Start Date: January 2003
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Luisa Pirozzi
Tel: +39-06 30483692
Fax: +39-06 30486405
pirozzi@casaccia.enea.it
Partners:
ENEA (IT)
Eurosolare SpA (IT)
CNRS (FR)
Jerusalem College of Technology (IL)
Institut fr Solarenergie-
forschung GmbH (DE)
Soltech (BE)
Universitt Konstanz (DE)
CEA (FR)
EC Scientific Officer:
Georges Deschamps
Tel: +32-2 2951445
Fax: +32-2 2993694
georges.deschamps@cec.eu.int
83
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
The project's main objective is to design
lightweight, unbreakable and low-cost solar
panels based on amorphous silicon cell
technology. For the physical appearance of
the new module, the project team has been
much inspired by traffic signs which have
to withstand similar conditions. Two
parallel routes, which both need innovative
light-trapping and laser-structuring designs,
are being pursued:
- Module design based on a transparent
polymer plate cell carrier; a superstrate
cell structure is applied. Low-
temperature processes and scratch- and
UV-resistant moisture barriers will be
designed.
- Module based on a metal plate
substrate; an inverted cell structure
(substrate concept) is applied. The metal
plate substrate will be covered with an
electrically isolating layer. A new top
TCO and suitable barrier layers will be
designed.
L A S S O L
84
Challenges
The present solar electricity modules produced
by one of the partners, Free Energy Europe, are
characterised by a float-glass cell carrier panel,
a top-to-bottom production sequence for the cell
(superstrate cell concept, figure 1) and high-
temperature production processes (up to 600C).
A laminated second glass panel and a proprietary
polymer frame are applied as effective barriers
against moisture. These modules are mainly
used in small (up to 50W) autonomous solar
electricity systems, such as solar home systems
in developing countries. In such applications,
lightweight, unbreakable and low-cost modules
are preferred. In order to fulfil these
requirements, two parallel design routes are
being followed. For both routes, innovative
methods for laser structuring and light trapping
will be designed:
Polymer plate cell carrier
In the case of a polymer plate cell carrier, the use
of a transparent material, such as PC
(polycarbonate), PMMA or PET (polyester) is
being investigated. In this case, the same
production sequence as is presently being used
can be applied. However, low- temperature
processes (up to 100C) for all production steps
have to be used and effective moisture barriers
are required, even at the carrier-side of the
module. Also, requirements like scratch- and
UV-resistance have to be fulfilled.
Metal plate cell carrier
In the case of a metal plate (e.g. steel,
aluminium) cell carrier, a bottom-to-top production
sequence (substrate cell concept, figure 2) has
to be applied. In order to maintain the possibility
for a series connection of the cells by laser
structuring (monolithic integration), the metal
plate will be covered with an electrically isolating
layer which, at the same time, will act as a
diffusion barrier. The cells can be deposited at
'normal' temperatures (approx. 200C), but the
maximum deposition temperature of the top
TCO layer is limited to 200C as well. This means
that a new top TCO has to be designed. The
barrier layers which have to protect the sensitive
cell layers against influences from outside must
be UV- and scratch-resistant.
Project structure
The project consor tium comprises four SME
contractors: Free Energy Europe (FEE) from
France, Eques Coatings from The Netherlands,
and Prinz Optics and GFO from Germany. FEE
brings in its exper tise in the production of
amorphous silicon solar panels and will, after
successful completion of the project, start (pilot)
production of the resulting modules. EQUES
brings its expertise to the design and production
of coating materials. PRINZ and GFO supply their
Lightweight and unbreakable
solar panels
Float-glass superstrate
Top TCO
a-Si, p-doted
a-Si, intrinsic
a-Si, n-doted
Aluminium back-reflector
Acrylic resin
Float-glass back-panel
know-how in the field of coating technologies, for
barrier coatings as well as for TCO and optical
coatings.
The RTD-per formers are TNO from the
Netherlands, University of Stuttgart (IPE) from
Germany, and Sidrabe from Latvia. TNO acts as
the technical coordinator in the project, bringing
exper tise in materials as well as in coating
technologies. IPE contributes mainly with their
expertise in low-temperature thin-film solar cell
technology. Sidrabe designs suitable deposition
equipment and processes.
Exploitation plan
The result of the project will be a concept for the
(pilot) production of lightweight, unbreakable
and low-cost solar electricity panels, based on
amorphous silicon technology. These panels,
which will outperform existing panel concepts,
will be produced and marketed on the global
market by FEE. In addition, the other participating
SMEs will gain substantial know-how which can
be used to improve their individual products and
services.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2002-30016
Title:
Lightweight Amorphous Silicon Solar
Panels LASSOL
Start date: January 2003
Duration: 24 months
Contact point:
Peter van der Vleuten
Tel: +33-3 21 79 30 60
Fax: +33-3 21 43 65 88
p.vleuten@free-energy.net
Partners:
Free Energy Europe (FR)
Eques Coatings BV (NL)
Prinz Optics GmbH (DE)
GFO GmbH (DE)
TNO (NL)
Universitt Stuttgart (DE)
Sidrabe AS (LV)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
State-of-the-art solar panel.
85
New solar panel concept.
Transparent barrier
Top TCO
a-Si, p-doted
a-Si, intrinsic
a-Si, n-doted
Aluminium back-reflector
Polymer/metal substrate
Figure 1. Superstrate cell concept.
Figure 2. Substrate cell concept.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Progress to date
Since the project only started in early 2003,
few results can be recorded to date. However,
the team has succeeded in identifying the most
relevant substrate materials and material
requirements for both routes, and have selected
two design concepts to concentrate on. The first
trials for evaluating the most suitable materials
and concepts have already started.
Objectives
A mass application of PV systems is
hampered by the cost price of the PV panel
in relation to its cell efficiency. The
problem can be solved principally by
increasing the efficiency of the solar cells
(i.e. increasing the wp/m of cells) and
decreasing the manufacturing costs (i.e.
reducing the /Wp).
The current monocrystalline solar cells
(SC) are able to provide 20-24% efficiency.
However, such structures can be produced
only by applying four to six patterning
processes, which implies a significant cost
increase. This project aims at
manufacturing monocrystalline solar cells
based on principles of self-formation. The
main innovation on which this project is
based is manufacturing 20-24% efficiency
monocrystalline silicon cells at
significantly lower costs by reducing the
number of patterning processes from
five/six to two. Theoretically, a cost price
reduction of 50-65%/Wp could be
achieved by self-formation technology.
H E L S O L A R
86
Challenges
Fur ther research and technical development
(RTD) work is required to take this promising
concept out of the laboratory and to develop a
cheaper manufacturing process for solar cells.
The following problems to be solved have been
defined.
Research part of the project must cover:
Definition of self-formation theory applied to
solar cell technology, as a base for
development of new solar cell manufacturing
methods.
Development of software for iterative methods
in self-formation, and
Creation of new methods of high-efficiency
solar cell manufacturing based on
self-formation principles (leading to a patent).
Technological development will focus on the:
Development of new solar cell technology and
manufacturing of experimental solar cells of
~20% efficiency, and
Testing its efficiency, power specification,
stability, reproducibility, etc.
In the evaluation phase problems related to
manufacturing of prototype solar modules on
the basis of the new generation of solar cells
must be solved.
Project structure
This project aims to mobilise knowledge with
respect to available PV-system technology, in
order to come to cheaper solar cell manufacturing
by applying self-formation principles.
The proposers are seven SMEs which are active in
general solar technology development (ISA - NL),
monocrystalline silicium solar cell manufacturing
(Telebaltika - LT), PV system integration and
installation (Saules Energija - LT; Hespul - F;
Millennium - IL), SME end-users (Gumendi - E;
Beacon Energy - UK).
The SME proposers have decided to co-operate
with researchers in self-formation (MSI) and PV
technology (CRES) to work on this innovative
manufacturing technology.
The proposers believe that this approach is vital
to ensure that the novel monocrystalline solar
cells meet all standards. This approach will also
enhance acceptability by end-users, thus
facilitating later dissemination of the results
and commercialisation.
Exploitation plan
To date, the PV cell manufacturing process is still
ver y expensive. This project proposes a 24-
months pre-competitive evaluation of this novel
manufacturing technology to verify whether it
can be sensibly applied to PV cells. If successful,
this technology will open new horizons to
manufacturing solar cells due to reduced costs.
Fur thermore, as a spin-of f, this project has
some prospects of technology transfer to the
semiconductor and microelectronics manu-
facturing industries.
As a side-effect, technological and economic
SME co-operation between Member States and
Associated Candidate Countries, involving a
Candidate Country (LT) and an Associated State
(IL), during this project will be improved as a
result of the co-operative effort.
New concept in
high-efficiency low-cost
solar cells
Progress to date
During the first eight months of the project
activities were focused on research and
technology development topics. Interaction
matrixes for following technological processes
were defined: electroplating, dif fusion and
implantation, oxidation and photoresist
exposition, two-sided exposition, etching of
silicon along different cr ystallographic axes.
Software for iterative methods covering simulation
of per formance characteristics of the spatial
solar cell was developed; self-formation
simulation based on equidistant approximation;
self-formation, based on spatial interaction of the
solar light with object and development of the
system for complex optimisation of spatial solar
cell structure and technological processing.
Software for simulation of SSC per formance
characteristics allows comparison of expected
efficiency of standard (flat) and ORTO versions.
Figure 2 shows efficiency ratio dependence on
ORTO finger width b (see figure 3). Simulation
results indicate significant differences between
these structures. It can be expected that
comparing with a FLAT SC of efficiency 8-10%,
ORTO SSC made from the material with the
same physical properties can reach efficiency up
to 20-25%.
Another interesting simulation result is the
indication that for high-efficiency ORTO SSC
silicon wafers characterised by significant higher
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2002-30018
Title:
High-efficiency Low-Cost Solar
Cells HELSOLAR
Start date: January 2003
Duration: 24 months
Contact point:
Wieland Koornstra
Tel: +31-570 676 462
Fax: +31-570 653 829
wieland.koornstra@stroomwerk.nl
Partners:
Interdisciplinary Services Assistance BV (NL)
Saules Energija (LT)
UAB Telebaltikos
Importas ir Eksportas (LT)
Hespul (FR)
Beacon Energy Ltd (UK)
Millennium Electric T.O.U. Inc. (IL)
Gumiel y Mendia SL (ES)
Institute of the Lithuanian
Scientific Society (LT)
CRES (EL)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
87
dislocation density can be used, which means
cheaper material and technology costs.
To prepare a solar cell manufacturing method
based on self-formation principles, two different
SSC structures were proposed: FA with two
patterning processes and ORTO with U-type
grooves.
The proof of manufacturing ORTO structures by
a self-formation method was obtained by first
processing experiments. Samples of SSC were
expected in September 2003, and the first
samples with optimised ef ficiency and
processing complexity by December 2003.
Cross-section of spatial planar object in chaotic medium.
Photo of SSC structures obtained in technological
processes.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Objectives
Due to various advantages in the production
technologies (large-area thin-film coating,
monolithical integration) and the low
consumption of material and energy during
manufacturing, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (=CIGS) solar
modules possess a high potential for low-
cost manufacture. CIGS solar modules
consist of a stack of thin metallic and
semiconducting layers (only a few
micrometres thick) deposited on to a glass
substrate. They are connected to the
external electrical circuit via two metallic
tapes on the Mo back contact and the ZnAlO
front contact of the stack. In this project,
two connection technologies for attaching
the tapes are investigated, using: i)
conductive adhesives, and ii) ultrasonic
welding. These techniques will be applied
and optimised for CIGS solar cells on
conventional glass substrates as well as on
flexible steel foils.
These activities pursue two main goals:
- to improve the corrosion resistance,
stability and processing of the bonded
contact tapes, and
- to decrease the manufacturing costs by
optimising material components and
process parameters, as well as
rationalising and automating the process
steps used for bonding. Important goals
are to maintain a specific contact
resistance of 1Wcm
2
and a low
corrosion-induced degradation of <5%
(relative) in the cell efficiencies when
exposed to a damp-heat environment with
85C/85% humidity for 1000 hours.
C O N S O L
88
Challenges
Adhesive bonding suffers from increased contact
resistance as a result of corrosion, and incurs
additional processing costs due to the cost of the
materials and of dispensing and curing silver-filled
adhesives. To understand better the increase in
contact resistance through ageing due to humidity
and heat, the corrosion mechanisms will be
investigated during well-defined damp-heat
exposures to 85C/85% rel. humidity. Another
problem to be solved is the delamination of
contact tapes during damp-heat exposition or due
to dif ferences of the thermal expansion
coefficients of the materials involved when tested
by thermal cycling 40C/+85C. Based on
these tests, an optimised adhesive will be
formulated with respect to corrosion, adhesion,
material composition, processing, and process
costs.
Ultrasonic welding has scarcely been tested
with CIGS technology. In the past, welded tapes
have shown severe adhesion problems. The
contact material and the stack sequence of the
layers in the contact area have a significant
influence on adhesion. In this project, different
stack configurations will be tested to optimise
the adhesion under corrosive and thermal cycling
conditions, as well as during substrate bending,
using flexible substrates.
Project structure
The project consortium consists of: the Zentrum
fr Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung
(ZSW) in Stuttgart, Germany; Emerson & Cuming
ICI Belgium NV (ECUM) in Westerlo, Belgium; the
Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Frderung der
angewandten Forschung e.V. (IFAM) in Bremen,
Germany; Telsonic AG (Tels) in Bronschhofen,
Switzerland; and Wr th Solar GmbH (WS) in
Marbach, Germany. The project is being managed
by ZSW as coordinator, bringing in its many
years of experience in developing production
technologies for CIGS modules, including delivery
of representative materials and testing. ECUM
is the task leader for the characterisation and
formulation of the specific silver-filled epoxy
adhesives used in the project. IFAM is
investigating the adhesion and processability
of adhesives, as well as the corrosion properties
and mechanisms of adhesive bonds (accelerated
lifetime testing). Tels is the task leader for
ultrasonic welding and WS for the practical
testing of the developed connection technologies
in the CIGS pilot production line. The WS
production line is delivering relevant modules for
the experiments and tests for comparison with
the existing contacting method. Together with the
industrial partners, WS will develop the basis for
rationalisation and automation concepts for the
connection technologies under investigation.
Connection technologies for
thin-film solar cells
Exploitation plan
Reducing the contact resistances, and also
optimising contact stability with respect to
mechanical delamination and corrosion, will
increase the quality and life time of the CIGS solar
cells and modules. Such improvements, in
conjunction with the rationalisation and
automation of specific bonding techniques for
thin-film solar cells and modules, are basic
requirements for increasing the energy output,
stability and life time of such products, and for
reducing their process costs. As these goals
are directly pursued in a consortium with the
respective manufacturers of adhesives, ultrasonic
welding equipment, and thin-film solar modules,
a versatile exploitation of results is expected.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2002-00688
Title:
Connection Technologies for Thin Solar
Cells CONSOL
Start Date: January 2003
Duration: 30 months
Contact point:
Konrad Herz
Tel: +49-711 7870 216
Fax: +49-711 7870 230
konrad.herz@zsw-bw.de
Partners:
ZSW (DE)
ICI Belgium NV (BE)
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft-IFAM (DE)
Tels - Telsonic AG (CH)
Wrth Solar GmbH (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
89
Figure 1. CIGS solar module 30 x 30cm
2
.
Figure 2. Ultrasonic welding of
contact tapes to a test layer.
Figure 3. Increase of contact resistance in a damp-heat
atmosphere 85C/85% rel. humidity: contact tapes bonded by
adhesives A and B to a test layer of ZnAlO/Mo/glass.
MATERIALS, CELLS AND MODULES
Progress to date
The project began in January 2003. A Unified
Consortium Agreement for FP5 Projects has
already been signed by all partners. Bonding
tests using adhesives and ultrasonic welding
with test layers and solar modules on glass
substrates have been started. Several promising
test adhesives were chosen with dif ferent
amounts of agents influencing specific properties
like corrosion and working life.
The initial ultrasonic welding tests, using test
layers with Mo on glass and ZnAlO/Mo on glass,
have given encouraging results with respect to
low-contact resistance and good adhesion.
Successive corrosion and thermal cycling tests
are currently in progress. No final results are
available yet.
SYSTEMS
Objectives
In conventional photovoltaic systems, the
cell represents two-thirds of the price of a
module. By concentrating light with
inexpensive plastic lenses, the cell area
can be reduced (typically by 100%), and
new concentrating systems are expected
to produce electricity at prices falling
below those of conventional photovoltaic
systems. At present, the potential of
photovoltaic concentration to reduce its
costs is blocked by the high cost of
concentration cells due to their small
production. One way to overcome this
problem is to use silicon cells which can be
produced by the microelectronic industry.
Silicon point contact cells, which are
designed for concentration, already exist
but are limited by Auger recombination to
concentrations of about 250 and require
very thin wafers.
The objective of this project was to develop
a 1kWp concentration system based on
silicon cells with a new design, the front
point contact cell, which allows very high
concentrations and can be processed on
silicon wafers of standard thickness.
H I S I C O N
92
Challenges
In concentration cells, the currents are very high
and require large metal lines. In order to avoid
losses due to shadowing by the metal lines,
the front point contact cell requires light to be
focused between the metal lines. Two solutions
have been evaluated: micro-lenses and micro-
concentrators. Detailed calculations of the optical
system show that the performances of micro-
lenses are on the verge of fulfilling the objectives
of the project (acceptance angle 2). Fabrication
of the micro-lenses of the required shape is
possible but difficult, and may lead to a high cost
for the system. On the other hand, the
per formances of micro-concentrators are
superior, and can more easily meet the
objectives. In addition, metallic micro-
concentrators may be incorporated into the cell-
fabrication process, and have the advantage of
lowering series resistance. But their shape
(triangular section with base 15m and height
20m) requires the development of a specific
process, and this must be incorporated into the
cell-process fabrication.
A concentration system that is adapted to the cell
with micro-concentrators and compatible with
low-cost manufacturing processes such as
injection moulding, has to be designed. An
assembly procedure for the module, compatible
with automation and allowing good heat
dissipation also has to be defined. Finally, a
tracking system with pointing accuracy compatible
with the characteristics of the concentration
system needs to be built.
Technical target
The target data are:
Concentration: X500 (primar y concentrator +
micro-concentrators)
Aperture angle 2 degrees
Optical efficiency >80%
Aspect ratio (depth to aperture diameter): 1/3
Cell efficiency: 20% at concentration X500
Module efficiency: 15% at NOCT not higher than
50C above ambient
Fabrication and test of a 1kWp prototype
Project structure
The project consor tium consists of two
laboratories: the Institute for Solar Energy,
Polytechnic University of Madrid (IES-UPM),
Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), and also three
industrial companies: ISOFOTON, SINTEF and
EDF. The role of IES-UPM is to design and build
the optics of the system. CEA is responsible for
the silicon cell design and manufacture.
ISOFOTON is in charge of assembling the system,
and will commercialise it. SINTEF will produce the
cells, and EDF is responsible for evaluating the
system costs.
Exploitation plan
It is expected that concentration systems will lead
to a reduction in the cost of the electricity
produced, and thus contribute to the development
of photovoltaics to produce electricity from
renewable sources. Concentration systems are
inherently more complicated to use than
conventional non-concentration photovoltaic
High-concentration PV
modules with front point
contact cells
systems. But, due to the expected lower cost of
the electricity produced, these systems are
economic for supplying specific ser vice
applications (pumps, desalinisation units) or
village mini-grid, and larger power plants for
centralised power production, mainly for grid-
connected applications.
Progress to date
An optics system for concentration adapted to
cells with micro-concentrators has been designed
and built. It is composed of two concentrators
that can be made by injection moulding, the
second one being in contact with the cell. Its
optical efficiency is 80%.
A new type of silicon cells adapted to
concentration, with potential for 25% efficiencies
under concentrations from x100 to x500 has
been developed.
A self-aligned technology, derived from
microelectronics, has been used to process
these cells, and a specific technology has been
developed to integrate micro-concentrators in
the cells (figure 1). The maximum efficiency
(15.6%) is lower than expected, but several
possibilities for improvement were identified.
Simulations fitting with the experimental results
have been made, and with the improvements
identified, the simulation shows that efficiencies
of 25% are possible.
These results have been obtained on standard
525m-thick silicon wafers which can be
INFORMATION
Contract: ERK5-CT-1999-00002
Title:
High Concentration Silicon Solar Cells
Concentrator HISICON
Start Date: April 2000
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Claude Jaussaud
Tel: +33-4 38 78 47 42
Fax: +33-4 38 78 94 56
claude.jaussaud@cea.fr
Partners:
CEA (FR)
Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (ES)
ISOFOTON (ES)
SINTEF (NO)
EDF (FR)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
93
processed in conventional lines. The fact that
this cell is not ver y sensitive to thickness
makes it possible to use large-diameter wafers
(150mm diameter FZ wafers with life times
above 1ms are available).
More than 2000 concentrators and cells have
been made for building the 1kWp prototype.
An assembly procedure for module fabrication
has been defined: the cells are bonded on a
heat-conducting substrate (PCB), and wires for
electrical connexion between the cell are
bonded; the secondary optical concentrator is
then glued on top of the cell, and the PCBs are
then glued on the rear glass sheet and the
primary lenses are glued on the front glass
sheet; the two glass sheets are assembled by
aluminium profiles, and the whole system is
then protected against humidity by applying a
sealant over the whole module profile. The
module (figure 2) is composed of 80 sets of
solar cells and lenses. The solar cells are
series-associated with a theoretical electrical
output of around 60W (4 V and 1.5A, assuming
85% optical efficiency and 24% cell efficiency).
A tracking system has also been developed.
A procedure for cost calculation has been
established. The estimation of the system cost
could not be completed since the cost for high-
volume production (10MW) could not be
obtained for all the elements.
The 1kWp prototype is under construction, and
will be tested at the IES-UPM site in Madrid.
SYSTEMS
Objectives
The specific goal of this project is to achieve 1 kWp
of commercial highly modular ultra-flat modules at
about 2.8/Wp for the installed system (after a
10 MW cumulated production). It was planned to
fabricate industrial prototypes formed by 23-25%
efficient GaAs cells operating at 1000 suns with
concentrators of some 10 cm
2
of area that are very
flat. Concentrators will have a large angular
acceptance of 1.3 to allow for a cheap
construction and tracking requirements. Mosaics of
such small concentrators will form the modules
with an expected overall efficiency of 18-20%.
The 1 kWp PV field should be composed of several
modules, each one containing several single
concentrators. Initially, the concentrator GaAs solar
cell is bonded to an alumina PCB (or similar heat
conducting material) from which p- and n-
connections are available. Then, each single unit is
assembled on a passive heat sink. The optical
concentrator is attached to a flat glass that will be
the aperture and will act as mechanical
superstrate. Finally, the GaAs solar cell with its
heat sink is attached at the bottom of the
concentrator.
The small size of the solar cells and concentrators
are key characteristics here, increasing efficiency
and cell manufacturing yield, simplifying cooling,
reducing concentrator cost and increasing
modularity. Use of LED standard assembling
techniques will solve assembly cost concerns.
In addition, the small size of the concentrator, and
thus of the basic module, will allow for a highly
modular concentrator, one of the traditional
advantages of flat panels, of great interest for the
start up of the concentration market, currently
jeopardised by the large size of the minimum
modules required by concentrators.
I N F L A T C O M
94
Challenges
GaAs concentrator solar cell
The industrial production of small gallium
arsenide solar cells for concentration applications
was given as the first specific objective at the
conception of this project. Key subjects like
photolitographic process, front and back
metallisation process, mesa etching, and anti-
reflecting coating evaporation were transferred
to the industrial scale once the laborator y
technology had been developed and accurately
tested.
An optimum GaAs solar cell size of around
0.5-1.0 mm
2
was established to maximise
efficiency and minimise cost. This size, similar
to that typical of LEDs, is considered necessary
to allow ef ficient operation at 1000 suns,
because:
the series resistance is lower than for typical
solar cell size
the heat is removed more efficiently.
As a first result, preliminary production of nearly
600 1 mm
2
-sized GaAs solar cells was carried
out in a fully industrial environment by means of
the MOCVD technique for the growth of a
semiconductor structure. The result was quite
successful as more than 76% of the cells had
efficiencies above 23%.
Concentrator development and fabrication
The design and manufacturing of the optical
concentrator TIR-R was the projects other key
target. The design proposed is also intended to
cover the drawbacks noted with its precursor: the
RXI non-imaging concentrator. One great
disadvantage is the excessive local concentration
of light that a single RXI concentrator impinges
on the die solar cell and consequently the lack
of illumination uniformity over the solar cells
active area.
TIR-R optics comprise two pieces:
a primary lens with aspheric faces where
both refraction and total internal reflection
is taken into account; and
a secondary lens with refraction only.
First prototypes of the concentrator have
been manufactured using conventional
manufacturing techniques (plastic injection),
and the design has been developed
according to the tolerance of the tooling
machines used to make injection moulds.
Solar cell encapsulation and module assembling
Much ef for t has been put into solving the
assembling of the optical elements and the
GaAs solar cell. The solution came from
optoelectronic industry practices, adaptation of
which solved the encapsulation problems
according to the low cost forecast.
Project structure
The consortium includes a leading photovoltaic
manufacturing company (ISOFOTON) as
coordinator and to ensure the industrial interest
of the results. A university institution (Solar
Energy Institute-Polytechnic University of Madrid
(IES-UPM) is devoted almost exclusively to
photovoltaic research both GaAs solar cell
technology for high concentration and optic
concentrators developments have been
developed there. ENE Belgium has wide
Industrialisation of ultra-flat
concentrator module of high
efficiency
experience with silicon solar cells and GaAs
technology, making its contribution for mass
production in terrestrial applications very useful.
The key role for Optolab Microsystems GmbH
(Erfurt-Germany) is in the development of the
encapsulation technique. The Laborator y for
Precision Machining at the University of Bremen
is focusing on the application of precision
engineering and is in charge of the micro
machining needed to make the moulds for plastic
injection. Finally, a solar energy team at the
University of Madrid has been working in this field
for more than five years at an important solar
energy investigation centre (Instituto de Energa
Solar, Madrid).
Exploitation plan
A fully commercial photovoltaic system at around
2.8/Wp (for the installed system) was expected
within the framework of this project (after 10 MWp
cumulated production). If this low cost is
achieved, market growth will be explosive in
both the short and long term.
In the shor t term, GaAs cells, fitting the
requirements of optoelectronics industry, can be
readily industrialised, because this industry has
been manufacturing a huge quantity of devices
similar to GaAs solar cells for more than two
decades. But if the technology succeeds and
goes to the market, its mid-term prospect is in
tandem cells.
INFORMATION
Contract: ERK5-CT-1999-00012
Title:
Industrialisation of Ultra-flat
Concentrator Module of High
Efficiency INFLATCOM
Start Date: April 2000
Duration: 30 months
Contact point:
Emiliano Perezagua
Tel: +34-91 5312625
Fax: +34-91 5311007
e.perezagua@isofoton.es
Partners:
ISOFOTON (ES)
Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (ES)
Energies Nouvelles et Environnement (BE)
OPTOLAB Microsystems GmbH (DE)
Universitt Bremen (DE)
Universidad Europea de Madrid (ES)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
95
Results
More than 35 PV modules have been built
providing an excellent opportunity to identify the
problems to be solved once mass production
for market penetration arrives. Most of the
problems have been identified and solutions
proposed and tested, in particular, one very
interesting one concerning the final assembly
of the module.
View of a concentrator single unit after assembly on the PV
module.
First prototype of the concentrator
module assembled.
SYSTEMS
Objectives
As pointed out in the White Paper "Energy
for the future", published by the European
Commission, the main target of
photovoltaic R&D projects is a profound
cost reduction for solar electricity
generation down to 3/Wp in the mid
term. To achieve this goal a new
generation of AC-modules has being
produced and tested in typical European
field conditions. The AC-modules were
designed for reliable operation during the
typical PV-module lifetime of 20 years.
AC-modules are a recent form of grid-
connected PV systems. Because of the
small system size, the investment is well
within reach of many people and the
system can in principle be coupled directly
to the grid without any additional
requirements ("plug and play"). This has
opened a new and successful market for
grid-connected PV systems.
P V 2 G O
96
Challenges
In this project a new AC-module inverter has to
be developed, taking into account all relevant
aspects from a European market point of view
(standards, market, application, R&D goals).
The project goal was to achieve a turnkey system
cost of 3 per Watt-peak and a significant
increase in reliability for an AC-module PV system.
The R&D goal was to develop an inverter with an
advanced DC-control system built with a
commercial of the self-programmable digital
device and an ASIC for the AC-control. This
development had to take place within the
framework of the optimal topology concept and
design, taking into account suitable production
technology and packaging for large-scale
production.
Exploitation plan
The industrial partners will use the results of the
project to improve the design of AC-modules. This
means the costs for production, maintenance and
repair will be reduced. Also, the dissemination
of the results of the project in both scientific and
commercial publications will be carried out by all
project partners.
Project structure
ECN is doing the testing of the electrical and
mechanical reliability and performance in both
laboratory environment and outside world
conditions of balance-of-system components
of PV systems. ECN also does the design of
control strategies of grid-connected PV
inverters.
MasterVolt does the design and large-scale
production of BOS components for stand-
alone and grid-connected PV systems.
Mastervolt is a turnkey system developer.
Alpha Microelectronics does the design and
manufacturing of integrated power-control
packages on a single-substrate: cutting-edge
technology in the further reduction of price and
volume of power-electronics devices.
Eurosolare is a major mc-Si PV-module
manufacturer actively engaged in future
developments of PV-module technology and
manufacturing processes.
Iberdrola is a Spanish utility company with its
own R&D department in new and renewable
energy technologies. Iberdrola owns and
operates a test and demonstration centre
for field testing and training of technical staff.
ISET is doing design and prototyping of power-
electronic topologies for renewable energy
systems.
NMRC is studying integration of passive
magnetic components into electronic circuits
and assessing the reliability of power-
electronics.
IMEC, is a designer of Application Specific
IC, designer and manufacturer of prototypes.
KU Leuven does simulations of distributed
energy production units connected to a central
distribution grid, using advanced software
tools.
Progress to date
The set-up of the product design requirements
was carried out by means of a questionnaire that
was drawn up by the work package leader and
Successful one-year tests on
low-cost PV AC-Module
distributed to all the partners. On the basis of
this questionnaire, requirements in the fields of
marketing, standards, functionality, mass
production demands, life time and reliability
were gathered. All relevant partners gave their
motivated input and a concept product
specification document was set up.
Research was carried out in the field of the
inver ter concept. The optimal topology was
chosen, in direct relation with the control concept.
The design of the power electronic circuit is a
robust design, focused on reliability and cost
reduction. The integration of control and power
conversion functions and the thermal, electric and
mechanical optimisation of the design for large-
scale production accomplished this. This involves
among others, the power electronic topology,
the control concept, the mechanical design and
the production process.
From the beginning of the project the integration
of micro-controller and the PWM-controller and
other functionality were identified as the major
changes to gain better performance in the field
of reliability and component costs.
For isolation reasons it was decided to develop
two control systems, one for the control and
communication electronics on the DC side and
the other for the control electronics on the AC
side.
In essence the reliability of an AC-module inverter
is determined by the robustness of the design,
i.e. the thermal and electrical usage of the
components in the first place. Second, the
producibility of the design contributes strongly to
the reliability and the costs of the product. The
INFORMATION
Contract: ERK5-CT-1999 00014
Title:
Development, Production and
Verification of the Second Generation
of AC-modules PV2GO
Start Date: April 2000
Duration: 42 months
Contact point:
P.J.M. Heskes
Tel: +31-2 24564780
www.pv2go.com
Partners:
ECN (NL)
Mastervolt (NL)
Alpha Microelectronics (DE)
Eurosolare (IT)
Iberdrola (ES)
ISET (DE)
University College Cork - NMRC (IE)
IMEC (BE)
KU-Leuven (BE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
97
Figure 1. the second prototype of the PV2GO
inverter without enclosure.
Figure 2. the second prototype of the PV2GO
inverter.
technologies and mechanical concepts which
will be used offer inherently good thermal-
mechanical and easy assembly manual
properties.
Two very important results at the end of the first
work package were the outcome of the reliability
and cost calculations on the second prototype
of the PV2GO inverter.
The mean time between failure (MTBF) of the
second prototype PV2GO inverter using Bellcore
TR332 (Method 1, Parts count, Case 1, T amb.
40C and 50% rated electrical stress) is about
25 years. The reliability improvement achieved
is strongly expressed with the following
comparison: the same MTBF calculations on an
"off the shelf" similar PV inverter gave about
15 years.
The production cost of the second prototype
PV2GO inverter is strongly reduced. This is
achieved by reducing the number of components
significantly. Cost calculations showed that
the end-user price of the PV2GO inverter, based
on 10,000 piece production, can be 0.5/Wp.
At the end of the first work package 50 pieces
of the second prototype AC-module were spread
among the par tners for the second work
package, which was the lab and field test.
For the laboratory tests, a number of AC-module
were spread among the partners. Each partner
has a par ticular task in this large-scale
laboratory test. The test results have proved
very satisfactory.
A number of AC-modules were spread among
the par tners over Europe for the field test.
Tests are all running well and the intermediate
results are very good.
Figure 3. Large Field-Test at ECN.
SYSTEMS
Objectives
Grid-connected PV systems are becoming
more and more popular as governmental
funding programmes become operative. In
order to reduce costs and space
occupations for PV plants, conversion
efficiency is a key factor that also plays a
major role in the overall energy balance of
such systems. The conversion efficiency of
a PV plant is affected by the efficiencies of
the various components that make up the
whole system; therefore it is very
important to maximise the efficiency of
single components. Commercial inverters,
commonly used for PV grid-connected
plants, are often rated for efficiency values
up to 94%-96%. This situation changes
dramatically when the inverter is operating
below 15% of full nominal power: in this
case, low efficiency values are obtained.
The final goal of the HEEC project was to
develop a new kind of inverter with a high
conversion efficiency, even when working
at low power values.
H E E C
98
Challenges
The overall efficiency of a PV plant is greatly
limited by the efficiency of the PV modules; this
is usually quite low. However, the inverter also
has its own efficiency and, in some cases, this
can pose significant limitations to the power
produced. This is particularly true in all operating
conditions when low solar radiation values are
available to the solar modules. For example,
such conditions are quite common in building
plants, where modules are mounted vertically on
the building walls. The final goal of the HEEC
project was to develop a new kind of inverter with
conversion efficiencies significantly higher than
those of the standard commercially available
models. The work focused on two areas:
transformer losses and the MPPT algorithm at low
radiation.
Project structure
The project par ticipants were S.E.I. Sistemi
Energetici Integrati (Italy), Atersa (Spain),
Loughborough University (UK) and the Slovak
University of Technology (Slovak Republic). The
two universities were mainly involved in
consultancy and research into European
regulations, and testing the prototypes of the
HEEC. Atersa's task in the project was to develop
and test the power board. SEI coordinated the
project, developed the CPU's firmware and the
controller board, and manufactured the
prototypes.
Exploitation plan
Studies have been per formed on existing PV
plants located in various regions of Europe with
dif ferent values of irradiation. Results have
shown that even in regions with high values of
direct solar radiation (such as Southern or Central
Italy), periods of time with irradiation values
less than 150 W/m
2
account for at least 12% of
the entire operating time of the plant. In northern
regions, such as Great Britain, this percentage
rises significantly to a full 30%.
The same studies have shown that many
inverters begin to produce power when solar
radiation rises over 100-120 W/m
2
. Therefore,
a lot of potential power is wasted just because
existing inver ters are not capable of correct
operation in a low radiation scenario.
High-efficiency energy
converter
Progress to date
The HEEC inverter shares the typical architecture
of a commercial inverter just before the output
transformer, which is split in two units. The
transformers are then activated in sequence by
the control unit, following power available from
the PV array. With this configuration, when the
inverter is operating at low power, a low power
transformer (300W) is used to connect the
inverter to the grid. In consideration of the power
losses in transformers which are directly related
to the nominal power, the use of a smaller
transformer during low irradiance operation will
considerably reduce the losses. When there is
more power available from the PV array (because
the solar radiation has increased), the inverter
automatically activates another transformer
(1.7kW), with larger power rating than the first.
The 'total transformer' of the inverter is 2kW AC.
The other major issue concerning efficiency is the
MPPT algorithm. When current values from PV
array are small, the HEEC unit implements a fixed
voltage tracking algorithm. This way, the inverter
sets its operating point using the open circuit
voltage as reference, star ting from the
assumption that the point of maximum power is
at approximately 70% of the open circuit voltage.
At higher radiation levels the HEEC control unit
turns the tracking algorithm and changes the
index modulation of the power bridge, therefore
changing the power demand from the PV array,
and checks for variations in current and voltage
from the PV array.
INFORMATION
Contract: ERK5-CT-1999-00023
Title:
High Efficiency Energy
Converter HEEC
Start Date: April 2000
Duration: 24 months
Contact point:
Paolo Redi
Tel: +39-0574 605415
Fax: +39-0574 39601
predi@sei-sist.it
Partners:
Sistemi Energetici Integrati (IT)
Aplicaciones Tecnicas de la Energia SA (ES)
Loughborough University (UK)
Slovak University of Technology (SK)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
99
Testing of the prototypes indicates that the
project's target has been reached. The control
unit has been implemented, using a DSP
processor. The principle of operation of the
two transformers for the unit has been tested.
Static tests on the transformers have
demonstrated that efficiency rises: at 2% of
relative AC output power the efficiency is 80%,
and when it goes beyond 8%, efficiency exceeds
90%.
Figure 1. Efficiency vs. power curve in a typical grid-connected inverter. Figure 2. HEEC two transformers efficiency vs. power curve.
SYSTEMS
Objectives
The objective of this project is to boost the
performance of III-V compound semiconductor
solar cells and resulting PV modules to a level
which will achieve a lower system cost than
ever before. Accordingly, the goal is to develop
a technology suitable for mass production, even
in the short term, at a cost of 2.5/Wp for the
installed system.
The approach is to develop two parallel solar
cell technologies: single junction GaAs solar
cells and monolithic multi-junction III-V
compound solar cells. Both single and tandem
cell technologies will use an improved ultra-flat
TIR-R concentrator.
Main characteristics of the concentrator are:
- An acceptance angle of 1.5 at 1.250x of
geometrical concentration (with square cell
and aperture
- Non-uniformity better than 2:1 (peak:
average illumination
- Optical efficiency _opt > 85%
Optoelectronics standard encapsulation
techniques will be developed to achieve the
targeted low cost. A highly automated routine
for small cells is very useful as the number of
operation increases. Different techniques will
be analysed to develop the most appropriate for
cell encapsulation attached to the necessary
heat sink.
Finally, pre-industrial prototypes with an overall
efficiency of 21% will be built into the
framework of this proposal. Special attention
will be paid to reliability aspects (UV radiation,
heating, aggressive outdoor conditions, etc.) of
all the components of the final product.
H A M L E T
100
Challenges
Improvements in GaAs technology will be focused
on the increase of efficiency and the GaAs solar
cell's long-term reliability and stability. The
semiconductor structure will be grown on Ge
substrates by MOCVD technology, thus closely
resembling industrial production. The target is a
27% efficient solar cell under 1000 uniform
illumination.
In the case of tandem cells, because the solar
spectrum varies throughout the day, the matching
of top and bottom cells in terrestrial applications
will have to be compromised to maximise the
daily energy output over a typical day. Although
the objective is to develop a cell to work under
1000 suns, the specific target is a 29% efficient
solar cell under 400 uniform illuminations with
GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple junction structure.
The Hamlet project will benefit significantly from
the former Inflatcom project. The main
conclusions from the tasks per formed will
advanced the learning from the previous work.
Project structure
The consortium includes: a leading photovoltaic
manufacturing company (ISOFOTON) which will act
as coordinator and will ensure the interest of the
results to industr y; a university institution
Solar Energy Institute-Polytechnic University of
Madrid (IES-UPM) is devoted almost exclusively
to photovoltaic research; a company devoted
exclusively to the manufacturing of MOCVD
reactors (AIXTRON Germany); a company devoted
exclusively to GaAs and tandem solar cells for
space applications (ENE Belgium) its wide
experience with silicon solar cells and GaAs
technology makes its contribution for mass
production in terrestrial applications very useful.
The LFM Labor fr Mikrozerspanung (Laboratory
for Precision Machining) at the University of
Bremen focuses on the application of precision
engineering this institute has been in charge
of the micro-machining needed in the
manufacturing of the moulds for the plastic
injection technique.
The team will cover all the required aspects: III-
V compound solar cell fabrication, optics design
and fabrication, encapsulation techniques, the
fabrication of PV modules, and future
commercialisation. An appropriate consortium
agreement will be issued to safeguard the
interests of the parties.
Exploitation plan
Once the Hamlet project has finished, both the
cumulated experience in mass production and
reliability and stability aspects will be extensive.
In this way, market penetration will be readily
available and free of most major difficulties.
The project aims, as a first step, for preliminary
demonstration installations and, at the second
stage, for finished products ready for the market.
Advanced concepts for
mass-produced, low-cost
electricity
Progress to date
The main results from Hamlet to date relate
mainly to the following topics:
Tandem solar cells (two-junctions approach)
which has covered 28.9% efficiency under
concentrated sunlight (pending confirmation
after spectral response measurements);
A new optic design (currently under
manufacture) which covers the low-cost goal
better. The design for cost reduction and good
optical quality has resulted mainly from the
conclusions of the former Inflatcom project.
The encapsulation approach is also focused
in a reliable way for low cost and high
throughput. During this development, great
efforts have been made to try to match low-
cost material and processes with high
throughput rates. The work is in progress and
key conclusions are expected during the
remainder of the project. Once again,
Inflatcom has been key for the current state
of the art of this technology.
INFORMATION
Contract : ENK5-CT-2001-00548
Title:
High Efficiency III-V based Solar Cells
under Concentrated Sunlight: Advanced
Concepts for Mass Production and Low
Cost Electricity HAMLET
Start Date: January 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Jesus Alonso
Tel: +34-95 224 37 90
Fax: +34-95 224 37 49
j.alonso@isofoton.es
Partners:
Isofoton SA (ES)
Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (ES)
Energies Nouvelles et Environnement (BE)
Aixtron AG (DE)
Universitt Bremen (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
101
View of a PV installation near the mountains in
Southern Spain. The low-cost electricity target
pursued in this project matches similar PV fields
with concentration modules.
SYSTEMS
Objectives
The goal is to make solar electricity more
affordable by developing concentrating
photovoltaic (PV) systems that will cost
less than 1/Wp, about one-third the cost
of conventional PV arrays. Reaching this
goal will open up large markets in Europe
where PV systems could be used to replace
grid electricity to save fossil fuel and
reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and in
remote areas where small amounts of
electrical power for lighting, radio, TV and
water pumping could substantially improve
the quality of life.
The project aims to improve the
concentrating PV designs developed in a
previous EC contract, and to transfer the
best design to a prototype volume
manufacturing line.
C O N M A N
102
Challenges
It has long been recognised that solar electric
systems could be made more cheaply if relatively
inexpensive mirrors or lenses were used to
concentrate sunlight on to the collectors solar
cells. However, such PV concentrator systems
generally incur additional costs compared to
conventional planar PV arrays. These include
the costs of the mirrors or lenses, their
supporting structure, a mechanism to track the
system as the sun moves over the day and year,
the cost of the concentrator cells if these are
more expensive than one-sun cells, and the cost
of components to keep these cells cool under the
concentrated sunlight. The primary challenge is
to engineer systems where these additional
costs amount to less than the saving in cell
costs.
Work under two previous EC projects showed that
PV systems using moderate concentrations
would cost 1.7/Wp if produced in volume,
which is about half the cost of current planar PV
arrays. The challenges of the present project are
to reduce this cost further (by using cheaper
optical materials, higher concentration systems,
and improved manufacturing techniques), and to
transfer the best design to volume manufacture
within industry.
Project structure
The project is coordinated by the Department of
Cybernetics at the University of Reading (UK). The
consortium consists of the Fraunhofer Institut fr
Solare Energiesysteme at Freiburg, Germany,
plus three other universities: Konstanz (Germany),
Car tagena and Barcelona (Spain), and three
industrial companies: Optical Products Ltd.,
Jungbecker GmbH, and Enwesa Operaciones
SA.
The project will build on experience from a
number of previous EC and nationally funded
projects that proved the basic concepts for PV
concentrator construction and use, and also
investigated a wide range of PV concentrator
designs. Within the most recent of these
contracts, four prototype collectors were built and
tested successfully over a combined total of
10,000 daylight hours of operation. The best of
the prototypes had an estimated cost, in volume-
production, of 1.7/Wp, which corresponds to
an energy production cost, excluding land,
overheads and BOS, of 0.05/kWh. Key to
achieving this low cost was the use of small-
aperture systems to minimise material use, and
the incorporation of commercial high-efficiency
one-sun cells adapted for concentration.
Exploitation plan
The availability of PV systems costing 1/Wp will
lead to a much wider use of solar electricity
throughout Europe and across the world. As
market take-up increases, this will help contribute
towards achieving the EUs Renewable Energy
White Paper target of 3GWp of PV installed by
2010.
Transferring PV concentrators
to volume manufacture
Exploitation is expected to be by volume
production lines operating within one or more of
the projects partner companies.
Progress to date
Progress to date has included the following:
The design, prototype manufacture, and testing
of the lens for a novel static-lens, moving-
absorber PV concentrator collector designed
for building integrated use.
The design of a new PV mirror collector, also
intended for building integrated PV use.
The development of two types of novel silicon
solar cell.
One of these is the University of Konstanz
EASY&SIMPLE design (Especially Advanced
Structuring with high Yield & Selective emitter
IMPLEmentation - see figure 1). This employs
shallow angle metallisation that is especially
suitable for V-grooved cells, and is likely to yield
cells optimised for concentrations between 50
and 100 suns. The other design is Fraunhofers
rear-contact cell (see figure 2). Here, grid lines
on the rear of the cell allow high cell efficiencies
to be achieved at concentrations of up to 200
suns. Both these cell designs have the potential
to be economically manufactured for PV
concentrator use.
The best of these cells is expected to have
efficiencies of about 25%.
Work continues at Fraunhofer on the development
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2001-00579
Title:
Improvement of Photovoltaic Concentrator
Systems and Technology Transfer to a
Manufacturer CONMAN
Start Date: January 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
G.R. Whitfield
Tel: +44-118 378 8223
Fax: +44-118 378 8220
cybgrw@cyber.reading.ac.uk
Partners:
University of Reading (UK)
Universidad Politcnica de Cartagena (ES)
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft-ISE (DE)
Universitt Konstanz (DE)
Karl Jungbecker GmbH (DE)
Optical Products Ltd (UK)
Enwesa Operaciones SA (ES)
Universitat de Barcelona (ES)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
103
of a single-axis tracking PV collector with a
concentration ratio of 200 suns, using solid
dielectric secondar y optics coupled with a
linear primary mirror.
Tasks remaining include:
Design of a high-concentration PV system that
uses point-focus Fresnel lenses as the
primary optics.
Development of a self-optimising
microcontroller-based tracking system.
Construction of 2m
2
prototype collectors of
free-standing and building-integrated designs
considered; then measuring their performance,
defining appropriate volume-manufacture
techniques, and assessing costs when
manufactured in volume.
A selection will be made of one of these PV
concentrator designs, and its construction
optimised from the point of view of
manufacturing. A pre-commercial manufacturing
line will then be set up, and an initial set of 40
2m
2
collectors will be constructed and tested
in three 2kW grid-connected systems in
southern Spain. The design chosen will be
suitable for grid-connected systems up to any
power, and for free-standing systems down to
200Wp.
Figure 2. Rear contacted cell designed by
Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg.
(For graphical reasons the cell is shown with
the rear side facing upwards.)
Figure 1. EASY & SIMPLE (Especially
Advanced Structuring with high Yield &
Selective emitter IMPLEmentation) silicon
solar cell concept designed by the
Universitt Konstanz.
Prototype solar concentrating collector, designed by
Reading University. Eight parabolic mirror sections
concentrate sunlight on to cell strings of 7.5 mm wide
BP grid-modified LSBG cells. Polar-axis tracked;
concentration: 20 suns; aperture area: 1.8 sq.m.
SYSTEMS
Objectives
The objective of this project is to develop a
solar cell receiver equipped with
multijunction (MJ) III-V solar cells, for very
high concentration. The sunlight is
collected by inexpensive large area optical
concentrators focusing on a transparent
bulk receiver, that diffuses the light into a
set of optical fibres transporting the light
to hundreds of individual MJ cells.
MJ cells have proved a high efficiency and
cost forecast able to reach 1/Wp in
concentrations operating at x1000, but the
possibility of operating them for long
periods outdoors and under very high
concentrations is not yet been
demonstrated. In this project a large
number of such cells is produced and
operated in real conditions to prove their
reliability.
P V F I B R E
104
Challenges
The idea is to install the cell receiver, the most
delicate and troublesome part of the system,
indoors, without size constraints, avoiding
problems of dissipation of heat, permitting a
dr y ambient and intelligent series-parallel
connection to avoid mismatch losses: in
summary, separating the problems of the receiver
from those of the sunlight collector. The system
consists of a two axis tracking parabolic dish,
i.e. a very inexpensive collector focusing on a
transparent bulk receiver, that diffuses the light
into a set of optical fibres transpor ting it to
hundreds of individual MJ cells which are
mounted on a heat sink interconnecting plate (cell
indoor receiver).
Using the current technology of III-V material, MJ
solar cells up to 28% efficiency operating at
over 1000 suns and low temperature have been
demonstrated. This is a breakthrough in Europe
that promises to complete with conventional
energy sources. Here, PV concentration is crucial
because of the high cost of MJ cells.
However, the development of specific
concentrators for such devices (or any others) is
not trivial and is not yet affordable. Uniformity of
the light across the cell, uniformity of flux from
cell to cell (mismatch), coupling the light to the
semiconductor, interconnection, thermal
dissipation and outdoor protection can reduce the
system efficiencies and the life expectancy to
70%. These drawbacks could delay the
implementation of the laboratory results, mainly
in Europe where the concentrator systems are
less developed. In this project, it is possible
(affordable) to reach efficient solutions for all
these problems.
The cell fabrication part of the project will give
information about the yield that can be obtained
with such III-V technology it is a crucial to know
the approximate cost of these high-concentration
cells. Methods to test on-line the MJ cells
characteristics at x1000 will be implemented.
Project structure
The project consortium comprises Instituto de
Energa Solar (IES) which is the project
coordinator, Fraunhofer Institut (FhG/ISE),
CeramOptec GMBH and INSPIRA S.L. The role of
FhG/ISE is to fabricate a large number of 28%
efficiency MJ cells made with on a III-V MOCVD
reactor. They are using their base-line technology
that has demonstrated 30% concentration. This
will interact with CeramOptec to adapt the top
layer of the cell to the fibre termination to cast
the maximum of light. The role of CeramOptec
is to fabricate the optical fibres and the fibre
bundles. The task of IES is to develop the optical
receiver and the cell receiver including all optical
and thermal specifications. It is also responsible
for the general design, final installation and
testing of the system. INSPIRA is responsible for
the primary optics, tracking system and system
structure.
Optical fibres cast 1000 suns
on multi-junction solar cells
Exploitation plan
The project is developing a complete 200 Wp
system, operating at around 20% efficiency. It will
consist of monolithic MJ cells of 2 mm in
diameter, mounted on a compact and sealed
heatsink. The cells and fibres will be connected
in a way so as to achieve the minimum mismatch
at the maximum possible DC output voltage.
The entire set-up will drive the cell under real
conditions in order to check long-term stability
under concentrated light. The manufacturing and
encapsulating yields determine the real cost of
MJ technology at the target efficiency
Progress to date
The limitations of fibres to transmit a high density
of solar power have been analysed and results
show that it is possible to reach a geometric
concentration ration of 1700. Bundles of 2 mm-
diameter fibres have been manufactured,
demonstrating the possibility of high efficiency
transmission. Primary mirrors, optical receiver
and mixing rod are under evaluation and
qualification will begin in the new future.
FhG/ISE is producing cells, good and dummy
ones for prior analysis, and carr ying out
simulation and measurements. The tracking
system will be installed by December 2003, as
scheduled.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2001-00521
Title:
Indoor Operation of x1000
Multi-Junction Solar Cells by Fibre
Transmission PV FIBRE
Start Date: December 2001
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
G. Sala
Tel: +34-91 544 10 60
Fax: +34-91 544 63 41
sala@ies-def.upm.es
Partners:
Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (ES)
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft-ISE (DE)
CeramOptec GmbH (DE)
INSPIRA (FR)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
105
Figure 1. Fibre connected to cell.
Figure 2. An artists impression
of the receiver: fibres require a
sealed box to avoid dust on the
fibres surfaces.
Artists impression of the
components and operation principles
of the PV-FIBRE system
SYSTEMS
Objectives
The objective of this project is to identify
the most appropriate configuration of PV
concentrator systems, based on silicon
cells, for power plant application in
different regions. The range of
concentration level from x2 to over x200 is
explored experimentally, manufacturing up
to six concentrator systems. The previous
developments carried out by the partners
allow improvements in the design of the
concentrators and an accurate estimation
of the system performance and cost
analysis for several tracking structures.
The goal is to determine the real cost and
the best systems for applications in the
range of 100 to 2000 kWp.
I D E O C O N T E
106
Challenges
The work includes a critical revision of the
worldwide experience and those carried out by
the partners on Si-cell-based PV concentrators.
The partners' experiences are combined in order
to define up to six concentrator systems. The
prototypes to be fabricated cover from x2 to
over x200 concentration, and are as follows:
Static concentrator based on the modified
PRIDE technology operating at 2-3X level, and
able to concentrate diffuse radiation due to the
high acceptance angle. Three units of
representative size of 1kW peak each will be
developed. They will be installed and
monitored continuously for at least six months
in Ferrara, Stuttgart and Madrid.
One single-axis passive tracking modified
ARCHIMEDES system, able to carry collectors
and cells for x2 and x10 receivers. In addition,
three systems of representative size equipped
with cells up to 2kW peak will be provided, to
be installed and measured in Stuttgart, Ferrara
and Madrid.
One single-axis active tracking system, based
on the modified EUCLIDES technology, will be
developed for the x40 standard EUCLIDES
ratio and also for the half-value x20, in order
to soften the thermal stresses and the optical
mismatch on the receivers. Three systems of
2kWp will be built and then installed and
monitored in Madrid, Ferrara and Stuttgart.
A weather-resistant concentrator, based on a
set of flat mirror heliostats, will be used to
focus up to 300 suns on a surface of 360cm
2
.
Back Point Contact solar cells, with inter-
digitised back contacts, of very high efficiency
(over 22% in concentration) will be developed.
Heat removal will be carried out by active
water cooling of the receiver plate. In this
case, only one system of 1kWp will be
produced and will be installed in Ferrara see
figure 1.
Project structure
The following bodies make up the project
consortium: Instituto de Energa Solar (IES), the
project coordinator, Zentrum fr Sonnenenenrgie
und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden Wrttemberg
(ZSW), BP Solar Ltd, INSPIRA S.L., and the
Universities of Ferrara and Ulster. The role of IES,
ZSW and the University of Ulster is to develop the
prototypes, drawing on the previous experiences
of EUCLIDES, ARCHIMEDES and PRIDE systems
respectively. The task of BP Solar is to
manufacture the concentrator cells in its
conventional PV factory. BP Solar will develop
different types of buried grid silicon cells adapted
for concentrations ranging from x2 to x40 suns.
The task of the University of Ferrara is to develop
the concentrator based on flat mirror heliostats
and also the ver y high-efficiency Back Point
Contact (BPC) cells, (the only silicon-based cells
capable of operating at over 200 suns). INSPIRA
is leading the monitoring task, which includes
modelling of the systems for each climatic region,
Searching for the best Si-cells
PV concentrator
and will also provide continuous cost analyses
based on the figures given and contrasted by
partners. IES, ZSW and the University of Ferrara
will provide a site for installation of the
concentrator systems; they will also monitor the
system installation, reporting the drawbacks,
successes, failures and performance.
Exploitation plan
The output consists of one or several
concentrator technologies that are ready for
industrialisation, and a reliable and comparative
repor t on the generated energy cost versus
system type, tracking method, concentration
level and climatic zone.
The exploitation plan is linked to the expected
marked development for concentrators. Major
interest is currently being shown by many utilities
and investors in checking out the feasibility of
installing concentrating system plants of
moderate size, from 50 to 200 kWp.
The key to the commercial roll-out of this
technology is the availability of low-cost
concentrator cells; although this is not currently
a technical problem, it requires a strategic
decision by BP Solar, which is demonstrating its
interest by promoting and participating in this
project.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2002-00617
Title:
Identification and Development
of the Optimum Si-cells
Concentrator Technology for PV Power
Systems IDEOCONTE
Start Date: November 2002
Duration: 48 months
Contact point:
Gabriel Sala
Tel: +34-91 3367231
Fax: +34-91 5446341
sala@ies-def.upm.es
Partners:
Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (ES)
ZSW (DE)
BP SOLAR (UK)
University of Ulster (UK)
Universit di Ferrara (IT)
Inspira (ES)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
107
Progress to date
In the first stages of the project (seven months),
an analysis of the worldwide state of the art in
the field of concentrator systems was
performed. The solutions adopted in the past
have been reviewed, taking into account the
concentrating optics, cells and receivers,
tracking systems, heat sinks and monitoring.
The defects found in previous experiments
(PRIDE, EUCLIDES and ARCHIMEDES)
undertaken by the partners have been analysed
to determine the most promising and
reasonable modifications to include in the
prototypes to be built. The optimum unit size
suitable for commercial PV systems has also
been defined for each technology. Figure 2
shows an estimation of the overall system
cost of peak power versus the array size for the
two versions of x20 and x40 of the concentrator
system, based on the EUCLIDES technology.
The Euclides (x33), Archimedes (x2) and Pride
(x2.5) prototypes.
Figure 1. The multi-mirror parabolic dish concentrator
from the University of Ferrara.
Figure 2. Overall system cost of W
peak
versus array
size for EUCLIDES technology-based concentrators.
SYSTEMS
Objectives
The purpose of this project is to develop an
innovative PV concentration module
concept, where the most sensible
elements exposed to degradation, such us
reflecting mirrors and cells, are protected.
It consists of enclosing in a box the most
sensitive components of PV concentration
modules (PV cells and reflectors), and
eliminating degradation problems related
to this type of system in reflectors and PV
module encapsulating organic elements
(EVA, silicone, etc.).
The box has a low absorption glass window
and contains a non-aggressive atmosphere
for any of the internal parts. The module is
also provided with a passive heat sink
element that evacuates the remaining heat
to the outside.
The proposed CAC module is being
developed ideally for a concentration ratio
between x20 and x40. This will produce a
32-34% cost reduction in an industrial bulk
production process of module
manufacturing compared to flat-plate PV
technology, reaching the 3.0/Wp
objective for the whole system just by
using the available mono-crystalline Si cell
technology.
C A C
108
Challenges
Each of the concentration systems developed so
far has become a clear market commercially
viable product. Some of the reasons for this
found in reflective concentration systems are:
1. Fast degradation of the PV module
encapsulating organic elements (EVA,
silicones, etc.) due to high solar irradiation
concentration (browning of the
encapsulating material).
2. Fast degradation of the reflectors due to
moisture penetration which destroys the
silvered or aluminised layer, especially at
the edges.
3. Reflectance losses in the reflecting surface
due to cleaning processes which cause
scratching on the reflecting surface
followed by dust accumulation in the
cracks.
4. Optical mismatches due to surface
deformation of reflectors, especially if they
are large in size.
5. The thermal and electric isolation problems
PV cells.
The proposed CAC module solves or minimises
these problems.
On the other hand, the CAC contains a non-
aggressive atmosphere for each of the internal
par ts. Creation and maintenance of this
controlled atmosphere have never been applied
in PV systems before although these well-known
problems have been solved in telecommunication
applications.
Project structure
The project is coordinated by the Spanish
company Solucar which has an excellent
background in the development of sun
concentration devices.
The development of the PV concentrator cells is
being carried out mainly by SOLARTEC, a PV
cells manufacturer with internationally recognised
leading experience in PV cells.
CIEMAT (PVLabDER), a Spanish research centre
whose main activities are related to testing,
measurements, calibrations of PV solar modules,
cells and other components requested, is a
recognised national and European reference
laboratory which is carrying out the evaluation
and assessment of the CAC prototype. This task
is in pursuance of the objective of measuring the
per formance and efficiency of the proposed
concentrator for given reference laborator y
conditions.
Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen/University of
Applied Science in Germany, is carrying out the
outdoor testing and evaluation of the CAC
prototype in southern Europe and central Europe
under dif ferent weather conditions. Module
evaluation is being done under outdoor test
conditions with a two-axis tracking system.
Special emphasis is placed on the thermal,
electrical and optical behaviour of the new PV
module. Lessons learned from this evaluation
stage will be applied in the building of the final
industrial CAC concentrator.
Controlled atmosphere PV
concentrator: an innovative
PV concentration concept
The evaluation and dissemination of results
stage is being coordinated by CIEMAT and
Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen/University of
Applied Science. This work is evaluating the
functioning of the system in terms of energy
production, maintenance and time degradation
of components. A detailed economical viability
of the system will come out of the conclusions
obtained from this phase.
Exploitation plan
The outcome of the project will be the
development of CAC module prototypes in order
to fully develop the technology. The expected end
result of the whole project is to prepare the
technology for market penetration.
An impor tant characteristic of concentrator
technology is the potential for rapid scale-up.
Concentrators also offer the benefit of producing
no effluents or emissions during operation. The
effluents resulting from cell manufacture are
lower, by the concentration factor, than those of
flat-plate (one-sun) solar cells.
The cost reduction obtained with the CAC concept
will make PV energy more competitive, reducing
costs and leaving the door open for future
integration of more efficient cells into this module
concept, helping to break the 1.0/Wp barrier.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2002-00654
Title:
Controlled Atmosphere PV
Concentrator CAC
Start Date: November 2002
Duration: 30 months
Contact point:
Pablo Valera
Tel: +34-95 4937477
Fax: +34-94 4937008
pablo.valera@solucar.abengoa.com
Partners:
Sanlucar Solar Solucar SA (ES)
SOLARTEC (CZ)
CIEMAT-DER (ES)
Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
109
Figure 1. 3-D theoretical energy
distribution on the cell for a x30
CAC prototype.
Figure 2. Proposal for the
photolithographically designed
front-side contact for CAC cells
with homogeneous finger width for
working at 20 suns (CR = 20).
Progress to date
Design of CAC concept:
Selection and evaluation of reflectors, glass
and other material;
Calculations of geometrical concentration
optics and radiation profile measurements
(figure 1).
Design and development of concentration cells
for concentration ratios of between x20-x40
(figure 2):
Selection of the substrate;
Modification of texturisation process;
High-temperature diffusion process
metallisation scheme design; and
Improvement of the back-side contact testing
of solar cells.
SYSTEMS
Objectives
Over the last ten years there has been an
impressive development of novel battery-
powered autonomous devices like mobile
phones, CD players, digital cameras,
laptops, pocket games and medical
healthcare assistants. Wireless
transmission through computer keyboards,
headsets for mobile phones, PDAs,
electronic tags or smart cards is now part
of our daily life.
In order to reduce energy consumption and
improve their mobility, these electronic
devices are becoming smaller and smaller.
The integration of a self-rechargeable
battery into small planar and mobile
objects (cellular phones, smart cards,
remote controls, tags, etc) could
revolutionise their use.
The main objective of the European
Polymer Solar Battery (EURO-PSB) project
is to develop a thin (<1mm) flexible PV
solar battery module by coupling (on top of
each other) a polymer solar cell with a
lithium-polymer battery. Organic polymers,
such as electroactive materials, allow
voltage matching between both
components (typically a few volts) and
possess specifications compatible with
small planar devices (sensitivity to low or
diffuse illumination, lifetime > five years,
flexible plastic substrates, etc).
E U R O - P S B
110
Challenges
The self-rechargeable PSB is a new concept
that would overcome problems linked to
conventional metal-based batteries. The use of
polymers in the three sub-parts of the module
(i.e. the battery, the solar cell and the substrate)
would first reduce the size and weight of
conventional batteries and avoid dangers related
to glass substrates. In addition, organic materials
to be used here are absolutely non-toxic, in
sharp contrast to materials used in today's
batteries (lead, etc.).
It would also open new markets. A battery that
recharges itself by simply being left exposed to
sunlight or indoor ar tificial light through a
transparent window (as in remote controls,
electronic games, wireless headsets, wireless
keyboards for computers, electronic tags) might
one day replace most of the primar y and
rechargeable batteries on sale today.
Project structure
The project consortium comprises six partners:
CEA-Saclay (France, coordinator), Linz University
(Austria), Solaronix S.A. (Switzerland), Solems
S.A. (France), VARTA Microbatter y GmbH
(Germany) and Tallinn Technical University
(Estonia).
Emphasis is placed on the development of the
polymer solar cell by combining the efforts of
CEA-Saclay, Linz University and Tallinn University
(for materials optimisation, device manufacturing
and testing). In addition, VARTA-Microbattery is
providing ultra-slim Li-polymer batteries. The
battery thickness for new devices will be reduced
to 400-500 m and have a capacity for this
thickness of 5-6 mAh/cm
2
. The plastic substrate
terminal with electrical interconnections will be
developed by Solaronix, along with the prototype
assembly. Finally, application needs and the
industrial exploitation plan will come mainly
under the responsibility of Solems.
Technical target
The targeted data of the PSB tandem device
vary depending on the application into which
they will be integrated. However, typical
characteristics for each component are:
Li-polymer battery:
System: Lithium-Polymer, based on PVDF polymer
or rubber. No free liquid electrolyte. Typical
dimensions i.e.: length 62 mm; width 35 mm;
thickness: 1 mm
Nominal voltage: 3.8 V
Nominal capacity: 200 mAh (at C/5 from 4.2 V
to 3.0 V at 20C)
Energy density >300 Wh/l
Rechargeable >500 times
Last for >5 years.
Polymer solar cell:
System: All-solid device based on a PPV-C60
blend deposited on ITO-coated polyester foil.
Open-circuit voltage: Voc=0.8 V
Short-circuit current: Isc=5 mA/cm
2
Fill factor: FF=0.6
Typical dimensions: from a few mm
2
up to 10x15
cm
2
; thickness: <1 mm
Efficiency: 1-3 % under AM 1.5 at 80 mW/cm
2
Exploitation plan
The exploitable outputs consist of functional
devices equipped with a self-rechargeable and
flexible solar batter y. The two main targeted
user groups are the electronics industry, on the
one hand, for supplying a new component and,
on the other hand, those industries wich are
manufacturing consumer goods powered by a
small portable energy source.
From the ver y beginning, CEA, LIOS and
SOLARONIX have been familiar with organic solar
cell production and SOLEMS with photovoltaic
silicon-based modules. In addition, the main
A self-rechargeable and
flexible polymer solar battery
activity of VARTA is to produce various types of
rechargeable batteries. Commercial exploitation
may then be expected as early as two to three
years after the end of the project, since a close
contact with potential customers is already being
sought during the project, under the responsibility
of SOLEMS.
The main objective is to demonstrate the
feasibility of integrating a self-rechargeable solar
battery into targeted applications. It will consist
in providing three demonstrators that fit the
needs of user groups of each selected worldwide
market segment.
The self-rechargeable solar battery module is a new
concept that would overcome many problems
encountered by today's solar cells and batteries (for
example, the non-rectangular shapes of photovoltaic
cells are much too expensive, glass substrates are
often prohibited for safety reasons, batteries are too
big, heavy and toxic, etc).
Polymer processing technology is characterised
by a 'low-cost/large-scale' production, and the
possibility to produce large-area plastic films at
macroscopic dimensions, and the mechanical
flexibility of polymers. With these competitive
advantages, many application needs should be
fulfilled and new high-volume markets reached
or existing markets changed.
Progress to date
The project working plan spans three years and
has three essential technical parts:
Construction of the polymer solar cell and
the polymer battery,
Development of a substrate terminal with
electrical interconnections,
Assembly of the battery and the solar cell
into a prototype tandem module.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2002-00687
Title:
European Polymer Solar
Battery EURO-PSB
Start Date: January 2003
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Denis Fichou
Tel: +33-1 69 08 43 74
Fax: +33-1 69 08 84 46
fichou@drecam.cea.fr
Partners:
CEA (FR)
Universitt Linz (AT)
Solaronix SA (CH)
Solems SA (FR)
Varta Microbattery GmbH (DE)
Tallinn Technical University (EE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
111
It is divided into seven work packages also
including design and industrial checking,
encapsulation, exploitation plan and
management.
The first 18 months of the project are devoted
to the design of the tandem module, evaluation
of its per formances and definition of its
specifications. The two main components of the
final solar battery module (solar cell + battery)
are currently being developed separately, while
guidelines for market needs and technical
specifications are constantly being refreshed.
The main milestones consist in delivering
specimens of polymer solar cells and polymer
batteries, as well as writing a mid-term
assessment repor t (including a revised
specifications sheet and updated exploitation
plan). Specimens of individual components are
expected to be delivered at mid-term.
At the beginning of the second term, the
electrical inter face substrates needed for
hosting and interconnecting the solar cell and
the batter y will be developed. The three
components (solar cell, battery, and interface
substrate) will then be assembled together
into prototype modules. These prototypes will
be encapsulated to prevent degradation from
humidity, oxygen or light (batter y only) and
subjected to various technical evaluation tests
(performances, durability, etc). The integration
of prototypes into selected applications (smart
cards, wireless devices, etc.) will then be
carried out. Market tests will be performed in
tight co-operation with developers in order to
optimise the solutions resulting from the
introduction of the new product and to fulfill
customer requirements.
Demonstrators of polymer solar batteries adapted as the self-
rechargeable power source of a wireless computer mouse (left),
portable weather station (middle) and TV remote control (right).
Prototype of a polymer solar battery showing the solar cells in
black (front side, left) and the interconnects in colour (back side,
right).
SYSTEMS
BUILDINGS
INTEGRATED
PHOTOVOLTAICS
Objectives
Thin-film PV has the potential to reduce the
cost of PV electricity generation
significantly through lower direct and
indirect material costs when compared to
crystalline silicon technologies.
Chalcopyrite semiconductors, such as
Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIS), have shown the
highest potential of all thin-film
technologies to date. The project
coordinator was the first to commercialise
the CIS modules on a small pilot production
stage. Due to a high performance ratio at
low light levels, low sensitivity to partial
shading, as well as improved aesthetics of
CIS in comparison to crystalline silicon
modules, BIPV is seen as one of the key
markets for large-scale commercial
introduction.
The objectives of this project were to
develop all the process steps necessary
to achieve semi-transparent
CIS modules without any loss in active
area efficiency.
C I S - F A A D E
M O D U L E
114
Challenges
Aesthetics
The BIPV faade market requires module designs
which are aesthetically pleasing when viewed
from both the inside and the outside of a building.
Therefore, Saint-Gobain had to develop sputtered
stacks of glass, decorative layers, a sodium
dif fusion barrier and a molybdenum back
electrode in order to achieve a range of different
back-side colours, without jeopardising the
ef ficiency of the module. To improve the
aesthetics of the front side as well as the
efficiency of the CIS modules, a broadband anti-
reflection coating had to be developed for the
front cover glass. Shell Solar had to investigate
dif ferent technologies to achieve semi-
transparency without any loss in active area
efficiency, as well as edge-deletion technologies
necessary for frameless module designs.
Product durability
Besides aesthetics, product durability is a key
factor to the introduction of a new product into
the PV market. To eliminate possible failure
mechanisms, Shell Solar had to develop a new
way of bus-bar contacting with the focus on long-
term stability, low cost and scalability to volume
production. JRC (ESTI) focused on the device
characterisation as well as on life time testing
and performance ratio evaluation of CIS modules.
A 2x2m
2
CIS faade test array had to be
produced and mounted for this.
Project structure
The project consortium comprised three partners:
Shell Solar, Saint-Gobain Recherche, and JRC
(ESTI). The project started on 1 March 2000 and
ended in March 2003.
Results
The achievements of the consortium within this
project are:
Development of stacks of decorative layers,
sodium diffusion barrier and molybdenum
back electrode on float glass deposited on
large area glass industry coaters (3.2m x
6m) without affecting circuit efficiency or long-
term stability, but making use of the cost
advantage of industry proven high-throughput
sputtering processes (see figure 1). These
substrates are now being produced by Saint-
Gobain for Shell Solar to use as the standard
substrates in the Munich pilot line.
Development of a broadband anti-reflection
coating deposited on the front cover glass
optimised for the CIS absorber material,
including a computer model to predict the
gain in short circuit current. The model was
verified experimentally.
Development of a process to achieve semi-
transparency on CIS without loss in active
area efficiency, as shown in figure 2. The
process can be introduced easily into a high-
volume production line, either completely
integrated or as an add-on process, as
required.
CIS for BIPV: improved
aesthetics, efficiency
and reliability
Development of a laser blast edge-deletion
process and implementation into the Shell
Solar CIS pilot line.
Development of a process to isolate shunted
areas from the laser edge-deletion process
and implementation into the Shell Solar CIS
pilot line.
Development of a low-cost, superior-adhesion
and long-term stable ultrasonic welding
process for bus-bar contacting and
implementation into the Shell Solar CIS pilot
line.
Achievement of an independently certified
13.1% active area circuit efficiency on a
60x90cm
2
substrate. This equates to a
module power output of 64.8Wp.
Gain of knowledge on CIS module
characterisation, performance ratio, transient
effects and long-term stability, which will be
used to develop test procedures and
standards for CIS thin-film modules. A first
proposal towards a new testing standard was
made within the final project report, i.e. the
introduction of steady- state IV-measurements,
including light soaking, in order to avoid
observed differences between indoor and
outdoor measurements.
Exploitation plan
Shell Solar plans to come to a decision on
investment into a European multi-MW CIS
production line during 2004. All the results
worked out within this project are very important
milestones towards the implementation of a
high-volume, low-cost CIS production line. The
advantages of the CIS technology for BIPV are
clear. The ultimate goal will be the introduction
of CIS photovoltaic modules as a standard
building material in order to utilise the market
potential and enhance the penetration of PV in
everyday life towards a sustainable future.
INFORMATION
Contract: ERK5-CT-1999-00006
Title:
Development of Semi-transparent CIS
Modules for Faade Applications CIS
FAADE MODULE
Start Date: March 2000
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Rainer Tlle
Tel: +49-89 63659131
Fax: +49-89 63658702
rainer.toelle@Shell.com
Partners:
Shell Solar GmbH (DE)
Saint-Gobain Recherche (FR)
Joint Research Center - Ispra (IT)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
115
Figure 1. View of different coloured PV
backsides achieved by various decorative
coatings.
Figure 2. View from the front through a semi-
transparent CIS laminate.
BUILDINGS INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS
Objectives
Thin-film solar modules based on CIGS
absorber are the most promising
technology for large-scale, low-cost
production of solar energy. The basic
production technologies have been
sufficiently developed, pilot plants are
running, and large-scale manufacturing is
in preparation. A broad application of CIGS
modules in building application is desirable,
therefore, in the Hiperpb project, in which a
predominantly industrial consortium
started an attempt to optimise CIGS
modules for this purpose.
The objectives of this project are:
- Improvement of long-term stability of the
modules;
- Development of optimised encapsulation
methods;
- New faade-fixing methods, including
facilitated electrical interconnection;
- A study of hot-spot and shading
behaviour;
- Roof integration;
- Large-area modules produced by
patchwork technique; and
- Improvement and standardisation of
performance measurement.
H I P E R P B
116
Challenges
Thin-film solar modules based on a CIGS absorber
are an emerging technology in Europe. To
accelerate the acceptance of the product in the
market place, aesthetically convincing solutions
for building integration are required, in
combination with high technical quality. A rapid
increase of market share is a prerequisite for low-
cost production, which is only possible with high-
production volumes.
The aim of the project work was to develop high-
performance, high-quality, and stable thin-film PV
modules for integration into buildings (faades
as well as roofs), and forming a fully integrated
part of the outer skin of the building. The work
included modules for the faade, and modules
suited for the replacement of roofing tiles and
slates. This advance resulted in performance and
cost improvements as compared to existing
technologies and designs. All aspects were
covered, from cell and module technology,
shading and hot-spots, to assembly, electrical
interconnection, and lifetime testing. The
development of electrical interconnection
elements in combination ensures low labour
costs and high safety during module mounting.
The range of module sizes extends from a small
roof-tile size to standard production module size
(1200mm x 600mm) and larger sizes which are
constructed by joining sub-modules (patchwork-
modules). Modules incorporated in insulated
glazing were also considered.
Project structure
The project consortium consists of six industrial
par tners, two research institutes and one
university. The project is coordinated by the
Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-
Forschung (Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen
Research), Germany. The par tners are:
Chemetall, Multi-Contact Deutschland, Swiss
Sustainable Systems AG (3S AG), Wrth Solar,
Glaswerke Arnold, University of Naples, Isovolta
and JRC, Ispra.
There was a very broad approach to building
integration of CIGS modules, ranging from the
technological optimisation of the module stability,
roof and faade integration aspects, electrical and
mechanical connection to standardisation and
qualification.
Since modules with non-optimised standard EVA
material and encapsulation processes often
require additional sealing for sufficient damp
heat behaviour, efforts made towards improved
encapsulation were included in the project. For
that purpose, a series of hot-melt sealing
materials were evaluated using dif ferent
lamination processes available in the project
partners laboratories such as vacuum lamination
and pressure lamination. Lamination processes
were adapted to the different properties of the
hot melts and adhesion promoters were applied
as necessar y. Additionally, the corrosion
behaviour of the cells was investigated by
electrochemical methods and modifications of -
the back contact were tested. Cast resin
encapsulation was also included in the
investigation and gave remarkably good results.
Initially, the roof module developed in this work
was based on the Atlantis SUNSLATE
TM
. After the
bankruptcy of Atlantis Solarsysteme AG, this
par tner was replaced by Swiss Sustainable
Systems AG, and a completely new roof module
called MegaSlateR (figure 1) was developed.
The system consists of CIS modules (c-Si and a-
Si are also possible) with an overlapping front
glass, polymer profile water trays and fixing
elements. The water-tightness of a roof
composed of these modules was tested. An
application for patent is pending and a TUV-
qualification has been obtained.
Building integration of CIGS
thin-film solar modules
The use of CIGS thin-film solar modules for
faade cladding is very attractive, due to the
homogenous black appearance of the modules.
The mechanical properties of the modules are,
in some aspects, comparable with those of
laminated architectural glass and require special
attention concerning building regulations and
building safety. The costs associated with the
construction of the PV faade can be reduced by
an intelligent combination of mechanical fixing
and electrical connection. The preferred
realisation of a CIGS-PV faade is the ventilated
cur tain wall using unframed modules with
appropriate fixing elements.
Glaswerke Arnold provides a fixing system called
WBS (welded bond system), that was developed
for structural glazing and windows. Its main
feature is a stainless steel strip laminated to the
back of the glass and bearing bolts or other
fixing elements attached by welding. The strip is
laminated simultaneously with the glass.
Combining the mechanical fixing with the
electrical interconnection in one production stage
is attractive for PV faades for both cost and
safety reasons. One solution, realised by Multi-
Contact, ZSW, Wrth Solar and Glaswerke Arnold
was shown in prototype.
Exploitation plan
Several industrial partners intend to exploit the
project results in their respective business areas.
Chemetall and Isovolta intend to produce and sell
the encapsulation materials and processes,
while Wrth Solar is producing CIGS thin-film
solar modules using interconnection boxes and
cables supplied by Multi-Contact, which can in
turn be integrated in the faade and roof systems
to be prepared by the par tners 3S AG and
Glaswerke Arnold.
INFORMATION
Contract: ERK6-CT-1999-00009
Title:
Building Integration of CIGS Thin-Film
Solar Modules HIPERPB
Start Date: April 2000
Duration: 42 months
Contact point:
J. Springer
Tel: +49-711 7870256
Fax: +49-711 7870230
johann.springer@zsw-bw.de
Partners:
ZSW (DE)
Chemetall GmbH (DE)
Multi-Contact Deutschland GmbH (DE)
Wrth Solar GmbH (DE)
Swiss Sustainable Systems (CH)
Glaswerke Arnold GmbH (DE)
Universit degli Studi di Napoli (IT)
Isovolta AG (AT)
Joint Research Center - Ispra (IT)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
117
Certification of CIGS thin-film solar modules
according to EN61646 made a big step forward
during this project. The consortium learned a
lot about the importance of building standards
for the integration of PV modules into buildings.
Progress to date
Encapsulation and stability of CIGS modules
It was possible to achieve an appreciable
increase in the damp-heat stability of the
CIGS solar modules by varying the
encapsulation materials, together with
improvement of the lamination process and
the use of adhesion promoters.
Roof modules
Several prototypes of CIS-Megaslate
(figure 3) were made at 3S AG, using specially
designed CIS-modules prepared by Wrth
Solar (size 120cm x 60cm). A demonstrator
roof was built at the ZSW test facility.
Faade modules
Some important steps along the path to
achieving a faade of integrated CIS modules
have been completed. In two generations,
structural glazing was demonstrated
(figure 5). The system is suitable for Glaswerke
Arnolds WBS technology as well as for state-
of-the-art silicone-sealed glazing systems. It can
be applied with several commercially available
faade systems, and uses a new prototype of
a pair of plug-and-socket and cable connections
for simultaneous electrical connection and
mechanical attachment, all of which have
been tested in the laboratory (figure 4). The
modules for this prototype were specially
designed for a perfect black appearance by
use of a screen-printed edge and hidden
bus bars.
Figure 1.
MEGASLATES with
CIS modules during
installation.
Figure 2. CIGS-
Patchwork modules
(Wrth Solar and
Glaswerke Arnold) as
sun shields on a
building.
Figure 3. Demonstration roof showing
Megaslates with CIS modules.
Figure 4. Rear side
of a module with
faade fixing system
and electrical
interconnect
prototype.
Figure 5. CIGS-demonstration faade at
Widderstall. The different colour shades come from
differences in the encapsulation material.
BUILDINGS INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS
Objectives
An increasing number of innovative
buildings are now being constructed with
south-facing ventilated PV facades.
Whereas the electrical energy is supplied
to the grid during the whole year, the
heated air from the faade is normally
vented to the outside. For all-year use of
the thermal energy of a PV hybrid system,
a low-temperature desiccant cooling
system can be driven in summer, and fresh
air preheating is used in winter.
Adsorption or desiccant cooling systems
(DCS) are now commercially available, and
the first technology demonstration projects
are currently under way in Europe. The
demonstration systems are mostly driven
by solar water heaters. Water-based
systems tend to be expensive, heavy and
require a degree of maintenance not
required by solar air-heating systems. To
reduce the costs of solar-powered
desiccant cooling technologies, building-
integrated solar air systems (ventilated PV
and solar air collectors) are used for heat
generation, as they are able to replace
conventional building cladding components
and allow the use of a purely air-based
system technology. Furthermore, the
complete system control has been
integrated in an existing building
management system.
A I R C O O L
118
Challenges
The main challenge of solar-powered cooling
technologies is the development of highly efficient
low-cost systems. The potential to reduce the
costs consists in using building-integrated solar
air systems (ventilated PV and solar air collectors)
while developing low-cost control strategies and
optimising the per formance of the desiccant
cooling components.
Various commercial adsorption wheels were
characterised in the laboratory before moving to
the building project at the Matar librar y in
Spain. Desiccant wheel technologies based on
silicagel, titanium-silicagel and lithiumchloride
were analysed in a specially designed laboratory
test stand.
The control strategy development had to be a
compromise between optimised energy use
performance and simplicity of operation, as the
solar-powered unit is being operated in a public
library building where there are no experienced
users. Thus ease of maintenance was crucial for
the implementation.
The purely thermally powered desiccant machine
had to replace a conventional air-conditioning unit
powered by an electrical compressor. As summer
room temperatures were too high in the building,
the new system was required to improve the
thermal comfort in the building by increasing
volume-flow rates. In addition, the thermal
efficiency of the building-integrated PV system
had to be evaluated.
Project structure
The project involved a number of industrial
partners to set up a cost-effective and building-
integrated desiccant cooling unit. Siegle+Epple,
manufacturers of a desiccant cooling unit, worked
together with control specialists from Sauter
Ibrica, a building management company, and
Grammer, a company making air collectors.
Implementation of the complete system in the
library building was carried out by TFM, a PV
hybrid faade specialist. The two universities,
Loughborough and UAS Stuttgar t, were
responsible for system simulation, laboratory
testing and monitoring.
Exploitation plan
Desiccant cooling technology is now ready for
introduction into the European Union market.
The necessar y inter faces with building
management systems and the coupling to various
solar thermal power sources are available. A
wide range of applications is possible, ranging
from office buildings, factories, to supermarkets.
However, there is very little available regarding
factors such as maintenance and control. Further
work is necessary to reduce initial investment
costs, especially those of the desiccant rotors
available on the market. The operating experience
from the project will facilitate the installation of
further units coupled to solar air systems.
Solar cooling with integrated
hybrid photovoltaic systems
Progress to date
Contrary to commercial information, no significant
dif ferences between the moisture-removal
capacity of different absorption technologies
were measured, although the optimum
dehumidification takes place at different wheel-
rotation velocities. It also could be shown that
reduction of the regeneration air flow is only
recommendable down to 75% of the process air-
volume flow, as any further reduction strongly
reduces the dehumidification potential. The
dehumidification process was isenthalpic at
best, with increases in enthalpy at high
regeneration temperatures.
Detailed building simulation and monitoring
results have shown that it is possible to supply
more than 40,000kWh cooling energy to the
building while using 69,000kWh from the solar
thermal system between April and October. The
COPs during the main summer months (July,
August and September) averaged between 0.65
and 0.73. The electrical power consumption for
the air distribution ventilators amounted to
13,000kWh. 93% of the total cooling energy
requirement can be covered by the solar-powered
desiccant cooling unit, partly by free ventilation
(38%) and par tly at energy-saving reduced
volume-flow rates (only 9% at full flow rate of
12,000m
3
/h, 27% at half-flow rate and 24%
between 50% and full flow rate).
Due to the simplification of the control strategy,
it was possible for the originally planned
INFORMATION
Contract: ERK6-CT-1999-00010
Title:
Adsorption Cooling of Buildings
with Integrated PV/Solar Air Heating
Faades AIRCOOL
Start Date: April 2000
Duration: 30 months
Contact point:
Ursula Eicker
Tel: +49-711-121 2831
Fax: +49-711-121 2698
eicker.fbp@fht-stuttgart.de
Partners:
Fachhochschule Stuttgart (DE)
Siegle & Epple (DE)
University of Loughborough (UK)
Grammer (DE)
Sauter Iberica (ES)
Teulades I Facanes Multifuncionals SA (ES)
EC Scientific Officer:
Erich Negele
Tel: +32-2 296 50 61
Fax: +32-2 299 36 94
erich.naegele@cec.eu.int
119
autonomous control unit to be completely
substituted by the existing building management
system, with just the addition of some low-
cost components. Detailed analysis of the
building per formance and the existing air-
handling units showed that faulty damper
handling, high-pressure drops, high external
cooling loads, etc. led to high energy
consumption, which could be reduced through
the new installation; in ideal conditions they
should have been detected by an intelligent
building management system. Greater effort
should be placed on designing integrated energy
concepts rather than individual new
components.
Both the ventilated PV system and the purpose-
built solar air collector proved to be well suited
for thermal power production. Efficiencies of the
hybrid PV system are about 15% at low-flow
velocities, whereas the purpose-made air
collectors reach 50% or more. In summary,
the improvement of rational energy use in the
existing building, together with the
implementation of the innovative solar thermal
cooling unit, has led to making significant
energy savings in the building.
BUILDINGS INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS
Objectives
The overall goal for this project is to
improve the acceptability of building-
integrated renewable energy sources, and
of photovoltaic energy conversion in
particular. The cost of photovoltaic
modules remains an important non-
technical barrier to the integration of PV
into buildings, especially when applied as
an add-on to existing constructions. The
project aims to construct advanced
building elements incorporating the active
solar cells. Thus these building elements
can be used instead of conventional
elements, and the overall cost of the PV
integration is significantly lowered. In
addition to aiming for high power density,
special attention is given to the visual
appearance of the products. In order to
address the wishes of architects and
designers, the elements are made in such
a way that they have to look similar to
conventional building elements and could
be interchanged without visible effects
in the overall appearance of the
construction.
A F R O D I T E
120
Challenges
The technological developments within this
project target two technological challenges:
development of an industrial process for cost-
effective back-contacted solar cells;
developments on the level of the module
integration and manufacture of the
construction elements.
The Metallisation Wrap-Through (MWT) cell
structure was selected for further development
in this project. The realisation of a connection
between metal grids on the front and rear surface
of these cells through small holes made in the
wafer is one of the most critical issues in the
development of an industrial process for this cell
type. Therefore, a prototype designated screen
printer was designed and built. The envisaged
automatic in-line module technology distinguishes
itself from conventional module production since
the connection of all the cells in the module
and the encapsulation occur in a single step. In
spite of the projected cost reduction of the
module technology based on back-contacted
solar cells, it is considered premature to go
beyond a pilot-line demonstration towards
investing in highly automated production lines,
as the back-contacted cells are not yet available
in sufficiently large volume. Therefore, the cells
used for this work were redesigned in order to
be compatible with conventional module
production lines based on cell tabbing. Even
though, using this method, no full advantage
could be taken of possible cost reductions
through the monolithic module approach, the
module assembly has been considerably
simplified.
Project structure
In order to achieve the objectives and tackle
the above-mentioned problems, a consortium has
been formed with partners covering the whole
value chain addressed. The project was initiated,
and is now coordinated, by IMEC (Belgium) based
on the results of the ACE Designs project (JOR3-
CT95-0269). Its technical role is the final
development and optimisation of back-contacted
cells for the module integration. The module
integration is being tackled by two leading
companies that are active in custom-sized
module technology: Swiss Sustainable Systems
(Switzerland) and Soltech (Belgium), while Baccini
(Italy) has joined the consortium to help develop
the equipment. The performance and reliability
of the developed products is being evaluated by
indoor and outdoor characterisation at the
Technical University of Wroclaw (Poland).
Exploitation plan
As the aim is to develop a variety of PV-integrated
elements for building integration, intensive
bilateral contacts with the targeted user groups
of the products are a prerequisite for the
successful exploitation of the project results.
International studies have shown that, while
general awareness and receptiveness to BIPV are
Power and aesthetics for the
built environment
high, the real knowledge and understanding
remain at a relatively low level for most products.
Developing these products to meet the
expectations of architects and builders is
expected to lead to a significant increase in the
market share of PV-integrated building elements,
in both new buildings and retrofit applications.
The general importance of building integration of
renewable energy modules and the dedicated
products developed during this project, in
par ticular indicate a high potential for the
exploitation of the project results. By
implementing the developed generic processes
for these products in their production lines, the
industrial par tners will be able to address a
market share that has so far been sluggish to the
introduction of PV because of a number of non-
technical obstacles. On the other hand, it gives
the research partners the opportunity to transfer
their laborator y developments into a durable
industrial product. As such, the technology for
back-contacted cells has been licensed to
Photovoltech NV, a new European company,
outside this consortium, that has decided to
implement the back-contacted solar cells in its
production.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2000-00345
Title:
Advanced Faade and Roof Elements
Key to Large Scale Building Integration
of Photovoltaic Energy AFRODITE
Start Date: April 2001
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
E. Van Kerschaver
Tel: +32-16 281924
Fax: +32-16 281501
kerschav@imec.be
Partners:
IMEC (CH)
Atlantis Solar Systems AG (CH)
Soltech (BE)
Baccini SH (IT)
Politechnika Wroclawska (PL)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
121
Progress to date
In the course of this project, a large number of
results have been obtained from the different
development and supporting tasks scheduled
in the project (such as generic process flow for
back-contact cells and module technology,
construction of an outdoor monitoring system,
prototype equipment, and new processing
techniques). In view of the project objectives,
the construction of a number of high-
performance PV-integrated building elements
may be regarded as the most important result
for third par ties. In addition, a number of
modules were manufactured using the
advantage of the potential for very close spacing
of the cells. In this way, the module power
density corresponds closely to the power density
of the incorporated cells. Thus it was possible
to demonstrate a module efficiency of 14.6%
using 36 back-contacted multicrystalline silicon
solar cells (100cm
2
).
Traditional and back-contact cells illustrating the uniform visual appearance
of the back-contact cells by removing the bus bars from the front surface.
Roof slates with back-contacted solar cells (left) and conventional
solar cells (right).
BUILDINGS INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS
Objectives
Building Integrated PV is the fastest
growing market segment within the PV
industry. It has been suggested that the
uptake of PV by the building industry would
be faster still if the visual appearance was
improved. A particular detractor is the
highly reflective bus bars. Back-contact
solar cells overcome this problem and have
a very uniform appearance, making them
highly attractive for the building industry.
The main objectives of this project were to
develop a new, innovative interconnection
technology suitable for back-contact solar
cells.
Back-contact solar cells have several
additional advantages over standard solar
cells. In particular, new interconnection
methods are possible that result in easier
handling and therefore decreased labour
costs and simplified automation. Thin solar
cells can be well supported when
interconnected only on one side. This
allows the potential for a high-yield, low-
cost process. Back-contact solar cell
designs may also be advantageous for
larger area wafers due to reduced series
resistance losses.
A D V A N T A G E
122
Challenges
Challenges on both cell and module level were
addressed during the course of the project.
Cell concepts were investigated in an earlier
project and proven on smaller, single-batch cells.
During this project, existing cell designs were
optimised to develop a stable, pre-industrial
process sequence. Challenges therefore lay in
adapting the processes to enable the throughput
of the large number of cells with high yield
required for module assembly. The structure of
the MWA cells is shown in figure 1 and this
gives some indication of the level of difficultly that
may be experienced when transferring such a cell
process to an industrial scale.
The module design for rear-contacted cells is
different to that required for standard solar
cells. Mostly this is advantageous, and simplified
technologies can be used since both cell contacts
are on the rear. One possibility for cell
interconnection is to print conductor paths on a
substrate. The cells can then be attached to the
substrate by an automated pick-and-place
technology. Within this project, different pre-
patterned conductor paths and cell attachment
technologies were investigated. The major
problem that can occur during module production
is shor ting of the cells. This is naturally
disasterous for the module output and a focus
of the module production work was in overcoming
this problem.
Project structure
The project par tners are the University of
Konstanz (UKN), BP Solar, Energy Research
Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Soltech, Kurth,
Glas & Spiegel (KG&S) and Sunways. UKN and
BP Solar have focused mainly on development
of the LGBG-MWA (laser groved buried grid
metallisation wrap around) cell design and on
production of cells for the prototype modules.
ECN and Soltech have been primarily involved in
the interconnection of cells. KG&S have been
concerned with module production in a unique
glass-glass module. Sunways have been involved
in optimisation of the POWER cell design and
production of cells for the prototype modules. All
of the modules produced in this project required
input from various partners, so there was close
collaboration between the partners.
Exploitation plan
The achievement of the project objectives
represent a significant step forward in industrial
solar cell manufacturing technology, leading to
substantial cost reduction and improved visual
appearance of PV modules, and thereby
contributing to the establishment of PV as a
standard building material. These achievements
are therefore expected to accelerate the growth
of the PV industry. Industrial project partners
expect to extend their manufacturing facilities for
back-contact solar cells and modules in order to
have a product in the fast growing market
Attractive PV modules for
building integration
segment of building integrated PV. Since a
number of different solder-free technologies are
being developed, it is expected to find a solution
to the lead content of standard soldering and
therefore stay ahead of new EU regulations.
Results
Three different cell designs were investigated
within the project and two cell types were
fabricated for the final modules. One set of
modules was made using the semi-transparent
POWER cells produced by Sunways. An average
production efficiency of 9% and a maximum
production efficiency of 10.5% was achieved
with this design. For the second set of modules,
it was decided at the mid-term assessment
meeting to combine the processing capabilities
of UKN and BP Solar to produce LGBG-MWA
cells. This is a rear contacted design and results
in only narrow, buried contacts on the front
sur face. A large number of these cells were
produced for the final set of modules, which
were assembled in October 2003. A maximum
cell efficiency of 17.1% was achieved on the
module-sized cells. Figure 2 shows one of the
final modules that was made using LGBG-MWA
cells.
Production of solar cell modules requires an
encapsulation step to protect the cells against
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2000-00340
Title:
Advanced Next Generation Rear
Contact Module Technology for
Building Integration ADVANTAGE
Start Date: April 2001
Duration: 30 months
Contact point:
Michelle McCann
Tel: +49-7531 88 2074
Fax: +49-7531 88 3895
michelle.mccann@uni-konstanz.de
Partners:
Universitt Konstanz (DE)
BP Solar (UK)
ECN (NL)
Kurth Glas & Spiegel (CH)
Soltech (BE)
Sunways (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot
Tel: +32-2 2950765
Fax: +32-2 2993694
thierry.d'estaintot@cec.eu.int
123
moisture. A substance known as EVA is the
most commonly used encapsulant and requires
a thermal curing step. The use of a conductive
adhesive to interconnect the back-contact cells
developed in this project also requires a thermal
step to set the adhesive. One of the most
significant achievements of this project was the
isolation of a conductive adhesive that could be
set in the same thermal step required to cure
the encapsulant. The groups working on
modules also developed several interconnection
schemes that were essential for successful
module production with the back-contacted
cells developed in this project.
Figure 1. Schematic of the MWA (metallisation wrap
around) cell design. The red indicates metal contacts,
the yellow regions are emitter and the blue regions are
base. The grooves on the rear side are essential to
separate the emitter and base regions.
Figure 2. Module produced using 72 5cm-
10cm MWA cells.
BUILDINGS INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS
Objectives
The general objective of this project is the
development of a triple hybrid solar system
(Proteas PV System) able to produce
simultaneously electricity, hot water and
air-conditioning at a low cost. In order to
achieve low cost, innovative precision
optics, photovoltaic panels, a sun-tracking
system, and a silica-gel adsorption heat
pump, which is able to perform for a long
time (more than 20 years), will be
developed.
More precisely, the objectives are the
development of industrial prototypes of:
- A hybrid system able to produce 240 Wp
of electricity and 240 litres of hot water
daily with a cost comparable to that of a
conventional thermal solar collector;
- A concentrating type photovoltaic
system producing 3.0 KWp and hot
water at 55-800C. This system has the
capacity to produce 6000 KWH of
electricity per year for average Greek
solar conditions, and hot water either
directly usable or combined with a heat
pump of 15 KW to produce a cooling
capacity enough for a 100-120 m
2
house.
P R O T E A S P V
124
Challenges
The main reason behind increases in the cost
of concentrating type solar systems is that they
comprise big reflective surfaces rotating to
track and focus the sun, thus presenting a
large interception surface to the wind.
Therefore, in order to survive the maximum
expected wind speed during their life time, an
especially careful design and an exceptionally
heavy construction must be foreseen, which
increases the cost to prohibitive heights.
Moreover, the use of conventional silver-coated
mirrors, which deteriorate after several years
of operation, is limiting the system life time and
further increasing the cost. Faced with the first
of the above problems, one possible solution
is the construction of reflective surfaces made
by a light material with a low profile, which thus
has a small interception surface with the
wind. A possible solution for the second
problem involves using the phenomenon of
total reflection for the fabrication of reflective
surfaces. Such surfaces will exhibit a
reflectance of almost 100%, can be made on
light materials such as glass or plexiglass, and
do not deteriorate with time. So the first
challenge is the fabrication of reflective
surfaces (mirrors) on transparent light
materials forming prisms on their back surface
with the appropriate shape.
Figure 1 shows an early prototype of PROTEAS
PV SYSTEM, without cooling unit
The production of electricity from photovoltaics
(PV) is reliable and technically mature but
still expensive compared to that produced by
conventional means. The main reason is the
high cost of the crystalline silicon used for the
fabrication of solar cells. Concentrating cells
need much less crystalline silicon. Hence,
for instance, a concentrating x100 type PV
system uses only one hundredth of crystalline
silicon that a conventional system operating
without concentration (x1) uses. Of course,
concentration solar cells are more
sophisticated than the conventional ones and
consequently more expensive, hence such
cells must be thoroughly protected in order to
increase their life time as much as possible.
It is obvious then that the encapsulation of
concentrating solar cells is of paramount
importance for decreasing the cost of
production of electricity from PV systems.
Apart from providing protection for many years
(25 years or more), the encapsulation must
also allow for the correct operation of cells
which means that it must minimise energy
losses due to reflection. Moreover, it must
ensure the electrical insulation and the stability
of connections between cells and the thermal
conductivity between them and the copper
sink on which they will be fixed. A second
challenge then is the encapsulation of cells
using materials able to conserve their good
properties of transparency, inactivity towards
the materials used for the fabrication of cells
and those used for the anti-reflection and the
interconnects, under extreme conditions such
as high irradiation levels and high temperature
differences for long periods.
The water used for cooling the cells, at
temperatures of 60-80C, will be used as
such or for producing cooling power with an
adsorption heat pump. Such high power pumps
already exist, but for the purposes of this
project a (small) 15 KW pump, sufficient for
cooling a 100-120 m
2
house, will be
Hybrid PV and air-conditioning
using concentrators
developed this is the third challenge.
The development of a cost-effective innovative
sun-tracking system using only one pair of
motors for hundreds of low-profile total
reflection mirrors is the fourth challenge in this
project.
Finally, the integration of so many different
technologies ranging from basic optics to
power electronics and adsorption heat
pumping to sun-tracking, in one (highly
sophisticated) system, and its correct
operation, is the greatest challenge of this
project.
Project structure
The consortium consists of IMEL/NCSR "D",
which is coordinating the project and working on
the encapsulation of solar cells combined with
anti-reflection, the electrical characterisation of
PV panels and field testing the system. ZENON
S.A. is working on the basic and detailed
engineering, the mid-term exploitation plan of the
system, the production of mouldings for the
total reflection glasses (TRG) used for the
concentration of solar energy, the production of
TRGs needed for the prototypes, the packaging
of PV cells on heat sinks, the assembly and
quality control of the system, the development
of a remote measuring and monitoring system,
the evaluation of measurements, and the final
technology exploitation plan. GBU mbH is dealing
with the development and construction of a
small-scale adsorption air-conditioning heat
pump. INSPIRA S. L. is both developing and
constructing the sun-tracking system and unit
control for the prototype. MILTECH S.A. is
developing the power electronics, preparing the
metal structure and installing the prototype.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2000-00674
Title:
Triple Hybride Concentrating Pv System
for the Co-generation of Electricity, Heat
and Cooling Power PROTEAS PV
Start Date: January 2003
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Dimitris Davazoglou
Tel: +30-210 6503117
Fax: +30-210 6511723
d.davazoglou@imel.demokritos.gr
Partners:
Demokritos-IMEL (EL)
GBU mbH (DE)
Inspira SL (ES)
Zenon SA (EL)
Miltech SA (EL)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
125
Figure 1. An early prototype of PROTEAS
PV SYSTEM, without cooling unit
Exploitation plan
The essence of the exploitation strategy of
Proteas technology is the co-operation much
developed in Greece with the conventional
solar collectors industr y. The idea is the
production of 'kits' containing the 'key' system
components (encapsulated solar cells, total
reflection mirrors, the sun-tracker, and power
electronics) which will be sold to solar collector
manufacturers. In turn, they will produce Proteas
PV System units and sell them through their
sales networks.
It has been calculated that, with the average
Greek solar conditions, each Proteas unit will
produce 6000 KW per year. To this energy,
savings must be added from air-conditioning
during the summer and hot water during the
winter. In view of the above, the impact of
Proteas PV System technology is expected to
be very significant.
Progress to date
Six months after the beginning of the project
only the basic engineering has been
accomplished. Studies on all technologies
integrated in Proteas are under way.
BUILDINGS INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS
Objectives
Traditional PV, thermal solar and HVAC
systems show very poor building
integration, strong visual impact and lack
of integrated apparatus and accessories.
They are conceived, designed, installed and
operated as totally separated systems,
without exploiting their synergies and
cogeneration properties at all. These
become more evident considering that a
building needs to be treated as a
thermodynamic system, behaving
comparably to the human body. In both
systems, the aim is to keep the internal
conditions as stable as possible, while
interacting with changing external
situations.
The objective of this project is to realise an
integrated energy sustainable building, to
be considered as an active thermodynamic
system interacting with the environment
through active surfaces, which
constitute a skin for the building, by
collecting solar energy (thermal and PV)
and reducing the energy demand during
summer. The aim is to reduce total energy
consumption of about 50-70%.
S O L A R S K I N
126
Challenges
The crucial step for ward which renewable
energies need to achieve is breakthrough building
integration, to ensure much higher acceptability
and to exploit substitution costs to cut pay-back.
This orientation is clearly perceived in ongoing
worldwide research projects and is at the base
of most innovative technologies moving towards
the market.
In common, current diffused building systems,
external surfaces (walls and roof) are conceived
as a barrier to the external environment, with the
following disadvantages:
during hot seasons: thermal conditions in
the zones exposed to the sun are
unacceptable, while the solar energy is not
exploited in any way (stored, used for the
production hot water and electric power);
during cold seasons: the zones which are
not exposed to the sun are very much
colder and the solar energy (remarkable
during sunny days even in winter) is not
exploited to heat water and the environment.
As a consequence of the present high energy-
demanding building concept, the building sector
is responsible for 40% of the EUs final energy
consumption.
Technical solution proposed
The solution implemented by the project is the
realisation of active surfaces in new building or
in restructuring existing ones: the internal and
external surfaces of walls are crosses by plastic
hydraulic circuits, in which a specific liquid heat
vector flows. Circuits are realised through plastic
pipes mounted in the faades of the walls,
conventionally built with bricks presenting a
particular profile. Surfaces can then be finished
as normal in a building or covered with ad hoc
ceramic faceplates with high or low thermal
conductivity, according to requirements.
Building walls developed in this way can have a
twofold purpose:
captive surfaces: in the external surfaces of
walls exposed to sun, where the liquid collects
heat;
climate conditioning surfaces: the internal
surfaces act like heat exchangers for living
environments (low-temperature radiation
heating), by flowing hot or cold liquid, according
to daily and seasonal requirements.
Thermal insulation is created by filling the internal
part of the bricks with thermal insulating material
in order to insulate the two hydraulic circuits and
reduce the thermal loss of the building.
Thermal storage system is provided through the
use of heat storage material studied during the
project, i.e. zeolites. To work in the cooling
mode, an underground heat dissipating
exchanger will be designed.
The introduction of active surfaces in the internal
surfaces of the different living environments of
the building can help to reach the optimal comfort
conditions in all parts of the building (south as
well as north) in all seasons, by transferring
the heat through the liquid vector.
PV cells can be directly mounted on the external
faceplates of the southern walls, reducing the PV
operation temperature through the coupling with
the thermal collector, and then increasing its
ef ficiency; in this way cogeneration can be
achieved on the building surface.
Project structure
The project is co-financed under the CRAFT
scheme.
The core group of SME proposers comprises:
SGG (I), specialised in thermal storage and
exchange systems; De Buen (E), building
constructing company; MMT (I), a manufacturer
of hydraulic accessories (plastic pipes,
electrovalves, tanks, etc.); Cipasi (E), producer
of heat insulating and conductive materials;
Wall-integrated thermal and
photovoltaic system
EHW (D), specialised in design and development
of PV modules accessories; AGF (I), producer of
electronic control systems and inverters; and
MAMPAX (E), designer and manufacturer of
ceramic tiles and bricks.
On the other hand, the research per formers
have much experience in the field of renewable
energy sources exploitation and integration,
climate control and electronic automation:
IBE (E), configuration, design and development,
LABOR (I), simulation and control, Venezia
Tecnologia (I), thermal and mechanical
performance of materials.
The partners are very much complementary for
their skills and experiences and the integration
of these capabilities will surely lead to the
achievement of the proposed aims.
Exploitation plan
The expected contribution of the Solarskin system
to improve the quality of life of inhabitants of the
building will be due to:
A new way of climatisation with respect to
conventional HVAC, which has been shown to
be the cause of many health problems, such
as the Sick Building Syndrome, caused by
unclean channels.
Low-temperature radiation for heating and
cooling complies better with modern health
standards, avoiding the disadvantages
caused by present systems with small
surfaces and high DT, and providing much
more uniform conditions.
Better living conditions (desired temperature
and humidity) in all parts of the building,
thanks to the use of an automated and
efficient control system.
Reduced consumption of fuel resources:
with the foreseen performances, building
energy needs would be strongly reduced.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2002-30019
Title:
Energy Sustainable Building with
Integrated Thermophotovoltaic Solar
System and Climate Control SOLARSKIN
Start Date: November 2002
Duration: 24 months
Contact point:
Marino Trimboli
Tel: +39-019 504788
Fax: +39-019 505381
sggsnc@tin.it
Partners:
SGG (IT)
De Buen (ES)
MMT (IT)
Cipasi (ES)
EHW (DE)
AGF (IT)
Mampax (ES)
IBE (ES)
Labor (IT)
Venezia Tecnologie (IT)
EC Scientific Officer:
Georges Deschamps
Tel: +32-2 2951445
Fax: +32-2 2993694
georges.deschamps@cec.eu.int
127
Considering an average energy consumption
reduction of 60% with respect to present
buildings, at least in southern latitudes, and
a degree of application of 5% to European
new and restructured buildings in the next ten
years, (about 1.5% of existing buildings per
year in Europe) a 0.018% of total energy
consumption and related CO2 emissions in
Europe per year would be achieved by the
project.
Higher acceptability of RES technology: the
proposed technology makes feasible the
application of solar energy with low visual
impact and space occupation. This allows the
application of solar technologies in buildings
where not much space is available for energy
capture and also in building subjected to
architectural constraints.
Progress to date
The technical specifications defined for the
Solarskin system are:
Thermal transmittance of the walls = 0,7 W/m
2
K
Total thermal exchange coefficient in radiant
surface = 6 W/m
2
K
Average solar captive surface efficiency = 30%
Cost = 100/m
2
of wall surface (installed cost)
The activities completed at present stage are:
Choice and characterisation of the ceramic
materials for bricks and faceplates
Design and implementation of hydraulic pipes
and circuits
Choice and characterisation of heat storage
material
By the end of the project a building prototype
equipped with Solarskin surfaces and control
system will be developed and installed in IBEs
facilities in Ibiza to show its feasibility and test the
functionalities of the technology.
BUILDINGS INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS
STANDARDS - OTHERS
Objectives
Long life times of PV modules are a
precondition for the cost-effective
operation of PV systems. Several module
manufacturers already provide life time
guarantees of more than 20 years. Besides
environmental factors, hot-spot heating
affects the life times of PV modules. At
present there is a lack of information about
suitable hot-spot safety measures for the
modules. The project will contribute to
improving the module design for the
different cell technologies that have
achieved production level (c-Si, a-Si, CIS,
CdTe). The main objectives are:
- Documentation of the reverse biased
operational behaviour of crystalline
silicon cells;
- Clarification of fundamental questions
regarding hot-spot effects for serial and
parallel cell interconnection circuits for
large area (faade) PV modules;
- Clarification of fundamental questions
regarding hot-spot heating effects for
thin-film modules; and
- Development of design guidelines
regarding hot-spot safety measures and
new testing methods.
I M O T H E E
130
Challenges
Hot-spot heating is caused by total or partial
shading of cells inside the module, caused either
by sections of a building and other obstacles such
as trees (location-specific shadowing), or by
leaves, bird droppings, etc. (accidental
shadowing). In such cases, shaded cells are
operated with the reverse current-voltage
characteristic, resulting in energy dissipation in
the form of heat. If no or only ineffective hot-spot
safety measures are implemented in module
design, the reverse voltage may exceed a critical
limit, whereupon dielectric breakdown of the pn-
junction will occur, causing point-focal heating,
as illustrated in figure 2.
One of the technical requirements for PV module
design is resistance to the hot-spot heating that
can cause solder to melt, deterioration of the
encapsulation or visible cracks in the glass
cover, and consequently a loss of the modules
insulating proper ties. European module
manufacturers who rely on purchased crystalline
silicon cells are at present uncertain about the
suitable hot-spot safety measures for their
modules. The implementation of effective hot-
spot safety measures in modules requires
knowledge of the operational behaviour under
reverse biased conditions for the used cell type.
This information is not provided by cell
manufacturers, whose data sheets focus on the
efficiency of the solar cells. To avoid thermal
overload due to hot-spot operation, strings of cells
within the interconnection circuit of modules
must be bridged by bypass-diodes in order to limit
the reverse voltage to non-critical values.
The aim of the present project is to document the
individual reverse-biased operational behaviour
of commercially available crystalline silicon cells,
and to derive measures for safe hot-spot
operation. Module manufacturers will then be
able to use the acquired data for module design.
Exploitation plan
The project is expected to improve the guaranteed
life times of PV modules, thereby having a
positive effect on the efficiency of PV systems,
creating greater public acceptance and demand,
and stimulating economic growth in Europe.
Fundamental design guidelines for effective hot-
spot safety measures will be developed to ensure
that life times and electrical safety are not
affected by hot-spot heating. A comprehensive
database will be prepared for the reverse-biased
operation of crystalline silicon and thin-film cells.
Design guidelines for module manufacturers for
the hot-spot resistance of their PV modules will
be established. Guidelines will be prepared for
the improvement of large-area PV modules by
means of a cost-effective cell interconnection
design. Adequate testing methods to prove hot-
spot resistance of PV modules will be developed.
Results
The electrical and thermal behaviour of 35
commercially available solar cells from 14 cell
manufacturers has been studied under reverse-
biased conditions. For statistical purposes,
measurements were performed on batches of 20
cells per type.
Improvement of the life time
and safety of PV modules
Characterisation was based on a test procedure
involving three types of measurement:
Reverse current-voltage characteristics:
Electrical measurements provide information on
the scattering of the current leakage and
consequently of the parallel resistance for the cell
type. These results will provide an initial electrical
characterisation of cell types, making it possible
to carr y out a general comparison of the
operational behaviour under reverse-biased
conditions.
Infra-red imaging under load:
Infra-red images of all cells were taken at a
constant reverse voltage of -10 volts. This
operation point corresponds to a hot-spot
protective measure of 18 cells per bypass-diode,
as is commonly used for commercial PV modules.
This thermal characterisation yields information
on the distribution of the leakage current density
and thus the uniformity of the cell material, from
which conclusions about the positions and
strengths of shunt defects can be drawn.
Critical reverse voltage for junction breakdown:
The reverse voltage that causes dielectric
breakdown of the pn-junction was determined for
each individual cell. From the voltage ranges of
the 35 cell types, the critical reverse voltage for
the cell type is represented by the worst-case cell
with the lowest absolute value of breakdown
voltage. This operation point must be avoided by
the bypass-diode design of a module.
Contrary to the performance data in the forward
range, the reverse-biased operational behaviour
of solar cells of the same batch varies more or
less in a manner specific to the cell type. For ten
cell types, leakage currents in the range of the
INFORMATION
Contract: ERK5-CT-1999-00005
Title:
Improvement of Photovoltaic Modules -
Measures for Withstanding Electrical and
Thermal Effects Caused by Reverse
Biasing of Cells IMOTHEE
Start Date: March 2000
Duration: 24 months
Contact point:
Werner Herrmann
Tel: +49-221 806 2272
Partners:
TV Immissionsschutz und
Energiesysteme GmbH (DE)
CIEMAT (ES)
Flabeg Solar International GmbH (DE)
Photowatt International SA (FR)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
131
short circuit current at STC were measured at
a test voltage of -10 volts. In 19 cases, power
dissipation led to maximum cell temperatures
above 150C.
The distribution of leakage currents across
the cell area is not uniform. Shunt defects and
hence concentrations of leakage current were
detected mostly at the cell edges and at the
soldering points of cell interconnections.
Figure 3 shows the ranges of measured
breakdown voltages of the investigated cell
types. In addition, the voltage limits for hot-spot
protective measures of 18 and 24 cells per
bypass-diode have been entered with horizontal
lines at 10V and 13.3V. As regards the 18-cell
concept, seven cell types (20%) do not fulfil the
hot-spot protection requirements, because the
critical voltage is below the voltage limit. For the
24-cell concept, this number increases to 23
cell types (66%).
There is a clear difference in the electrical
behaviour of solar cells of different grades.
Solar cells of the same material but lower
efficiency show higher leakage currents and
lower breakdown voltages.
The commonly used hot-spot protective
measures of 18 and 24 cells per bypass-diode
do not work for all cell types used in commercial
PV modules. In addition to the performance
data, manufacturers of solar cells should also
provide information about reverse-biased
operational behaviour while making
recommendations for bypass-diode design.
Figure 3. Measured ranges of reverse voltage
with junction breakdown. The lower limit of each
cell type represents the critical voltage that must
be avoided by adequate bypass-diode wiring
within the cell interconnection circuit of the
module.
Figure 2. Formation of a hot spot on a crystalline
silicon cell.
Figure 1. Hot-spot operation caused by the
shading of a PV generator.
STANDARDS - OTHERS
132
Objectives
Thin-film PV modules based on
polycrystalline semiconductors have the
potential to approach relatively high
module efficiencies at low production
costs. The two relevant thin-film PV
technologies, CIS and CdTe, started with
European production in 2001.
However, there is a lack of field experience
and standard test procedures for thin-film
PV modules, which may restrict customer
confidence in the reliability of the
technology.
The project investigates thoroughly the
outdoor performance of CIS and CdTe
modules at test sites in Northern, Central
and Southern Europe and gives feedback to
the manufacturers to improve the module
quality. Finally, with the experimental
results from more than two years of
outdoor testing a reliable assessment of
the polycrystalline thin-film technology can
be given.
P Y T H A G O R A S
Challenges
For the first time, PV module samples of the most
promising thin-film solar module technologies, CIS
and CdTe, are being tested at three European
outdoor sites in different climatic regions under
identical testing conditions.
Semi-empirical models to describe the module
performance are developed on the basis of the
recorded outdoor current/voltage characteristics
and allow for a calculation of the energy output
under various climatic conditions. This in turn
gives the enables selaction of the module type
for the most economic PV energy generation at
a given site.
The tests include accelerated outdoor ageing
experiments and supply information about long
term per formance and the stability of the
polycrystalline thin-film modules.
Project structure
The consor tium consists of three research
institutes and two industrial partners.
Zentrum fr Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-
Forschung Baden-Wrttemberg (ZSW, project co-
ordinator), Instituto Tecnolgico y de Energias
Renovables (ITER) and Helsinki University of
Technology (HUT) are research institutes with a
wide experimental and theoretical experience
in the field of photovoltaics. They operate PV field
test sites with meteorological data acquisition in
Germany, Tenerife and Finland, and their role is
to characterise and analyse the outdoor operation
of the polycr ystalline thin-film modules. The
locations of the test sites represent different
typical European climates.
Wrth Solar and ANTEC are operating pilot plants
for the production of CIS and CdTe PV modules
with the aim of producing up to 1 MWp of thin-
film solar modules each per year and further
expansion to 10 MWp or more. At the start of the
project they supplied "first generation" CIS and
CdTe modules. The results from the first one-year
test phase ser ved as input to improve the
fabrication process and to develop an improved
module generation which is tested in a second
one-year outdoor test phase.
Exploitation plan
Outdoor test results have been obtained from
both phases of the one-year field tests. The
results from test phase 1, which are the basis
for the development of the second module
generation, have been kept confidential within the
consortium. Test results from phase 2 and the
assessment of the technology are open to the
public and will be used to promote the marketing
of the improved CIS and CdTe solar modules
developed within the project.
Models to describe the field operation behaviour
of CIS and CdTe thin-film PV modules and to
calculate the system per formance for given
meteorological conditions are essential for an
energetic assessment of the technology.
A successful assessment mainly with respect
to stability will considerably improve the
acceptance and enhance the proliferation of PV
thin-film technology. This in turn can of fer
employment opportunities in the fields of PV
module and system fabrication, distribution
(including export) of PV and associated items, in
crafts for installation of modules and system
components.
Preparing the market for
novel thin-film photovoiltaic
generators
133
Results
In 2001, Wr th Solar achieved module
efficiencies exceeding 9% for the standard CIS
module (60cm x 120cm). All modules delivered
to the project have an efficiency above 8%. The
set-up of ANTEC Technologys production line was
finished at the beginning of 2001. The production
process turned out to be very stable with respect
to throughput and reproducibility. Modules with
efficiencies of about 5% have been selected for
measurements from a single test production run.
Meanwhile, both modules types have been
further improved. ANTEC CdTe modules produced
in 2002 achieved above 7% efficiency, while
Wr th Solar demonstrated CIS average
efficiencies above 10%.
Before shipment to the test sites, 48 modules
of each technology have been tested under the
manufacturers' sun simulators directly after
production. In addition, seven modules of each
type have been characterised at the certified
calibration lab at TV Rheinland, Cologne.
Sixteen modules of each technology have been
installed on fixed racks at solar energy test
sites in Helsinki, Widderstall and Tenerife; the tilt
angle is adapted to the latitude of the site.
Three essential data sets have been recorded:
1. Meteorological/irradiance data and module
temperatures
2. Isc, Voc, Vmp, Pmp derived from the measured
IV curves
3. Sets of full IV-curve data from the test modules.
INFORMATION
Contract : ENK5-CT-2000-00334
Title:
Preparing the Market for Novel
Polycrystalline Thin-Film
Photovoltaic Generators by
Examination and Assessment
of Field Performance PYTHAGORAS
Start Date: January 2001
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
H-D. Mohring
Tel: +49-711 7870272
Fax: +49-711 7870230
mohring@zsw-bw.de
Partners:
ZSW (DE)
Wrth Solar (DE)
ANTEC (DE)
ITER SA (ES)
Helsinki University of Technology (FI)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
Continuous field tests have been per formed
since autumn 2001 in Helsinki, Widderstall and
Tenerife.
Coef ficients for parameter correction with
respect to temperature and irradiance have
been determined for open circuit voltage, short
circuit current , fill factor and power. An empirical
model has been developed to describe the
outdoor module performance.
For the CdTe modules under test, the output
power at maximum power point shows no
variation with temperature the power
temperature coefficient for CIS is about 20%
lower than for crystalline silicon.
The stability of both module types CdTe and CIS
has been demonstrated in the field tests.
Figure 1 shows the measured (temperature
dependent) outdoor efficiency of CIS at 1000
W/m_ irradiance and the data corrected to the
reference temperature 25C. For CdTe, no
temperature correction is necessary (figure 2).
In Germany and Finland an irradiance level of
1000 W/m
2
is not reached in the module plane
during winter months. In order to include these
periods in the stability examination, efficiency
data for 800 W/m
2
irradiance are also given in
figure 2.
Figure 1. Long-term
performance of CIS at 1000
W/m_ irradiance. Measured
data and data corrected to
reference temperature 25C
.(STC)
Figure 2. Long-term
performance of CdTe at 1000
W/m_ and 800 W/m_
irradiance. No temperature
correction is necessary.
STANDARDS - OTHERS
Objectives
The installed power of grid connected
photovoltaic (PV) systems has significantly
increased over the last years and is
expected to contribute on a large scale to
the future European electricity supply.
Regular efficiency controls are essential for
economic success by assuring an optimum
performance of the systems.
PVSAT-2 is a fully automated performance
check for photovoltaic system operations
based on satellite data. It aims to reduce
costs by optimizing energy yields and
system maintenance.
PVSAT-2 will provide an operational low-
cost, long-term surveillance for grid
integrated PV systems applicable for any
site within Europe. A central intelligent
decision support system will assist in an
early detection of faults or malfunctions
and increase the overall reliability of PV
systems.
P V S A T - 2
134
Challenges
Energy losses of grid-connected PV systems
caused by different operating conditions and
malfunctions, e.g. drop out of single module
strings, shading from trees or buildings, or
inverter failures, can be barely detectable. These
problems should be solved through a regular and
automated performance check that will increase
the system's efficiency and productivity.
Figure 1 gives an overview on the whole PVSAT-
2 procedure, which consists of three main steps:
Incoming solar radiation is determined from
METEOSAT images (later from MSG images)
on an hourly basis, in order to calculate the
expected solar radiation received by a PV
system. To refine this data set, ground
measurements of hourly solar radiation
will be interpolated across European countries.
Based on satellite data and ground
measurements, an individual daily yield for a
PV system will be calculated by a simulation
model using preliminary information about
the PV modules supplied by the operator:
orientation, inclination and configuaration of
the modules, type of inverter used, and a
horizon line.
PVSAT-2 will perform an automated daily
performance check. It will examine the
expected and achieved energy yields. In case
of a detected malfunction, a decision support
tool will search via a 'footprint' method for
causes, and notify the operator.
The main new feature in this project is the
automated feedback of the produced energy
yield and the automated decision support system
to motify the user in case of a failure.
Central challenges are the development of the
decision making-tool, the integration of a low-cost
hardware device into the PV system for
automated measurements, and the daily two-way
communication with a central ser ver.
Furthermore, an improved irradiance calculation
scheme for a more exact simulation is needed.
Increasing accuracy is expected by using the
additional ground data.
Project structure
The project consortium consists of five partners:
The Energy and Semiconductor Research
Laboratory of Oldenburg University (D), Enecolo
AG (CH), the Department of Science, Technology,
and Society of Utrecht University (NL),
MeteoControl GmbH (D), and the Fraunhofer
Institute for Solar Energy Systems (D).
The tasks of Oldenburg University, besides project
coordination, are the irradiance calculation and its
improvement, the simulation, and the assembling
of the prototype application PVSAT-2. Enecolo is
involved in the development of the decision-
making tool, and later in sales, marketing and
customer care. The 'footprint' method will be
developed by the Fraunhofer Institute.
MeteoControl will provide the hardware device for
measurements and communication, and will
also be a distributor of the PVSAT-2 service at
the end of the project. Utrecht University is in
charge of the test and validation of the entire
PVSAT-2 system.
PVSAT-2 is the successor to the EU project
PVSAT.
Intelligent performance check
of PV system operation based
on satellite data
Exploitation plan
The integration of solar energy into the existing
energy supply structures can be even more
successful if an operational surveillance system
assures reliable and efficient operation of the PV
systems.
PVSAT-2 will establish a cheap and easy-to-use
performance check that will ease the operational
management of PV energy systems. Average
cost reductions of about 5% in both system
maintenance and power production are expected.
By introducing a unique two-way communication
structure between the PV system and a central
intelligent system, PVSAT-2 will provide the basis
for a variety of management and control activities
for, e.g. utilities. In addition, PVSAT-2 will help to
open the renewable energy sector to new
information and communication structures by
introducing satellite-derived radiation data and
new ITC-based decision-making techniques.
Caption: Cross validation of interpolation,
satellite, and data fusion method on three years
of monthly irradiation from the Dutch
meteorological network. Ground stations were
removed stepwise from the dataset to investigate
the accuracy for less dense meteorological
networks. Mean irradiation value in the dataset
is 2697 Wh/day.
Progress to date
The project started on the 1st November 2002.
Currently all tasks are under development.
In a first step, a survey on user's expectations
from potential clients operating a PV system
has been carried out to evaluate the need of a
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2002-00631
Title:
Intelligent Performance Check of PV
System Operation Based On
Satellite Data PVSAT-2
Start Date: November 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Detlev Heinemann
Tel: +49-441 798 35 43
Fax: +49-441 798 33 26
Detlev.Heinemann@uni-oldenburg.de
Partners:
Universitt Oldenburg (DE)
ENECOLO (CH)
Universiteit Utrecht (NL)
IST Energiecom GmbH (DE)
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft-ISE (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
135
service like PVSAT-2. The results show that
over 40% of those inter viewed already
experienced losses on their systems, mainly by
chance through reading the energy meter or a
signal from the inver ter; they would like a
cheap and automated surveillance. Just 23%
of the participants already own a monitoring
system. Their motivation on purchasing PVSAT-
2 lies not only in the detection of energy losses
and yield optimisation the prior interest
focuses on additional information about the
actual yield (79%), data for own evaluations
(55%), and information on the solar irradiance
in their area (51%).
For these functions the potential customers are
willing to pay 5 per month and a one-of f
amount that ranges between 100 and 500
for the basic acquisition of the controlling
hardware device.
Therefore, a market analysis on existing
hardware products that might meet customers
expectations has been done. Typically, the
prices for adequate hardware lie above 500.
A new prototype hardware device for the PVSAT-
2 tasks which can meet customerss
expectations has to be developed in the course
of the project.
First results could already be achieved on the
improvement of the irradiance calculation.
In case of easily available ground measured
irradiance data, they can be combined with
irradiance data derived from satellite images
(Heliosat).
STANDARDS - OTHERS
136
Objectives
Sense will address the three major
challenges, the European solar industry is
facing today.
The first challenge is the need to reduce
costs to increase the application of solar
cells. The production costs for solar cells
will be analysed using the instrument of life
cycle engineering (LCE). LCE detects
economic (as well as environmental) weak
points and indicates possible
improvements. The recycling (see below)
may also reduce costs significantly, due to
lower costs for recycled materials and
savings on disposal costs.
The second challenge is the improvement
of the energy pay-back time. Only with an
improved efficiency will solar cells be
competitive when compared to fossil
energy carriers. The use of recycled
materials will improve energy pay-back
time.
The third challenge is the widely unsolved
recycling issue. In Sense, economic
and ecological reasonable recycling
route(s) for the three most important thin-
film solar cells, CdTe, CIS and a-Si will be
developed.
S E N S E
Challenges
Today's main challenges for the solar industry are
the need to reduce costs for solar systems, the
foreseeable scarceness of raw materials, and the
necessary improvement of the energy pay-back
time. The unsolved recycling issues will become
a problem in the near future.
The project Sense will face these challenges by
developing recycling strategies for a-Si, CIS and
CdTe solar cells and by scientifically based
analysis of the efficiency of the solar systems,
based on Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). This has to
consider production, product use and End of
Life (EoL) aspects of the complete systems to be
holistic. As recycling is a possibility to save
energy for the primar y production of new
materials, it also will affect the energy pay-back
time positively, under the reduction of material
scarceness and the reduction of material costs.
The project targets are
Life Cycle Analysis of solar modules; including
goal and scope definition, Life Cycle Modelling
and impact assessment of production, use and
recycling
Development of technically reasonable
recycling routes for thin-film solar modules
Economic and technical evaluation and
verification of recycling routes
Integration into LCE and implementation of the
results into technological improvements
Project structure
The project consortium consists of IKP University
of Stuttgart, Wrth Solar GmbH & Co.KG, Free
Energy Europe SA, Umicore SA, Zentrum fuer
Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstof f-Forschung
Baden Wr ttemberg (ZSW), ICT Fraunhofer
Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der angewandten
Forschung e.V., Ambiente Italia srl and Fundacin
Gaiker.
The role of the cell producers (Wr th, Free
Energy) is to bring in their expertise in solar
technology and to deliver the solar panels for the
recycling tests. In the course of the project the
production processes at the partners, plants
will be improved and adapted to the needs of the
recycling technology, in close co-operation with
all partners.
The metal manufacturer Umicore delivers, for
example, the cadmium-telluride needed for the
CdTe-cells. Umicore processes primary metal
ores as well as secondary material like scrap.
Umicore is committed to leading the way in
recycling and developing environmentally friendly
products and processes and will further process
the separated fraction of recycled solar cells
from other partners to regain the valuable metals
therein.
The ZSW is the provider of know-how in the
development of solar cells and will support the
solar cell producers in improving the production
processes. ZSW scientists, as specialists for
solar cells, are the link between cell producers
on the one hand and the scientific partners and
recyclers on the other hand. Their overview and
experience in solar-cell related topics is
indispensable for the project.
Recycling of the three solar cell types in such a
way that Umicore may process the valuable
metals therein as efficiently as possible, is the
task of the Fraunhofer ICT and GAIKER, supported
by the ZSW. Fraunhofer ICT and Gaiker are
experienced recycling specialists with access
Sustainability evaluation and
recycling development
for thin-film solar cells
137
to relevant machinery and know-how in recycling
processing.
LCA and LCE, as an impor tant measure for
sustainability, will be carried out by IKP and
Ambiente Italia. Beside the coordination tasks,
IKP is responsible for the analysis of production
and use of the solar modules. This includes
comprehensive analysis of the whole production
chain of used materials and semi-finished
products. To carry out this analysis in the case
of the solar modules is only possible because of
the extensive experience of IKP and the huge
database built up in the last ten years which will
be widely used within Sense. Ambiente Italia is
experienced in LCA studies especially in the
recycling sector and will be mainly responsible
for the LCA of the recycling processes to be
developed.
Exploitation plan
Minimising the environmental impacts
The activities in Sense will preser ve the
ecosystem by reducing emissions on a global
level (reduction of CO2 and ozone-depleting
emissions) and local level (toxic emissions,
smog, acidification). This will be reached by a
reduction of energy consumption in manufacturing
through the use of recycled material and the
optimisation of the production processes using
the LCA/LCE method.
Increasing the share of renewable energy
sources
Sense contributes to making solar energy more
attractive to the European citizens by reducing
prices for solar cells, making available clear and
comprehensible data on energy pay-back time
and environmental profiles and by developing
technical feasible and economic recycling routes.
This will also improve the acceptability of energy
from renewables.
Socio-economic impacts
Sense will enhance the capability of European
industry to compete in world markets by reducing
costs and improving the acceptability, as
described above. This will, on the one hand
secure employment, and on the other, new jobs
will be generated if the developed recycling
technology is applied in Europe on a large scale.
Development of new technology
Within Sense, new recycling technology for the
considered types of solar cells (CdTe, CIS, a-Si)
will be developed.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK5-CT-2002-00639
Title:
Sustainability Evaluation of Solar Energy
Systems SENSE
Start Date: January 2003
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Niels Warburg
Tel: +49-711 489999 28
warburg@ikp2.uni-stuttgart.de
Partners:
Universitt Stuttgart (DE)
Wrth Solar (DE)
Free Energy Europe SA (FR)
Umicore SA (BE)
ZSW (DE)
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft-ICT (DE)
Ambiente Italia Srl (IT)
Fundacin Gaiker (ES)
EC Scientific Officer:
Rolf strm
Tel: +32-2 2962085
Fax: +32-2 2993694
rolf.ostrom@cec.eu.int
STANDARDS - OTHERS
Objectives
Photovoltaics is strongly supported
because it has a high potential to generate
electricity at low cost by the middle of this
century. With an experience curve
approach, the past price evolution is used
to make a projection of the price
development in the coming decade and
beyond. A good model of the learning
processes in the PV community might
allow for more effective market and R&D
stimulation policies.
So, information is collected on past trends
of the price of PV systems and its key
components. Experience curves are
developed and price evolution is combined
with information on cost potential to make
a price projection. Energy policies will be
evaluated using the experience curve
methodology and effective future policies
identified for development and deployment
of PV technology. Information will be
provided that can be used to accelerate
the implementation of photovoltaic energy
systems.
P H O T E X
138
Challenges
In this project the future price development of PV
systems and modules will be assessed using the
experience curve methodology. In contradiction
to the usual approach, not only price data of
modules, but also of inverters, installation costs
and total systems in different configurations
will be collected. In addition to an extrapolation
of the prices in the past, normalised to the
cumulative installed PV capacity, the cost
potential will also be evaluated. This helps to see
when a new technological step, or even
breakthrough is needed to ride along the
experience (learning) cur ve. It also gives
information on what technological innovation
contributes most to further cost reduction.
It is not only the cost but also the value which
is important. Therefore, the various PV market
segments are identified and the necessar y
learning investments and years of break-even are
calculated.
Policy schemes are evaluated and correlated
with price and experience curves to identify the
effect of policy measures on cost reduction and
implementation rate. Analysis of how the PV
community industry and R&D institutions
works and how it interacts with the market gives
insight into how learning can be stimulated and
how (public) money can be spent most effectively
in relation to cost reduction.
Exploitation plan
Public money can be spent on R&D,
manufacturing technology development and
market stimulation. Shor t-and long-term
monitoring of the price evolution and analysis of
the cost potential and breakdown of PV systems
can give information on how and when to support
PV development and market introduction.
This will lead to more effective stimulation of the
cost reduction of PV systems.
Project structure
This project is developing experience (learning)
cur ves for PV in close co-operation with the
International Energy Agency (IEA). IEA has
established a network called EXCETP (EXperience
Curves for Energy Technology Policy) to provide
an experience curve database and methodologies
which, together with insights from case studies,
will support policy-making for energy technology.
ECN (NL), Policy Studies unit, is coordinator of
the project. Two units of ECN are involved; Policy
Studies is taking care of the experience curve
methodology and policy analysis, and ECN Solar
Energy is collecting price data for PV modules and
Dutch PV systems as well as doing an analysis
of the cost reduction potential.
ISET (D), a partner in the related project EXTOOL
(wind experience curves), is responsible for the
price data of inverters, the price database and,
is giving input in the experience cur ve
methodology.
Utrecht University (NL) is responsible for the
experience cur ve analyses and evaluation of
the cost potential, and is taking par t in the
policy analysis.
GENEC (F) is responsible for the policy analysis
and collecting price data for stand-alone systems
and French grid connected rooftop systems.
FhG-ISE (D) collects data for German rooftop
systems and analyses the breakdown of the
BOS costs.
CESI (I) collects and analyses the cost of large
PV plants.
Photovoltaics maintains its
good cost-reduction potential
Progress to date
Price data have been collected for modules,
system components and complete grid connected
systems. In total, 3400 data records are
available, as a representative sample, more
than one-third of the installed capacity, for
Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and France.
The resulting learning cur ves show that the
learning rate is still at the high level of 20%. This
holds for both modules and BOS (Balance of
Systems). As a consequence and in contrast to
earlier predictions, modules are still the major
cost factor with a contribution of about 70%.
A more accurate analysis shows that the learning
system for PV modules is the whole world. There
is an intensive interaction between the R&D
community and manufacturers worldwide and
the price is determined globally. The module
price has stabilised during the last years and only
showed a significant decrease last year, as
market conditions had a large ef fect. It is
expected, and was confirmed in an exper t
workshop, that recently built and planned module
production facilities will give an increased cost
reduction. Price projections using LR = 20% are
sensible for at least the coming decade.
For BOS it is reasonable to assume local learning.
This is certainly valid for the building sector.
This also holds for inverters because of national
grid regulations. The significant price reduction
found for rooftop systems is caused by the large
market that has been created in the last decade
in Germany and the Netherlands. This has led to
a competitive installer sector and standardisation:
the start of PV as a building product.
INFORMATION
Contract: ENK6-CT-2001-00563
Title:
Experience Curve Analysis of
Photovoltaic Energy Systems and
Components PHOTEX
Start Date: December 2001
Duration: 24 months
Contact point:
Gerrit Jan Schaeffer
Tel: +31-224 56 8264
schaeffer@ecn.nl
www.energytransition.info/photex
Partners:
ECN (NL)
CEA-GENEC (FR)
ISET (DE)
Universiteit Utrecht (NL)
CESI (IT)
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft-ISE (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Barry Robertson
Tel: +32-2 2950633
Fax: +32-2 2994991
barry.robertson@cec.eu.int
139
Analysis of the cost breakdown of crystalline
silicon and some thin-film technologies showed
that there is room for cost reduction for at
least the coming ten to 20 years. Thereafter
new concepts like, for example, (organic)
polymer solar cells or high-efficiency concepts,
could be a solution.
Policy analysis has only just started, but it can
already be concluded that, to maintain the
present high learning and growth rate for PV,
consistent policy and a related predictable
market is a prerequisite.
Figure 1. Learning curve for German rooftop PV systems.
Figure 2. Price of PV systems as a function of learning and growth rate.
STANDARDS - OTHERS
DEMONSTRATION AND
DISSEMINATION
ACTIVITIES
142
Objectives
The objectives of this ambitious and
innovative project are to demonstrate that
European local and regional authorities can
implement a significant part of the EC
targets on CO2 and PV within their own built
environment. Together with relevant market
players such as project developers, utilities
and the building industry they will implement
zero-emission urban developments in 1,697
new houses and 3.05 MWp of PV. Another
goal is to demonstrate that PV can be
implemented in a normal but appealing way
when fully integrated in the urban planning
and building process on an entire housing
development site. Furthermore (also a result
of the integral approach), a considerable
cost reduction to less than 3.5/Wp in
2004 will be achieved in several Member
States for the large-scale application of
building integrated PV. Finally, the results of
the integral approach will be disseminated
and the risks associated with PV reduced to
increase the uptake by the traditionally risk-
avoiding building industry.
S U N C I T I E S
Challenges
The problem hindering the market uptake of PV
is its high cost of PV (6-12/Wp, depending on
the country. These costs are high because PV is
not fully integrated into the urban and energy
planning process and is insufficiently inserted in
low-energy concepts, because of the small scale
of the PV business. Fur thermore, there is
insufficient real (risk-taking) involvement on the
part of experienced private developers, local
authorities, and building industry so far plus a
lack of mature PV building products. The work
consists of adopting PV into the urban planning
process, energy infrastructure planning,
architectural design, and the electrical grid layout
by the project developers involved. Innovations
include the zero-emission houses using PV on
this scale, the integration of PV in the urban
planning and energy planning approach, joint
tendering, cost reductions achieved by this
approach and scale, and an interactive
dissemination strategy.
Project structure
The consortium consists of partners from the
Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom and
Spain: three municipalities, three project
developers, one housing association, one utility,
three consultants and one governmental
organisation. They can be considered front
runners in low-energy housing and PV project
development. Two municipalities (in NL and UK),
one consultant (in DE) and one governmental
organisation (ES) will act as the main contractors.
The other municipalities (NL), the project
developers (NL and UK), the housing association
(DE), the utility (NL) and consultants are
associated contractors.
Exploitation plan
The project will be a flagship and landmark for
future replication and follow-up projects all over
Europe with extensive exposure of the project
(reaching 20,000,000 EC citizens and over 600
companies active in the building and PV industry
and 1,000 municipalities).
Expected results
The project will deliver the final design,
commissioning and establishment of low to zero-
emission new housing developments (1,697
houses) in the NL (two phases), the UK, ES
(distributed) and DE, with a total of 3.05 MWp
of PV power installed. It will generate an
assessment of the PV-related risks and risk
abatement strategies for project developers.
The replication costs of building integrated grid-
connected PV in housing projects (at MWp scale)
of 4.6/Wp will become average, dropping as low
as 3.5/Wp in some Member States.
Full integration of PV in
urban planning
143
Progress to date
The first year of the project is over. The results
of the past year are described below initially by
country, then the overall results are given.
The Nederlands
The urban plan has been finalised and a draft of
the architectural design is in preparation.
In the current planning schedule, construction of
first housing cluster will begin in November
2003. The installation of the PV modules will
star t in June 2004. Joint tendering is being
reconsidered. The manufacturing and installations
cost are 6 per Wp.
United Kingdom
At a social housing development, the
manufacturing and installation of 40 kWp of PV
has been completed. The monitoring of this
development started in November 2002. Full
monitoring commenced in May 2003, following
the installation of metering.
For other developments, the consideration of
procurement routes, including joint tendering is
ongoing. The differences in planning of the local
projects made (limited) joint tendering dif ficult
to do until now, but this is being reviewed with
a Dutch developer.
Germany
Already half of the houses in the German project
have been sold. Much attention was given to the
communication with the (future) owners of the
buildings. This helped to improve understanding
and acceptance of the renewable energy
technologies.
Manufacturers of the modules and mounting
system and of the inverters have been identified.
The installation will be carried out by conventional
installers. The manufacturing and installation
costs are approximately 6 per Wp. First three
houses/systems have been built, and the PV
systems are in operation.
An automatic recording system has been
developed to monitor the PV systems. This
monitoring started in May/June 2003.
Spain
At this stage, 15 houses have been identified for
installation of the panels. But the public calls
have not star ted yet. A signpost has been
designed and it will be placed at the entrance of
the town.
Overall results
As the results for the various countries show, the
larger par t of the project is still in an early
(preparation) stage and most of the houses
have yet to be built. The architectural design and
planning of the houses has been finished and a
standard set of requirements for PV has been
delivered.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-210-2000
Title:
Large-scale High-density Low-emission
New Housing Developments with Full
Integration of Pv in the Urban Planning
Process SUNCITIES
Start Date: March 2002
Duration: 48 months
Contact point:
C. Bakker
Tel: +31-72 72 57 61200
Fax: +31-72 57 61576
c.bakker@heerhugowaard.nl
Partners:
Gemeente Heerhugowaard (NL)
Bouwfonds Woningbouw BV (NL)
Energy for Sustainable Development (UK)
Gemeente Langedijk (NL)
Gemeente Alkrnaar (NL)
Hallokaties CV (NL)
Meteo Control GmbH (DE)
Nuon Duurzame Energie NV (NL)
Conselleria dEconomia
Comerci Industria (ES)
LebensRume Hausbau
und Bautrger GmbH (DE)
Kirkless Metropolitan Council (UK)
Lowry Renaissance Ltd (UK)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
DEMONSTRATING ECONOMIES OF SCALE
Members of the SunCities project.
Figure 1. Model and
impression of Dutch part.
Figure 2. German part.
144
Objectives
PV-NORD is an EU project on building
integrated photovoltaic (solar electricity, or
PV) systems. The main objective of PV-NORD
is to create conditions for a widespread
exploitation of BIPV in the Northern
Dimension of the EU, by providing the
necessary knowledge and direct
demonstration. The project will run for three
years, during which time almost 200 kWp
will be realised in eight pilot PV systems in
Nordic countries and the Netherlands. This
will pave the way for at least 5MWp of grid-
connected PV to be installed or planned in
Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Norway.
The goal will be reached by:
- Demonstrating the potential of BIPV in
eight prestigious buildings in the Nordic
countries and the Netherlands.
- Identifying and preparing for the removal of
the main barriers that hinder a larger
penetration in the countries in this region.
We are already aware of many of these
barriers but through co-operation between
the countries involved we will secure
better possibilities for moving forward.
- Making possible the elimination of large
parts of these barriers through primarily
preparing concrete instructions and tools,
followed by their dissemination to relevant
target groups, and so on.
P V - N O R D
Challenges
Today, there are practically no Building Integrated
PV (BIPV) projects in Northern Europe. The harsh
climate, low prices of energy and conservative
construction traditions have limited the use of
grid-connected PV systems in buildings.
Traditional industries are typically dependent on
high electrical demands and a large part of the
building stock is heated by electrical energy.
Through the introduction of BIPV, more renewable
energy is being provided on the electricity market.
Nordic electricity is, to a large extent, still being
produced by fossil fuel while the possibility to
extend hydro power has almost been exhausted.
BIPV is the only high-quality (electricity) renewable
energy source possible in an urban environment,
where an ever-increasing share of our total
energy consumption is taking place. This is why
BIPV is one of the next technologies to move the
energy sector towards a sustainable situation.
In reality, there is no great resistance to BIPV. But
as long as we only compare the direct electricity
prices per kWh, without taking into account all
externalities, added values and potential risks in
lack of planning for future use of solar energy in
our cities, no changes can be expected to occur.
Project structure
PV-NORD is a Combined RTD Northern Dimension
project supported by the European Commission,
DG Energy and Transpor t, under the Fifth
Framework Programme, thematic programme
Energy, Environment and Sustainable
Development. PV-NORD is the first EU-funded
research project ever to focus on the Northern
Dimension. Sixteen partners from five Member
States share a budget of 2.8 million. The EU
finances the project with approximately 1.1
million. The project, which will run for three
years, star ted on 1 Januar y 2002. NCC, a
Swedish construction company, is coordinating
the work.
The work is divided into thematic research and
demonstration buildings. The partners represent
different interest groups in PV exploitation, and
form multi-knowledge groups, addressing the
barriers to BIPV from different angles, based on
eight demonstration buildings in the participating
countries. The information collected from each
building will be used as input to the conclusions
of the different groups. Five thematic areas
have been identified corresponding to five
impor tant barriers to BIPV exploitation:
Aesthetic/PV-Integration, Environment, Electricity,
Financing and Ownership and, finally,
Management/ICT. The outcome of all tasks will
be recommendations on design of BIPV in future
buildings and lessons learned from the PV-NORD
demonstration projects.
The demonstration projects are varied, as some
promote PV placing them on the facades in
highly visible ways, while others try to blend the
modules with the decor making them almost
invisible. There is also the use of double functions
of the PV modules which enables the PV
installation to add more value to the building.
Several of the buildings hold high environmental
profiles, in general, e.g. through low energy
designs. For example, in building
Holmen/Grynnan the total energy consumption
per square metre of residential floor area and
year has been limited to 60 kWh (40 kWh heat
and 20 kWh electricity). This is half the
Northern building integrated
solar energy
145
consumption compared to the best-applied
technology in contemporary building designs.
Progress to date
The potential of BIPV is demonstrated here by the
PV-NORD building Kollektivhuset, in central
Copenhagen. This is a faade renovation project
for a multi-storey housing block for handicapped
tenants. The new concept developed within the
project focuses on the integration of the climate
envelope of the building and individual AC
modules. In effect, the solar cell installations
work as radiators for the balconies. The moveable
back-plates invented here provide a flexible way
of controlling this heat emission from the panels
and even support the controlled airflow around
the panel in order to remove the excess heat.
Consequently, dynamic control of the heat
emission is provided without the use of advanced
ductwork for ventilation air, with cleaning and
regular maintenance needs.
In the summer scenario, the users will be most
interested in ventilating the heat from the PV
panels to the outside. This is done by sliding the
moveable back-panel into a position just behind
the PV panel. Thus, the heat will be forced to
leave the parapet-zone through the ventilation
slits at the top and bottom of the PV panel. In
case the user wants to have the heat to enter
the glazed balcony, the back-plate is moved to
the side. In this position, the PV panel will radiate
heat to the balcony. In the spring and autumn,
the heat from the solar cells can thus extend the
possibilities of using the balcony.
One interesting but deliberate effect is that the
movement of the regulators will create a living,
dynamic faade. This brings a spark of life to
an otherwise rigid building. The glass faade on
the balcony lets light through to the inside. A low
opaque part (the hand-rail, approximately 70
cm) gives a sense of safety, while still giving the
opportunity to look down from a sitting position
(which is important for handicapped tenants).
Exploitation plan
In order to fulfil the goals of the EU White Paper
on an increased use of renewable energy in
Europe, it is of great impor tance that the
development of BIPV also takes part in Northern
Europe. In the Netherlands it has been shown
how, in only a few years, the market for BIPV has
been exploited on a large scale with single
projects being achieved in MW sizes.
PV-NORD is the first step towards the widespread
exploitation of building integrated photovoltaics
in the Nor thern Dimension of the European
Union. All the building owners, construction
companies, PV manufacturers and designers
involved in PV-NORD believe BIPV to be an
important area of work for a future energy supply
for society. It is clear from the early results that
the cost of the solar modules is still too high for
BIPV to be a realistic alternative in the open
market. It is also clear that the added values,
inherent in BIPV, can be a feature better utilised
for the increased use of BIPV, as shown by the
Kollektivhuset building. It has shrewdly been
suggested within the group, that the additional
costs from PV (compared to other energy
sources) can be covered by the funds usually
reserved for the artistic decoration of buildings.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE-264-2001
Title:
Northern Building Integrated
Solar Energy PV-NORD
Start Date: January 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Dan Engstrm
Tel: +46-31 771 50 53
Fax: +46-31 15 11 88
dan.engstrom@ncc.se
Partners:
Kungl Tekniska Hoegskolan (SE)
Kanenergu A/S (NO)
NCC AB (SE)
Esbensen Raadgivende Ingenioerer A/S (DK)
Familjebostaeder AB (SE)
Horisun Renewable Energy Strategies (NL)
Naps System OY (FI)
Vest-Agder Fylkes Kommune (NO)
White Arkitekter AB (SE)
Danish Building and Urban Research (DK)
De Vanfoeres Boligselskab
For Kobenjavns Kommune (DK)
Essent Energie (NL)
NCC Property Development OY (FI)
Shell International Exploitation
and Production (NL)
Solpros a Voin Yhtioe (FI)
Yit Rakennus OY (FI)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
DEMONSTRATING ECONOMIES OF SCALE
146
Objectives
The main objective of the project is to
actively participate in the take-off
campaign aiming to double the share of RES
in the European mix by 2010, by installing a
significant number of medium-large grid-
connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in
educational and cultural facilities in four
Member States (Spain, France, UK and the
Netherlands). Wishing to establish the
foundations on which the green campuses
and green municipalities of the future can be
built, the participants (universities, technical
training organisations, regional governments
and municipalities, cultural centres, utilities
and enterprises) also aim to raise social
awareness on energy issues and the actual
possibilities of PV technology. Thanks to the
best architectural integration and technical
design, and to a carefully developed
monitoring and dissemination programme,
the project will clearly contribute to
improving the acceptance of renewable
energy sources among all concerned
professionals, and the general public.
U N I V E R S O L
Challenges
Key barriers to PV market uptake in the EU
include: costs, lack of understanding and
knowledge about the photovoltaic technology, and
the low level of acceptability arising from the
above-mentioned. The most promising application
of PV technology is grid-connected building
integration. For photovoltaic modules to become
a desired building material, architects, engineers,
energy managers and strategic planners have a
key role to play and must be aware of the many
benefits accruing from PV technology. High
standards of PV system efficiency and technical
excellence will be demonstrated, together with
high quality architectural integration in order to
create awareness among these professionals
and contribute to the introduction of PVs to the
market.
Project structure
The project consists of the installation of
707 kWp medium to large size grid-connected PV
systems in Spain (220 Wp), France (345 kWp),
UK (130 kWp) and the Netherlands (12 kWp), in
a total of 25 PV installations. Each system will
be integrated into educational or cultural buildings
(16 universities and technical training
organisations, eight regional governments,
municipalities and cultural centres, and one
enterprise). The University of Barcelona is the
general co-ordinator and technical manager. A
European Steering Committee (including one
par tner from each par ticipant countr y) is
supervising individual projects, facilitating the
progress of the whole project and assuming the
interface between partners and relations with the
DG TREN. The technical and tendering tasks
will be carried out by small working groups of
highly experienced participants. They will provide
each project with optimised plans for the PV
field and for monitoring. The architectural and
electrical aspects will be managed locally and will
be the responsibility of the participating member
on the basis of proposals from the technical
working groups. A task force for research into the
standards and guidelines for the grid connection
of PV facilities will be organised with the
participation of engineers from two major utilities.
A general monitoring programme will be carried
out via a web site which will provide easy access
for studying the system's behaviour. Special
attention will be paid to a dissemination
programme that will provide a description of
each individual project, including up-to-date
monitoring of the PV systems, links to other
web pages of interest, and studies of related
issues. Open days and workshops will also be
scheduled with the par ticipation of students
and teachers, decision-makers, municipalities,
trade unions, industry and architects.
Exploitation plan
The 25 projects within UnivERsol project will act
as a test bed for a number of dif ferent PV
technologies, and in par ticular of innovative
architectural integration options. Bulk purchasing
of PV across four different countries will reduce
system cost below the EC stated target of
<7/Wp for total installed PV system cost. The
results of the projects will be disseminated
widely.
PV systems in education and
cultural organisations
147
Four major impacts are expected from the
UnivERsol project:
Possibilities to optimise the architecture of PV
systems and their connections with the electric
grid.
The creation and the diffusion of a new
theoretical and practical knowledge in
educational and cultural facilities.
A reduction in the costs of the different PV
system components, of their maintenance,
and of their monitoring.
Training of specialists and the creation of
new assurance responsibilities for the
buildings and for the electrical grid.
The aim of the dissemination tasks is to optimise
the learning value of the UnivERsol project by:
Improving the general acceptance of PV
systems in European educational and cultural
facilities, decision-makers, and general public,
benefiting from the important social projection
of the educational and cultural facilities
Clearly defining the potential lessons of the
project in terms of what the project
teaches us about how to optimise the value
of PV systems in power grid networks.
Formalising the learning by doing process by
organising the information systematically.
The educational and cultural activities of the
par ticipants will enhance the dissemination
thanks to the social power behind these
institutions, particularly for the new generation.
Progress to date
After 18 months, work packages 3 and 4 have
been completed, delivering the design for the PV
and monitoring systems. At this point, most of
the progress is being made in work package 5,
in which most of the PV installations are taking
place; this will be completed by December 2003.
For work package 7, all participants will organise
the data acquisition in the same way in order to
enable the monitoring study. Progress has also
been made in work package 8 which is preparing
a website (www.universol.org) and other
dissemination tasks.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-293-2001
Title:
Grid-connected PV Systems Integrated in
Educational and Cultural Facilities
UnivERsol
Start Date: January 2002
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Antoni Lloret
Tel: +34-93 403 45 31
Fax: +34-93 403 45 29
alloret@pcb.ub.es
Partners:
Oxford Brookes University (UK); Technische
Universiteit Delft (NL); Institut Catal
dEnergia (ES); Universitat de Barcelona
(ES); The Chancellor, Master and Scholars
of the University of Cambridge (UK): Hespul
(FR); Universitat autonomia de Barcelona
(ES); Ajuntament dArta (ES) Ajuntament
de Badalona (ES); Ajuntament de Santa
Colomba de Gramenet (ES); Ecole nationale
des Travaux Publics de lEtat (FR); Ecole
Nationale Suprieure dArts et Mtiers
Centre de Lille (FR); EDF (FR); Groupement
dEtablissement de Formation lEnergie
Lyce Perret (FR); Iberdrola (ES); Ecole
Nationale Suprieure dArts et Mtiers
Institut Ensam de Corse (FR); Municipalit
de Ria-Syrach (FR); Ple Scolaire de la
Bannire Ecole de lEnvironnement (FR);
Rgion Languedoc-Roussillon (FR);
Universitat de Girona (ES); Universitat de les
Illes Balears (ES); Universitat Roriva i Virgilli
(ES); Universit Claude Bernard Lyon I (FR);
Universit de Bourgogne (FR); University of
East Anglia (UK); University of Leicester
(UK); Whitby Bird Ltd (UK); Institut
Universitaire de Technologie (FR); Conseil
Rgional Rhnes-Alpes (FR)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
DEMONSTRATING ECONOMIES OF SCALE
148
Objectives
The general objective of the project was to
foster the market penetration of GC-PV
systems in Europe by removing technical
and non-technical barriers. The objective
was to reduce PV systems costs from
7/Wp to 5.45/Wp through innovative
design and better system optimisation,
based on a strong collaboration with the
building industry. These objectives were to
be achieved through the implementation of
a large programme of installations on
buildings, in the six European countries
concerned, in total 2.7 MWp, i.e. 0.45 MWp
per country. This project was to provide
platforms for the development of PV
technology in countries where the market
was still in its infancy, such as in France,
Italy and Spain, and to support a better
integration of this technology in the
building regulations and other legislations
in place in each country. Austria, Germany
and The Netherlands had well-established
legal, financial and technical frameworks.
H I P H I P
Project structure
In such a large project, involving many different
type of contractors (institutions, PV integrators,
product manufacturer, consultancies), project
management was a key issue. The project
included 11 principal contractors, forming the
Project Steering Committee (PSC), the key
decision-making structure of the project:
The European coordinator, IED;
Six national coordinators, SED (Austria),
ADEME (France), SAINT GOBAIN GLASS
SOLAR, SGGS, (Germany), ANIT (Italy), ECOFYS
(The Netherlands), AESOL (Spain), whose role
was to ensure the overall responsibility for the
project financial and technical implementation
in their respective country: sites identification,
installation of PV systems and monitoring;
Two PV suppliers, PHOTOWATT and SHELL
SOLAR ENERGY;
Two other contractors, NUON and KWSOLAR,
participating to the PSC as observers.
In each country, a national consortium was set
up composed of key actors: PV integrators,
actors in the building sector (architects, material
suppliers, institutes in charge of building norms,
etc.), power utilities and national institutions.
The bulk of the project concerned the
implementation of a large number of installations,
20% of which are being monitored. The other part
of the project was the work undertaken by the
Project Technical Committee (PTC). It was
responsible for the exchange of experience on
all technical and non-technical issues, the
comparison of options implemented in the 6
countries, and the formulation of
recommendations towards European harmo-
nisation.
The PTC was split into five working groups:
Demand management, including public
awareness
Grid integration and impacts on the grid
Financial and regulatory aspects, non-technical
barriers.
Certification of building integrated PV systems
Dissemination activities.
Results
The HIP HIP project represents a high share of
the total installed GC-PV systems integrated into
buildings in France, Italy, and even Spain. The
cumulative power installed in each of the six
countries is shown below:
Cost reduction was achieved via large-scale
projects, bulk purchasing and product
standardisation. In total, around 420 projects
have been implemented by the six national
consortiums, representing around 2.57 MWp
(average system size of 6 kWp). The lowest
observed cost was below 5/Wp in the Dutch
consortium, corresponding to 200 kWp system
owned by the utility NUON on a proper ty
development. The national and local context
allowed for such a project to take place, the
municipality here imposing the integration of PV
systems on any housing development on this
land.
Glass/glass BIPV products prove to be ver y
Fostering European BIPV
market penetration
KWp installed as GC-PV
systems (non centralised)
600
unknown
520
End 1999*
Total power installed in the
country during HIPHIP
Installed HIPHIPprojects
over the 3 years (kWp)
HIPHIPshare (%)
over the 3 years
Austria Germany France Italy
The
Netherlands Spain
2 119
5 300
500
10%
49 100
195 000
300
0,2%
349
1 100
430
40%
905
1 700
370
22%
5 039
18 500
450
2,5%
* statistics from the IEA (International Energy Agency)
** Statistics for the year 2002 are from EPIA (European Photovoltaic Industry Association)
and are tentative estimates
149
attractive in an urban environment, but because
of their customised manufacture it was difficult to
reach cost targets. Calculations from SGGS
showed that the additional cost for a glass faade
PV integration is between 6 and 14/Wp.
Products were developed such as the PV tile from
SED and Photowatt. This product is very well
perceived by the end-users, given its per fect
integration into its surroundings.
Standard procedures in contracting and
commissioning set within the HIP HIP project
(including a Good Practice Charter and an end-
user guide) insured optimal results and
satisfaction from the customer. The project
consortium provided some recommendations
on energy per formance contracts. Some
consor tiums have initiated additional quality
procedures, further increasing the reliability of
systems. AESOL, for example, imposed a
maintenance contract on all the systems
installed, accompanied by a guarantee of up to
eight years.
Some difficulties in obtaining guarantees on
BIPV systems were noted due to the absence of
certification BIPV certification was found to be
a main issue (after costs). Harmonised
procedures across Europe were suggested by the
HIP HIP consortium.
The realisation of a GC-PV project is very much
dependent on subsidies and financing schemes,
given the current high cost of these systems. The
experience from HIP HIP allowed ADEME to build
a national programme taking into account the
identified barriers to the deployment of GC-PV
systems. The German model of soft loan and high
feed in tariffs seems to be the most efficient.
Financial packages were initiated: AESOL and
ANIT organised low-cost loans for their customers
with local banks, and ECOFYS engineered a
calculation method assessing the viability of
financial package using house mortgages and
taking into account tax rebates and subsidies.
The documents produced during the project are
downloadable from www.hip-hip.net.
Impact
This project is contributing towards meeting the
European White Paper objectives. It is also
contributing to making PV systems a day to
day product through end-users increased
confidence, certified products and grid utility
acceptance.
The project allowed the European industry know-
how and capability in terms of systems
optimisation, technical design and financial
engineering, to be strengthened in the
perspective of a worldwide dissemination of
cost-effective grid-connected systems in both
industrialised nations and developing countries.
New businesses are flourishing.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-430-1999
Title:
House Integrated Photovoltaics
High Tech in Public HIPHIP
Start Date: January 2000
Duration: 41 months
Contact point:
Denis Rambaud Masson
Tel: +33-4 72 59 13 20
Fax: +33-4 72 59 13 39
Partners:
Innovation Energie Developpement (FR)
Ecofys Coperatief Advies
en Onderzoeksbureau (NL)
Saint Gobain Glass Solar GmbH (DE)
Agence de l'Environnement
et de la Matrise de l'Energie (FR)
Alternativas Energticas Solares SA (ES)
Azienda Nuove Iniziative
Tecnologiche SpA (IT)
Photowatt International (FR)
SED Produktions GmbH (AT)
Shell Solar Energy BV (NL)
Nuon Duurzame Energie NV (NL)
KW Solar (AT)
EC Scientific Officer:
William Gillett
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
william.gillett@cec.eu.int
Figure 1. Vroonermer housing development (NL) Figure 2. Austrian solar tile developed by SED
DEMONSTRATING ECONOMIES OF SCALE
150
Objectives
The objectives of Mediterraneo are in line
with those of the European Commission, i.e.
to reduce the price of an installed PV system
from around 9/Wp to 6/Wp.
This is to be achieved through the
selection and standardisation of PV
components for building applications
primarily roof top applications. The project
will result in the installation of 862 kWp of
crystalline and thin-film grid-connected PV
in urban environments in France, Italy,
Portugal and Spain.
In order to make the project results
applicable across most of Europe, the review
and standardisation of components have also
taken into account Greece, Germany and the
UK. This will increase the potential for
replication across the EU after the
completion of the project, and will allow for
the application and dissemination of grid
connection issues to be tackled on a wider
scale.
M E D I T E R R A N E O
Challenges
The European White Paper, Campaign for Take-
Off, set a target for increasing the share of
renewable energy in the EU from 6% to 12% by
2010. The specific target within this general
aim is for 3 GWp of PV capacity. To meet this long-
term target, a system cost of less than 1/Wp
is needed, and the shor t- and medium-term
targets are 7/Wp and 3/Wp respectively.
Mediterraneo will achieve installed system costs
of 6/Wp in the short term and develop valuable
tools and experiences for future PV projects.
Although visible and innovative projects aid
public awareness, the mere nature of innovation
leads to an enormous variety of components and
installation solutions. Prior to Mediterraneo,
there were no standards or guidelines at a
national or commercial level for roof-top and
grid-connected installations, activities have
tended to concentrate on local market needs. The
adaptation of existing components to suit the
European market presents a number of technical
challenges which the project is addressing. In an
ef for t to bring PV to a wider audience,
Mediterraneo set out to define strict component
and installation specifications. Through
modularity, the project has been able to satisfy
a number of the technical challenges, and the
standardisation concept has enabled the
consortium to leverage breakthrough costs.
Project structure
The project consor tium consists of seven
partners from six countries: IT Power, Apex BP
Solar (Apex), BP Solar Espana (BPSE), TFM,
Sistemi Eneger tici Integrati (SEI), National
Technical University of Athens (NTUA) and
Renatura.
The project was broken down into three phases:
preparation, installation and monitoring; and
dissemination, each of which was broken down
again into a series of discrete work packages to
ensure the project runs ef ficiently and to
schedule. A key part of the project preparation
process was the identification of PV projects
for inclusion in the project, prior to the project
star t. This avoided delays in the project
installations due to prior commitment from the
PV customers.
IT Power is the project coordinator with overall
responsibility for the project. Each par tner
contributed to the preparation phase and system
standardisation. The installation work is being
carried out by the local partner and all partners
are responsible for dissemination.
Mediterraneo: 870 kWp of
PV in buildings in Europe
151
Exploitation plan
The project will contribute to EU objectives by
increasing the share of new and renewable
energy sources in the EU and demonstrating
decentralised generation of electricity from
renewable energy sources. The large number of
highly visible systems will raise the profile and
acceptance of PV which, with reduced prices
and standard PV systems, will promote extended
use and opportunities for PV technology, both
crystalline and thin film.
The project will directly result in:
862 kWp standardised PV systems installed
in the four countries according to the following
breakdown:
France: 70 kWp
Italy: 294 kWp
Portugal: 75 kWp
Spain: 431 kWp
Reduction in the price of installed systems
from around 9/Wp to less than 6/Wp by
the end of the project;
Selection and adaptation of standard PV and
BOS components suitable for use in each of
the four countries;
Development of common installation manuals
and guidelines for all systems; and
Heightened public awareness of PV through
widespread and highly visible deployment of
both crystalline silicon and thin-film
technologies.
Progress to date
A standardised system design for crystalline PV
for grid-connected roof-top applications for use
in Mediterraneo has been developed. The system
is called Solar Energiser and is also now being
marketed outside the Mediterraneo project. A
similar system for thin-film PV has also been
developed. Installation manuals and guidelines
have been prepared for the Solar Energiser and
for integrated PV faades.
The regulations relevant to the installation of PV
systems, in particular regarding issues relating
to grid connection and the integration of PV in
buildings in the partner countries, have been
compiled into a report, which is available on
the project website.
Project installations began in April 2002 and
approximately 500 kWp has already been
installed in France, Italy and Spain. The majority
of the systems installed are Solar Energiser
kits, although there have also been a number of
integrated systems including a 70 kWp PV faade
installed at La Salle University in Barcelona.
Analysis of the costs has started and it is likely
that the project target cost will be reached.
The systems will be monitored for one year,
beginning 1 September 2003, for both
performance and user satisfaction so that future
projects can learn from the experience.
A project website has been launched which
provides general information about PV and the
project. Details and photos of the installed
projects in each country are shown as well as
links to the participating partners.
To find out more go to: www.mediterraneo-pv.net
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-437-2000
Title:
Urban Photovoltaic
Awareness Mediterraneo
Start Date: September 2001
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Rebecca Gunning
Tel: +44-1256 392700
Fax: +44-1256 392701
mediterraneo@itpower.co.uk
Partners:
National Tecnical University of Athens (EL)
IT Power Ltd (UK)
Apex BP Solar (FR)
BP Solar Espana SA (ES)
Renatura Networks.com - Consultoria e
Servios Ambientais SA (PT)
Sei-Sistemi Enegetici Integrati Srl (IT)
TFM Energia Solar Fotovoltaica SA (ES)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2956261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
DEMONSTRATING ECONOMIES OF SCALE
152
Objectives
PV Enlargement will boldly demonstrate
Europes commitment for improved energy
efficiency and cost-effectiveness of PV
systems, enhancing the development of
large European PV markets. The project can
be subdivided into three major fields of
activities:
- Demonstration (> 1,150 kWp) of highly
cost-effective or very innovative PV
technologies in ten European countries for
increasing public awareness about and
visibility of PV solar electricity;
- Transfer of PV technology know-how
among EU-15 and CEE countries; and
- Inter-European scientific exchange for
improving performance and efficiency of
innovative PV technologies through
interconnected monitoring of performance
data, which will be made publicly
accessible.
P V E N L A R G E M E N T
Challenges
Thir ty-two PV demonstration systems with
an overall generation capacity of more than
1,150 kWp will be installed at 22 technical
universities or academies and in one municipality
in ten European countries, among them five CEE
countries. The systems are either highly cost-
effective or very innovative PV technologies (e.g.
three a-Si technologies, two CIS technologies, two
CdTe technologies, and wireless magnetic PV
module power transmission).
The university partners will operate and monitor
all the systems installed. An intensive and
standardised per formance control procedure
satisfying up-to-date requirements will be applied.
After the setting up of the PV systems by the
installers and the universities, the latter will
measure, assess and scientifically work with
the performance data, communicate them with
the manufacturer and thus contribute to
measurable system efficiency improvements.
In international, pre-normative research,
advanced monitoring concepts will be applied and
evaluated and exchanged among the scientific
partners. By automatically transferring the data
to the public project www platform, after a
plausibility check, an international comparative
performance assessment will be possible. The
project will explicitly involve the university level
generation the decision-makers of tomorrows
energy sector.
Project Structure
The consortium with its 29 partners consists of
five different contractor groups:
WIP (DE), with its explicit experience in the
coordination of multinational PV demonstration
projects in EU and CEE countries, initiated and
is coordinating this ambitious project. Further,
WIP is responsible for the definition of the
requirement catalogue for PV systems and
DAS technology and the verification of
installation activities including system
acceptance tests and the tracking of
component and system performance.
Experienced companies and/or manufacturers
responsible for several PV system installations
per country, such as ATB (AT), Gehrlicher (DE)
and SOLARTEC (CZ).
Partners responsible for PV system installation
at one site and for system operation. Most of
these partners are university partners, such
as the FH Munich (DE), the TU Gabrovo (BG),
the Agricultural University of Athens (EL), the
Szent Istvan University of Gdll (HU), the
Rome University La Sapienza (IT), the
Florence University (IT), the Warsaw University
of Technology (PL), the Instituto Superior
Tecnico (PT), the New University of Lisbon
(PT) and the Politechnical University of
Bucharest (RO). Two of the partners from this
category stem from national energy
laboratories, such as the Central Laboratory
of Solar Energy and New Energy Sources (BG),
and the Centre for Renewable Energy Sources
(EL). One partner is the municipality of Pistoia
(IT).
University partners, which are supplied with a
PV system by a contractor (2) are responsible
Enlarging the PV market to
Central and Eastern Europe
153
for PV system operation. These partners are:
the Vienna University of Technology (AT), the
Danube University Krems (AT), the Viktor
Kaplan Academy (AT), the Charles University
Prague (CZ), the Brno University of Technology
(CZ), the TU Ostrava (CZ), the University of
West Bohemia (CZ), and the TU Liberec (CZ).
The Swiss partner, the laboratory SUPSI-LEEE-
TISO of the University of Applied Sciences,
participates via a special contract between the
EC and Switzerland. Its participation enables
the consortium to perform valuable
independent and standardised power tests of
the different PV module types to be installed
by the consortium.
Exploitation plan
Europes first competitive and large-scale
comparison of very innovative PV technologies
will be made within this project. Average system
costs are as low as 6.7/Wp and the most
cost-efficient sub-systems will cost less than
5.0/Wp at a system size of < 50 kWp.
The PV systems (each > 10 kWp / 70m
2
) will be
set up at visible places, often being the first grid-
connected and/or largest installation in the
countr y, which will result in increased public
attention.
By bringing together technical universities or
academies, as well as PV companies/manu-
facturers, both from EU-15 and CEE countries in
one project, the transfer of the latest PV know-
how will be considerably enhanced. By involving
leading technical universities/academies in a
demonstration and monitoring action with 32
PV systems, the manufacturers will benefit
directly from the scientific results achieved.
The publication of the measurement data creates
a competitive atmosphere among the manu-
facturers involved and will contribute to short-term
system cost reductions of up to 30%.
The action will bring added value for the European
Union through enhanced market prospects for the
European PV industry, higher employment and a
larger share of renewables in a more diversified
European energy mix. It will strongly promote PV
utilisation, thus supporting the EUs RES policies
and GHG reduction targets. Furthermore, the
project will improve the social and economic
cohesion among the EU and enlargement
countries. Finally, PV Enlargement will be the ideal
platform for the presentation, dissemination
and further development of the ECs RE-related
policies on a broad European level.
Map of PV Enlargement partner countries the
number of installations per country is indicated in
brackets.
Coloured PV modules are applied for the high-level
building integration of PV in western European
countries.
PV Enlargement logo.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-742-1999
Title:
Technology Transfer, Demonstration and
Scientific Exchange Action for the
Establishment of a Strong European PV
Sector PV Enlargement
Start Date: January 2003
Duration: 48 months
Contact point:
Matthias Grottke
Tel: +49-89 72 01 27 37
Fax: +49-89 72 01 27 91
matthias.grottke@wip-munich.de
Partners:
Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (EL);
Instituto Superior Tecnico (PT); Solartec
SRO (CZ); Agricultural University of Athens
(EL); Szent Istvan University Godollo (HU);
Technical University of Gabrovo (BG);
Warsaw University of Technology (PL);
WIP - KG (DE); ATB Antennen-Umwelt-
Technik Becker (AT); Brno University of
Technology (CZ); Central Laboratory of
Solar Energy (BG); Charles University in
Prague (CZ); Donau Universitt Krems (AT);
Gehrlicher Umweltschonende
Energiesysteme GmbH (DE); Mnchen
Universitt (DE); Anwendungszentrum fr
Mischbautechologie an der Universitt
Innsbruck (AT); Municipalit di Pistoia (IT);
Universita di Roma La Sapienza (IT);
Technical University of Liberec (CZ);
Technische Universitt Wien (AT);
Universidade Nova de Lisboa (PT); Uiversita
Degli Studi di Firenze (IT); Universitatea
Politehnica din Bucuresti (RO); University of
West Bohemia Plzen (CZ); Viktor Kaplan
Akademie Muerzzuschlag (AT); Technical
University of Ostrava (CZ); Supsi (CH)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
DEMONSTRATING ECONOMIES OF SCALE
154
Objectives
The success of any decentralised domestic
electricity supply scheme based on an
available renewable energy source, such as
solar photovoltaic systems network, depends
mainly on the given energy market structure.
The application of the PV user association
model, which brings together individual
consumers and institutions with the common
purpose of using photovoltaic solar energy,
contributes to the creation of a favourable
framework for the introduction of an
entrepreneur green electricity market.
The aim of the PV-SALSA project was to
contribute to a large-scale social acceptance
of domestic PV service, both stand-alone and
grid-connected, by means of demonstrating
the feasibility of installing and operating a
total of 220,000 Wp PV systems under a
guaranteed service scheme.
This integrated PV service was to be
implemented within the scope of two
existing PV user associations: SEBA in
Spain, and Hespul in France.
Challenges
Definition and large consensus on technical
standards for small grid-connected and stand-
alone PV systems.
Offering a "fully integrated PV service" to final
consumers in Spain and France, managed by
PV user associations, and comprising design,
purchase, implementation and operation of the
PV systems under the highest quality
standards and a guarantee of service.
PV professionalisation of local installers,
and an effective user training programme on
energy efficiency and demand-side
management aspects.
Introduction of a contractual guarantee of
results for the PV systems installed (daily
energy assigned for stand-alone systems, and
a guaranteed annual yield for grid-connected
systems).
Cost reduction of PV systems due to
standardisation, wholesale orders and cost-
effective monitoring through a transnational
pool of resources.
Project Structure
The project has been developed over three years
(2000-2002) in different phases:
Design, legal framework and social acceptation
establishment
Realisation of the installations
Monitoring and follow-up of results
Project coordination and dissemination
The PV-SALSA project consortium is made up of
the following partners:
Associaci de Serveis Energtics Bsics
Autnoms (SEBA)
Trama TecnoAmbiental (TTA)
Institut Catal dEnergia (ICAEN)
Universidad de Sevilla (ESIUS)
Association HESPUL
Fraunhofer-ISE
Commissariat lEnergie Atomique of
France (CEA-GENEC)
Implementation of PV systems
A total of 225,425 Wp of domestic PV systems
have been installed:
In France, 44 grid-connected systems totalling
73,300 Wp
In Spain, 67 stand-alone and 21 grid-
connected systems, totalling 151.125 Wp
All the 132 installations show good performance;
small failures could be repaired in time.
Standards for rural electrification with PV systems
have been designed following the essential
principles of a guarantee of service to the end-
user.
In order to increase general awareness and
social acceptance of PV, various promotional
and dissemination activities have been
conducted, especially by HESPUL in France and
SEBA in Spain, with the collaboration of ICAEN
Social acceptance of
domestic PV service
Number of PV
installations
Direct users
(aprox.)
Stand alone
67
Installed PV
power kWp
Electrical
production
kWh per year
Avoided CO2
emissions kg
of CO2 per year
Grid-connected
21
Grid-connected
44
135
Spain
France
total
between 60
and 90
between 132
ans 176
between 334
and 469
90
61
73
224
67.584
73.000
226.364
39.459
31.089
37.874
108.422
between 142
and 213
95.790
P V - S A L S A
155
in Catalunya. The most important result of these
actions is the final brochure on the project.
Contribution to the development
of a legal framework for grid-
connected PV systems
Throughout the three years, the consor tium
conducting the PV-SALSA project has taken part
in decisive actions for the creation of the present
administrative and legal framework of PV energy
in Catalunya, Spain, and France, like:
Development of model contracts for the
purchase of electricity- generated with PV
systems.
Development of model contracts for the
collective management of PV installations
within the user association scheme.
Design of administrative procedures to simplify
the legalisation and start up of the PV
systems.
Coordination between the different parties
involved: users, administration, utility
companies, PV equipment manufacturers and
installers.
The service contract with
guaranteed energy supply
More than 600 users of PV solar installations in
Spain, managed by SEBA, are benefiting from an
EDA contract (Energy Deliverability Assurance
contract), which guarantees:
The availability of a certain amount of electricity
every month according to the contracted tariff.
A follow-up programme for the operation of the
system.
A corrective and preventive maintenance
scheme.
A personalised user hotline for information and
advice.
A PV user continuous training programme.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-744-1999
Title:
Service Assurance for Large Social
Acceptance of Photovoltaic Stand Alone
and Grid Connected Systems PV-SALSA
Start Date: January 2000
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Jaume Serrasolsas
Tel: +34-93 446 32 32
Fax: +34-93 456 69 48
sebaasoc@support.org
Partners:
Institut Catal d'Energia (ES)
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft-ISE (DE)
Asociacion Servicios
Energticos Basicos Autonomos (ES)
Asociacion PHEBUS (FR)
Commissariat l'Energie Atomique (FR)
Trama Tecnoambiental SA (ES)
Universidad de Sevilla (ES)
EC Scientific Officer:
Roberto Gambi
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
roberto.gambi@cec.eu.int
DEMONSTRATING ECONOMIES OF SCALE
156
Objectives
It is estimated that an average BIPV cell
operates at a temperature of up to 50C
above ambient. It is estimated that this is
10C higher than that which could be
achieved by better informed design. This
represents a loss of performance of up to 5%
of power produced, as well as increasing
thermal cycling stresses and ageing
processes. In a European context, where
100 MWp BIPV is projected to be installed
annually, this represents a loss of 5 MWp
capacity, or around 5,000 MWh/year of
electricity generated.
This project aims to provide designers with
the tools to evaluate the consequences of
their design decisions on the electrical
output of the PV. This tool must be easily
available to all building professionals, simple
to use, and having associated guidance
notes and helpful rules of thumb to assist
the process.
Challenges
Designers are not aware of how PV
modules/laminates exchange heat with their
surroundings, and therefore cannot take the
operating temperature into account when
designing their system. The solution will be
achieved by making available a user-friendly
design guide for architects and building designers
which allows them to make informed decisions
about their system. This will include temperature
profiles and indicators of effect on electrical
performance.
In order to produce the guide, the team has
brought together existing knowledge and
performed analytical and experimental work to
fill in the unknown areas to produce a validated,
simplified model of the process.
The initial proposal assumed that much of the
theoretical work of modelling the flow and heat
exchange within a duct under buoyant conditions
already existed. It was found that there were large
areas of uncertainty where little work had been
published. The partners had access to leading
international exper tise which provided the
resource for solving these challenging problems.
As the theoretical concepts evolved, our partner
HBG in Sweden built indoor test facilities to test
these models and validate each stage of the
mathematics. Some new low-flow rate
measurement techniques were established in the
process. Outdoor testing on larger-scale
installations was implemented alongside, so
that overall predictions could be tested in reality
and the final model predictions could be
validated. Once the full theoretical model was
completed, a simplified version was produced
that could simply be used with data readily
available to the designer.
The work performed has now been submitted to
an international scientific journal for peer review.
The audience for this guide is not PV experts and
may not have access to complex meteorological
data. The guide had to allow simple data sources
to be used that were readily accessible from the
office. Thus the team found ways to use long-
term averaged data while maintaining the integrity
of the overall output.
Project Structure
As the simplified model emerged, meetings were
arranged with groups of architects, designers and
other interested parties in the PV and building
community. At each occasion there was much
feedback from the delegates which allowed the
team to adjust the content and presentation to
better meet the needs of the audience. The
accompanying descriptive examples and guidance
notes were also developed at this stage.
A first draft of the model was placed on a website,
and users were requested to leave feedback
for future development. Partners in the team
utilised the model in their own design work, and
in collaboration with colleagues in national and
PV Cool-Build a design
guide
P V - C O O L
157
international groups. Thus an ad-hoc user group
has been established who are commenting on
each upgrade produced.
The second draft model was presented on
exhibition stands at trade fairs and seminars
associated with PV conferences. Such exposure
was vital in developing the user interface for the
var ying background and experience of the
prospective audience.
Results
The final model is being converted into an easily
used form for architects and building designers
and will be disseminated widely by CD-ROM,
booklet, and website. It can be seen at:
www.pvcoolbuild.com
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-115-2000
Title:
Design Guide for Building Integrated PV
to Minimise Temperature and Increase
Electrical Output PV-Cool-Build
Start Date: May 2001
Duration: 30 months
Contact point:
Bruce Cross
Tel: +44-29 20 49 08 71
Fax: +44-29 20 45 48 87
bcross@eets.co.uk
Partners:
Energy Equipment Testing Service Ltd (UK)
Bear Architecten BV (NL)
Centre for Built Environment (SE)
Geosolar Energie und
Umweltsysteme GmbH (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
INNOVATIVE CONCEPTS FOR BIPV
158
Objectives
At the heart of the Resurgence project is
the commitment to install 1.3MWp of PV in
five countries as part of significant urban
regeneration programmes. In so doing, the
application of PV as a re-roofing material in
social housing refurbishment programmes
will be demonstrated, thereby improving
project viability by cross-subsidising PV
installations with existing re-roofing budgets.
The use of innovative energy trading
mechanisms that are emerging in the
liberalising energy markets across Europe
will be explored and the impact of differing
forms of government incentivisation will be
tested. The greatest barrier to uptake of
photovoltaics remains the cost. The viability
of pursuing a bulk procurement process in
Europes PV market will be explored in an
attempt to force down costs. Finally, the
impact of the installation of photovoltaics
within local communities will be explored
through a social integration study.
Challenges
At the time that when the Resurgence project was
conceived, the total installed capacity of building
integrated photovoltaics in the EU was around
150 MW, over half of which could be found in one
Member State Germany. It was clear that a
drastic acceleration of the rate of uptake of PV
was required if the EC target of 3 GW of PV
installed by 2010 was to be realised. In light of
this, the Resurgence project was devised with the
core aim of installing 1.3 MW of photovoltaics
in existing buildings across the five participating
countries Denmark, Germany, Netherlands,
Switzerland and the UK.
Thanks to the broad geographical reach of the
project, it was anticipated that a diverse range
of building types would be encountered, providing
opportunities to demonstrate a wide range of
building integration techniques and photovoltaic
technologies. One of the key questions the
Resurgence project set out to explore was how
retrofitting of PV can be done in the most cost-
effective manner, as cost remains the greatest
barrier to the more widespread deployment of PV.
The liberalised and liberalising European energy
markets have not generally been constructed to
favour embedded generation. However, under
growing pressure from the EUs ambitious carbon
reduction targets, European governments have
put mechanisms in place such as capital
grants, green certificates and feed-in tariffs to
support renewables, including the PV industry.
The Resurgence project provides a unique
opportunity to explore how these mechanisms
operate in practice and for a direct comparison
of their impacts.
The remit of the Resurgence project is not limited
to the exploration of available government
subsidies and incentives, but is also to explore
mechanisms for attracting private-sector funding
suppor t into the PV industr y. Conventional
financing organisations have not so far
considered PV to be an attractive commercial
opportunity, deterred by the high capital costs
and low rates of return. However, influenced by
growing consumer demand for socially and
environmentally responsible investing and trading,
finance organisations are increasingly looking to
offer products and services tailored to favour
sustainable technologies. Some of the innovative
financing mechanisms that are being tested in
the Resurgence project will also be described in
this article.
Project structure
The project consortium comprises a total of 17
partners spread across five participating nations,
drawn from the PV industry, the utilities, finance
organisations and social housing groups. The
consortium is coordinated by the Peabody Trust,
Londons largest housing association, assisted
by the UK engineering consultancy whitbybird. The
core project team comprises a lead partner from
each country WE Consultants (Netherlands),
Enecolo (Switzerland), MeteoControl (Germany),
and Cenergia (Denmark) responsible for co-
ordinating the efforts of the local project team
in that country, communicating progress to the
core team and disseminating results. In addition,
each core team member leads one of the key
work package disciplines on social integration,
Pan-European integration of
photovoltaics in social
housing
R E S U R G E N C E
159
building integration, electrical integration, financial
integration, monitoring and dissemination.
Progress to date
The Resurgence project is now approaching the
half-way stage and is well on target to meet its
objective of installing 1.3 MWp of PV. The Dutch
partners led the way, becoming the first of the
Resurgence countries to install their total
allocation of 420 kWp.
This has included a 240 kWp contribution to the
largest demonstration of PV retrofitting into
social housing in Europe a 1 MWp installation
at an estate located in the Dutch city of
Apeldoorn, owned by the housing association St
Joseph Apeldoorn.
The Swiss partners have also now completed the
installation of their complete Resurgence
allocation, totalling 100 kWp of PV. Among the
Swiss projects is a 38 kWp installation in a block
owned by the housing association Chemin de
Florency, which has recently been selected as the
winner of the Swiss Solar award for Best PV
installation of 2003. The project demonstrates
a truly roof-integrated installation system, utilising
the Solrif system. The PV laminate is enclosed
on all sides with an aluminium profile and held
in place with an aluminium stirrup that is bolted
to the roof beam. The simplicity of this system
is such that it lends itself to the integration of
any standard PV laminate, is easy to install
sharing many similarities with ordinary roof tile
installation and is as waterproof as roof tiles
or slates.
At the outset, the Resurgence project set a
target of keeping installed system costs under
6/Wp. At the present time, with almost 700
kWp installed, the average installed cost is
somewhat in excess of this target, at around
6.3/Wp.
The more roof-integrated systems are the main
culprits, tending to cost between 6.5 to
7.5/Wp. The Resurgence experience so far has
shown that PV can be integrated most cost-
ef fectively into flat roofs, using ver y basic
systems. Good examples of these are the Sofrel
system used in Switzerland and the ConSole
system, manufactured by Dutch company e-
conergy and demonstrated at a Resurgence
installation in Copenhagen.
In addition to the EC funding for Resurgence
installations, each partner has looked towards
maximising the other incentives available in their
respective countries in order to improve the
economics of their projects. These have included
capital grant schemes, such as those operating
in the UK and the Netherlands, feed-in tariffs and
low interest loans, both of which are available in
Germany. An innovative means of providing a
feed-in tariff gas has been pioneered by the
Swiss and Danish partners the Solar Stock
Exchange. This scheme allows the value of PV
electricity to be dictated by the demand for a
green supply from the consumers. The stock
exchange in Copenhagen is operated by the
utility Copenhagen Energy, which has offered
its customers the opportunity to buy a portion
of its electricity at a premium. The revenue
generated by this is used to fund a feed-in tariff
that is currently worth 0.55/kWh (three times
the usual value of expor ted electricity in
Denmark). Under these conditions, PV becomes
an attractive investment oppor tunity thereby
stimulating the local market.
Figure 1 The award winning roof integrated tile
system at Chemin de Florency in Lausanne,
Switzerland.
Figure 2. The Sofrel system is an example of a low-
cost installation technique for flat roofs.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-340-2001
Title:
Renewable Energy Systems for
Urban Regeneration in Cities of
Europe RESURGENCE
Start Date: January 2002
Duration: 48 months
Contact point:
Dickon Robinson
Tel: +44-20 79 287811
Fax: +44-20 74 012797
dickonr@peabody.org.uk
Partners:
Enecolo AG (CH)
IST GmbH (DE)
Bear Architecten BV (NL)
Peabody Trust (UK)
Axys Innovations BV (NL)
Ekomation BV (NL)
Allgemeine Baugenossenschaft Zrich (CH)
Byfornyelse Kobenhavn SMBA (DK)
Cenergia Energia Consultants (DK)
Edisun Power AG (CH)
Encon Entreprise A/S (DK)
London Electricity Group Plc (UK)
Powerlight GmbH (DE)
The Co-operative Bank Plc (UK)
The Housing Corporation (UK)
W/E Consultants Sustainable Building (NL)
Whitby Bird Ltd (UK)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
INNOVATIVE CONCEPTS FOR BIPV
160
Objectives
PV louvres in front of glass faades and
windows fulfil several tasks efficient
shading of the direct portion of the sunlight
to prevent overheating of the building,
sufficient daylighting to avoid artificial
lighting, and PV energy generation through
the embedded cells. Solar tracking optimises
both temporary (daytime, seasons and
weather) shading and PV energy generation.
The general objective of this project is the
development and field test of a lightweight
PV solar control system with an enhanced
PV and daylighting performance and a higher
market diffusion potential. Weight reduction
is achieved by replacing glass components of
PV-modules (at least in part) through flexible
membranes. The potential of solar-tracked
PV glass louvres was demonstrated by the
Wirtschaftshof Linz project (DG-TREN SE-
159-98- AT/NL/DE) which obtained 60%
solar coverage of the buildings total
electrical energy consumption at a high
thermal and visual comfort level for the
building users (see figure).
P V - L I G H T
Challenges
PV in buildings is an attractive way to achieve
renewable energy generation. In contrast to the
common solitary add-on approaches, this project
aims at a high level of functional and architectural
integration of the PV element into faades and
roofs.
In order to overcome market penetration barriers
resulting from weight and/or static restrictions,
the glass content of the PV louvres will be
minimised. There is a good chance that the
crystalline silicon technology will totally substitute
glass with membranes. For the thin-film CIS
technology there is still the need for the substrate
glass, although even in this case the membrane
approach gives access to more than 50% of
glass- and thus weight-reduction.
By using membrane PV modules rather than
pure glass PV modules, format issues can be
addressed at a very late project stage. Therefore,
custom-oriented design is much more flexible and
less costly.
Experiences from industrial projects have shown
that the global solar energy control should be
separated from individual local glare protection
needs. In this way, the conventional energy
consumption of the building can be kept to a
minimum without the users comfor t level
deteriorating. A further advantage is that the
pure global solar energy control can be realised
now with the ver y simple and robust
thermohydraulic solar-tracking system.
Within this project, the potential of the patented
counter-tracking-louvre-technique will be evaluated
for roof and faade applications. The inherent
self-shading effect of synchronous tracking PV
louvres can be overcome now by two sets of
counter-tracking louvres. This development is
expected to give access to a highest specific
energy harvest possible for flat-plate PV.
Prototype systems will be tested indoors and
outdoors to assess the per formance
improvements. A demonstrator system will be
used for initial market launch purposes.
Technical Target
Louvre weight:
< 2.5 kg/m
2
C-Si technology short term
< 0.5 kg/m
2
CIS technology for long term
Power to weight ratio:
60 Wp/kg C-Si technology short term
200 Wp/kg CIS technology long term
PV system cost (additional costs) < 4/Wp
GHG reduction
> 50% (in combination with Low Energy office
buildings)
Energy saving by rational use of energy (RUE)
> 50% (in combination with Low Energy
office buildings)
Share of new and renewable energy sources (RES)
> 60% (in combination with Low Energy office
buildings) up to full coverage (with Passive
House Energy Standard)
Project Structure
The project consortium consists of the Centre for
Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-
Wuerttemberg (ZSW) (D), Colt International B.V.
(NL), Koch Membranen GmbH (D), Gebaeude-
Lightweight PV louvres
161
Solarsysteme GSS (D), Wrth Solar GmbH (D)
and Isovolta (A).
ZSW is coordinator of the project and responsible
for the thermohydraulic solar drive, counter-
tracking-louvre-technique and thin-film CIS
technology. ZSW is licensing several international
patents in this field to the final system deliverer
Colt. Koch Membranen is giving access to the
companys experience in architectural membrane
technology. Wrth Solar is responsible for the thin
film CIS PV louvre manufacturing. GSS is in
charge of the cr ystalline silicon PV louvre
manufacturing. Isovolta is developing and
delivering transparent and insulating foils for
PV lamination.
The project is based on the results of several
previous EU-projects carried out by four of the
partners.
Progress to date
During the design phase a set of four standard
solutions for faade and roof integration has
been defined (figure1). For larger size custom-
made solutions, two louvre constructions
principles have been developed. The first PV
louvre laminates have been fabricated and are
currently being tested (figure 2).
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-550-2001
Title:
Light Weight PV-Louvres for
Multifunctional Solar Control and
Daylighting Systems with Improved
Building Integration PV-LIGHT
Start Date: February 2003
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Fritz Klotz
Tel: +49-711 7870 222
Fax: +49-711 7870 230
fritz.klotz@zsw-bw.de
Partners:
ZSW (DE)
Colt International BV (NL)
GSS GebudeSolarsysteme GmbH (DE)
Wrth Solar GmbH (DE)
Koch Membranen GmbH (DE)
Isovolta (AT)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2956261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
Figure 1. One of the envisaged standard products
is the canopy louvre system with thermohydraulic
solar tracker instead of glass PV louvers,
membrane PV louvres will be applied.
Figure 2. First lightweight PV louvre laminate presented
during a design-meeting at ZSW in Stuttgart.
PV solar control system at administration building
of Wirtschaftshof Linz. 60% of total electrical
energy consumption is covered by PV. Daylighting
autonomy is in excess of 80%.
INNOVATIVE CONCEPTS FOR BIPV
162
Objectives
The main and broader goal of the TEAPUB
action is to promote the integration of PV
systems in the built area of European cities
among a large public. The partial objectives
can be summarised as follows:
- Realisation of PV systems integrated into
ten buildings with high public attendance.
- Demonstration of different methods of
architectural integration of photovoltaics
into buildings, e.g. in- or on-faade
integration, in-roof integration
- Realisation of European-wide
demonstration to the large public that PV
systems are a viable and esthetical source
of energy and that integrated PV is an
excellent way to compliment modern low
energy modern office buildings.
- Joint implementation to exchange
knowledge and expertise, thus unblocking
markets.
- Setting up an internet site where
information on all TEAPUB buildings plus
operation data are available to the public.
Challenges
Overcome the existing barriers at project start,
in terms of legalisation of PV grid-connected
systems.
Create awareness among actors that could be
in a leader position for promoting PV in the
build environment: architects and municipal
decision-makers.
Implement least-cost options for technical
implementation adapted to construction norms
and municipal criterion
Project Structure
The project has been developed over 40 months
(2000-2003) in different phases:
Design.
Assembly and installations.
Commissioning.
Monitoring/Dissemination/Evaluation
Coordination
The TEA-PUB project consortium is made up of
the following partners:
Promoci del Sol Municipal de Mollet S.A.
(PROMOSOL)
Fraunhofer ISE
Dissing + Weitling A/S
Trama TecnoAmbiental S.L. (TTA)
Integration of PV in public
buildings
T E A P U B
Site
Casa de la Vila, Mollet del Valls
Instituts Neubau ISE, Freiburg
Ajuntament Jorba
Costa i Llobera school, Barcelona
PV power
installed
45.4 Faade-sunshades and on roof
In roof, on roof, in faade
and faade superposition
In roof
On flat roof
Integration type
21.2
4.8
4.8
Cultural centre Can Fabra, Barcelona Faade superposition 5.4
Piscina Feixa Llarga, LHospitalet On faade and sunshades 6
Biblioteca municipal, Vilanova del Cam

Faade superposition 4.8
Mercat municipal, Igualada Faade superposition 4.8
Fbrica del Sol, Barcelona Array as wing on faade 8.12
Dolors Grans school, Cardedeu On tilted roof 2,7
163
Progress to date
Successful implementation of ten PV
installations in emblematic public buildings
totalling 108 kWp. Successful reorientation of
the project after the withdrawal of a partner
in the very initial project. So, instead of the
three systems initially planned, ten smaller
systems were implemented.
Realisation of a dissemination workshop in
Mollet del Valls with high attendance from
architects, municipal department managers
and technicians. This workshop was evaluated
very positively by the participants.
The performance of the systems is generally
good as far as it could be verified at the time
of compiling this report. The more
sophisticated monitoring concepts
implemented in building one and two give
valuable data for a detailed investigation of the
performance of different PV arrays, modules
and inverters.
Successful demonstration of different technical
concepts for architectonical integration of PV
in the built area. Different solutions were
demonstrated as in- and on-faade, in- and on-
roof or free mounted faade structures were
successfully implemented with diverse
standard and non-standard mounting systems.
Different module types with tailor-made
modules were implemented by Fraunhofer
ISE.
Broad dissemination due to a significant
number of systems spread over a geographical
area that, in the end, is larger than the very
initial project in Spain. This really pushed
local and regional interest in PV.
Examples of performance data from the two
main buildings are shown below.
Instituts Neubau Fraunhofer ISE
The graph shows performance data in form of specific generation (kWh/kWp)
of the PV arrays integrated into the buildings.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-742-1999
Title:
Trans European Action on PV Integration
into Public Buildings - TEAPUB
Start Date: February 2003
Duration: 35 months
Contact point:
Ingo Vosseler
Tel: +34-934 463234
Fax: +34-934 566958
tta@tramatecnoambiental.com
Partners:
Fraunhoffer Gesellschaft-ISE (DE)
Promocio des Sol Municipal
de Mollet SA (ES)
Dissing + Weitling A/S (DK)
Trama Tecnoambiental SL (ES)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
INNOVATIVE CONCEPTS FOR BIPV
Casa de la Vila Mollet del Valls
164
Objectives
DR BYEN in Copenhagen will become a
European eco-building on completion in
2006. The building comprises 125,000 m
2
,
and more than 2,700 people will work on a
daily basis in the sustainable office. A
Whole Building Design Approach" has been
used to develop an environmental concept
that as regards energy consumption
involves a hybrid cooling system with an
underground cold storage, mul-tifunctional
double-envelope glass faades and the
largest BIPV (1,200 m
2
) in Denmark. It is
expected to reduce the energy consumption
and CO2 emission related to cooling by 75-
80% and to integrate use of renewable
energy by more than 30%.
In Denmark, only very few and relatively
small PV installations are seen. The aim of
the project as regards PV is to introduce
large-scale cost-effective installations in
Denmark and to integrate the use of PV
power in large building energy systems. The
PV power output correlates well with the
demand of supply the renewable
groundwater cooling system.
I T - E C O
Challenges
The goals of the eco-building are:
To reduce the energy consumption and CO2
emission related to cooling by 75-80%.
To reduce peak load of cooling to less than
50% of average load in office buildings.
To reduce the heating consumption and related
CO2 emission by 35-50%.
To integrate the use of renewable energy at
more levels.
To reduce energy consumption for general
lighting to below 50% of normal practice.
To increase the quality of the working and
social climate in the building.
To disseminate the eco-solutions used in the
high-profile building as there is a need for in-
creased awareness of ways to improve the
environmental performance of this type of
building throughout Europe and beyond.
The problems to be solved as regards BIPV
are to introduce the use of large-scale BIPV in
buildings. As the energy system in the eco-
building has been designed using a whole building
ap-proach, the BIPV should also be integrated in
the overall energy scheme. This has been done
by letting the PV plant substitute expensive own
power consumption e.g. for cooling (groundwater
pumps and fans for air-coils). The output
correlates with the cooling demand as this
increases ac-cording to the solar heating of the
building. The actual building is in use all day and
all year round and is therefore an ideal location
for PV. The BIPV will be designed in four or five
minor plants in order to place it close to the
specific part of the building that the BIPV supply.
Such a large PV in-stallation will be a model
example for many new buildings to be built in the
Copenhagen area.
Project structure
The project consortium consists of four partners:
COWI A/S (DK), DR (DK), DS-plan (G), and Ecofys
(NL). COWI A/S, DS-Plan and Ecofys are all
consulting companies with long-time experi-ence
with var ying aspects of energy friendly and
environmentally friendly building design. DR
(Danish Broadcast Corporation) is a multimedia
enterprise with public service obligations.
COWI is the project coordinator and provides
expertise on energy solutions. It also functions
as client consultant for DR. DS-Plan operates as
an energy exper t, especially for ventilation
systems and double-envelope faades. Ecofys
provides the leading expertise on BIPV. DR BYEN
(DR Town) is the building complex being built and
owned by DR.
In order to fulfil DRs ambitious goals, it was
decided to use a design method called Whole
Building Design Approach which includes
advanced eco-management.
The Whole Building Design Approach starts the
analysis of multiple environmentally friendly so-
lutions at the beginning of the project when all
options are open. This ensures that all aspects
of the building were considered simultaneously
regarding energy, environment and economy.
The IT-ECO project is one of the mayor results of
this analysis. A large number of integrated en-ergy
concepts were drawn up and analysed. One was
selected for further development, which in-cludes
technologies never used in Denmark before.
Integration of renewables in
a multimedia eco-building
165
All energy solutions are based on providing the
requested indoor climate in regard to air quality,
acoustics, thermal and visual conditions.
Exploitation plan
It is expected that the demonstration and
documentation of the ECO-solutions including
the large-scale BIPV will contribute significantly
to the further adoption of the solutions in office
buildings being built in the region, and for office
buildings in general. It is also expected that the
methodology of the Whole Building Approach
will be adopted by other design teams.
The dissemination activities are comprehensive:
more than 3,000 people will daily work in the sus-
tainable office. About 150,000 people will visit
the building offices, studios, concert hall, etc.
ever y year, including students and school
children. The project will be disseminated by
the means of:
Internet: www.dr.dk/drbyen/it-eco
On-line information screens and exhibitions in
the entrance hall
A DVD video presentation.
Progress to date
The project is now in the design phase. The
design will be completed before the summer of
2004. The building and BIPV will be completed
in 2006.
Background and vision
All the activities of the Danish Broadcast
Corporation (DR) in the Greater Copenhagen
area will be merged and moved to a new
125,000m
2
headquarters in Oerestad, a town
district development area close to Copenhagen
city centre. The new domicile will provide optimal
conditions for the elec-tronic multimedia
productions of the future, based on leading-
edge technologies and new ways of working
practices.
DR has formulated a vision of ecological and
environmental goals to be fulfilled by the building
for it to become an eco-building:
A building that is leading-edge in relation to
environmentally friendly construction and
incorpo-ration of ecological elements in the
building.
A completely environmentally friendly building
with ecological elements integrated into the
building.
A building in which due regard is paid to
resources, health and the environment over
the whole life cycle of the building, on an
equal footing with other significant
requirements, wishes and considerations.
A design showing openness about the project's
environmental aspects.
The southern faade of DR BYEN showing the
studio blocks. (Courtesy of DR BYEN)
Figure 1. PV will be integrated in building in the
glazed shed roof. (Courtesy of DR BYEN)
Figure 2. Plan view of DR BYEN the PV will be
integrated in four parts of the building. (Courtesy of
DR BYEN)
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-454-2001
Title:
Intelligent Solutions for Typical New High
Profile Office-Buildings with Extensive
Use of IT-systems IT-ECO
Start Date: January 2003
Duration: 51 months
Contact point:
Niels Aude
Tel: +45-45 972211
Fax: +45-45 972212
na@cowi.dk
Partners:
Ecofys BV (NL)
Cowi A/S (DK)
Denmarks Radio (DK)
DS Plan-Ingenieurgesellschaft
fr Ganzheitliche Bauberatung
und Planning (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Michael Mente
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
michael.mente@cec.eu.int
INNOVATIVE CONCEPTS FOR BIPV
166
Objectives
REVIVAL is a major non-domestic building
refurbishment project which started in April
2003 and will run for five years. The work
centres upon the refurbishment of eight
buildings one hospital, three educational
buildings, and four office buildings. All have
the common characteristics of poor
insulation standards, an over-provision of
glazing, inefficient plant, and degraded
fabric. The local design teams are developing
refurbishment packages of fabric and system
improvements aimed at improving energy
performance, and addressing the problems of
fabric and indoor environment. They will
include design solutions which may involve
remodelling and reorganisation, as well as
solutions that will apply innovative products
available from industry. Photovoltaic arrays
are being designed into five of the buildings
to demonstrate their use on major
refurbishment projects. The results of the
whole project will be brought together in a
refurbishment manual.
Project structure
REVIVAL is coordinated by FaberMaunsell Ltd, a
UK-based engineering firm which is working with
the owner of each of the eight buildings as a
contractor, together with energy experts. Each
building has its own design team comprising
experts in the various fields necessary, and the
photovoltaic components will be designed into the
buildings during the design process. The project
is set up with Design Forums which review and
comment upon the design it will include the
photovoltaic components and their integration
into the buildings and the refurbishment process.
At present, only the proposed details of the
photovoltaic arrays are available as design work
is still in progress. The following systems are
proposed:
Lyce Chevrolier, France 120m
2
of PV are
proposed on the school roof.
Technical University of Einhoven, Netherlands
2,600m
2
of PV are proposed to cover the roof
of a new unheated atrium built on space
adjacent to the building on the south side.
Ministry of Finance HQ, Greece 20m
2
of
semi-transparent PV acting as shading devices
above windows to demonstrate combined
shading and electricity production. The
electricity is to be used to supply auxiliary
machinery, pumps, servos, etc.
Meyer Hospital offices, Italy PV will be built
into the roof on the new atrium to combine
shading with electricity generation. (This part
of the work will be funded by the Italian
Government not the REVIVAL project.)
Dutch Royal Navy offices, Netherlands
100m
2
of PV are proposed to be integrated
into the south faade of the building, in
unshaded parts.
Monitoring of the installed photovoltaic arrays will
take place for a year after the renovation works
have been completed, to assess the actual
electricity generated. This generation will be
placed in the context of the energy savings
made as a result of the overall refurbishment
works which will demonstrate the role of
photovoltaics in the refurbishment of non-
domestic buildings and the contribution that
can be made from renewable energy sources.
Exploitation plan
The impact of the photovoltaics will depend on
their location and use in the buildings. Some of
the buildings are of architectural importance
and the integration of photovoltaics into the
existing fabric represents an important challenge.
Where the arrays are included in atria and have
the double effect of acting both as shading
systems and electricity generators, the visual
impact will be very significant. However, apart
from the visual impact, the project should impact
on the psychology of refurbishment and stimulate
the use of appropriate renewable energy sources
when major buildings are being renovated. In
Photovoltaics in refurbishment
R E V I V A L
167
terms of electricity generation, the photovoltaics
in all the buildings in REVIVAL will produce an
estimated 300,000 kWh per year. This is a
useful contribution but is small in comparison to
the overall electricity demands of the buildings.
Progress to date
There are no results from the project yet as the
design process is continuing. The first results in
terms of actual installations are likely to come
through as from 2006.
The Dutch Royal Navy Building
Ministry of Finance Building, Athens.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-597-2001
Title:
Retrofitting for Environmental Viability
Improvement of Valued Architectural
Landmarks REVIVAL
Start Date: April 2003
Duration: 60 months
Contact point:
Simon Burton
Tel: +00-33 2741 2442
Fax: +00-33 2734 7910
simon.burton@fabermaunsell.com
Partners:
Fabermaunsell (UK)
Gaudin Ingnirie (FR)
Rgion des Pays de la Loire (FR)
Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (NL)
IST DeCivil (PT)
Depanom KAT Hospital (EL)
Stevenage Borough Council (UK)
Ministry of Finance (EL)
A Meyer Hospital (IT)
Royal Dutch Navy (NL)
ABITA (IT)
W/E Consultants (NL)
Kapodestrian University of Athens (EL)
DHV Accommodation and Real Estate (NL)
EC Scientific Officer:
Sylvain De Royer-Dupre
Tel: +32-2 2958966
Fax: +32-2 2966261
dupre@cec.eu.int
INNOVATIVE CONCEPTS FOR BIPV
168
Objectives
The main research objective of the project
has been to design, construct, monitor and
demonstrate a 1.2 MW photovoltaic (PV)
power plant located on sloping ground and
with an innovative solar-tracking system for
supplying electrical energy directly to the
electric power grid. The plant integrates
several technologies previously developed in
other fields (photovoltaic, electrical,
mechanical, ICT and control) within an
applied pre-competitive industrial project.
Two of the main specific objectives were:
- To develop an innovative individual solar-
tracking system so as to improve the solar
energy radiation capture in 29%,
compared with a static system, by means
of independent mobile structures rotating
over an azimuth axis.
- To avoid an atmospheric greenhouse gas
emission of more than 900,000 m
3
/year,
the amount that would be produced by a
conventional power plant to generate the
same amount of energy.
Plant description
The 1.2 MWp photovoltaic power plant is located
in the Montes del Cierzo area, south of the
Spanish region of Navarra, some five kilometres
north of Tudela, in a windy area with a ground
slope varying from 1 to 8. It is built on a terrain
of 70,000 m
2
, of which 63,000 m
2
corresponds
to the solar field.
Final installed nominal PV power of the plant is
1.18 MWp, separated into two different areas:
The centralised area contains 856.8 kWp of
BP Saturno technology, the most efficient
technology on the market, with the aim of
maximising production. Panels are mounted
on 280 individual tracking structures.
The decentralised area contains
321.112 kWp of 11 different technologies,
with the aim of investigating their performance
and gaining experience in PV technologies. One
or two current DC/AC converters (ranging
from 0.13 to 2.5 kW) are located under each
one of the 120 tracking structures in this
area.
The central building contains the DC/AC current
conversion rooms for the centralised area,
consisting of seven 100 kW converters. It also
houses the control room and the main
installations of the plant. A visitor centre has
been built in the middle of the solar field for
dissemination purposes. The plant is permanently
monitored and controlled by a software system.
It is connected through a microwave link to the
central control room of EHN in Pamplona.
Project structure
An international consortium has been formed to
develop the project:
EHN, the enterprise that leads the project
and runs the photovoltaic power plant, brings
the operational, monitoring experience and
the know-how in engineering and project
management in different renewable energy
power plants;
BP Solar, the main manufacturer of the PV
technology, whose strong points are systems
engineering, system integration, project
management of PV power plants and the
ability to manufacture the highest efficiency
PV panel currently on the market; and
Ingelectric, manufacturer of the current
reversion technology and control system,
specialised in manufacture of inverters and
monitoring and control systems.
The work has been divided into five phases:
design, construction, assembly, tuning and
monitoring, and dissemination.
Exploitation plan
The size of this project has contributed to
increase demand for the PV manufacturers and
other related ser vice suppliers, thus raising
market growth. Also, recent construction of new
PV panel manufacturing facilities around Europe
is enhancing the local socio-economic
development of the regions concerned (i.e. job
creation and auxiliary industrial sector).
As regards employment, the project has created
some direct jobs for operation and maintenance,
plus ten temporary jobs during the 24-month
period of the plant construction. It has also
secured employment partially devoted to the
1.2 MWp solar photovoltaic
plant in Tudela
S L O P E T R A C K P V
169
analysis and statistics of the plant performance,
and to research and knowledge of the different
PV technologies available in the market.
Moreover, the skills of the employees and PV
related companies have been and will be
increased, as the experience gained in the
project is quite relevant.
The plant is being exploited by EHN which sells
the electricity generated to the grid utility. In
addition, the decentralised part of the plant is
devoted to experimental activity. It monitors real
performances of different PV technologies, tests
different daily solar tracking strategies, compares
effectiveness of PV technologies, and increases
knowledge about large-scale PV plant operation
and maintenance.
Progress to date
The projects main outcome has been the setting
up of the 1.2 MW photovoltaic power plant. It was
officially inaugurated on 21 January 2003 by the
president of the Government of Navarra. The
plant is oriented to dissemination of PV
technology and is open to all the interested
parties many visits will be organised from now
on. Several brochures are available, and the
project has had a positive effect on the press and
other communication media.
The main specific achieved results are:
The development of 400 independent mobile
structures with an azimuth tracking system
that support the PV panels at an angle of
45 from the horizontal plane.
The monitoring and control system is an ICT
specific development for this project. It
includes software development, hardware
equipment, electronic installations, sensors
and components. The operation software can
be run either from the PV plant control room,
or remotely from the central offices of EHN in
Pamplona, or even from any other place with
access to the Internet.
The plants annual electric average production
is 1,900 MWh, which means 40% of the
Spanish grid electricity supply is coming from
photovoltaic sources.
Final cost of the plant is about 11 M, that
is, a rate of 9.2 /Wp installed, which is
45% over the initial estimations, mainly due
to an initial underestimation of some project
costs and also to the execution of some
additional investments (visitor centre, paved
access, etc.).
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-547-1999
Title:
1.2 Mw Photovoltaic Active Tracking
System Power Plant Located on
slope SLOPETRACK PV
Start Date: March 2003
Duration: 28 months
Contact point:
Esteban Morras
Tel: +34-948 22 94 22
Fax: +34-948 22 29 70
Partners:
Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra SA (ES)
BP Solar Espana SA (ES)
Ingelectric GmbH (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Roberto Gambi
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
roberto.gambi@cec.eu.int
LARGE SCALE PV PLANTS
170
Objectives
The purpose of this project is to install a
1.2 MW low- concentration photovoltaic
plant grid connected to the utility for
electricity generation in order to set the
basis of a significant cost reduction in the
generation of PV energy. Two concepts are
taken into account: concentration and two-
axis sun tracking.
- Concentration is based on reflecting part
of the sun radiation over a flat-plate PV
module by using two flat mirrors. Inthis
way the module receives all the radiation
coming directly from the sun (and
surroundings) and also the reflected
radiation in the mirrors. Since mirror
square meter cost is some orders of
magnitude lower than that of flat-plate PV
module, a cost reduction is achieved for
the installed capacity.
- Two-axis sun tracking system collects
between 35 and 48% more sun energy
than a static system, depending on the
geographical location. The size scale of
each tracking system that will be used in
the plant is around 90 m
2
.
The promoted plant will be installed in
Southern Europe (Sanlcar la Mayor,
Sevilla figure 1), a region with a high sun
insulation. For the first time in Europe it is
planned to achieve large-scale
implementation of a concentrator
technology based PV system.
S E V I L L A P V
Challenges
At present, the only PV technology available for
bulk production of electricity is based on PV flat-
plate panels made of monocrystalline silicon
cells. Although PV concentrator techniques
promise a great future for PV cost reduction,
there is no commercial PV concentrator available
on the market and all experience is limited to the
research field.
Flat-plate PV panels have been a well-proven
and developed technology for decades. The
availability of flat-plate PV modules is assured
since there are numerous manufacturers
worldwide. Manufacturers guarantee their
products for periods of between 20 and 25
years. The power degradation factor is assured
at lower than -10% in ten years and -20% in 25
years of the initial power rating.
However, due to the complex manufacturing
process and todays limited market demand,
the costly productive process deters development
of this sector without governmental financial
help. This makes it difficult to break through the
cost-effectiveness barrier. A significant short-
term cost reduction for flat-plate PV panels does
not seem to be achievable in the next 20 years
(reference: L. Frantzis et al. Opportunities for
Cost Reduction in PV Systems, 16th European
Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and
Exhibition, 2000). The most promising way of
producing a significant PV energy cost reduction
is concentration and sun tracking (figure 1).
On the other hand, concentration produces
negative aspects (EVA degradation, thermal load,
losses, etc.) to be taken into account, but all
these related problems do not override the
advantages obtained by concentration.
Project Structure
The Sevilla PV project will be managed following
the typical work plan of most conventional electric
generation plants. Specifications influence the
initial definition phase, such as specifying PV
modules peak power, number and size, or
tracking systems, and site selection. A
consortium made up of eight partners manages
this project. Solcar acts as single prime
construction manager and supplier of equipment
and subsystems related to structures and solar
tracking systems, and as co-ordinator for this EC
demonstration project. Ciemat will carry out the
quality control of modules and mirrors, design of
plant with Solcar, and the plant monitoring.
Wip will collaborate on the quality control
procedures and in producing the report for the
JRC in Ispra (Italy). Idae will do both financial and
dissemination plans, while Solar tec, Atersa,
Isofotn and Saint Gobain will supply the PV
modules and V mirrors, respectively.
Exploitation plan
The development of the 1.2 MWp PV two-axis low-
concentration plant will produce a cost reduction
of 18% to 23% of the installed capacity with
regards to a conventional flat-plate PV module
system. But where the system really makes a
difference is in the amount of energy collected
(between 35% and 48% more than a static
system), which means a decrease in the price
PV electricity for Southern
Europe at the lowest costs
171
of energy produced for the Sevilla PV location to
0.25/kWh.
Such an electricity production cost provides two
strategic advantages for the whole consortium
partnership.
On the one hand, it makes possible the viability
of the plant under the Spanish Royal Decree
2818/98 PV tariff of 0.21/kWh (which will
keep this value at least for the first five years),
making it possible to pay off part of the inverted
capital by the consortium.
On the other hand, it makes the product
competitive in the PV market industry once the
whole system is fully developed and
demonstrated. The final product will be mature
enough and ready for market penetration.
Progress to date
Site location plant selection (figure 1)
Solar resources study (figure 2)
Topography and geo-technical study
Installation of PV heliostat prototype (figure 3)
Preliminary shadows study
Conceptual Design
Bank negotiations for project finance scheme
Licences and permits.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-767-2001
Title:
The Worlds Largest Double Concentration
PV System PV Electricity for Southern
Europe at Lowest Costs Sevilla PV
Start Date: February 2003
Duration: 54 months
Contact point:
Pablo Valera
Tel: +34-95 4937477
Fax: +34-94 4937008
pablo.valera@solucar.abengoa.com
Partners:
Sanlucar Solar Solucar SA (ES)
Centro de Investigaciones Energticas
Medioambientales y Tecnolgicas (ES)
Instituto para la Diversificacin y
el Ahorro Energtico (ES)
Solartec s.r.o. (CZ)
BP Solar Espana SA (ES)
Aplicaciones Tcnicas de la Energa SA (ES)
Isofoton (ES)
Compagnie de Saint-Gobain (FR)
WIP-KG (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
Figure 1. Site Location Plant Figure 2. TMY for Sevilla. Hourly Radiation Data
Figure 3. Prototype Installation
LARGE SCALE PV PLANTS
172
Objectives
The project focuses on finding standard
solutions for integrating grid-connected PV
generators in parking structures.
It promotes maximum environmental
integration since it does not use any
additional surface space, and has the
advantage of cutting costs of civil works
and covering materials, thereby reducing
the investment required.
These objectives pursue the development
of a photovoltaic electrical structure in car
parks, formed by pre-designed assemblies
favouring standardised production that
lowers their cost.
A detailed study has been carried out in
order to determine power-conditioning
strategies. The performances of the
different solutions purposed have been
compared, and three configurations have
been adopted. The economic study plus
commissioning will determine the
advantages and disadvantages of each
solution.
The strategies of earthing and electric
shock protection have also been studied in
depth, in order to assure security of the PV
system which is sited at a public location,
frequented by many people, and works at
high voltages.
P H O T O C A M P A
Challenges
The Photocampa project is a photovoltaic
generator plant of 317 kWp maximum power,
consisting of 3,000 Isofoton modules (model I-
106); the system forms a collector field surface
of approximately 2,600m
2
. The modules are
fixed to a rectangular parking-shelter-type metallic
structure, with a 12 slope. The PV generator is
divided into three subsystems in order to
compare the three different kinds of inverters.
Although in Photocampa, as in any other
photovoltaic installation, the system is endowed
with intrinsically limited power, a series of
protection measures have been included that
ensure both personnel and plant security. This
issue is especially impor tant in this type of
installation, due to the high operational voltage
and the constant presence of people using the
car park, therefore, it constitutes the projects
main technical target.
The main protective measures related to the
generator and inverters are:
Internal inverter protection against over-
voltage, both on the DC side and the AC side,
as well as automatic field disconnection
devices against synchronism failure, out-of-
range grid voltage, and insulated operation.
Protection against over-voltage induced by
atmospheric discharges (lightning conductors
and varistors).
Installation of fuses in each branch to signal
the absence of blocking diodes.
The entire protection system has been designed
in three levels:
Level 1: Insulation reinforcement of
active parts
Floating configuration of generator: through this
configuration, both generator cores are
insulated from earth, in such a manner that
no voltage is referenced to earth. So,
accidents are impossible either by indirect or
primary contacts.
Wiring with protective and reinforcing
insulation: the conductor of each core (doubly
insulated copper conductors 0.6/1KV), has
been wrapped separately (a tube for each
core). These insulations reinforce protection
against indirect contacts.
Galvanic insulation between AC and DC sides
of the system: through independent windings
transformers in the inverters, alternate current
stops passing on the direct side and vice
versa.
Level 2: System of insulation detection
Through an insulation surveyor each and every
one of the generator lines are checked
constantly. In this manner the plant uses a
surveillance system of insulation loss,
reinforcing protection against indirect contacts.
Where there are insulation losses, drifts, or
earth faults, the surveyor detects the anomaly
and orders the firing of the switches, insulating
the affected photovoltaic field. The order
provokes a short circuit and earthing of the
field.
Level 3: Protection in the case of failure of
levels 1 and 2
In the case of failure of the previous levels,
there is still a protection provided by direct
earthing of all the plant masses. This limits
the voltage that masses can acquire with
respect to earth in the case of a drift to avoid
dangerous current differences.
Photocampa: A grid-connected
PV system in car parking
173
Project structure
The leader of the Project is Isofoton, responsible
for the global coordination, engineering design,
subcontracting work, monitoring, and socio-
economic studies assistance, and diffusion of
the project.
BERGE y Ca, (Spain) is the systems final user,
and has provided the main funding for the project.
Newcastle Application Centre (UNN) is the
monitoring coordinator and technical design
assistant of the socio-economical studies and
technical diffusion.
ICAEN (Spain) is responsible for the project
diffusion, and the consultant work of the socio-
economic studies.
BIOHAUS (Germany) and SUNWATT (France)
assisted in the technical design and technical
diffusion.
Others institutions involved are:
Solar Energy Institute (IES-UPM), modules and
generator quality control.
Laboratorio Central de electrotecnia (UPM),
power-conditioning quality control.
VERHOEF, solar energy consultancy, socio-
economic studies.
Expected Impact
A detailed market impact study has been carried
out in six European countries. The study
concludes that there is a market potential for PV
parking covers in these six countries of
approximately 40 MWp, and for the motor trade,
3.6 MWp.
The awareness in both PV in the retail and motor
trade, and covered PV car parks was high. The
environmental aspects of these covers were the
issues evaluated the most. For the retail trade, the
business (image) value was high and appealing.
For the motor and car parking industry, the power
generation was valued somewhat more.
It can be concluded that the most attractive
segment is the retail industr y because it is
larger actors are more eager to receive
information, and are less focused on the
electricity output of the systems and more on the
image and comfort values. The parking industry
is a less interesting market segment, although
it may provide very interesting partners for joint
sales promotion.
Results
Photocampa has been replicated by Isofoton
in three new projects. Furthermore, three
other new projects are under preparation.
Although during this first year there have been
several breakdowns due to grid failure, energy
production can be considered as optimal
according to prediction calculations. If we do
not consider those periods of grid unavailability,
the performance ratio would range from 0.7
to 0.75.
Safety systems have worked correctly during
the first year of operation. Moreover, it is
interesting to mention that Photocampa
protected several cars against a huge snow
storm. The storm damaged several cars which
were not parked under the Photocampa.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-772-1999
Title:
PV Grid Connected System in a Car
Parking PHOTOCAMPA
Start Date: July 2000
Duration: 24 months
Contact point:
Jose Luis Manzano Seco
Tel: +34-91 531 26 25
Fax: +34-91 531 10 07
isofoton@isofoton.es
Partners:
Institut Catal d'Energia (ES)
Isofoton SA (ES)
Berg y Cia SA (ES)
Biohaus PV Handels GmbH (DE)
Sunwatt France (FR)
University of Northumbria at Newcastle (UK)
Winwatt SA (CH)
EC Scientific Officer:
Roberto Gambi
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
roberto.gambi@cec.eu.int
LARGE SCALE PV PLANTS
Objectives
One of the barriers for PV applications to
date is the lack of a reliable, low-cost and
environmentally friendly energy storage
system. As non-grid installations are
typically installed in remote areas, a
reliable, maintenance-free, low-cost and
environmentally friendly energy storage
system is of paramount importance.
This project aims to research and develop
innovative battery cells for stand-alone PV
systems based on intrinsically
conductive rubber which are cheap,
versatile and require no maintenance.
I B P V
174
Project Structure
Batteries based on the proposed intrinsically
conductive rubber promise to provide a good
solution, but research is required in order to
optimise the doping mechanism (concentration,
duration of exposure, doping temperature, etc.),
determine the optimal metal counterpart in
terms of technical performance and cost price,
determine the suitability of the technology
with respect to stability during several
temperature ranges, reliability over time, and
so on.
The work aims to:
optimise the conducting polymer and
create a battery cell.
To this end, six work packages have been
identified, namely
1. Fundamental Material Assessments,
2. Fundamental Electrochemistry Assessments,
3. Polymer Stability Assessments,
4. Technical-Economical Assessment,
5. Cell Prototype Development and Evaluation,
and
6. Dissemination and Future Exploitation.
Exploitation plan
A full-working prototype battery is considered
to be too optimistic for a two-year project. This
CRAFT project aims to create a conducting
polymer and a battery cell.
Assuming the project results are adequate, the
SMEs will work together to further develop this
rubber batter y cell, and eventually to
commercialise the battery for PV applications.
The estimated time-to-market for a complete
battery for PV applications is about five year
after the successful closure of the project.
Progress to Date
This high-risk project is in its early stage and has
not yet brought concrete achievements. The
consortium is currently working on selecting the
most promising materials, identifying the best
rubber-metal combinations, characterising the
intrinsically conductive rubber and determining
the best doping regime.
Innovative battery for
photovoltaics systems
175
BALANCE OF THE SYSTEM AND MEASUREMENTS
INFORMATION
Contract: CRAFT-71706-1999
Title:
Innovative Battery for Photovoltaics
Systems, Based on a Intrinsically
Conductive Rubber IBPV
Start Date: April 2003
Duration: 24 months
Contact point:
Henk Van Ekelenburg
Tel: +31-74 2444070
Fax: +31-74 2508171
info@prosupport-nl.com
Partners:
VANE (NL)
Stroomwerk Energy (NL)
Schicon (BE)
Soco (IT)
MVO Gomma (IT)
Blueprint (UK)
Reschner (DE)
Giordano (IT)
CREST (EL)
Beta R&D (UK)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
176
Objectives
Although PV technology has reached a high
quality level, there are other socio-economic
factors that dramatically reduce the
reliability of PV pumping and purification
systems: population acceptance of the
technology innovation; technical quality not
only of the strictly PV part but also of the
other parts of the systems, such as wells,
distribution tubes, water tanks, taps, etc.;
the lack of tools and skills for the
management of the new system; the low
importance given by the users to the
sanitary quality of the water; etc.
The lack of a methodology and a
standardisation comprising all these aspects
when designing and planning PV pumping
programmes impedes ensuring long-term
system reliability and acts as a discouraging
factor in the mind of decision-makers.
The aim of this project is to develop
guidelines to overcome these problems and
to present a methodology for implementing
PV pumping and purification systems,
including the standardisation of all the
components that constitute the whole
system.
Challenges
PV pumps are mature and practical products
for rural water supply purposes. However, when
looking at realities in the field, many problems
can be found which are associated to their
implementation. First, local substructures
(reservoir, pipes, fountains, etc.) usually receive
little attention in the design, and are the origin
of reliability shortfalls and poor sanitary water
conditions. Second, water consumption patterns
are not sufficiently well known. Recommended
standard values (from 20 to 40 litres per person
and per day, depending on the region) are
extensively used for sizing purposes. However,
such values usually do not correspond with
realities. Third, water purification is not among
the users priorities (see figure 1). And finally,
local organisations in charge of maintenance
service and fee collection usually lack proper
managerial capabilities.
Previous experiences have addressed these
problems. A relevant case is the PRS, a
programme financed by the European Union that
installed about 1.2 MWp of PV pumps from
1991 to 1995. It represents, perhaps, the
greatest standardisation and quality assurance
effor t ever made in the PV rural application
field. Later evaluations demonstrated that the
behaviour of PV pumps was generally excellent.
However, important defects has been found in
two-thirds of local substructures and about 30%
of local organisations have failed in the payment
of maintenance contracts.
This project follows the execution and
per formance of a PV water supply project
implemented in 20 villages in the south of
Morocco in Februar y 1997. A situation ver y
similar to the case described for PRS was found
initially. However, the implementation of some
technical and managerial improvements has
progressively led to a much better situation.
Today, not only all the PV pumps are in proper
technical condition, but local organisations are
also collecting fees and exploitation data monthly.
In addition, water purification systems have
already been successfully implemented in some
villages.
Project structure
The project consortium consists of the Instituto
de Energa Solar-Universidad Politcnica de
Madrid (IES) and the Fondation Energies pour le
Monde (FONDEM). The role of IES is to develop
guidelines for implementing PV pumping and
purification systems, suppor ted by previous
experiences in PV pumping quality test and
installation per formance in the framework of
the PRS programme, in developing a quality
norm (Universal Technical Standard for Solar
Home Systems), and finally, in installing and
evaluating PV pump and purification systems in
the context of the project Clean Water with
Clean Energy (INCO-DC, IC18-CT96-0104).
On the other hand, the Foundation Energies
pour le Monde, comprising an interdisciplinary
team with an in-depth knowledge of both the
European PV industry and socio-technical aspects
of rural development, is responsible for
disseminating the project results.
Finally, the consortium has subcontracted to
the local association Tichka which has followed
(in the field) the project of installing PV pumps
and purification systems in 20 villages in the
south of Morocco. This association is in charge
of the managerial and maintenance aspects of
the PV pumping programme.
Best practices for PV
pumping programmes
P U M P A D U R
177
Exploitation plan
Lessons from the experiences previously
mentioned are of general interest and deserve
to be widely disseminated among the European
PV industry and rural development agencies in
order to improve their capabilities in the use of
PV technology for rural electrification purposes.
So, this accompanying measure aims at the
preparation and dif fusion of documents (by
means of a publication about the best practices
for PV pumping programmes, and a seminar)
describing these positive experiences, and
providing guidelines for future programmes.
That is the main objective of the project. It has
been planned:
To carry out a detailed evaluation of the PV
pumping programme in the south of Morocco.
To elaborate and disseminate a set of
guidelines, describing the best practises for
PV water pumping and purification system
implementation, by means of the publication
of a handbook and the organisation of a
seminar on PV water pumping and purification
systems, directed to industries, NGOs and
decision-makers involved in rural development
in the Maghreb countries.
To apply such guidelines in new PV pumping
projects which are going to be implemented
in Morocco.
Progress to date
The ultimate aim of this project is, on the one
hand, to improve the current implementation
practices in PV water pumping and purification
systems, and on the other, to define a
methodology leading to long-term sustainability
of PV pumping projects.
The main results achieved which will contribute
to this global goal are: first, the production and
wide dissemination of a booklet about the best
practices for PV pumping programmes, which also
describes the lessons learned from a successful
experience in Morocco (Guidelines for
implementing PV pumping and purification
systems), and second, the organisation of an
international seminar in Morocco from 27-29
June 2003.
The dissemination of these guidelines (see figure 2)
is an essential part of the project objectives. The
actions oriented to the organisation of a seminar
and to the maintenance of consultation over six
months are being carried out so as to
disseminate the guidelines as widely as possible,
and to clarify its application to real projects.
The publication of 1,000 copies of the guidelines
(500 in English and 500 in French) and its
diffusion among the main actors involved in
water provision and the European PV industry is
taking place within the same context as the
wide dissemination of the results. Other methods
of dissemination include the Internet and
pursuing the initiatives developed within the
framework of the seminar.
The assumption of the technical standardisation
and the social and managerial strategies included
in the guidelines will give the PV industr y a
position of privilege in future PV pumping projects
with quality requirements in their tender
specifications.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-35-2000
Title:
Best Practices for PV Water Pumping
and Purification Programmes:
Lessons from Selected Experiences
in Morocco PUMPADUR
Start Date: January 2003
Duration: 24 months
Contact point:
Louis Navarte
Tel: +34-915 441060
Fax: +34-915 446341
navarte@ies-def.upm.es
Partners:
Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (ES)
Fondation Energies pour le Monde (FR)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
Figure 2. Published document Guidelines for
implementing PV pumping and purification
systems (French version).
BALANCE OF THE SYSTEM AND MEASUREMENTS
Figure 1. The attention paid by the rural population to
water quality is very low. The donkey in the water shows
that it is more appreciated the effort reduction
178
Objectives
The purpose of this project is to define
standard methods and criteria for testing,
rating and specifying PV concentrator
components and systems (C-systems), in
order to make possible the marketing of
these products with the same degree of
guarantee reached for conventional flat
modules.
A book with the conclusions of the work
carried out by the expert partners,
representing all the PV actors, from
scientists, testing laboratories, official
qualification centres, manufactures and final
users, will be issued as result of this project.
This draft, including C-modelling, the
proposed standards, the minimum required
specifications, the recommended testing
procedures and the monitoring mode
recommendations could be the basis for
future European standards in this field.
Technical target
PV concentrator technology is receiving increased
attention as a recognised way to reduce the
dependence of the PV industry on the silicon
feedstock limitations and to reach ver y high
efficiencies with sophisticated cells, the high cost
of which will be diluted by the concentration
ratio.
As a consequence, several developments are
under way in Europe and around the world that
will soon require the definition of standards to
rate their nominal power and to know their
producing energy capabilities.
The rating of the concentrator components and
systems cannot follow the same methods used
for flat panels because: they only collect beam
irradiance, the illumination of the receivers is not
uniform, they require an effective heat sink, the
models to predict the energy generated are not
yet verified, etc.
The status of the problem has required starting
a process of definition of conditions for
measurement and rating of concentrators, the
required specifications for components and
systems, and finally modelling of the performance
of concentrators to predict the energy production.
The work developed by the partners is divided into
seven main subjects:
Definition and classification of C-systems;
light patterns cast on the receivers for each
type; definition of a few reference C-systems;
Modelling of a reference concentrator to predict
power and energy outputs for any climate;
Definition of standard test conditions for
collectors and whole C-systems under natural
sun;
Definition of standard test conditions for cells
and receivers under natural and synthetic C-
light beams;
Control testing under dark conditions on the
production line;
Determination of the specifications required
to describe the technical aspects of
components and systems and the methods for
testing and rating components and power
plants; and
Definition of monitoring guidelines for uniform
comparison and dissemination of results in
experimental or demonstration plans.
Project structure
The project consortium consisted of Instituto
de Energa Solar (IES) which is the project
coordinator, the European Commissions Joint
Research Centre Directorate-General, Fraunhofer
Gesellschaft zr Forderung der Angewandten
Forschung e.V. (ISE), Instituto tecnolgico y de
energas Renovables (ITER), and RWE Space
Solar Power GmbH. The main role of IES is the
definition and modelling of the reference C-
systems. The par t played by ITER is the
measurement of the C-systems under natural
light. Fraunhofer ISE is dedicated to the
measurements under synthetic light, RWE Solar
Space to the control test under dark conditions
on the production line, and JRC to the
determination of specifications and definition
of the monitoring guidelines.
Harmonisation of PV
concentrators
C - R A T I N G
179
Exploitation plan
The output consists of seven books containing
the conclusions of the work carried out by the
partners on the target subjects A) to G) shown
above.
The performance modelling, methods for testing
in natural light or synthetic light sources and
prediction of receiver performance from dark IV
curves are significant results. In addition, a list
of minimum required specifications and a set of
proposals for testing and rating C-systems have
been generated by the consortium.
Progress to date
The C-rating project finished in May 2003. The
seven books have been produced and are
currently being reviewed by the par tners. In
addition, a summar y of the main conclusions
and recommendations has been written.
Dissemination of the project results has been
achieved via several articles and papers, and
through a web page.
(www.ies-def.upm.es/ies/crating/crating.htm)
Figure 1. Focused light from a linear lens.
Figure 2. Adapter for testing small-size C-cells
designed by RWE.
Reference PV concentrators
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE-32-2000
Title:
Test, Rating and Specification of
PV Concentrator Components and
Systems C-RATING
Start Date: June 2000
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
G. Sala
Tel: +34-91 544 10 60
Fax: +34-91 544 63 41
sala @ies-def.upm.es
Partners:
Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft-ISE (DE)
Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (ES)
Joint Research Centre - Ispra (IT)
RWE Space Solar Power Gmbh (DE)
Instituto Tecnologico
y de Energias Renovables SA (ES)
RWE Solar GmbH (DE)
Angewandte Solarenergie GmbH (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
BALANCE OF THE SYSTEM AND MEASUREMENTS
180
Objectives
In arid and semi-arid regions, the lack of
drinkable water often corresponds with
high solar insulation. These conditions are
favourable for the use of solar energy as
the driving force for water treatment
systems. This is especially true in remote
rural areas with low infrastructure and
without connection to a grid, where small-
scale, stand-alone operating systems for
the desalination of brackish water from
wells or salt water from the sea are
desirable to provide settlements with clean
potable water.
The overall objective of the MEMDIS
project is the development of stand-alone
desalination systems which are based on
highly innovative membrane distillation
(MD) technology. The systems integrate
solar thermal and PV energy. The
desalination energy is supplied entirely by
solar thermal collectors and the electrical
auxiliary energy is supplied by a PV
system.
The aim is to develop systems for a
capacity range of 0.1 to 20 m
2
/ day.
Technical simplicity, long maintenance-free
operation periods and high-quality potable
water output are the very important aims
which will enable the successful
application of the systems.
M E M D I S
Challenges
In many places worldwide drinkable water is
already a scarce commodity and its scarcity will
rise dramatically in the future.
Today, sea water desalination plants are well
developed on industrial scales. Each day, about
25 Mio. m
2
are produced in desalination plants.
These water factories are in the capacity range
up to 230.000 m
2
/d and can provide big cities
with drinkable water.
Small villages or settlements in rural remote
areas without infrastructure do not profit from
these techniques. The technical complexity of the
large plants is very high and cannot easily be
scaled down to very small systems and water
demands. Fur thermore, the lack of energy
sources, as well as a missing connection to the
grid, complicate the use of standard desalination
techniques in these places.
The fact that the lack of drinkable water in arid
and semi-arid regions often corresponds with a
high solar insulation supports the use of solar
energy as the driving force for water treatment
systems. These systems must be adapted to the
special conditions required by solar energy
powering, low water demand, challenging ambient
conditions and the lack of well-trained technicians
for set up and maintenance. So the systems to
be developed must be able to operate in a stand-
alone mode, they must be maintenance free,
energy efficient, robust and modular in order to
resize them to a wide range of user profiles. They
must be able to withstand different raw water
compositions without chemical pre-treatment in
order to develop standardised stand-alone
systems for all current types of sea and brackish
water.
Project Structure
The project consor tium consists of GEP
(Germany), EES (Belgium), CIEA (Gran Canari,
Spain), and Fraunhofer ISE (Germany). Fraunhofer
ISE is the coordinator of the project and
responsible for the development of new MD
modules and system designs. GEP focuses on
manufacturing the new MD modules and other
special components needed for the system.
EES is a collector manufacturer and will provide
special adapted solar thermal collectors for the
test systems. The test systems will be installed
and monitored at ITCs test site in Gran Canaria.
Exploitation plan
The development of reliable energy self-supplied
desalination systems can raise the living
standards of many people in rural areas of arid
regions worldwide. In third world countries, about
80% of diseases result from the lack of drinkable
water or through drinking polluted water.
Desalination systems can help to reduce these
numbers.
The use of solar energy as the driving force is a
clean energy which makes no contribution to
environmental pollution. It is independent from
oil and gas so in the future solar energy may also
be the power supply for medium- or large-scale
desalination plants.
Solar-driven desalination
plants based on membrane
distillation
181
Progress to Date
The focus of development work since the project
beginning in April 2003 is on the construction of
the MD-module and the system design of small
systems.
The module construction is a spiral wound one
with integrated heat recover y function. A
screening of materials as membranes, condenser
foils, spacer materials and resins for the casing
were carried out. A machine was constructed to
wind the eight different layers which form the
evaporator, condenser and distillate channel to
the spiral wound module form.
A System design for small systems with
capacities between 100 and 500 litres per day
without heat and electricity buffer were carried
out. It only consists of corrosion free solar
thermal collectors developed by Fraunhofer ISE
in the SODESA project (JOR3-CT98-0229), one
to four MD-modules and a PV-driven control and
pump system.
A sketch of a system for a production capacity
of about 150 l/day is given in figure 1. The
collector area is about 6m
2
, the membrane area
of the module is about 7m
2
, the PV-area is about
1m
2
. Annual simulation calculations for that
system were carried out with weather data sets
for different potential installation locations.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-819-2001
Title:
Development of Stand-alone, Solar
Thermally Driven and PV-supplied
Desalination Systems Based on
Innovative Membrane Distillation
MEMDIS
Start Date: April 2003
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Matthias Rommel
Tel: +49-761 4588-5141
rommel@ise.fhg.de
Partners:
Fraunhofer Gesellschaft-ISE (DE)
European Solar Engineering SA (BE)
GEP Umwelttechnik GmbH (DE)
Instituto Technologico de Canarias SA (ES)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
Figure 1. Sketch of a simple MD-system for a
production capacity of about 150 l/day.
BALANCE OF THE SYSTEM AND MEASUREMENTS
182
Objectives
Rural electrification by means of
photovoltaic solar energy is considered a
promising instrument to reduce the world
population living without access to
electricity. Nevertheless, the
implementation of this action is not
reaching the proposed targets. Technical,
social and economical barriers are limiting
the dissemination of photovoltaic
technology. Consequently, a project
undertaken at European level, such as the
one proposed here, is essential to reach
out to a critical mass of population so that
the detected problems can be solved.
Moreover, TaQSolRE is seeking answers to
questions such as:
- How much energy are the users, whether
individuals or institutions, expecting to
get from the PV systems?
- What is the actual reliability of a PV
Installation? How can this be deduced?
- How can local or regional quality control
be developed?
- How can user confidence in solar
products be increased?
- How can the end-users judge the quality
of their PV systems?
All the above are very relevant as regards
the circumstances of the solar rural
electrification market. Their importance is
different with respect to the success of
wide-spread photovoltaic technology, but
they all require to be resolved or at least
approached.
T A Q S O L R E
Challenges
The aim of this project is to enhance the technical
quality of photovoltaic stand-alone systems by
means of quality assurance procedures and the
diffusion of best practices. The first step is to
identify the technical problems linked with the
social acceptance of solar rural electrification in
developing countries. In parallel with this, it
must establish technical parameters that permit
quantification of the photovoltaic systems
reliability and confidence ensuring energy delivery
on a timely basis.
The standardisation task and, consequently, the
development of test procedures allowing
corroboration of the pursuance of standards,
are a priority. So this project is exploring the
mechanisms to establish local or regional quality
controls in photovoltaic systems as a whole,
modules, B.O.S. components, installation and
ser vice in order to increase confidence in
photovoltaic systems.
Exploitation plan
The main results expected will be an
improvement in reliability and to decrease the
cost effectiveness of photovoltaic stand-alone
systems because of the normative and quality
control process. Other expected results are:
To advance the confidence and consistent
acceptability of photovoltaic technology as an
important energy tool to supply the needs of
electrification in rural areas, especially in
developing countries.
Empowering photovoltaic actors with
knowledge about photovoltaic RE reliability
(photovoltaic manufacturers, planners,
electricity companies/utilities, etc). This will
result in products that are more reliable and
the reduction of life-cycle cost of photovoltaic
systems.
In addition, some of the priorities of strategic
importance to the EU will be covered by this
project: the approach to the photovoltaic RE
reliability requires integration of socio-economic
issues, besides technological ones. The quality
control proposed is formulated around
standardisation which is considered a priority
action to remove technical barriers. Finally, the
main goal of the project is to transfer to
developing countries knowledge about the quality
control process in photovoltaic technology, which
is a fruitful renewable energy resource to reduce
GHG emissions.
Project structure
This project tackles measures to improve the
current technical quality of photovoltaic stand-
alone systems, which is hindering the confidence
and acceptance of consumers, by means of a
combined strategy: On the one hand, by
promoting the quality control of photovoltaic
systems according to standards that can be
verified at local level; on the other hand, through
the development of tools that resolve questions
related to the reliability of photovoltaic
installations. The methodology to reach both
targets is grounded in the critical significance of
local aspects and the need for improved
feedback from field experience. These
assumptions are the basis on which the project
is structured.
Tackling the quality in solar
rural electrification
183
The TaQSolRE consor tium is clearly of a
complementary nature. It is made up of three
partners and a major subcontractor with proven
know-how in photovoltaic technology and field
experience in rural electrification: two research
institutions, Instituto de Energa Solar -
Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (IES-UPM),
and Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands
(ECN); a ser vice company specialising in
photovoltaic rural electrification in developing
countries, Intermediate Technology Power India
(ITPI), and a consultancy firm devoted to the
energy subject in developing countries, Innovation
Energie et Developement (IED).
Progress to date
The three-year project has just finished the first
semester. We have designed a reliability
database, and data collection will be through a
literature sur vey and primar y data from
monitoring activities of the partners involved. On
a limited scale, there will be additional field
evaluation of selected PV installations
implemented for the main part by local experts
under subcontracts. The reliability will be analysed
in terms of: PV-system design, quality of PV
modules and balance of system components,
and dimensioning of system components in
relation to loads. All the information about the
project can be viewed on our website:
http://TaQSolRE.net.
Rural electrification using solar energy
is a fundamental tool to supply
electricity in developing countries.
Although an important number of relevant
standards and guideline documents have
been published, the reliability of solar home
systems remains low.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-98-2002
Title:
Tackling the Quality in Solar Rural
Electrification - Target Action C
TaQSolRE
Start Date: February 2003
Duration: 36 months
Contact point:
Miguel A. Egido
Tel: +34-91 54 41060
Fax: +34-91 54 46341
egido@ies-def.upm.es
Partners:
Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (ES)
Energy Research Centre (NL)
Innovation Energie - Dveloppement (FR)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
BALANCE OF THE SYSTEM AND MEASUREMENTS
184
Objectives
Besides the product quality of PV modules
regarding long-term operation in outdoor
climates, maximum power output is a key
issue for end users and installers. Low
manufacturing tolerance, clear traceability
of power ratings and good quality
assurance measures are important for the
future expansion of PV technology and for
the competitiveness of PV module
manufacturers.
Power output measurements at production
sites are commonly performed with pulsed
sunlight simulation systems. However,
analysis of testing quality is very
complicated and requires specialised
knowledge of sunlight simulation and of
measuring methods. Consequently, PV
module manufacturers often do not have
enough or suitable resources to control the
quality of power control measurements
during production. Given this situation, the
aim of the project is to provide guidance
and information for improving testing
quality, to maintain this quality on a high
level and to create a basis for harmonising
measurement methods.
S O L A R P O W E R
Challenges
Evaluation of the testing quality of sunlight
simulators requires knowledge of solar simulator
performance data. Despite the need to identify
the potential for improvement, no measuring
equipment is available on the market suitable for
performing high-speed measurements of spectral
irradiance and irradiance distribution in test
areas. Therefore, special measurement expertise
of a PV test laboratory is required. The CRAFT
project employs mobile test equipment available
at the R&D performer to conduct measurement
campaigns for the SME consortium.
No harmonised quality assurance measures are
available for maintaining constant testing quality
in PV module production. The measures should
include regular maintenance, the training of
testing personnel and especially procedures for
the use of reference modules for tracing back
measurements to international standards. At
present no guidelines or best-practice manuals
covering these points are available. The result
is a great variety of testing methods and a great
need for harmonisation.
For most sunlight simulators, measurements of
current-voltage characteristics are not performed
at a target temperature of 25 and at a constant
irradiance of 1000 W/m
2
. Data points must
therefore be corrected, requiring knowledge of
module parameters such as temperature
coefficients or the series resistance. These
parameters can be derived from cell data, but
they also depend on the electrical circuitry of the
module and they may not be constant for a
given production series. At present, module
manufacturers are uncertain as to how measuring
uncertainty and production tolerance are affected
if non-specific parameters are used.
Ef fects on current-voltage characteristics
measured by pulsed sunlight simulators have
been reported in the past, but no procedures are
so far available that define measuring conditions
for achieving an acceptable level of accuracy. In
particular, the electrical behaviour of PV modules
with different types of pulsed sunlight simulators
and different measuring techniques remains
unclear. This issue can be clarified with round
robin tests. The variety of test equipment used
by the CRAFT consortium ensures a broad basis
for research and will allow us to develop generally
applicable testing methods.
Project Structure
The consortium of this CRAFT project consists
of 8 SMEs operating PV module production lines
and employing sunlight simulators for output
power measurements. The role of the R&D
performer is played by the PV laboratory of TV
Rheinland Group, recognised as an independent
international service provider with many years of
experience in the field of PV measuring
technology and PV testing methods. The R&D
performer operates mobile measuring devices for
solar simulator analyses developed during
research funded by the German State of North
Rhine-Westphalia (contract: AG Solar 216 108
00).
Towards the harmonisation
of PV module output power
measurements in production
lines
185
Exploitation plan
Testing quality of PV module power output
measurements: The participating SMEs shall
have their measuring systems optimised and
qualified regarding conformance with international
rules and requirements. The SMEs shall receive
uncer tainty analyses of their solar simulator
measurement technology, as the basis for
indicating manufacturing tolerance. The clear
traceability of measurements to international
standards will increase confidence in data sheet
information.
Quality assurance measures: Innovative quality
assurance measures for maintaining constant
testing quality in PV module production shall be
developed. These measures comprise the
definition of regular maintenance, procedures for
the use of reference modules and the training of
test personnel.
Solar simulator measuring technology: Effects of
the high-speed measurement of current-voltage
characteristics shall be analysed with a variety
of measuring techniques. Fundamental issues
regarding specific effects and measurement
errors for flash technologies shall be clarified.
Quality standards for PV: The findings of the
project will be of a general nature. The acquired
information can be used to harmonise PV
measuring procedures and measuring technology.
Best-practice test manuals can provide guidance
by rendering measuring results from different
systems comparable and reducing discrepancies.
Measurement results from various solar
simulator systems can deliver valuable
information for developing IEC standards.
Progress to Date
An initial measurement campaign has
documented the current testing quality of solar
simulator systems at 5 SME production sites. The
campaign included monitoring of the optical
per formance of the light system (irradiance
distribution in the test area, spectral irradiance
of the lamp/flashtube), evaluation of the
measuring method and evaluation of the data
processing software. This work resulted in a list
of proposed measures for improving the testing
quality, mainly regarding the following issues:
Irradiance distribution data are not available,
so that modules are not optimally placed
Reference modules are not identical in size
and design with modules from production
Temperature and irradiance corrections do
not conform to the relevant IEC standards
Module parameters are not verified by
measurements
Error analyses are not available and therefore
production tolerance cannot be verified
The use of reference modules for calibration
purposes is not clear.
Figure 1 shows the measured light pulses of 5
solar simulators. The diagram reflects the great
variety of systems in use. With 2 ms as a typical
period for the measurement of the current-
voltage characteristic, a considerable change
of irradiance can occur.
As an example, Figure 2 shows the irradiance
pattern in the test area of a sunlight simulator.
These data can be analysed for defining the
optimal position for installing the PV module in
the test area, for a given module size.
INFORMATION
Contract: CRAFT-72232-1999
Title:
Development of Innovative Quality
Assurance Measures for Improving the
Efficiency of Solar Panel Production -
SOLAR POWER
Start Date: May 2003
Duration: 24 months
Contact point:
Hans-Uwe Florstedt
Tel: +49-36602 509672
ipeg.gera@t-online.de
Partners:
IPEG GmbH (DE)
Enfoton Solar Ltd (CY)
Swiss Sustainable Systems AG (CH)
Arctic Solar (SE)
Bluenergy AG (DE)
Millennium Electric TOU (IL)
Solarwatt Solarsysteme GmbH (DE)
Helios Technology SRL (IT)
TV Immissionsschutz und
Energiesysteme GmbH (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Pietro Menna
Tel: +32-2 2954512
Fax: +32-2 2966261
pietro.menna@cec.eu.int
View of a sunlight simulator used in PV module production
BALANCE OF THE SYSTEM AND MEASUREMENTS
Figure 1. Flash intensity of variously pulsed sunlight
simulators
Figure 2. Irradiance pattern in the test area of a
solar simulator
186
Objectives
The general objective of the project FIRST
STEP is to speed up efforts by one of
Lithuanias independent research centres
Mokslininku Sajungos Institutas (MSI) to
become the worlds centre of excellence
on Self-Formation. Strategic objectives of
the Centre are: development and
enforcement of capacities of the national
research and industry potential for Self-
Formation applications for integration into
the ERA; attraction of young, talented
researchers from Lithuania and the EU to
this promising research area; and
promotion of the Self-Formation concept to
the European intelligent materials industry
in general and to the PV manufacturing
industry in particular, in order to help them
to become more competitive.
The project foresees promotion and
dissemination within the EU of conceptual
and application-specific knowledge
acquired during the past 20 years in the
field of Self-Formation, attracting the
interest of young and talented researchers
to the Self-Formation research and
applications area through networking at
the national and European level, and
improvement of project managers, senior
researchers and MSI Management Team
managerial skills.
F I R S T S T E P
Challenges
While the Self-Formation Concept was developed
in the 1980s for microelectronics, its application
is not very widespread, mainly as a result of the
stringent control of the Soviet Union in the past.
Self-Formation is only disseminated among
Russian scientists, and publications are both
scarce and written almost exclusively in Russian.
Consequently, Self-Formation is barely known
among scientists, developers and industries
outside Lithuania (and Russia), which is obviously
a serious barrier to openings in European
countries.
In order to promote and disseminate within the
EU the conceptual and application-specific
knowledge acquired during the past 20 years in
the field of Self-Formation, a three-day conference
is to be organised in Lithuania in 2003. Co-
operation, links and exchange of ideas and
knowledge between Lithuania and European
Union research centres must be established to
achieve critical mass of skills to strengthen
scientific and technological excellence in Self-
Formation theory and applications areas.
To attract the interest of young and talented
researchers to Self-Formation research and
applications, area networking at national and
European level with universities, research
centres, PV and the intelligent materials industry
has to be established, and training fellowships
for graduates, postgraduates and postdoctoral
researchers at the leading research centres in
the area have to be organised.
Sustainability raising and structure and
management optimisation will be reached by
focusing activities in two directions strategic
and project management. Strategic management,
in particular R&D programme management, is
necessar y to focus MSI resources on clear
demand-driven objectives and to ensure that
MSI is organised in a manner consistent with
these objectives. Training on project management
(for managers and researchers involved in the
Self-Formation area) will be provided to introduce
a European standard of planning-execution-
control in MSI projects.
Project structure
The project is mono-contractual; the coordinator
is Mokslininku sajungos institutas (MSI Institute
of Lithuanian Scientific Society). To carry out
the project activities a Self-Formation alliance of
13 partner organisations working in material
science and applications for PV has been formed.
The alliance includes: MSI, Vilnius University
Physics Faculty and Department of Computer
Science, Siauliai University, Vytautas Magnus
University, Kaunas Technological University,
Lithuanian Energy Institute, Semiconductor
Physics Institute, Institute of Mathematics and
Informatics, Association of Lithuanian
Industrialists, Vilniaus Venta Puslaidininkiai Ltd,
Elitnet Ltd, Telebaltikos importas ir eksportas
Ltd. On the basis of this alliance, a steering
committee was introduced as a management
body.
Exploitation plan
If the project results are positive, the capacities
of Lithuanian research institutions in Self-
Formation area will become better known to the
EUs research community. Lithuanian researchers
will integrate into the EU-wide informal research
network and sustainable contacts between
research and industr y will be developed.
Established contacts with industry will help to
focus research activities on an application-driven
approach resulting in new and promising Self-
Formation applications. The transfer of knowledge
to industry and especially SMEs will influence the
shift of industrial partners to more RTD-oriented
activities.
Towards a stairway to
excellence in photovoltaics
187
This project also will contribute to the
development of conditions for research careers
in the Self-Formation research and applications
area for young and talented researchers.
Training on strategic and project management will
develop management skills necessar y for
successful participation in future collaborative
activities at the EU level.
Progress to date
The first six months of the project focused on
preparations for the conference Self-Formation
Theor y and Applications, held in Vilnius on
November 2003, organising a training workshop
on strategic management, R&D programme
management and project management, and co-
ordination of project activities.
Preparation for the conference was star ted
immediately after the contract was signed. Within
the first six months of the project the main
preparator y actions were accomplished. A
Programme Committee of 11 members has been
formed, presided by Prof. Hermann Haken,
Director of the Centre of Synergetics of Stuttgart
University in Germany. A mailing list of potential
conference participants for the dissemination of
information on conference issues was created.
In February 2003 the conference website was
launched which serves as open forum for the
exchange of ideas and for promoting the Self-
Formation concept and the exper tise of MSI
(available at http://www.self-formation.lt). In
March the contract with the publisher of the
conference proceedings was signed conference
texts will be published in the periodical Solid
State Phenomena. Leading researchers in the
field from EU countries accepted an invitation to
present recent achievements and the state of the
art in different areas of Self-Formation.
As a result of promising results achieved by the
application of the Self-Formation theory to solar
cell technology (the Helsolar project, which will
be presented at the conference) the conference
attracted interest and support from industrial
partners.
In the middle of June a three-day training course
took place on project management. The aim of
the workshop was to train researchers and
project managers from the Institute of Lithuanian
Scientific Society (MSI) to mange their R&D
projects effectively and efficiently, in line with
western European requirements.
A Self-Formation alliance of 13 par tner
organisations covering research centres,
universities and industry partners was set up to
integrate research capacities in the sector at the
national level and to exercise fully First Step
activities. The project also developed its own
Internet ser ver maintained where impor tant
documents could be stored and downloaded by
all partners.
A specific project website was established for
information dissemination at http://firststep.self-
formation.lt, where general information on the
project and its progress are presented for a
broad user audience.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE-5-2002
Title:
Self-Formation Research
Towards Stairway to Excellence in
Photovoltaic FIRST STEP
Start Date: January 2003
Duration: 24 months
Contact point:
Juras Ulbikas
Tel: +370-5 2616433
Fax: +370-5 2313762
ulbikas@uj.pfi.lt
Partner:
Mokslininku Sajungos Instituas (LT)
EC Scientific Officer:
Ronald A. Bailey
Tel: +32-2 2952879
Fax: +32-2 2964254
ronald.bailey@cec.eu.int
EDUCATION, DISSEMINATION, STUDIES
188
Objectives
The European Photo-voltaic Solar Energy
Conference and Exhibition 2000 represented
a highlight in the field of photovoltaics in
Europe in the year 2000. It was the aim of
the action to use the opportunity of this
outstanding event to widely disseminate the
state of the art in photovoltaics and to
provide a platform for the PV industry to pre-
sent new developments with a strong focus
on cost-effective applications. The European
Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and
Exhibition 2000 demonstrated the European
Union's commitment to PV technology.
In addition, this project aimed to foster the
exchange of information and experience be-
tween the R&D sector and the PV industry.
Challenges
Several RE technologies have now advanced
well beyond the R&D phase but have only partly
reached the stage of fully competitive production
in the open market. Market forces alone will
not be suf ficient to increase the market
penetration of RE technologies toward large-
scale deployment. The conference was designed
to offer excellent opportunities to promote PV
technologies in Europe as well as overseas, to
spread the latest state of the ar t of PV
technologies, to strengthen their marketability
and to increase their market share in relation to
conventional energy generation techniques, as
well as to encourage future research and
development efforts.
The strategic target involved organising a PV
specialist event able to gather the know-how in
PV technologies and PV applications around the
world.
The technical targets of the event consisted in
the comprehensive publication of the state of the
art in global PV technologies and applications.
This 3,000 page publication was produced in two
versions, as a three-volume hard back book and
as a CD-ROM.
Project Structure
The European Photovoltaic Solar Energy
Conference and Exhibition 2000, including the
Contact Forum, was held at the Scottish
Exhibition and Conference Centre in Glasgow, UK,
from 1 to 5 May 2000.
The contractors set up comprehensive services
well in advance of the event at their home base.
These services were available to all potential
participants of the conference and exhibition.
In total, 1,312 delegates from 62 countries
registered for the conference. In addition, there
were representatives from 127 exhibiting
companies and organisations that were present
at the worlds leading PV exhibition in the year
2000.
The par ticipants came from ver y dif ferent
backgrounds comprising European policy-makers,
researchers, service providers, and the numerous
sectors of the PV industry.
Exploitation plan
One goal was to draw the atten-tion of European
policy-makers to the European PV Conference
2000 and to convince them to play an active role
in this event. The motivation for this action was
that a strong participation from European policy-
makers increases the impact of the event at both
European and global level.
European policy-makers represented the target
group for the session Implementation Strate-
gies, National Programmes and Financing
Schemes. They contributed actively to this
session which included, amongst other topics,
market deployment in industrial countries,
national programmes, implementation of the EC
White Paper through national strategies,
financing, interregional cooperation, industrial
production, social and environmental benefits and
legal issues.
The PV industry represented a further outstanding
target group for this event. The event was
designed to be a showcase for the state-of-the-
art development within the PV industry.
A special focus was placed on subjects such as
the latest breakthroughs in cost-ef fective
production processes for cells and modules,
innovative combinations of existing technologies,
new marketing strategies, and fur ther
optimisation of existing applications.
Demontrating the EU
commitment to PV solar
technology
E U R O P E A N P V
C O N F E R E N C E
189
In total, 127 companies and organisations
presented their products and activities in the
exhibition area, making it the largest PV industry
event on a global scale in 2000.
Results
One of the showcase results was the Contact
Forum, designed to be the meeting point for
delegates from the different sectors present at
the conference and the exhibition. Delegates
came from ver y dif ferent sectors such as
research, manufacturing, utilities, product design,
marketing, and energy services, to mention the
essential ones. The Contact Forum offered the
conference and exhibition participants a platform
for information and experience exchange beyond
the boundaries of their sectors.
The contacts between the researchers and the
industry side, in particular, were manifold. As a
consequence, the Contact Forum supported the
creation of synergy effects between decisive
players and the fur ther expansion of the
European PV solar market.
At the European Photovoltaic Solar Energy
Conference and Exhibition 2000 the most up-to-
date information on PV technology and
applications was presented. It was an essential
task of this project to collect all information and
to make it available in a state-of-the-ar t
conference record.
Fur thermore, on-site sur veys amongst
participants of the Conference and Exhibition
were used as an important tool to analyse the
par ticipants perception of the event and its
impact. In addition, it served as an instrument
to learn about the correlation between presented
R&D results and industry targets and interests.
The Contact Forum proved to be a tool well
suited to further encourage the establishment of
links between the conference delegates and
here, in particular, between the researchers and
scientists and the exhibitors who were mainly
representatives from the PV industry.
In order to inform the general public in Europe
about the latest results, developments, products
and services in the PV sector, it was essential
to accompany the event with high-quality press
and media work. A wide information campaign
ensured that the European user community was
made aware of the event and its results. As a
consequence, it supported a further expansion
of PV solar application.
The aim of this event was achieved in full: to
provide a platform for the close interaction
between PV researcher, developer and market
players to create new ideas, to help increase the
number of cost-effective PV applications, to give
the European PV industr y an oppor tunity to
present their new developments with a strong
focus on innovative products and cost-
effectiveness, and to show the EU's commitment
to PV technology.
INFORMATION
Contract: NNE5-00088-1999
Title:
European Photovoltaic Solar Energy
Conference and Exhibition 2000
Start Date: January 2000
Duration: 12 months
Contact point:
Peter Helm
Tel: +49-89 720 12735
Fax: +49-89 720 12791
Partner:
Wirtschaft und
Infrastruktur & Co Planungs-KG (DE)
EC Scientific Officer:
Roberto Gambi
Tel: +32-2 298175
Fax: +32-2 2966261
roberto.gambi@cec.eu.int
On-site assessment of the
participants expectations
EDUCATION, DISSEMINATION, STUDIES
ADVANTAGE Attractive PV for building faades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
ADVOCATE Dry processes for low-cost, thin multicrystalline silicon solar cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
AFRODITE Power and aesthetics for the built environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
AIRCOOL Solar cooling with integrated hybrid photovoltaic systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
CAC Controlled atmosphere PV concentrator (CAC): an innovative PV concentration concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
CEPHOMA Co-operation in PV and solid electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
CIS-FAADE MODULE CIS for BIPV: improved aesthetics, efficiency and reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
CISLINE CISCuT solar cells sunny prospects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
CONMAN Transferring PV concentrators to volume manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
CONSOL Connection technologies for thin-film solar cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
C-RATING Harmonisation of PV concentrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
DOIT High-micromorph silicon solar modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
EC2CONTACT Environmentally clean, efficient, and easy contact crystalline silicon solar cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
EPIMETSI High-throughput epitaxial reactor development for solar cell manufacturing from Mg-silicon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
EUROPEAN PV CONFERENCE Demonstrating the EUs commitment to PV solar technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
EURO-PSB A self-rechargeable and flexible polymer solar battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
FANTASI Faster production of thinner, better, cheaper PV cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
FAST-IQ Fast in-line characterisation for c-Si solar cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
FIRST STEP Towards stairway to excellence in photovoltaic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
FLASH Fast, low thermal budget, large area system for high throughput solar cell production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
H-ALPHA SOLAR Development of new production techniques for highly efficient polymorphous solar cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
HAMLET Advanced concepts for mass-produced, low-cost electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
HEEC High-efficiency energy converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
HELSOLAR New concept in high-efficiency low-cost solar cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
HIPERPB TUV building integration of CIGS thin-film solar modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
HIPHIP Fostering the European BIPV market penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
HIPROLOCO Mass production of PV modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
HISICON X500 concentration PV modules with front point contact cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
IBPV Innovative battery for photovoltaics systems, based on a intrinsically conductive rubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
IDEOCONTE Searching for the best Si-cells PV concentrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
IMOTHEE Improvement of the hot-spot safety of PV modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
INDHI Silicon solar cells: from lab-scale to on-line production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
INFLATCOM Industrialisation of ultra-flat concentrator module of high efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
IT-ECO Integration of renewables in a multimedia ecobuilding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
LASSOL Lightweight and unbreakable solar panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
LATECS Simplifying polycrystalline Si solar cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
MEDITERRANNEO Mediterraneo: 870 kWp of PV in buildings in Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
MEMDIS Solar driven desalination plants based on membrane distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
METAFLEX Lightweight and flexible PV for all . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
METEOR Bright outlook for crystalline Si thin-film solar cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
MIBCELL MIB solar cells offer high-efficiency and low-cost PV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
MOPHET Matching the beauty of silicon wafers and thin film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
NANOMAX Nanocrystalline dye-sensitised solar cells offering maximum performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
NEBULES Solar cells with extremely low environmental impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
NESSI N-type solar grade silicon for efficient solar cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
PHOTEX Photovoltaics maintains its good cost-reduction potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
PHOTOCAMPA Photocampa: a grid connected PV system in a car parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Index
191
PORTRAIT Image data in solar cell process optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
POWER SOLAR Towards the harmonisation of PV module output
power measurements in production lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
PROCIS Highly efficient thin-film CIS photovoltaic modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
PROTEAS PV Electricity, heat and cooling in just one hybrid system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
PUMPADUR Best practices for PV pumping programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
PV CENTER Centre of photovoltaics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
PV-COOL PV cool-build, a design guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
PV-EC-NET Coordination of European and national RTD programmes on photovoltaic solar energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
PV ENLARGEMENT Enlarging the PV market to central and eastern Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
PV-EST Materials and technologies for photovoltaic applications from Estonia (PV-EST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
PV FIBRE Optical fibres cast 1000 suns on MJ solar cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
PV-LIGHT Light weight PV-Louvres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
PV-NAS-NET Coordination of NAS and EU RTD programmes on photovoltaics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
PV-NET Photovoltaic network for the development of a roadmap for PV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
PV-NORD Northern building integrated solar energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
PV-SALSA Social acceptance of domestic PV- service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
PVSAT-2 Intelligent performance check of PV system operation based on satellite data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
PV2GO Successful one-year tests on low-cost PV-AC-module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
PYTHAGORAS Preparing the market for novel thin-film photovoltaic generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
RE-SI-CLE Recycling of silicon rejects from PV production cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
RESURGENCE Pan-European integration of photovoltaics in social housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
REVIVAL Building Demonstration project. Photovoltaics in refurbishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
RG SELLS Efficient solar cells on low-cost silicon wafers: Ribbon-Growth-on-Substrate solar cell technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
SENSE Sustainability evaluation and recycling development for thin-film solar cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
SEVILLA-PV The world largest double concentration
PV system PV electricity for Southern Europe at lowest costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
SLOPETRACK PV 1.2 MWp solar photovoltaic plant in Tudela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
SOLARSKIN Building-integrated thermophotovoltaic system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
SOLSILC A direct route to produce solar grade silicon at low cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
SPURT Silicon purification technology for solar cells at low costs and medium scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
SUBARO Suitable substrates and barrier layers for thin-film crystalline Si solar cell technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
SUNCITIES Full integration of PV in urban planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
SWEET Epitaxial silicon wafer equivalents on low-cost silicon substrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
TAQSOLRE Tackling the quality in solar rural electrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
TEAPUB Integration of PV in public buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
TOPSICLE Technology for super-high-efficiency mc-Si solar cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
TREASURE High-performance Si solar cell from high-throughput
LPE thin layers on low-cost UMG-Si based cast wafers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
TWINGO Towards 20% efficient industrial silicon solar cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
UNIVERSOL The education and cultural organisations are not only a
source of knowledge but also a source of thought . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
EUROPEAN COMMISSION
Directorate-General for Research
Directorate J Energy
Unit J-3 New and Renewable Energy Sources
B-1049 Brussels
Helpdesk: rtd-energy@cec.eu.int
For further information on energy research in the EU,
please, refer to the following Internet sites:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/energy/index_en.htm
http://www.cordis.lu/sustdev/energy
Interested in European research?
RTD info is our quarterly magazine keeping you in touch with main developments (results, programmes, events, etc.).
It is available in English, French and German. A free sample copy or free subscription can be obtained from:
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Directorate-General for Research
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E-Mail: research@cec.eu.int
Internet: http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/rtdinfo_en.html
European Commission
EUR 20900 EUROPEAN PHOTOVOLTAIC PROJECTS 1999-2002
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
2003 194 pp. 21.0 x 29.7 cm
ISBN 92-894-6323-6
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studies. The projects included are those funded under the Thematic Programme "Energy, Environment and
Sustainable Development" of the 5th RTD Framework Programme (1999-2002). For each project, basic
information is provided with regard to scientific and technical scope, the participating organisations and
contact points. The projects cover the whole range of activities from basic material research, through
production techniques for cells and modules, building integration, concentration, balance of system, to
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