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IN BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION

WORKING COMMISSION W18 - TIMBER STRUCTURES

INFLUENCE OF ROLLING SHEAR MODULUS ON STRENGTH AND

STIFFNESS OF STRUCTURAL BONDED TIMBER ELEMENTS

P Fellmoser

H J Bla

University of Karlsruhe

GERMANY

MEETING THIRTY-SEVEN

EDINBURGH

UNITED KINGDOM

AUGUST 2004

1

Influence of rolling shear modulus on strength and

stiffness of structural bonded timber elements

P. Fellmoser, H.J. Bla

Lehrstuhl fr Ingenieurholzbau und Baukonstruktionen

Universitt Karlsruhe, Germany

1 Introduction

Rolling shear is defined as shear stress leading to shear strains in a plane perpendicular to

the grain direction. Due to the very low rolling shear stiffness of timber significant shear

deformations may occur. Fig. 1 shows a schematic representation of rolling shear stresses.

Fig. 1: Stress due to rolling shear

In prEN 1995-1-1 Design of timber structures (final draft 2004) a ratio of G

R,mean

/ G

mean

= 0,10 is defined for softwood. For the rolling shear strength a common characteristic value

of f

R,k

= 1,0 N/mm is given independent of the strength class.

Neuhaus [9] determined the rolling shear modulus of spruce as 48 N/mm for a moisture

content of 9 % through torsion tests. Aicher et al. [1] analysed the rolling shear modulus

for different annual ring orientations in the cross-section using the Finite Element Method.

Depending on the annual ring orientation he found values between about 50 N/mm and

200 N/mm. Experiments by Aicher et al. [2] resulted in a rolling shear modulus of

50 N/mm.

Fig. 2 shows rolling shear failure due in structural bonded timber elements.

2

Fig. 2: Failure due to rolling shear

2 Determination of rolling shear modulus

2.1 Experimental investigations

For determining the rolling shear modulus of spruce specimens, the dynamic method of

measuring the frequencies of a bending vibration was used. A method for the determination

of the modulus of elasticity perpendicular to the grain and the rolling shear modulus was

derived from the method for determining the modulus of elasticity parallel to the grain.

Grlacher describes in [5] the determination of the modulus of elasticity parallel to the

grain direction via measuring the frequencies of a bending vibration. Fig. 3 shows the

schematic representation of the experimental set-up. An approximate solution of the

differential equation of a flexural vibration is given taking into account the shear modulus.

Fig. 3: Measuring the frequencies of a bending vibration

The modulus of elasticity may be determined from the frequency of a 1. order flexural

mode using equation (1):

Direction of force

Sensor

Sensor

3

2 4 2 2 2 2 2

0 0

2 2

4 4

1 49, 48 12, 3

500, 6

f s i f i E

E s

i G G

= + +

l

l

(1)

where

l = length of test specimen

f

o

= frequency of bending vibration

= density

i = radius of inertia

E = modulus of elasticity

G = shear modulus

s = form factor (according to Hearmon [7] for wood: s = 1,06)

For test specimens with large span to depth ratios (l/h) and / or small modulus of elasticity

to shear modulus ratios (E/G) the influence of shear modulus (or E/G, respectively) is

small. In this case a rough estimate for the shear modulus is sufficient. Alternatively, the

shear modulus may be determined for a known modulus of elasticity using specimens with

small span to depth ratios and / or large ratios of modulus of elasticity to shear modulus.

First tests from Grlacher [6] showed that both, rolling shear modulus and modulus of

elasticity perpendicular to the grain, significantly depend on the annual ring orientation.

Based on these tests the rolling shear modulus and the modulus of elasticity perpendicular

to the grain of spruce were determined in this study.

2.2 Test set-up and specimens

Different solid wood panels with cross layers (nominal thickness 21mm, 32 mm and 52

mm) were dismantled for testing. From every board of the middle layers a specimen (width

10 mm) was prepared. Consequently, three test series were performed depending on the

thickness of the solid wood panels. The specimens were conditioned in a constant climate

of 20 C and 65 % relative humidity. The average moisture content was 12,2 %.

Test series 1: L x B x H = 104 mm x 10 mm x 6 mm

Test series 2: L x B x H = 46 mm x 10 mm x 17 mm

Test series 3: L x B x H = 53 mm x 10 mm x 17 mm

The specimens were forced to bending vibrations in grain direction (see Fig. 4 left) and

perpendicular to grain direction (see Fig. 4 right). For both bending vibrations the

frequencies were measured.

Fig. 4: Specimen with force in grain direction and perpendicular to grain direction

4

2.3 Results

For bending vibration in grain direction the shear modulus has a lower influence on the

modulus of elasticity. Consequently a value of G = 500 N/mm was assumed in equation

(1). The modulus of elasticity perpendicular to grain may be determined using the

measured frequency of bending vibration parallel to the grain (Fig. 4 left).

For bending vibration perpendicular to grain the influence of shear modulus is large.

Rolling shear modulus may be calculated according to the following procedure: in equation

(1) the modulus of elasticity from the bending vibration parallel to grain of the same

specimen as well as the measured frequency from bending vibration perpendicular to grain

is inserted and the rolling shear modulus is calculated.

For determining the rolling shear modulus of spruce 112 specimens were analysed using

the dynamic method of measuring the frequencies of a bending vibration. Fig. 5 and Fig. 6

show the modulus of elasticity perpendicular to grain and the rolling shear modulus versus

density. Four specimens were excluded from the analysis because of knots and marked in

Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. Common values of rolling shear modulus of spruce are between 40

N/mm and 80 N/mm. The results confirm specifications of prEN 1995-1-1 Design of

timber structures (final draft 2004) where a ratio of G

R,mean

/ G

mean

= 0,10 is defined for

softwood.

Fig. 5: Modulus of elasticity perpendicular to the grain versus density

Fig. 6: Rolling shear modulus versus density

y = 0,3803x - 103,84

0

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

Density [kg/m]

G

R

[

N

/

m

m

]

y = 1,2932x - 253,95

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

Density [kg/m]

E

9

0

[

N

/

m

m

]

5

The influence of annual ring orientation on modulus of elasticity perpendicular to the grain

and the rolling shear modulus was analysed by Grlacher [6] based on the Finite Element

Method and on the transformation of constitutive equations. For small deviations of the

annual ring orientation from 0 and 90, respectively, the modulus of elasticity

perpendicular to the grain is decreasing significantly and the rolling shear modulus remains

almost constant. For an annual ring orientation of about 45 the rolling shear modulus is

increasing significantly (up to a factor of about 4) and the modulus of elasticity

perpendicular to the grain remains almost constant.

Because of curved annual rings in the specimens, the influence of annual ring orientation

on the rolling shear modulus cannot be determined. Consequently, the theoretical results

from FEM with straight annual rings in the cross-section cannot be confirmed by the

method of measuring the frequencies of bending vibrations.

3 Design of solid wood panels with cross layers

The stress distribution in and the deformation behaviour of solid wood panels with cross

layers loaded perpendicular to the plane both depend on the shear deformation. Due to the

very low rolling shear modulus, shear deformation increases significantly depending on the

thickness of the rolling shear layer. Bernoullis hypothesis of plane cross-sections

remaining plane and a linear stress-strain relationship may not be assumed because of shear

deformations. Fig. 7 shows the normal and shear stress distribution in solid wood panels

with 5 layers for bending perpendicular to the plane and parallel / perpendicular to the grain

direction of outer skins.

a) b)

Fig. 7a and b: Bending stress and shear stress of solid wood panel with 5 layers when

bending perpendicular to the plane a) parallel b) perpendicular to the grain direction of

outer skins

The stress distribution in and the deformation behaviour of solid wood panels with cross

layers were analysed using the shear analogy method by Kreuzinger [8]. Both different

moduli of elasticity and shear moduli of single layers may be considered for any system

configuration. Also the number of layers within a panel is unlimited in the shear analogy

method.

The following properties were used as input for modelling solid wood panels with cross

layers:

Modulus of elasticity parallel to the grain: E

0

= 12.500 N/mm

Modulus of elasticity perpendicular to the grain: E

90

= E

0

/ 30

Shear modulus: G = 500 N/mm

Rolling shear modulus: G

R

= 50 N/mm

6

Tab. 1 summarises the build-up of the solid wood panels with cross layers that were

analysed using the shear analogy method.

Tab. 1: Build-up of analysed solid wood panels with cross layers

Type of solid wood panel Nominal thickness Build-up

3 layers 21 mm 6,9 / 7,2 / 6,9

3 layers 60 mm 6,9 / 46,2 / 6,9

The span was varied for the modelling of the solid wood panels and the calculation of the

effective modulus of elasticity when bending perpendicular to the plane. The effective

modulus of elasticity is the effective bending stiffness over the second moment of inertia.

The influence of the span on the effective modulus of elasticity of solid wood panels is

shown in Fig. 8. The solid wood panels with a nominal thickness of 21 mm and 60 mm

were analysed for bending perpendicular to the plane and parallel to the grain direction of

the outer skins.

Fig. 8: Effective modulus of elasticity versus span to depth ratio for bending perpendicular

to the plane and parallel to the grain direction of outer skins

Shear influence was observed for span to depth ratios smaller than 30 when bending

perpendicular to the plane and parallel to the grain direction of outer skins: for decreasing

span to depth ratios shear influence is increasing. Consequently the effective modulus of

elasticity is decreasing.

For bending perpendicular to the plane and perpendicular to the grain direction of outer

skins shear influence is not as distinctive as for loading parallel to the grain direction of

outer skins. Shear influence was observed for span to depth ratios smaller than 20 for

bending perpendicular to the plane and perpendicular to the grain direction of outer skins.

Fig. 9 shows the ratios of shear and bending deformation for a solid wood panel (nominal

thickness 60 mm) for bending perpendicular to the plane and parallel to the grain direction

of outer skins. Due to the very low rolling shear modulus, the proportion of shear

deformation increases significantly for decreasing span to depth ratios. For small span to

depth ratios shear deformation in cross layers hence have to be taken into account.

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

L / d

e

f

E

m

,

0

[

N

/

m

m

]

d=21mm

d=60mm

7

Fig. 9: Proportion of shear and bending deformation versus span to depth ratio for solid

wood panel (nominal thickness 60 mm) when bending perpendicular to the plane and

parallel to the grain direction of outer skins

In [3] and [4] different methods for the design of solid wood panels with cross layers are

presented. The theory of mechanically jointed beams may be used for the design of solid

wood panels with cross layers taking into account shear deformations. Instead of joint slip

the shear deformation of cross layers is taken into account by the reduction factor

i

when

calculating the effective bending stiffness and the resulting stresses. The shear analogy

method is a more precise calculation method for the design of solid wood panels with cross

layers taking into account shear deformations. Both different moduli of elasticity and shear

moduli of single layers may be considered. Using the composite theory for the design of

solid wood panels with cross layers, shear deformations are not taken into account.

Consequently the composite theory may only be used for high span to depth ratios for the

design of solid wood panels with cross layers.

4 Summary

The stress distribution in and the deformation behaviour of solid wood panels with cross

layers loaded perpendicular to the plane both depend on shear deformation. Due to the very

low rolling shear modulus, shear deformation increases significantly depending on the

thickness of the rolling shear layer.

The dynamic method of measuring the frequencies of a bending vibration was used for

determining the rolling shear modulus of spruce. From the well known method for

determining the modulus of elasticity parallel to the grain, a method to determine the

modulus of elasticity perpendicular to the grain and the rolling shear modulus was derived.

Rolling shear modulus and modulus of elasticity perpendicular to the grain both depend on

annual ring orientation. Common values for the rolling shear modulus of spruce are

between 40 N/mm and 80 N/mm.

The load bearing performance of solid wood panels with cross layers loaded perpendicular

to the plane was analysed using the shear analogy method. Shear influence was determined

for different build-ups of solid wood panels depending on the type of stress and span to

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

120,0 90,0 60,0 45,0 30,0 22,5 15,0 10,0 7,5 5,0 2,5

L / d

D

e

f

o

r

m

a

t

i

o

n

d

i

s

t

r

i

b

u

t

i

o

n

[

%

]

Bending deformation

Shear deformation

8

depth ratio. For decreasing span to depth ratios, shear deformation increases significantly

due to the very low rolling shear modulus. Significant shear influence was observed for

span to depth ratios smaller than 30 for bending perpendicular to the plane and parallel to

the grain direction of outer skins and for span to depth ratios smaller than 20 for bending

perpendicular to the plane and perpendicular to the grain direction of outer skins.

5 Literature

[1] Aicher, S, Dill-Langer, G. (2000): Basic Considerations to Rolling Shear Modulus in

Wooden Boards. Annual Journal on Research and Testing of Materials 11, p. 157-165

[2] Aicher, S, Dill-Langer, G., Hfflin, L. (2001): Effect of polar anisotropy of wood

loaded perpendicular to grain. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 01,02/2001

[3] Bla, H.J., Grlacher, R. (2002): Brettsperrholz Berechnungsgrundlagen. Holzbau

Kalender 2003, S. 580-598

[4] Bla, H.J., Fellmoser, P. (2003): Bemessung von Mehrschichtplatten. Bauen mit Holz,

08/2003 and 09/2003

[5] Grlacher, R. (1984): Ein neues Messverfahren zur Bestimmung des

Elastizittsmoduls von Holz. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 42, S. 219-222

[6] Grlacher, R. (2002): Ein Verfahren zur Ermittlung des Rollschubmoduls von Holz.

Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 60, S. 317-322

[7] Hearmon, R.F.S. (1966): Vibration Testing of Wood. Forest Products Journal 16, p.

29-40

[8] Kreuzinger, H. (1999): Flchentragwerke Platten, Scheiben und Schalen ein

Berechnungsmodell fr gngige Statikprogramme. Bauen mit Holz 01/1999, S.34-39

[9] Neuhaus, F.H. (1981): Elastizittszahlen von Fichtenholz in Abhngigkeit von der

Holzfeuchtigkeit. Bochum, Ruhr-Universitt, Technisch-wissenschaftliche

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