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UNIT 1
THE ROLE OF SECRETARY


The secretary is a professional - not only because of the knowledge and preparation
necessary for the job but also because being a professional implies. Competence, pride in one's
work, and a dedication to excellence. The secretary is a professional with each of these qualities.
Moreover, the secretary is an important member of the management team, responsible not only for
carrying out the executives wishes but also for helping to maintain a well-organized and efficient
office.
The secretary of today is still an employee who is privy to confidential information. The
word secretary is from Latin (secretaries) meaning "confidential employee The job has not
changed. However, the tools of the trade have changed over, the years. Office automation and
machine dictation have revolutionized the type of work that the secretary does, and changes are
expected to continue. The changes that will take place in the future are impossible to predict, but the
professional secretary-also sometimes known as the administrative assistant, administrative
secretary, private secretary or several other titles-will be able to learn and adapt to each new
challenging environment.
Secretaries are professionals with career goals. Specialized training is a matter of
professional survival in a world where the methods of handling information are changing rapidly.
The secretary will be increasingly involved with office automation and needs to be familiar with the
concept and the technology. The responsibilities of the secretary are multifunctional: typing/
keyboarding; transcribing; processing mail; telephoning; scheduling appointments; greeting visitors;
composing and editing documents; researching; coordinating meetings, conference and
teleconferences; making travel arrangements; and organizing time and work.
Another important qualification is appearance. It includes poise, dress, posture, smile and
cleanliness. A secretary may easily pass the appearance test successfully if the impression she
makes is that she is intelligent, neat, appropriately dressed, pleasant, and well-mannered, A
secretary must also have a good character; be honest, reliable, trust worthy, possess moral
excellence and firmness. A secretary must dress suitably. The dress must be in tune with the
environment. Attractive, colorful suits will reveal the charm and good taste of the wearer.
Cosmetics should be applied lightly and should enhance the wearer's appearance.
The secretary who wishes to advance in her profession or who desire to be promoted to
administrative work should have a college education. She should also attend special courses in
electronic typing, shorthand, computer systems and master foreign languages. One of them is
English because English is the most widely- used language of business. The well-educated, well
informed secretary will be comfortable in her association with well educated and well informed
superiors for whom she works, A college education, plus the companion elements of self
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confidence, wide intellectual experience, an expanded vocabulary, supports the individual in her
career goals.
The personal assistant or private secretary of an executive deals with all his or her
correspondence. She may be concerned with any aspect of the business of the company, but there
are certain types of letters that are particularly in the province of secretaries, such as the making of
appointments and travel arrangements, the writing of letters of introduction, congratulation or
condolence, and invitations and replies to invitations. A secretary may also be called upon to help in
the organization of meetings and conferences and the entertainment of visiting suppliers, customers
and other associates of the firm.
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UNIT 2
PERSONAL QUALIFICATIONS OF A SECRETARY


Generally speaking, personal qualifications are qualities that become apparent during a
personal interview; referees usually stress personal qualities in their letters of
recommendation, usually favorable ones. One of such personal qualifications is appearance,
which is especially important when coming for an interview for a new position. Appearance
includes poise, dress, posture, smile and cleanliness. A secretary may easily pass the
appearance test successfully if the impression she makes is that she is intelligent, neat,
appropriately dressed, pleasant and well mannered.
She must also have a good character; be honest, reliable, and trustworthy, possess moral
excellence and firmness, a secretary must dress suitably. The dress must be in tune with the
environment. Attractive, colorful suits will reveal the charm and good taste of the wearer.
Cosmetics should, be applied lightly and should enhance the wearer's appearance.
A college education plus the companion elements of self confidence, wide intellectual
experience and mastering foreign languages and computer systems/ high technology are very
required for all companies. For that reason the qualifications of secretary in Millennium Era
do not only have good, personality (performance and, communication skills) but also skills
and knowledge such as managing files (data are useful information), managing visitors
(telephone for superior), managing life for superior and managing agenda for superior.

APPLICATIONS
A. READING
a. Obstacle words:
- Colourful suits = pakaian yang berwarna-warna
- To reveal = memperlihatkan
- To be in tune with = selaras dengan
- Qualification = kualifikasi
- To assess = menilai
- Apparent = terlihat ; terbukti
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- Poise = kestabilan ; stabil
- Posture = cara berdiri
- Impression = kesan
- To enhance = menambah ; mempertinggi

b. Passage:
Generally speaking, personal qualifications are qualities that become apparent
during a personal interview; referees usually stress personal qualities in their letters
recommendation, usually favorable ones. One of such personal qualifications is
appearance, which is especially important when coming for an interview for a new
position. Appearance includes poise, dress, posture, smile, and cleanliness. A secretary
may easily pass the appearance test successfully if the impression she makes is that
she is intelligent, neat, appropriately dressed, pleasant, and well-mannered
She must also have a good character; be honest, reliable, trustworthy, possess
moral excellence and firmness. A secretary must dress suitably. The dress must be in
tune with environment. For example, it is ridiculous to dress too formally when
coming to the office.
Attractive, colorful suits will reveal the charm and good taste of the wearer.
Cosmetics should be applied lightly and should enhance the wearers appearance. The
carefully dressed secretary should always stand before a full-length mirror first to
assess her appearance.
The secretary who wishes to advance in her profession or who desires to be
promoted to administrative work should have college education. She should also
attend special courses in electronic typing, shorthand, computer systems, and of course
in English because English is the most widely-used language of business. The sell-
educated, well-informed secretary will be comfortable in her association with well
educated and well-informed superiors for whom she works.
A college education, plus the companion elements of self-confidence, wide
intellectual experience, and expanded vocabulary, supports the individual in her career
goals. High school graduation is a start, but education beyond high school is helpful
for those who wish to excel. Education itself is a shortcut to experience.
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c. Vocabulary from the passage:
appearance = penampilan
referee = pemberi surat keterangan
letter of reference = surat keterangan
character = watak
personality = kepribadian
cleanliness = kebersihan
neat = rapi
well-mannered = berkelakuan baik ; sopan santun
honest = jujur
reliable = dapat diandalkan ; dipercaya
trustworthy = dapat dipercaya
in tune with = senada ,artinya sesuai dengan
reveal = memperlihatkan
desire = keinginan
self-confidence = kepercayaan pada diri sendiri
expand = menambah ; memperluas
to excel = melebihi (yang lain)
shortcut = jalan pendek/lintas
ridiculous = menggelikan ; menimbulkan tertawa ; aneh
to advance = maju ; dapat kemajuan
to promote (v) = menaikkan pangkat
d. Comprehension Questions:
1. What are the personal qualifications of a good secretary?
2. How can we know the personal qualifications of a person?
3. A secretary must have a good appearance. On what occasions must she show a
good appearance?
4. What things are included in appearance?
5. Besides her appearance, what other characteristics must she also have?

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e. Discussion Points:
1. A secretary must be attractive and if possible charming. What do you think of
this?
2. If you are a secretary and you want to advance in your profession, what kind of
special courses do you need to take? Give reasons why each course you
mention is important.

B. VOCABULARY ON PERSONALITY
- person (n) = orang,individu
synonym:
individual, human being, somebody, someone
- personality (n) = kepribadian
example:
individuals who have a well developed
personality will usually get along well
with people they come in contact with
(= dengan siapa mereka berhubungan)
synonym:
individuality = kekhasan
example:
the Director always takes into
consideration (= mem-perhatikan) a
persons individuality
- attitude = sikap
example:
his attitude towards strangers is sometimes quite peculiar (=aneh)

c. Exercise II
From the list of words below, choose the one that best to complete the blanks in the
following sentences.
Personality individual traits
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Behavior conscious environment
Stimulate mature emotions
Adjusting internalize psychology

1. Internal conflicts may arise in a person when he has difficulty in ..to
pressures.
2. He was of the fact that he had not been able to complete his task
satisfactorily.
3. Consistency of shows that a person has a stable sort of character and is
well-adjusted to his environment.
4. The major emphasis in psychological research is on human . Its
description and interpretation.
5. In order to be helpful to his students, the teacher should remember that
. Differences in students ability must not be overlooked in the
classroom.
6. He doesnt show any peculiar in his character.
7. She is very interested in this book on.. because she is planning to
study counseling and guidance.
8. This intelligent child lives in a social .. that is very condusive to
her (=menguntungkan) mental development.
9. I dont think that at the age of sixteen she is . enough to decide
on becoming a nurse.
10. We should these young employees to set high goals in their career.
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UNIT 3
THE COMPETENT SECRETARY


APPLICATIONS
A. READING
a. Obstacle words:
- Confidential = rahasia
- Privy (to) = menguasai
- Carrying out = melaksanakan
- To imply = memberikan
- To possess = memiliki
- Pride = kebanggaan

b. Reading comprehension
The word secretary comes from the Latin secretaries, meaning confidential
employee. The secretary today is still an employee who is privy to confidential information,.
In that respect, the job of a secretary has not changed. However, the tools of the trade have
changed over the years.
The secretary is a professional- not only because the knowledge and preparation
necessary for the job but also because being a professional. Implies competence, pride in
ones work, and a dedication to excellence. The secretary is a professional with each of these
qualities. Moreover, the secretary is an important member of the management team
responsible not only for carrying out the executives wishes but also for helping to maintain a
well-organized and efficient office.
Professional Secretaries International (SPI) fosters an awareness of professional pride
and the maintenance of high standards by promulgating the following definition:
A secretary shall be defined as an executive assistant who possesses a mastery of
office skills, demonstrates the ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision,
exercises initiative and judgment, and makes decisions within the scope of assigned
authority.
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Office automation and machine dictation have revolutionized the type of work that the
secretary does, and changers are expected to continue. The changes that will take in the future
are impossible to predict, but the professional secretary-also known as the administrative
secretary, private secretary, or several other titles- will be able to learn and adapt to each new
challenging environment.

c. Comprehension questions
1. What is secretary?
2. What skills and qualifications should a secretary have?
3. Are the changes of the secretarys type work in the future predictable?
4. What does a secretary have to do in anticipating the changes that will take
place in the future?

d. Vocabulary from the passage
- To maintain = mempertahankan
- Dedication = dedikasi
- Excellence (n) =kebaikan
- Excellent (adj) = sangat baik
- Judgement = penilaian
- Assigned authority = wewenang yang dilimpahkan
- To predict = meramalkan
- Challenging = menantang
- To adapt (to) = menyesuaikan/beradaptasi
- Environment = lingkungan
- Toll road/express way = bayar

e. Exercise
Fill in the blanks with the correct words given between brackets.
Demonstrate excellence responsible
Pride carrying out confidential
Possess automated predict
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Adapt challenging environment
Authority assume equipment
1. Word processing is the . Production of documents and
correspondence using electronic equipment for preparation, editing, storage,
reproduction, and sometimes distribution.
2. A secretary is not only for the
executives wishes but also for helping maintaining a well-organized and
efficient office.
3. It is important that a secretary .. the skills in keyboarding,
shorthand, filing, office procedures and knowledge of word processing systems
and equipment.
4. A professional secretary should the ability assumes
responsibility without being supervised directly.
5. All .. letters and documents are handled professionally.
6. Are you able to to e new .. environment?
7. Impress your boss. Always strive for ..
8. Susans manager always takes . In her good work.
9. As a member of the management team Lina, also makes decisions within the
scope of . Authority.
10. Todays secretary has a wide range of . To make the job
easier from electronic type writers to voice mail.








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UNIT 4
TENSES


4.1 BASIC TENSES
4.1.1 SENTENCE
A sentence is group of words having, at least, one subject and one verb (predicate); and also,
indicating one complete thought. Actually there are many kinds of sentences in English,
however, only two kinds of sentences are presented in this chapter. The two kinds are seen
from the points of view of structure and function because they are very practical in the usages
of English. The elaboration of the two kinds can be seen in the following diagram:
Sentence (S):
a. Structure
1. Simple sentence (kalimat sederhana)
2. Compound sentence ( majemuk rapatan)
3. Complex sentence (majemuk bertingkat)
4. Compound-complex (rapatan + bertingkat)
b. Function
1. Declarative sentence (kalimat berita)
2. Interrogative sentence (kalimat Tanya)
3. Imperative sentence (kalimat perintah)
4. Exclamatory sentence (kalimat seru)

The following is the elaboration of the diagram, see the indicated number!
Structure
1. Simple sentence
The sentence has only one verb and it is a main clause.
e.g. :
Birds fly in the sky
I arrive at school on time

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2. Compound sentence
The sentence has more than one verb (main clause) and connected to the other main
clause by applying the so called conjunctions/ connectives such as: but, and so,
because, before, after, as soon as, unless, there for, even though, so that, if, etc.
e.g. :
John is happy but Jane is sad

3. Complex sentence
The sentence has one main clause and sub-clause(s) and they (the clause) are related
by applying the so-called relative pronoun, such as: who, whom, which, and whose.
e.g. :
Bill who speakers English well is the best student
The book which I bought was published in 2002

4. Compound-complex
The sentence is the combined sentence between the compound and complex sentences
in which case the conjunction and relative pronouns can be detected.
e.g. :
I just visited Bill who was in the hospital three days ago and brought him a bunch of
flowers.

Function
1. Declarative sentence
The sentence is a statement which can be positive or negative.
e.g. :
John is happy (+)
John isnt happy (-)
John comes late (+)
John doesnt come late (-)
2. Interrogative sentence
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The sentence is a question beginning with an auxiliaries such as : is, am, are, was,
were, do, does, did, shall, will, can, may ,must, etc: or/and beginning with a question-
word, such as : what, who, which, whose, how, where, and, when. The former one is
called yes-no question and later is question-word question. The question can be
negative or positive.
e.g. :
Are you a student? (+)
Do you speak English? (+)
Can you swim? (+)
Arent you a student? (-)
Dont you speak English? (-)
Cant you swim? (-)
Who speak English? (+)
Who doesnt speak English? (-)

3. Imperative sentence
The sentence can be a command, a request, and an offer. It can be positive or negative.
The negative command is called prohibition. Sometimes the word please is used
to indicate politeness in command and request.
a. Positive command always with simple present tense verb.
e.g. :
Sit down! (+)
Sit down, please! (+) + (politeness)
Be quite! (+)
Be quite, please! (+) + (politeness)
b. Negative command always begins with the word dont.
e.g. :
Dont sit down! (-)
Dont sit down, please! (-) + (politeness)
Dont be quite! (-)
Dont be quite, please! (-) + (politeness)
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c. Request begins with would or could followed by you, and by other
expressions.
e.g. :
Would you open the window, please?
Could you open the window, please?
Would you mind opening the these window?
Would you be so kind as to open the window?
d. Offer begins with shall.
e.g. :
Shall I carry the bag for you?
Shall I bring you some tea now?

4. Exclamatory sentence
The sentence begins with what or how.
e.g. :
What beautiful hair she has!
How beautiful her hair is!
What beautiful fingers she has!
How beautiful her fingers are!

Exercise
Identify the following sentences by referring to the indicated members in the diagram!
1. John always comes late.
2. John is rich but Jane is poor.
3. The man who is tall lives next door to me.
4. The girl whose car is red can speak English.
5. Does your father speak English?
6. My friend is a salesman.
7. Could you help me for a minute?
8. What a handsome young man he is!
9. How late you come to the party yesterday!
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10. Dont laugh at that silly manager!

4.1.2 PHRASES
A phrase is a group of words forming part of a sentence (and actually equivalent to a single
part of speech), but not containing a subject or predicate of its town

There are several types of PHRASES:
a. Adjectival (prepositional) phrase :
It is a bank of commercial (commercial bank)
The difficulty in applying this principle is ..
b. Adverbial (prepositional) phrase :
He was stopped at the entrance to his office
A trade Union Act was restored in a modified form a year later
c. Noun phrase:
He must be a millionaire!
One of the largest insurance companies in the U.K. was formed by the merger
of 12 previously independent companies

EXERCISES :
In the following sentences underline every phrase, label it ADJECTIVE, ADVERB, or
NOUN :
1. It is the third largest of the Australian Trading Banks, with its head office in
Melbourne
2. A change in either supply or demand will upset the equilibrium price
3. The maximum average output per employee depends not only on the quality of labour
but also of other factors of production
4. A unit investment trust was more common in G.B. before the second World War
5. A body established in 1947 ti assist the economic development of the dependent
territories of the Commonwealth was known until 1963 as the Colonial Development
Corporation
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6. The economic importance of a thing does not depend solely on its physical
characteristics, but also on its location and on the time when it is available
7. Milk and wheat production are in competitive supply, since to increase the amount of
grazing land for the rearing of the cattle will reduce the amount of land for wheat
growing
8. Consumers goods are goods in the form in which consumers wish to have them
9. CONSIGMENT is a tern used in foreign trade
10. A committee of the treasury was set up to consider applications for the raising of new
capital in excess of $50,000.00

WRITE SENTENCES OF YOUR OWN USING THE FOLLOWING ADJECTIVE
OR ADVERB PHRASE :
Adjective phrase :
- one of the companies
- the road to the factory
- a share of the overhead
- general expenses of the business
Adverb Phrase :
- think of the coming financial year
- study of problems of applied
economics
- based on the present price
- imposed on farm products

CONSTRUCT PHRASE OUT OF THE FOLLOWING WORD GROUPS:
1. city-the-of-located-Luxembourg-in
2. trade-the-of-international-theory
3. payments-U.S.-in-of-balance-the
4. banks-the-of-groups-international-of-formation
5. complaints-to unfair-any-with-practices-of deal-trading

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4.1.3 KINDS OF CLAUSES
CLAUSE: Clause is a component part of sentence, containing a subject and predicate of
its town
The clause is usually grammatically complete by itself, but doesnt make
complete sense except in the case of Main Clause

There are of two types : Main (or independent) clauses and subordinate (or dependent)
clauses

A main clause expresses a complete thought and may constitute a sentence:
Decisions are taken is response to market signals
What goods and services shall firms produce?
A subordinate clause is not complete in itself; it must always be attached to some element in a
main clause:
Any economic system consists of households which consume the goods and services
( The subordinate clause modifies the noun households)

A subordinate clause may be a noun clause, an adjective clause, or and adverb clause. OR, we
can also say that a subordinate clause serves in place of an adjective, an adverb, or a noun:
AS AN ADJECTIVE :
The food is distributed to the families that need it most
AS AN ADVERB :
The meeting ought to start after the other guests arrive
AS AN NOUN :
The general rule is that where demand is elastic
It is clear that the subordinate clause in each sentence is a unit, serving as a single part of
speech.

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ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
An adjective clause regularly follows noun or pronoun that it modifies.
As a rule, and a adjective clause is introduce by one of the common relative pronouns-who,
(whom), which, or that, etc. Hence it is called a RELATIVE CLAUSE :
- A seller can influence the price of the goods by the amount he puts on the markets
- He has to accept market price as given for any output he might produce
- He selects a good which has an inelastic demand
- We shall be concentrating on firms which produce goods for sale in the market

ADVERB CLAUSE
An adverb clause usually appears just before or just after the main clause
- Losses would be reduced only if operating cost fell more than revenue
OR Only if operating costs fell more than revenue, losses would be reduced
- The supermarket expects a considerable expansion in demand when it cuts the price of
a good.
OR : when the supermarket cuts the price of a good it expects a considerable expansion in
demand
Most adverb clauses as in the foregoing sentences, modify the key word in the main
clause, the VERB.
Adverb clauses have a wide range of uses, awareness of this range will help you to
recognize ADVERB CLAUSES and to use them more effectively.
The following list illustrates some of the most common types, with the principal
conjunction :

CLAUSES OF TIME (when, before, after, until, since, while)
- Before you start the meeting, distribute the minutes of the last meeting
- It is only six month since the contract was signed by the CEO.

CLAUSES OF PLACE (where, wherever)
- Where the reaction is generally favorable, more thorough market research can be
carried out.
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- Ill go wherever the manager sends me.

CLAUSES OF MANNER (as, as if, as though)
- Everyone arrived at the office on time as he expected
- We must behave as if everything were normal

CLAUSES OF CAUSE (because, since. as)
- Because the mechanic couldnt get the motor running, they had to row back to the
dock.
- Since no one else will volunteer, John will do the presentation.

CLAUSES OF CONSESION (although, though, while)
- While the large universities have many advantages, I still prefer a small college.
- Although she uses only two fingers, she is a very ft typist.

CLAUSES OF CONDITION (if, unless)
If-clause Main clause
Open condition If you give the record.
(present tense)
Ill pay it.
(will+V1)
Unreal condition (present) If I were your father.
(past tense)
Id be angry
(would+V1)
Unreal condition (past) If youd worked harder,
(past perfect tense)
Youd have passed your
exams last month.
(would+present perfect
tense)

Unless we increase our sales, well be in trouble , and well never increase our sales unless we
sell through different of shop

Unless is a combination of two ideas : if and not for example :
if we dont do this, well never increase our sales can be changed to:
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Unless we do this, well never increase our sales

CLAUSES OF RESULT : (so, so that, so.that)
- We knew about their plans, so were ready for them.
- Some form of test marketing would probably be carried out so that modifications
could be made to correct any deficiencies.

CLAUSE OF PURPOSE : ( so, so that, in order that)
- Clear the doorway to the main office so that the staff can enter
- There are stores and supermarkets offering a substantial discount in order that their
customers are able to meet their purchases.

NOUN CLAUSES
A noun clause is a clause that does the work of a noun phrase in a sentence. A noun clause is
a dependent clause. I.e. it cannot stand alone as a sentence but is a part of the sentence in
which it occurs, and performs one function (of part of speech) in the sentence. It can function
as :
a. a subject
b. an object
c. a complement,etc.
in a sentence

A. NOUN CLAUSE AS SUBJECT :
- What the meeting was about will not be televised internationally.
- That the bank will give export credit made our staff so happy.
- Why Mr.Osman should attend the trade fair is not clearly known to us.

B. NOUN CLAUSE AS OBJECT :
- Jack thinks exporting can be risky to jayal motor.
- Paul tells Christopher he has an import agent in industria
- Christopher considered J.Motors should not go into exporting.
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- Kamal concluded J.Motorsmopeds are of good quality.

C. NOUN CLAUSES AS COMPLEMENT :
- Banks and offices are what they need for their transaction of business.
- The question is where they can apply for a job related to their education.
- The problem is (that) we should know to operate computers perfectly.

EXERCISES :
Read each of the following groups of words and put S if it is a sentence and P, if it is a
phrase
1. A stock exchange term for a particular stock or share []
2. An alternative term for favorable balance of payment, []
3. Two prices are quoted for stock and shares [..]
4. The bills falls due for payment three months and three days after date [.]
5. A method of raising a loan on the security of ones possessions furniture . stock in-
trade, etc[.]
6. A Bill of lading is normally made out in triplicate[]
7. The first canal to be built in great Britain.[]
8. Stock issued by the central electricity generating board to finance expansion.[]
9. The economic effect on the community of taxation of the national debt.[..]
10. It is often impossible to produce one product without also producing another.[]

Combine the following pair of sentences using adverb clauses
1. You are late for the meeting. The others may have started without you.
2. She might have clocked in earlier then uses.
We did not see her this morning
3. He has already over drawn a large amount of money from his bank
We cannot accept his cheque.
4. We cannot get a draft right now. the exchange rate has not arrived.
5. Banking hours has been extended. we can still deposit this money by now.

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Complete the following sentences using noun clauses of your own word
1. It was known that..
2. Does he know where
3. The consensus was that the plan.
4. What you are saying is that people..
5. It is true that certain requirements..

Express these ideas with unless
1. I will resign if you dont listen to me
2. I will resign if dont take my ideas seriously
3. I will get angry if you dont stop.
4. If the weather get worse we will go out
5. You will get wet if you dont take this umbrella
6. You will fail your exams if you dont study harder
7. I will miss my train if I dont hurry
8. The doctor says that I will ruin my health if I dont stop smoking and drinking.

4.1.4 PAST CONTINUOUS
Example situation:
Yesterday Karen and Jim played tennis.
They began at 10 oclock and finished at 11.30.
So, at 10.30 they were playing tennis.

(+) S + was/ were + V ing
(-) S + wasnt/ werent + V ing
(?) Was/ were + S + V ing
(QW) QW + was/ were + S + V ing
Example:
(+) He was preparing a presentation
(-) He wasnt preparing a presentation
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(?) Was he preparing a presentation?
(QW) What time was he preparing a presentation?

STUDY OF FUNCTIONS:
To say that somebody was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The
situation had already started before this time but had not finished.
This time last year I was living in Brazil.
What were you doing at 10 oclock last night?
I waved to her but she wasnt looking.
We often use simple past together with past continuous to say something happened in
the middle of something else.
Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking the dinner.
While I was working in the garden, I hurt my back.

EXERCISE
A. What were you doing at the following times? Write on sentence as in the
examples.
1. ( at 8 oclock yesterday evening) I was having dinner with some friends.
2. ( at 5 oclock last Saturday)
3. ( at 10.15 yesterday morning)
4. ( at 4.30 this morning)
5. ( at 7.45 yesterday evening)
6. ( half an hour ago)
B. Use your own ideas to complete these ideas. Use the past continuous.
1. Tom burnt his hand while he was cooking the dinner
2. The doorbell rang while
3. We saw an accident while we
4. Marri fell asleep while she
5. The television was on but nobody
C. Put the verbs into the correct form: past continuous or past simple.
1. Jane was waiting (wait) for me when I arrived (arrive).
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2. What (you/ do) this time yesterday? I was asleep
3. (you/ go) out last night? No, I was too tired
4. Was Carol at the party last night? Yes, she (wear) really nice dress
5. How fast (you/ drive) when the accident (happen)?
6. John (take) a photograph of me while (not/ look)
7. We were in a very difficult position. We (not/ know) what to do.

4.1.5 PAST PERFECT
Example situation:
Sarah went to a party last night.
Paul went to the party too, but they didnt see each other.
Paul went home at 10.30 and Sarah arrived at 11 oclock.
So: When Sarah arrived a the party, Paul wasnt there. He had gone home.

(+) S + had + V3
(-) S + hadnt + V3
(?) Had + S + V3
(QW) QW + had + S + V3

Example:
(+) He had gone home at 10.30
(-) He hadnt gone home at 10.30
(?) Had he gone home at 10.30?
(QW) What time had he gone home?

STUDY THE FUNCTIONS:
Sometimes we talk about something in the past: Sarah arrived at the
party. This is the starting point of the story. Then if we want to talk about
things that happened before this time, we use the past perfect:
When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul had already gonehome.
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When we got home last night, we found that somebody had broken
into the flat.
Karen didnt want to come to the cinema with us because she had
already seen the film.
Compare present perfect and past perfect.
Present perfect
Who is that woman? Ive never seen her before.
Past perfect
I didnt know who she was. Id never seen her before. (before that time)
EXCERCISES
A. Read the situation and write sentences from the words in brackets.
1. You went to Jills house but she wasnt there. (she/ go/ out): She had gone out.
2. You went back to your hometown after many years. It wasnt the same before. (it/
change/ a lot):
3. I invited Rachel to the party but she couldnt coma. (she/ arrange/ to do something
else):
4. You went to the cinema last night. You arrived at the cinema late. (the film/
already/ gebin):
5. I was very pleased to see Tim again after such a long time. (I/ no/ see/ him for 5
years):..
6. I offered Sue something to eat but she wasnt hungry. (she/ just/ have/
breakfast):
B. Read the situation and write sentences ending with before. Use the verb given in
brackets.
1. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. It was his first flight.
(fly) He had never flown before.
2. A women walked into the room. She was a complete stranger for me. (see) I
3. Simon played tennis yesterday. He wasnt very good at it because it was his first
game. (play) He
4. Last year we went to Denmark. It was our first time there. (be) We
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C. Use the sentences on the left to complete the paragraph on the right. These
sentences are in the order in which they happened- so (1) happened before (2), (2)
before (3) etc. but your paragraph begins with the underlined sentence.
1. (1) Somebody broke into the office during the night.
(2) We arrived at work in the morning.
(3) We called the police.
We arrived at work in the morning and we found that somebody had broken into
the office during last night. So, we
2. (1) Ann went out.
(2) I tried to phone her this morning.
(3) There was no answer.
I tried to phone Ann this morning but no answer. She out.
3. (1) Jim came back from holiday a few days ago.
(2) I met him the same day.
(3) He looked very well.
I met Jim a few days ago. He just .He
4. (1) Kevin wrote to Sally many times.
(2) She never replied to his letters.
(3) Yesterday he had a phone call from her.
(4) He was very surprised.
Yesterday Kevin .He very surprised. He many times but she

4.1.6 PRESENT FUTURE
Example situation:
WILL:
Lets have a party.
Thats a great idea. Well invite lots of people.
BE GOING TO:
Sue and I have decided to have a party. Were going to invite lots of people.


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WILL
USING VERB
(+) S + will + V1
(-) S + will not (wont) + V1
(?) Will + S + V1
(QW) QW + will + S + V1
Example:
(+) She will invite lots of people
(-) She wont invite lots of people
(?) Will she invite lots of people?
(QW) When will she invite lots of people?

USING NON-VERB
(+) S + will + be + Non Verb
(-) S + wont + be + Non Verb
(?) Will + S + be + Non Verb
(QW) QW + will + S + be + Non Verb
Example:
(+) She will be here
(-) She wont be here
(?) Will she be here?
(QW) When will she be here?

BE GOING TO
USING VERB
(+) S + am/ is/ are + going to + V1
(-) S + am/ is/ are + not + going to + V1
(?) Am/ is/ are + S + going to + V1
(QW) QW + am/ is/ are + S + going to + V1
Example:
(+) She is going to invite lots of people
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(-) She isnt going to invite lots of people
(?) Is she going to invite lots of people?
(QW) Why is she going to invite lots of people?

USING NON-VERB
(+) S + am/ is/ are + going to + be + Non-Verb
(-) S + am/ is/ are + not + going to + be + Non-Verb
(?) Am/ is/ are + S + going to + be + Non-Verb
(QW) QW + am/ is/ are + S + going to + be + Non-Verb
Example:
(+) She is going to be here
(-) She isnt going to be here
(?) Is she going to be here?
(QW) Why is she going to be here?
STUDY THE FUNCTIONS:
We use WILL when we decide to do something at the time of speaking. The
speaker has not decided before.
(The phone is ringing) You say: Ill take it.
The boxes are heavy. Ill help you.
We use Be Going To when we have already decided to do something.
Look at those black clouds. It is going to rain.
I feel terrible. I think Im going to be sick.
EXERCISE
A. Complete the sentences using will or be going to.
1. A: Why are you turning on the television?
B: Im going to watch the news. (I/ watch)
2. A: O, Ive just realized I havent got any money.
B: Well, dont worry, some (I/ lend)
3. A: Ive got a headache.
B: Have you? Wait there and an aspirin for you (I/ get)
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4. A: Why are filling that bucket with water?
B: that car (I/ wash)
5. A: Ive decided to repaint this room.
B: Oh, have you? What color it (you/ paint)
6. A: Where are you going? Are you going shopping?
B: Yes, something for dinner (I/ buy)
7. A: I dont know how to use this camera.
B: Its quite easy, you (I/ show)

4.2 ADVANCE TENSES

4.2.1 PASSIVE VOICE
FORM
Passive voice can be made by changing To BE which are based on the tense in the active
sentence, then followed by V3 (past participle).
Active Passive
Subject Agent = By + subject
Predicate Predicate = Be + V3
Object Subject
Eg.
Active : The secretary writes the letter
S P O
Passive : The letter was written by the secretary
S P A

VERB PATTERNIS
Tenses

Verb Patterns Examples
Simple present Am, is, are + V3 A: the man types the letter
P : the letter is typed by the man
Present continuous Am, is, are, being + V3 A : the man is typing the letter
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P : the letter is being typed by the man
Simple past Was, were + V3 A : the man typed the letter
P : the letter was typed by the man
Past continuous Was, were + being + V3 A : the man was typing the letter
when I came
P : the letter was being typed by the
man when I came
Present perfect Have,has+been+V3 A : the man has typed the letter
P : the letter has been type by the man
Past perfect Had+been+V3 A : the man had typed the letter before
I came
P : the letter had been typed by the
man
Modal Aux Modal+be+V3 A : The man would typed the letter
P : the letter would be typed the man

Change the Sentences Using Passive Voice
1. Mr.Hasram presented a report on the home market
2. A representative of the EDO named Jayal Motors as an example pf a firm which has
expended considerably
3. Mr.Jayal raised the problem of office security at the meeting
4. Someone read a report by christopher mayo to the meeting
5. Mr. Jacklom prepared a production costing estimation
6. The will negotiate a deal
7. We heard the had imposed temporary import control
8. They have completed the expansion of the assembly plan
9. They are putting developing countries for what for special consideration
10. The American economy dominates the world especially the developing countries



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Change the Sentence into Active Sentence
1. The up dating of the promotion literature was suggested by Mr. Hasram
2. Temporary import controls has been imposed by the minister of trade
3. Pressure on the government s exerted by the exporters
4. Special allowance can be made for certain company
5. The share holder will be taken into account by the board
6. The restriction are being lifted in the case of the developing countries by the
government
7. The draft of the report is going to be submitted by the secretary of the meeting
8. The unfavorable balance of payment are evaluated by the board members
9. The meeting was opened by the new branch manager
10. Samples of the product have been exhibited at the local trade fair

4.2.2 PASSIVE VERBAL
Passive verbal is verbal phrases using be (to be, being, having been, to have been) and V3
(past participle)

Passive verbal can also uses past participle only as long as it can be used in passive
contoh : to be taught
Being taught..
Having being taught.
Thought.
Passive verbal dapat dipakai sebagai :
Subject
Subject modifier
Object
Object modifier
A. Passive Verbal Sebagai Subject
Being Taught by professor as is very exciting
To be taught by Mr.Gary is always interesting
Having being taught by her assistant was a pleasant experience
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To have been awarded the first prices makes him happy

B. Passive verbal sebagai subject modifier
The man being made president is very intelligent
The first student to be promoted was Ali
His house having been painted green looked fresh
The clerk to have been given such responsibility was Mr.Gut

C. Passive verbal sebagai Object
I like being taught by Mr.baker
She remember to be taken to the zoo by her father
He loves having been instructed to drive out of town
We never forget to have been caught in that situation

D. Passive verbal sebagai object modifier
I like the student being taught by professor M
We loves the house to be painted green
The student hates the boy Having been arrested for speeding
We have just got a package To have been sent from Canada

Combine the sentence using passive verbal!
1. A. the mass media has popular in Indonesia
B. the government banned their activity
2. A. the new policy was about rates for over time work
B. the worker rejected the policy
3. A. the information will be discussed at the management level
B. the supervisor communicated the information
4. A. the applicant can came again tomorrow for a medical test
B. the applicant test have been interview by Mr.Anton
5. A. the exhibition will last for one month
B. the exhibition is financially supported by the government
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Complete the sentence using passive verbal
1. The proposal..will reconsidered by the manager
2. The team has decided that the workshop.............will be about using the new
computer software
3. Serves excellencemust be put in priority
4. The small scale industries can try to get fund.the product.has
been in great demand

Past participle sebagai passive verbal
Past participle sebagai passive verbal dapat dipakai seperti passive verbal pada umumnya
yaitu sebagai :
subject
Subject modifier
Object
Subject modifier

Passive verbal sebagai subject
-The educated read much
-The unexpected made him unhappy
-The wounded where taken the hospital
-The defeated are sent home without meal

Passive verbal sebagai subject modifier
- People educated in the university must be able to work by them selves
- The countries defeated by the Japanese became independent after the war
- Soldiers wounded during world war II are already old now

Passive verbal sebagai object kalimat
- we are supposes to help the wounded

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Passive Verbal sebagai Object Modifier
- Please, help the wounded victims of the accident
- How can we make a married man of him ?
- The country has sent twenty unarmed troops.


4.2.3 VERBALS: GERUNDS, PARTICIPLES, AND INFINITIVES
In English, a word can be derived from a verb, which is, later on, used as another part of
speech. This derived word is called verbal. There are three kinds of verbals, i.e : gerunds,
participles, and infinitives. Their forms, kinds, and properties are presented in the following
diagram ; whereas the relevant usages/examples are presented next after, by pertaining the
indicated numbers found in the diagram.

VERBS FORMS KINDS PROPERTIES OF USAGES
(FEATURES)
1. Verbals a. gerunds (-ing forms) 1. as subject
2. as object
3. as complement
4. prohibition
5. passive subject/object
6. after prepositions
7. certain expressions
8. after passives
9. verb + preposition
10. adjective + preposition
11. noun + preposition
12. certain verbs
13. in place of to infinitives
after certain verbs
b. participles ing forms
and ed form
1. present participle
(active ing form)
1. continuous tense
2. as adjective before nouns
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3. as adjective after nouns
4. two actions happening
together of the same subject
5. immediate action after
another
6. resultative action of another
7. denoting reason
8. adverb
2. past participle
(passived forms)
1. continuous tense
2. adjective before noun
3. adjective after noun
4. predicative with to be
5. perfect of reason
6. adverb
7. denoting time
c. infinitives 1. To infinitive 5. as subject
6. as object
7. as objective
8. adverb
9. complement
10. passive adjective
11. command
12. after certain verbs
2. Bare infinitive
(without To)
1. after modal auxiliaries
2. complementative command
3. all subjects, but 3
rd
singulars
4. after verbs of perception

The following usages are arranged pursuant to the indicated numbers
GERUNDS
1.a.1 : Running is good for our health
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1.a.2 : He loves hunting
1.a.3 : my hobby is reading
1.a.4 : no smoking here!
1.a.5 : seeing so thin and pale shocked him. She likes being thin.
1.a.6 : he confused to stealing the gold
1.a.7 : it is no use/ its no good/ would you mind/ cant help/ cant stop/ cant stand/ its
worth ..
1.a.8 : I am annoyed about johns forgetting to pay
1.a.9 : my father give up smoking
1.a.10 : I am tired of doing the work again
1.a.11 : there is no reason for leaving so early
1.a.12 : stop, prevent, avoid, risk, finish, admit, deny, recollect, delay, postpone, defer, enjoy,
fancy, imagine, forgive, pardon, excuse, suggest, keep (=continue), understand, mind
(=object), consider, miss, involve, resist, anticipate
1.a.13 : begin, start, continue, attempt, intend, cant bear, love, like, hate, prefer, remember,
regret, permit, allow, advice, recommend it needs/ requires/ want, try, purpose, mean , go on,
used to

PRESENT PARTICIPLES
1.b.1.1 : he is reading a book
1.b.1.2 : he opened the envelope with trembling hand
1.b.1.3 : the distance separating the two places is not very great
1.b.1.4 : he rode away whistling. Walking to school, I saw him there
1.b.1.5 : opening the drawer he took out a revolver
1.b.1.6 : she went out slamming the door
1.b.1.7 : being ill, I can not go to school
1.b.1.8 :I found him stealing

PAST PARTICIPLES
1.b.2.1 : the car is being repaired now
1.b.2.2 : rice must be grown on flooded field
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1.b.2.3 : I know the number of men killed
1.b.2.4 : having lost all my honey, I went home
1.b.2.5 : I found the car covered with dust
1.b.2.6 : after having been scolded, he went home

TO INFINITIVES
1.c.1.1 : to pray is our duty
1.c.1.2 : I want to learn
1.c.1.3 : a shirt is something to wear
1.c.1.4 :she stands to read
1.c.1.5 : Im happy to be invited to the party
1.c.1.6 : I want the room to be decorated by you
1.c.1.7 : you are to come here at 7 oclock
1.c.1.8 : begin, start, continue, attempt, intend, cant bear, love, like, hate, prefer, remember,
regret, permit, allow, advice, recommend, it needs/ requires/ want, try purpose, mean, go on,
used to (see also 1.a.13)

BARE INFINITIVES (INFINITIVES WITHOUT TO)
1.c.2.1 : I can go with you
She must come here again
1.c.2.2 : be careful! Be ware of the bull!
1.c.2.3 : we go to school. They go to school. You go to school
1.c.2.4 : verbs of perception : see, hear, make, feel, watch, know, bid, late, please, need not,
dare not, behold, suggest, etc.

EXERCISE
A. Identify the following gerund, participle, or infinitive by referring to the indicated
number in the diagram! Pay attention to the number!
1. Indonesia is an oil exporting country
2. to know it is to buy it
3. seeing is believing
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4. I suggest you tear up the invalid invoice
5. they let me sell the office car
6. the girls want to look businesslike
7. no parking at the corner!
8. be a successful business woman!
9. Japan is an LNG exported country
10. we cannot avoid crying for the football misfortune

B. Match sentences 1-4 with the meaning 1-d
1. my mother doesnt always remember
paying her bills
2. my mother doesnt always remember to
pay her bills
3. but she remember to pay the telephone
bill
4. and she remembered paying the
telephone bill
a. she didnt forget to pay it
b. she doesnt remember the fact that
she has paid them
c. she was sure she paid it
d. she sometimes forgets to pay them

C. Use the to do or doing form of the verbs, like this :
Example :
Clive would like (go) to the Judy Garret concert
# Clive would like to go to the Judy Garret concert

He enjoys (listen) to her
# He enjoys listening to her

1. Clive enjoys (go) to concert
2. he would like (go) to the concert this Friday
3. he would like (start) his own folk music group
4. he wants (do) this soon
5. he cant do this now because he has (go) to Technical College
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6. he doesnt really enjoy (study) at the Technical College
7. he would prefer (study) music at the college in London
8. Clive likes (play) music and (listen) to it

4.2.4 PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Example situation:
Is it raining?
No, but the ground is wet
It has been raining.

(+) S + has/ have + been + V ing
(-) S + hasnt/ havent + been + V ing
(?) Has/ have + S + been + V ing
(QW) QW + has/ have + S + been + V ing

Example:
(+) You have been running
(-) You havent been running
(?) Have you been running?
(QW) Where have you been running?

STUDY THE FUNCTIONS:
Used for an activity that has recently stopped or just stopped.
Youre out of breath. Have you been running?
Paul is very tired. Hes been working very hard.
Ive been talking to Carol about the problem and she thinks that
Used with how long, for and since .The activity is still happening.
How long has it been raining? Its been raining for 2 hours. (It is
raining now)
George hasnt been feeling very well recently.

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EXCERCISES
B. Write a question for each situation.
1. John looks sun burnt.
You ask: (you/ sit in the sun?): Have you sitting in the sun?
2. You have just arrived to meet a friend who is waiting for you.
You ask: (you/ wait/ long?):
3. You meet a friend in the street. His face and hands are very dirty.
You ask: (what/ you/do?):
4. A friend of yours is now living in the Baker Street. You want to know How long ..?
You ask: (how long/ you/ live/ in the Baker Street?):
5. A friend tells you about his job he sells computers. You want to know How long?
You ask: (how long/ you/ sell/ computers?):

C. Read the situation and complete the sentences
1. The rain started two hours ago. Its still raining now. It has been raining for two
hours.
2. We started waiting for the bus 20 minutes ago. Were still waiting now. We for 20
minutes.
3. I started Spanish classes in December. Im still learning Spanish now. I since
December.
4. Ann began looking for a job six months ago. Shes still looking now. She for six
months.
5. Marry started working in London on 18 January. She is still working there now. She
since 18 January.
6. Years ago you started writing to a pen friend. You still write to each other regularly
now. We for years.





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UNIT 5
PLANNING AND ORGANIZING
TROUGH INFORMATION ACQUISITION

At many companies, things are done because that's the way we have always done it.
"Naturally, if something works, and works well, leave it alone. Don't make changes for the
sake of change. At the same time, if there are better ways to do things, ways which result in
greater efficiency and productivity, implement them?
One of the big problems for us might very well be the fact that someone had the job
before you did and "there never was a problem." Action planning means not waiting for the
problems to happen before you do something. It means anticipating what needs to be done,
identifying the likely "bottlenecks" that might arise and how to best counteract them.

Activating our action planning
The way to do this is to develop an "ACTION PLANNING CHECKLIST." To use
the Action Planning Checklist, follow these steps:
1. Identify and list what we consider to be the six most important duties we have to do
for our boss. Suppose we work in sales, our list might include the following items:
a. Monitor proposal due dates
b. Issue proposal won/lost reports
c. Arrange monthly sales managers' meetings
d. Set up customer appointments
e. Maintain customer correspondence file
f. Issue sales goal reports
2. Enter the appropriate items in the "Action Item Description" column on the left side of
the form.
3. Using a ranking system of 1-6, with 6 being the highest in order of importance, select
the priority of each item as determined by what our boss needs, and list it in the
"priority" column. .
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4. Now look at each item and rank it by the time and difficulty involved far you to do it.
List that ranking value in the "difficulty" column.
5. List, as applicable, write in any special problems in the "remarks" column.
First of all, we have identified the things that our boss has to get done in order to
perform his job. Next, we have established the priority and difficulty each of these tasks
involves for us. By having the two columns of rankings, we can see that our job priority
isn't necessarily the same ranking as the task difficulty. Finally, by using the "Remarks"
section, we've also been able to highlight any special considerations.
This total package enables you to plan for what is to be done, as well as to try and
make changes which may be needed for improvement. It is also useful to sit and discuss
what we have developed with our supervisor. It gives him an opportunity to review what
orders of priorities are necessary.
We might even get our boss to make up his own chart before you meet. This could
reveal assumptions which he has made about the tasks and our efforts which aren't correct.

Suppose we work for more than one boss?
That is a good question since secretaries and administrative assistants often work
for two or more people at a time. The Action Planning Checklist is based upon (lie duties
of one boss. When there arc more bosses involved, the chances are that each has his own
priorities and that they will be different.
Naturally, when the bosses are in different functions (for example, we may work
for the Sales Manager and the Purchasing Manager), the lists may not look anything like
each other. So, we will be working with more than one list. Under (his arrangement, we
will also be able to readily determine conflicts in our assignments and tasks. It will show
we and our bosses where extra help may be needed, as well as enabling them to discuss
what priorities should be given to what actions.
This doesn't mean that there will never be "emergencies" requiring that we
rearrange our priorities or that we won't feel the pressure by one boss to do his work first.
But we will find that using Action Planning Checklists will reduce some of the crises to a
much more tolerable level and help the "more than one boss" situation.
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ACTION PLANNING CHECKLIST
(Ranking 1-6 with 6 as highest priority and difficulty)

ACTION ITEM
DESCRIPTION
REMARKS

PRIORITY

DIFFICULTY

Dept budget report 2 4 Need report info
Min. staff meeting 5 3
Arrange hotel res 1 6 Trip of April 1
Review tele charges 4 1 Call identification
Redesign file system 3 2 Get recommend.
Forecasts 6 5 ----------------

Another Planning Tool
Another tool to help our overall action planning process is a wall mounted "Year
at a Glance Calendar. These calendars are important since we see all the clays of the year
at once. As work is being planned, we can easily spot potential interferences due to legal
or traditional holidays, as well as conflicts with other tasks which have already been
assigned. These calendars are now being produced with a laminated plastic finish so that
they can be marked up and changed with a water-soluble marking pen. Placing the
calendar near our work station will give us the ready reference we need.
It is important to contrast these examples with traditional follow-up systems
(which are dealt with later in this manual). Here we are looking at ways to predict what
needs to be done and any obstacles which may bar the way to successful completion. Use
these examples to inspire our own thinking in creating other checklists to aid us in
planning our work.
For example, we could develop a day-to-day system. Not only will it keep we on
top of current actions, but we can make five for every week, and as we fill them up, keep
them in a three-ring binder for future reference. We'll keep better track of exactly how
valuable we've become to our boss, how long certain tasks take, and when projects were
completed.
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Conducting a self-audit
What are the most voiced improvements that managers would like to see in their
secretaries and administrative assistants? Here are some sample survey results :
Become more of a team player, more involved with others in the organization
Polish skills in learning how to handle customers
Become more organized and detail-oriented
Show more interest in the job itself and the duties/responsibilities it entails
Show more initiative in promoting the company's goals and objectives
Manage time better
Apply better memory skills to the job

Self evaluation is the basis for initiating a self-improvement program.
Understanding our self, our strong points and weak points, likes and dislikes, is the key to
gaining the skills required to correct potential problem areas.
But, as with everything else, it isn't an easy process and there may not be quick
solutions. What works for one person may not work for another. For example,
improvement number one dealt with teamwork. Some people function better in isolated
environments, while others do not. There are a few choices open to you. One is to find
work in that type of an office. Another is to work in a group surrounding as part of a staff.
If we select the second choice, then we will have to make an effort to be part of the group.

THINGS TO DO TODAY
DAY ---------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appointments and Telephone Calls :
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Done
1. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- [ ]
2. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- [ ]
3. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- [ ]
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Our clinic, therefore, is based upon our own evaluation of how the situation we
are going into will affect us. But what if we don't have any choice? Let's say we are
transferred ink) a new group. Then it is important for us to recognize that (his is a stressful
situation for us, so that we can lake the actions we need to enable ourselves to adjust.
The same philosophy holds true for other improvement areas. We have to be
objective about our role in the office, so that we can evaluate the extent to which we are
contributing to the problems. Only then can we begin to add other methods to reduce or
eliminate the negative aspects of those areas that need improvement.
What other methods? Seeking the advice of supervisors and fellow workers.
Pursuing additional training, perhaps something as fundamental as listening. Equally
important, it is probable that the improvement demands are tied to stress factors on the
job. Below are six leading causes of stress upon secretaries, any one of which is capable
of leading to performance problems and lack of visible improvement. By knowing these,
we can, as part of our self-audit efforts, seek out,, new methods which will reduce these
stress factors. The six are:
Interruptions
Lack of advancement
Lack of input into decisions 4
Lack of communication with managers
Insufficient salary and benefits
Poor working conditions
Now that we have a grasp of some of the factors which affect our own self-
evaluation, we can set priorities to help we become the "important right hand" that our
boss needs. Figure 4 is just one checklist developed by secretaries and administrative
assistants which emerged from a self-audit program.

Conducting an information audit
Besides knowing more about ourselves, we need to know more about information
flow in our office to contribute to smoother operations. Here are some ideas on becoming
an important conduit for office information.
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No job is performed in the isolation of an ivory tower. Therefore, as an effective
secretary or administrative assistant to our boss, we have to know what is going on.
Among the communications we may be involved in are such things as inter-office mail,
customer correspondence, job files, shipping reports, supplier price notices, requests for
quotes, and so forth.

SELF-EVALUATION GOALS PROGRAM
1. Are my atitudes holding me back on the job?
2. Do I plan work well? Do I set priorities?
3. Do I tend to show resentment, anger, or hostility easily?
4. Am I confident about myself and my work?
5. Am I interfacing effectively with customers and my co-workers?
6. Do I view myself as a professional? Do others see me in the same light?

Such information vehicles require good files (as we'll see in Section II), thoughtful
replies and knowing where information is located. Those pieces of paper are a great part of
the "paper workload" our boss faces every day. We make ourselves more valuable by
enabling our boss to keep this workload manageable and allowing him to perform more
productively.
And, always, be ready when our boss asks us to locate some piece of information for
him, whether it is about a supplier, a competitor, a flight schedule, or whatever. Look at this
as pail of the challenge of the job, one of the things that make it interesting. Here are two
main strategies for us to accomplish this task successfully.
The first step is to know what to look for and where to find it. And the second step is
to keep source information files current. These two steps, coupled with good filing systems of
the type are the keys for the details which are set forth below.

Information at our fingertips
Locating information means more than just "finding it." Once we have / found it,
we have to decide whether we will ever need it again, in which case we f should put it in
some sort of source base, or discard it so that we don't end up with more information than
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we can ever productively use. Sometimes the information we need will be much closer
than we might have thought. For example, take a look at what should be kept in or on our
desk. Figure 5 is a "Desk-top Checklist."
No office will function like e well-oiled machine unless we and our boss are
operating "on the same wavelength." That means we've got to know what hes thinking
and how he's going to act -- almost before he does!
To do that, sit ourselves down and conduct an audit that combines self and
information, a sort of mini-communications audit like the one in Figure 6. Use any of (he
questions which we can't answer effectively as the basis for a personal plan of action. The
more "in sync" we and our boss are, the better we both work in tandem, the smoother our
entire operations will run.

Other Information Sources
Weve just seen how valuable it is to have resources around we to locate
information. There are other ways to find the information we need. Here are some of the
information categories we may be looking for and suggested places to find help.

Foreign Trade
Our need here may be for the names or locations of firms, credit information,
translations, determining the exchange rate for a given period and similar types of
information. Sources available for us include :
Government agencies
Reference books in local libraries
Embassies, Banks, Newspapers
Foreign trade associations
Trade periodicals
International publishers

Domestic Firms
Annual report, names of key officials, product information, sales data and company
locations might be the object of our information search. Sources to consult include:
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Sales and public relations departments of companies themselves
Trade associations
Newspapers and magazines
Credit services
Chambers of commerce
Library reference books
Government (state and provincial) offices
Postal service directories and phone books

LIBRARIES
At large firms, it is usual to find a company library, carrying primarily information
which relates to (he company's business. A company library may keep its reference
materials in an entirely different way than a public library. If we work for a company
which has a company library, find out how the company system operates and how it
catalogs information.
Public libraries are one of the best sources for quickly locating answers to most of
the information questions we will have. Sometimes it isn't even necessary to go to the
library. Service desks responding to telephone questions are available at many libraries.
Naturally, if we ask for information which requires investigation and detailed responses,
the telephone approach isn't going to work. Instead, go in and ask the librarian for
assistance.
Once in the library, know where to look for the type of information we require.
The categories we want to research will generally be contained in books, periodicals and
pamphlets.
To help get through the mounds of information, most libraries use automated
files. For example, references by subject and title are kept on microfiche, small slides,
each containing thousands of references. Newspapers are recorded on reels of microfilm,
so that we can view many issues without having to go through stacks of papers. If you are
looking for legal information, such as laws, regulations, cases, you will probably find it
easier to consult the libraries of law schools. Also, there may be special law libraries
available through government bodies.
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UNIT 6
HANDLING TELEPHONE CALLS AND VISITORS
PROFESIONALLY


Were you ever unhappy about the way someone at another company handled your
telephone? Sure you were! The fact it, poor handling of telephone calls is one of the most
frequent business complaints. Not getting through. Being transferred to the wrong person.
Rude treatment. Being placed on hold and forgotten. Being disconnected. Often, the results,
for the company, is angry customers.
But what happens when the situation is reserved when someone is calling your
company, and speaking to you? Are they getting the very same treatment you complain
about? Do you handle your calls any better? Here are the most important dos and donts
of telephone etiquette. The these tips in mind whenever you pick up that receiver.

Guidelines for answering the telephone
Your boss approaches you holding the telephone note you left on his desk for the call
that came in while he was at lunch. He doesnt look happy. I just called this number you left
me, he tells you, and they said there was nobody there by that name. If your reply is
something like, Im sorry, but the person who called spoke so quickly that I couldnt be
sure, then you didnt handle that call properly.
One of the ways to avoid this type of problem is to make sure that you get the callers
name and number correctly. It is always a good idea to ask people to spell their last names
and to repeat their phone numbers so both of you can confirm that you have taken it down
correctly.
A caller, who you do not know personally, asks about your business, names of
customers, home addresses of certain employees, etc. Trying to help, you give that caller as
much information as you can. When your boss, who was not in at the time, returns, you tell
him. Instead of complimenting you for doing a good job, he is angry. Why? Because, despite
your good intentions, youve made a mistake.
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Never give our information to anyone that you dont know. They might be working for
competitors. Or even involved in some criminal act, such as fraud. Whenever you get a call
from a stranger asking numerous probing questions, ask for the name of this company and his
phone number. Tell him you will have someone get back to him. If he refuses to give you a
number where he can be reached, there is a good chance that he is not legitimate.
In any event, one of the things you dont want to do is give any caller too much
information. If your boss isnt able to take the call, just say, Mr. Smith isnt able to take your
call right now, but Ill be more than happy to give him your name and number and any
message youd like to leave. Avoid saying anything about why he isnt available.

Better telephone techniques
Here are additional considerations to keep in mind when answering the telephone. Use
them yourself. Their them to your companys policies and create and memo you can hand out.
- Answer with a Good morning or Good afternoon, and the name of you company your
boss or your name, as appropriate.
- Speak clearly. Dont chew on a pencil, gum, food, etc.
- Dont the curt. Politeness counts.
- If you thin a different office should be taking the call, offer to transfer it instead of felling
the other person to call again. Get their number in case you are disconnected during
transfer so that you can call back.
- Dont leave your phone unattended. Asks someone to cover for you if you wont be
available to answer.
- Try to answer promptly. A ringing phone disturbs those around you and can also result in a
lost call
- If you put someone on hold, come back from time to time to let the person know you
havent forgotten about him. If youre unsure how long you may need to keep a caller on
hold, give him an option. Say, Would you like to give me your phone number so we can
call you back, or would you prefer to wait?
- If a call is really urgent and your boss is in a meeting, dont break in and interrupt. Instead,
get word to him through a note.
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- If someone calls and asks to speak to your boss, dont ask who is calling before you say
hes out. (The caller may take offense, thinking that your boss has asked you to screen
his phone calls, and does not want to take that persons call). Instead, say Mr. Smith is not
available right now. May I ask who is calling?
- Dont put on a false front when you speak on the phone. Speak naturally and pace
yourself so that the other party will have no trouble understanding you.
- If your boss does want you screen phone calls, that is, let him know who is calling so he
can decide whether or not he wants to take the call, then you should make the effort to do it
discreetly. If the caller identifies him self at once, and you know it is someone your boss
would want to speak to, youre safe in passing the call through. In all other cases, however,
you should simply say, Ill check to see if hes available and then asks for the persons
name and company (if not from within your own firm).
- Always try to complete a call without laving an impression of abruptness.
- If your boss isnt available, ask if there is anything you can do to help.
- Dont ever act as if you are doing the caller a favor by answering, or that his call is
disrupting something.
Figure 12 offers suggested responses to the most common hard-to-handle situations that
arise when answering the telephone. You may wan to make a copy of it and keep it handy
until you are used to making theses responses naturally and smoothly.

Tips for getting the most out of your phone time
Depending on how you use the telephone, it can be a tool to help you do your job better,
or an obstacle to doing an effective job. If the use of the telephone is a significant part of your
daily job, here are proven techniques which will help you make the most of that time.
*Coordinate the timing. Whenever your interrupt one task to do something else, you
sacrifice efficiency. When possible, time the calls you have to make so that you can do them
in groups, thereby reducing interruptions.
*Set priorities. Obviously some calls are more important than others. And there will be
times when you wont be able to make all the alls you intended to. Dont miss out on the
important ones through a lack of planning. Before you pick up the phone, list your numbers in
order of importance.
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*Get organized before you place the call. Lets say youre on the phone ordering some
office supplies. The other party says, It would help to locate the right item if you told me the
model number or page number in the ordering catalog. If you answer is, Hold on and Ill go
see if I can find it, you are wasting your own time as well as that of the person you called.
Always try to have whatever catalogs, letters of other correspondence you will be discussing
ready and handy before you palace your call.

Maintaining Telephone Records
Depending on the size and record-keeping needs of your company, you may be required
to keep written records of certain telephone calls. These may include records on incoming
calls from customers, or even records of calls you or your boss palace, for instance, calls
concerning an on-going project. You can use the form shown in Figure 13 to maintain a
record of your conversations, or alter it to include space for information important to you.
Some companies require departments or individual employees to keep a record of all
song distance (toll) telephone calls. Even if your company does not, you may want to keep
your own ongoing log of the long distance calls you place for your boss. Such as record helps
you in several ways. It an server as :
* Verification when it comes time for you to approve the monthly telephone bill.
* An instant and handy reminder of the last date of contact with an important party (if
this benefit is important to you and your boss; you may decide to include toll-free
calls, i.e., phone calls placed, on your list).

Strategically Ways in Telephoning
Alexander Graham Bell in 1890s demonstrated the way/the telephone manner to
encourage its use in business. Dooley says even though visual input of your body is lost, you
are on the telephone should improve your telephone techniques;
1. Smile
Sticking a smiley face in the center of a rotary phone used to be one effective way. When
you pick up that phone, leave the tiredness, the frustration, the anger, the boredom and the
anguish behind. Plants a smile squarely on your face sprinkle it with enthusiasm and make
the person on the end catch the feeling.
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2. Slow down
May be have all come across the speedsters, so we should speak a around 130 word per
minute in face to face conservation, but need to slow this down to about 100 words per
minute on the phone. On the phone the figure is up 30% so we must ensure that our words
are heard crisply and clearly. Were accents are a difficulty; a slower speed will also help to
clarify speech. Before you star, pause, take a deep breath, and then speak clearly and
slowly. Dont be a snail which is boring. But if you know you are speedsters make an
effort to calm and control your speech.
3. Breath
Slow breaths can do wonders for you. Breaths stimulate the oxygen flow to the brain,
making you more alert and you thinking clearly. It will relax you so you can deal with the
next call more calmly.
4. Dont eat, drink or smoke
Dont believe that because you can not be seen you can not be heard. Dont put sweet,
cigarette white you are telephoning because the person on the other end of the line can hear
the chews and the drawn breath. It is impolite.
5. Avoid jargon
For example: within industry talk about con notes meaning consignment or freight notes
(from of the freight when sent it on its journey).
6. Stand up
Towards the end of the day you tend to slip lower and lower in the chair. As your body
slouches, so does your tone. Try it and hear the difference, stand up, stretch, walk about
always ensure that you have a long cord on the phone that allows you to move. This will
help greatly when you are feeling a bit down.
7. Be ware the monotone (manage your voice)
Add color you voice. People trust and purchase from are those who sound confident in
their product-they are enthusiastic and definite in their information handling. Use
variations in your tone, pitch and add color and feeling
8. Clarity
Clearness or intelligibility. Speak clearly and slowly and project your voice (spelling T, D,
B) etc.
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9. Use Radio / Tape / CD
It an assist with a brightening the atmosphere in the office. It can also help you to speak
up. A radio playing softly in the background a nice middle ensures you will speak up to be
clearly heard.

Rules for outgoing calls and incoming calls
Outgoing calls Incoming calls
Identifying your self Identifying your self
This is here
My name is.
Jane speaking
Asking to speak to someone Helping the caller
Could you put me trough to.
Could I speak to . please?
Id like to speak to.
Can / may I help you?
Giving further information Asking for callers identification
Its connection with. Whos calling / speaking, please?
Which company are you from
Explaining the purpose of call Connecting the caller
Im calling to ask about
Im calling to tell you
Just a moment/minute, please!
Hold/hang on, please!
Im putting your through now
Showing understanding Youre through now
I see Im connecting you now
I understand

Leaving a message Explaining someone is not available
Could you give. Message? Im afraid is not available now
Could you tell. (Ill call back later) Im sorry but is in a meeting now
Could you ask to call (when he gets back)

Thanking Alternative actions
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Well, thanks for the information Could you phone/call back later?
Im very grateful for you assistance Would you like to leave a message?

Ending the call Responding to thanks
I look forward to seeing you Youre welcome / not at all
Good by Ending the call
Thanks for calling / good by

TELEPHONE RECORD
Date _______________________ Time _______________________
Telephone No.
_________________________________________________________________
Company
_________________________________________________________________
Message
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Reply
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Comments
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Signed
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Figure 14 is a sample long distance telephone long sheet. You can make photocopies of
the form for your own use, or use it as a model for developing a form appropriate to your own
particular needs.

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Making formal introductions
As an executive secretary you are usually the first person to greet office visitors,
whether they are company employees or visitors from outside. This often means you are the
person introducing these individuals to your boss, or introducing a number of people to each
other.
How you handle these introduction is very important in giving the visitors the best
possible firs impression of your boss, your department, and yourself. You can the ice-
breaker who gets the relationship started properly and smoothly.
Listed below are the four situations youre most likely to be involved in, with practical
advices as to how you should handle each one
1. Office visitors: If you are the first point of contact, introduce yourself by saying, Hello,
Im Jane Done, Mr. Smiths assistant. My I help you?
2. Two department managers : If both managers have the same rank within the organizations
and you know that one is older than the other, introduce the younger one to the older one.
Mr. Smith, this is Mr. Jones.
3. Two groups of people : This start to get trickier. Try to make the introductions by age and
rank if you can. Mr. Smith and Mr. Jones, may I present Mr. Black and Mr. White.
4. One person to a group : One way to handle this is by the business rank of the attendees.
Suppose Mr. Brown, a customer, is meeting your boss (the purchasing manager), his
supervisor (a vice president)), and the president of the firm, all for the first time. You
would say : Mr. Brown, Id like to introduce our president, Mr. Grey; our president of
purchasing. Mr. Green; and our purchasing manager, Mr. White.
As part of the business introduction process, it also customary to shake hands,
regardless of the individuals level or position. Certainly if you are seated and the other party
isnt, you should rises. And, most of all, make it a point to concentrate when a visitors gives
you his name, so you will be sure of it when you make the introduction. Dont be afraid to ask
someone to repeat a name or spell it for you if it sounds confusing. People are usually
complimented by such a question since it shows that you want to get their name right.
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LONG DISTANCE CALL LOG
Employee : _________________________________
Department : _________________________________



How to deal with unscheduled visitors
You are at your desk and someone comes in to see your boss even though he doesnt
have an appointment. Obviously your boss isnt always able to met with everyone who wants
to see him without any notice. Here is where you come to your boss aid, saving him time an
effort dealing with unscheduled visitors as well as arranging schedule and appointments.
Here are four categories of visitors, and strategies for handling each type politely yet
firmly.
1. Salespeople
You should know the types of products or services your boss is interested in. if a
salesman drops by unannounced, ask him what he is selling. Get information about the
products. Ask him to leave brochures and his business card with you. That way, your boss
can look at the information at this convenience and decide whether he wants to set up a
meting with the salesman later on. Explain that to the salesman. If he is smart, he will
recognize that it will save them both time.
If your boss isnt involved in what the salesman is offering, direct him to the person
in the company who usually handles such purchases. If your company a formal
appointment arrangement policy, with specified visiting hours or days for sales people, be
sure to tell him about it.
Salespeople will attempt to reach your boss over the telephone as well. They know
that secretaries screen calls of their, and that theyre usually specially instructed to keep
their bosses from being bothered by calls from salespeople they dont already have a
relationship with.
So be prepared for this common tactic for getting around secretaries : A salesman
will often write to your boss first, stating a the end of the letter he will phone within a few
days or a week to discuss his product/service farther.
Date Time telephone location party Called
Number
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Then, when does call, the salesman will tell you, This is Jim Wendall from ABC
company. Im calling with regard to my letter of ________.Avoid routinely asking
callers, Does he expect your call? or Does he know what this is in reference to? The
adepts salesman will seize the opportunity and reply, Oh yes, this is regarding a matter I
wrote to him about last week.
If your boss wants you to protect him from such unsolicited instructions, then you
have to become expert at detecting these strategies and deflecting them with effective
strategies of your own.
One method: When your boss receives mailings from salespeople, ask him to give
the ones hes not interested in to you, rather than simply throwing them out. If you hold on
to them for a week or two, youll be prepared when the salespeople follow up by
telephone. Your boss should also let you know how he wants the others sales letters
handled, whether:
- Hed like you to arrange and appointment with the salesman, or
- He wants you to put salesmans calls through when he does call to follow up, or
- He wants you to ask for certain information when the salesman follows up, or
- He will contact the salesman directly him self.

2. Company Personnel
This is often a very sensitive area, and you have to be careful not to create
antagonistic feelings. First of all, make sure you know how your boss wants you to handle
company personnel who want to see him. If you have been working for your boss for some
time, you know what he wants, but if youre fairly new, dont assume ask.
Determine whether he wants you to keep an open door for everyone, or to decide on
a case-by-case basis. If the person coming by happens to be a senior officer, dont try to do
any screening. If your boss isnt in, try to find him as soon as possible.

3. Friends and Family
It isnt unusual for a friend or family member to sometimes drop in for an
unannounced visit. Here again, find out from your boss in advance how hed like you to
handle these visits. And, after you meet them, make an effort to remember who they are for
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the future. You might even jot down a few notes about you conservation (about a vacation
they are about to go on, or a childs interest or achievement) and the persons appearance
to help refresh your own memory.
4. Telephone request
Your boss may give the authority to set up any appointments for him that you feel
are appropriate. If thats the case, make sure that any appointments you make are within
the guidelines that he has established. And always remember to get all the information you
need from the caller.
If you dont have blanket authority on appointments, but have to clear request with
your boss, get enough information so you can brief him, and tell the caller you will call
back as soon as possible to let him if and when your boss can meet him.

Special concerns with foreign visitors
One of the classic examples often cited to demonstrate the complexities of dealing in an
international market is that of General Motors Chevrolet Nova model. This automobile, a
solid seller elsewhere, did not achieve comparable success in Spanish speaking countries.
Unfortunately for General Motors, the model name Nova translates into Spanish as does
not go.
You can see the potential for misunderstandings and mistakes when words or practices
taken for granted in one country are automatically carried forward into another language or
another culture. A the globe shrinks, and international business grows, understandings the
difference between countries and culture is becoming a more important aspect of your own
working. How exactly should you expect to be involved?

APPLICATIONS
Your boss tells you that he is expecting and important visitors, and Arab with whom he
hopes to do considerable business. He tells you to be alert for his arrival, and let me know as
soon as he gets in. Oh, and dont forget to make him feel welcome. The visitors arrives
toward the end of the afternoon. As instructed, you greet him and tell him, Ill let my boss
know that you are here. Then you add, While youre waiting, would you caf for a drink? e
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have a selection of liquor from the bar in our executive office which. Im sure you would find
interesting.
Whats wrong with this scenario? Despite your good intentions, you have just created
one big problem for your boss. Liquor is prohibited in the Moslem religion.
The lesson here is that in dealing with cultural differences, unintended offense may
occur merely by using the wrong from of address of offering the wrong type of gift. If your
boss often relies on you in these situations, your knowledge, advice and recommendations can
have an important impact on your boss international business dealings.
Here are some suggestions which should prove useful when you are involved in
welcoming or dealing with foreign visitors.
1. Be friendly, yet businesslike. When in doubt, its always better to be formal rather than too
friendly.
2. Find out from your boss if there are any specific details you should know about regarding
the visitors you will be dealing with
3. When talking to foreign visitors who arent fluent in your language, speak distinctly and
more slowly than normal. Avoid the tendency to speak too loudly.
4. If you have arranged hotels, meetings, transportations, for visitors, confirm the
arrangements.
5. Write down addresses and phone number of office contacts for the visitors. In case
something goes wrong, theyll have a way to get in touch, or written information they can
simply show to a taxi driver or hotel clerk.
6. If needed, retain the services of guides and interpreters.
7. Meeting first-time visitors in your country upon arrival is an excellent public relations
device. Make sure that you have a clear pick-up point. At airports, a car rental desk is a
good spot, as is waiting (with an arrival sign) at the customs exit area. Be alert for gate and
terminal changes.

Open Dialog:
Barbara is welcoming you on a visit to her corporation. Complete your part of the
conversation using these sentences.
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That would be very interesting. Im pleased to meet you, Im .. Sorry I cant, I have another
appointment. No, Im afraid I dont.
Yes, it is. Thank you. Yes thats right. Thats very kind of you.
Barbara : Good morning. My names Barbara.
You : .
Barbara : Welcome to Jakarta. This is your first visit, isnt it?
You : Well, would you like to come and see around the plant?
Barbara : ..
You : ..
Barbara : Now, our arrangements for tomorrow: we have a meeting at
8.30 with the Sales Department. Do you know how to get there?
You : You can see it here on the map. Turn right at the entrance and
its the first building on the left.
Barbara : And in the afternoon, would you like to see our R&D
department?
You : ..
Barbara : What a pity! Perhaps next time. Well, Ill drive you back to
your hotel.
You : Dont mention it, its a pleasure. Youre staying at the Holiday
Inn, arent you?

Consider culture when giving gifts
Giving business gifts is another potentially dangerous area when it involves foreign
clients. What are considered traditional gifts and gifts wrappings in your country may result in
an unintended social offense, due to the customs and practices of your foreign visitors.
One of the things you should try to do is to select gifts that distinctly reflect your
country unique gifts that are welcomed as being different. This is an often overlooked
element of the gift giving process, yet it is the personal touch that separates your choice from
all the others. Examples include a local wine, art from local artists, a Scottish wool, Irish
linen, American Indian Jewelry, Japanese cameras, etc.
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A cautionary note. Keep the sex of the recipient in mind. There are male and female
gifts. And, remember, we are speaking her about business gifts. Even though you know a
client has a certain preference, such as for a particular perfume, dont mix business gifts with
those which you would give in a more personal situation.
Listed below are guidelines and warning to help you select the right gifts and know
which gifts to avoid for live major cultures. If you frequently receive visitors from a region
not listed here, make up your own list of dos and donts to serves as a reminder to yourself
and for anyone handling theses responsibility in the future.
Also not these guidelines are appropriate whether you are hosting a foreign visitors for
selecting a gift or your boss to give his host in a foreign country.

Giving gifts to Arab businessmen
- Gifts for children are appropriate. Gifts for wives are not
- Do not provide any gifts at initial meetings. They may be viewed as bribes. Later, when it
is appropriate, you may do so, but only when others are presents.
- Books are appropriate, as are gifts intended for uses in an office. Products from Germany
and the United States are highly regarded.
- Avoid items which depict animals, since certain animals are considered bad luck
- Never give liquor as a gifts
- Consider how ell you know the person and if you are dealing in their country of yours.
Arab businessmen sometimes act differently depending upon whether they are visiting or
at home
- Use caution when admiring something belonging to an Arab. If you praise something, it
might be given to you

Giving gifts to Latin Americans
- Many products are unavailable or heavily taxed in Latin America. For example, if your are
dealing with and engineer, a pocket calculator might be appropriate
- Defer gift giving until specific business is completed, unless some special circumstances
are involved.
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- Beware of gifts or colors that are considered bad luck, including items which are black or
purple, handkerchiefs, and knives.
- While business shouldnt be conducted over lunch with Latin Americans, it is an
appropriate time for gift giving.
- Non personal gifts for wives are acceptable. Toys for children are also popular.
Gifts for Chinese Businessmen
The Chinese business community views the giving to gifts quite formally. Many gifts
are prohibited by law. Read as much as you can about Chinese rituals so that you are well-
informed about this sensitive area.
- Dont give currency
- Dont give elaborate gifts. Small mementos, items associated with your company, office
accessories and similar inexpensive yet useful products are appropriate.
- Gifts may be presented as part of the concluding comments at dinner meeting, in the
context of giving a gift to all the Chinese in the group. Other than this method, gifts should
be presented privately.

Giving gifts to Europeans
- While each country has its own particular customs, in general the gifts practices for
European associates are the same. Gifts about be based upon the nature of your
relationship and should reflected an understanding of how they should be received by the
recipient. This is much more important than cost.
- If business deadlines involve staying at someones home, silver is a good choice for
expensive appreciation.
- Use caution when giving flowers. For example, Germans consider red roses as something
personal, for lovers. In France, chrysanthemums are used in funerals and for mourning.
Neither of these is suitable a business gift. In Great Britain, gift giving is more the
exception than the rule, although flowers are an accepted from of expressing a personal
touch, particularly if one has been invited to a home.
- Chocolates and liquors are quite acceptable.
- Thoughtful gifs include those which appeal to the intellect and gifts having historical
significance.
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- Thoughtful gifs include those which appeal to the intellect and gifts having historical
significance.
- Keep gift wrapping simple. A card with a personal note should be included. Perfume for
the businessmans wife is generally inappropriate unless requested by the husband.

Giving gifts to businessmen from the United States
- Many American business are subject to regulatory scrutiny and laws, such as those whose
stock is traded on the stock exchange, firms holding government contracts or subcontracts,
etc. Accordingly, the American business community is very concerned with business
dealing which create an impression of bribery or corrupt business practices.
Some firms send notices to all their suppliers asking that they refrain for many gifts giving
whatsoever.
- Promotional gifts of normal value are considered acceptable. These include logo pens,
calendars, coffee cups and traditional office gadgets.
- The business lunch is almost universally accepted in American business. Theater tickets,
tickets to sporting events and a round of golf are also viewed as part of the traditional
nominal exchange at most companies. They do not fall into the negative category of
gifts.
- Monetary gifts should never be offered.
- Remember that the United States is a nation of many different cultures. It also has its own
distinct regional differences, generally grouped by location, that is, the north, the south,
east coast, west coast and mid-west. The more you can learn about these difference, the
better prepared you will be.
- If a gift is appropriate, generally the Christmas season is the time to present it. It is a good
practice to avoid personal gifts. The more traditional business gifts at Christmas include
wines, liquors, and fruit baskets or baked goods.





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UNIT 7
EFFECTIVE MEETING COORDINATION


We can be extremely to our boss by completely handling arrangements for meetings and
conferences. These can range from coordinating a staff meeting for our department, to formal
stockholders meeting, to a series of training seminars.
The success of these meetings will depend in large part on how are handle the planning and
coordinating.

Steps to a successful agenda
1. Set up a meeting file. That way, certain information and plans well be using for every
meeting can be researched and recorded once, and then merely updated periodically
for new meetings.
One of those things is a meeting agenda. The agenda is an outline of what is to take
place at the meeting. There is no right format. The agenda can be quite informal,
simply summarizing the topic to be addressed at the meeting (and considered by the
participants prior to the meeting). Or, it can be formal, itemizing activities for each
hour of the day.
2. Distribute the agenda in advance. Often, people attending meetings havent any idea
as to what they are really going to be involved in until they get to the meeting. Then, if
they are lucky, theyll find a copy of the agenda when they arrive. By distributing the
agenda in advance, we help prepare the attendees and insure their active
involvement.
3. Identify action items. If the meeting is for the purpose of setting out strategies, then
make sure that the agenda lists those items which must be acted upon. For example,
votes to be taken, assigning a team leader, etc.
4. Agenda input. Certain types of meetings are built around the needs of the attendees.
They may, in fact, be called in response to requests from those who will be attending.
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If that in the case, it is useful to ask for suggested agenda topics or to circulate a draft
agenda, asking for comments and input.

Selecting the meeting schedule
One of the biggest mistakes made by meeting planners is not giving enough attention to the
schedule. Here are two key points to keep in mind if we are helping our boss select the
schedule.
1. Check the calendar. Just because our boss says set up the meeting for a Monday
doesnt mean that our problems are solved. Make sure that before we send out that
meeting notice that the office wont be closed due to a holiday or plant shutdown, and
that the date does not fall at a time when many people are taking a vacation.
2. Watch for conflicts. Quite a bit goes on during the average business day. Before we
set a meeting date, try to confirm that our date will not conflict with anything else that
might be scheduled, such as a meeting of top management. Since the notice or agenda
announcing a conflicting meeting may not yet have been circulated, we should ask
around about the plants of others. And while it is impossible to select a date and time
that will suit everybody, it is still a good idea to ask prospective attendees what dates
are best for them. We can do this by sending out a memo, listing a meeting date along
with two alternates, and asking them to return the memo with their choices checked.

Choosing the right meeting room setup
It may seem unimportant, but the fact is that whatever seating arrangement we choose for our
meeting will have a strong impact on the way the participants will interact and the degree to
which they will relax, listen and learn.
If our boss asks us to take care of the seating arrangements for a meeting or conference, ask
him if he has a particular arrangement in mind. If he doesnt, ask him what kind of mood or
atmosphere he wants to establish. We have to consider a number of factors before making our
choice, including:
Number of participants
Relationships of participants to one another
Level of familiarity with one another
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Type of meeting (discussion, presentation, lecture)
Whether we wish to encourage or discourage interaction

Matching the room size to our meeting purpose
Even something seemingly as simple as deciding where the meeting will be held has the
potential for affecting the success of a meeting. For instance, using a large room for a meeting
of a relatively small number of people tends to create an impersonal atmosphere.
If the purpose of the meeting is, for example, to meet with a customer for the purpose of
resolving disputes of long standing, we would want to create a more intimate atmosphere,
where voices would not seem amplified or harsh. On the other hand, too small a room could
create a stifling effect, making the attendees feel uncomfortable.
Meeting room strategy also includes planning for adequate lighting, comfort, provisions for
breaks, the use of pads, writing instruments, and name plates or name tags. These and other
considerations also dictate how the group will interact and will affect the outcome of the
meeting. For large meetings, an adequate sound system is the highest priority.

Our part in hosting the meeting
Whenever our boss is running a meeting, we can certainly expect to be asked to help host it.
After all our hard work in helping to plan the event, hosting can be a fun experience. It gives
us the opportunity to meet people we may have been dealing with only over the phone. Use
the following guidelines as our checklist:
1. Make sure that the room is set up as ordered. Get there early enough there will be time
to make any changes that need to be made.
2. Place pads and pencils on tables.
3. Handle refreshments. For small meetings, this may mean taking orders for coffee, tea,
etc. At meetings in hotels and conference centers, it would mean making sure the hotel
delivers what has been ordered and at the right time.
4. At large meetings, training programs or conferences, prepare and distribute name tags
as part of opening registration.
5. Attend to any calls and personal needs that may arise during the meeting.
6. Extend greetings to attendees upon arrival.
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7. Circulate during refreshment breaks. This will give attendees the opportunity to ask
for assistance if they need any. But do it as subtly as possible remember we are
working, not socializing.

Our other responsibilities will vary depending upon the type of meeting. Our boss may
want us to hand out materials during the day, collect questions for a question and answer
session, or take meeting notes. We may be called upon to read the minutes of the last
meeting. If the meeting is a large one, get help in advance. Dont try to do more than you
are able to handle efficiently.

Meeting Agenda

Name of group Date

Title of meeting Starting Time

Called by Place

Purpose of meeting

Background materials

Please bring

Desired out comes

Manger/ Chairperson Recorder

Group members

Order of agenda items Time allocated
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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.



TRAINING PROGRAM AGENDA
Monday, October 20, 1998
1. 8:30 a.m. .. Registration of Attendees
2. 9:00 a.m. . Opening Remarks and Introductions Mr. John Doe, Course
Director
3. 9:15 a.m. . New Purchasing Techniques Mr. John Smith
4. 10:15 a.m. Refreshments
5. 10:30 a.m. . Review of Purchase Order Conditions Williams Able,
Attorney
6. 12:00- 1:30 p.m. .. Luncheon
Honorable G. Washington, Keynote Speaker
7. 1:30 p.m. .. Workshop Sessions Gold and Blue Room
8. 3:15 p.m. .. Refreshments
9. 3:30 p.m. .. Company Strategy for the 1990s Mr. Frank Jones, sr. Vice
President
10. 4:00 p.m. .. Meeting Ends

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MEETING
Meeting is a media of coordination and communication. In further definition, meetings
are an important setting for oral communication and are used for a variety of purposes:
To provide information to a group of people
To report on some activity or experience
To co-ordinate and arrange activities
To obtain assistance
To put forward ideas or grievances for discussion
To create involvement and interest

Types of meeting:
Formal meetings
A preplanned, structured meeting
A prepared agenda
A quorum must be present (the minimum number of people who should be present in
order to validate the meetings)
A specified amount of notice must be given to members
A formal record of each meeting must be kept
Informal meetings
They are not restricted by the same rules and regulations as formal meet ings
They may be short and announced only a short time before they are held and usually
on company promises
Strict agendas may not be used, especially in brainstorming or discussion sessions
A record of what took place may not be kept

Meeting can be divided based on:
Purpose; meeting is used to provide information, solve problem, take decision.
Planning; meeting is divided into formal and informal
Periodic; meeting consist of periodical meeting and specific meeting
Participants; meeting covers vertical and horizontal
Urgency; meeting includes regular and important
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Talking the Minute
At the large formal meeting, it is profitable that an elected officer of the organization or some
other designed person will take the minutes of the meeting. The proceedings may also be
recorded on tape for future reference. However, it is possible that you will be asked to take
the minutes. Regardless of who takes notes, the final typing of the minutes is very likely to be
one of your responsibilities. If you know that you are to take the minutes, prepare for this
assignment carefully. First, check previous minutes in the files, second consult another
secretary who has taken minutes at similar meetings, third confer with your boss concerning
the procedures and form he would like to have followed.
The minutes serve as the official record of the proceedings of the meeting, the name of
the presiding officer and a list of those present and those absent. Discussion should be
summarized, not recorded in full. However, resolution and motion should be fully recorded in
their proper order, together with the names of those who introduced the motions. The minutes
are usually duplicated and copies are sent to each person present at the meeting, to members
who could not attend the meeting and to other designated individuals. They are usually kept
as permanent record, sometimes in a minutes book. Papers presented are often attached to the
final typewritten copy. The minutes are signed by the person who took them and sometimes
also by he presiding officer.
In addition to typing the notes and minutes of meetings. You may be asked to assist
your employer in preparing announcements concerning action taken at the meeting and typing
letters of appreciation or congratulation. You may also be asked to prepare publicity release
about action taken and officers selected or appointments made at the meeting. Your careful
attention the follow up details is just as important as your care in making the arrangements for
the meeting.
There are many models in taking the minutes and the following are one of examples of
taking note and agenda as well as taking the minutes. Minutes are written record of what took
place at a meeting. Minutes should be written in the past tense using third person and reported
speech.
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Notice and Agenda
Companys name
Title of meeting
Notice section state
Venue, time and date
Opening ordinary business
Final ordinary business

APPLICATIONS
AURORA HOLDINGS
WELFARE COMMITTEE
The monthly Welfare committee will be held in the Taylors Office at 16.30 on Tuesday 21
October 2006
AGENDA
1. Apologies for absence
2. Minutes of last meeting
3. Matters arising (Will Thomas)
4. Staff Restaurant (Jim Cage)
5. Christmas and dance (Wendy)
6. Any other business
7. Date of next meeting

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Minutes of meeting
AURORA HOLDINGS
WELFARE COMMITTEE
MINUTES OF A MEETING OF THE WALFARE COMMITTEE HELD IN THE
CHAIRMANS OFFICE ON TUESDAY 21 OCTOBER 2006 AT 16:30.
PRESENT:
Eileen Taylor (Chairman)
Jim Cage
Wendy Thomas
Georgia Thomas
1. APOLOGIES FOR ABSENCE
Apologies were received from Anthony Long who was attending a business
conference.
2. MINUTES OF LAST MEETING
Ten minutes had already been circulated and the Chairman signed them as a correct
record.
3. MATTERS ARISING
Will Thomas reported that he and Georgia had visited Renee Simpton in hospital on
16 October to deliver the committees basket of flowers and good wishes for a speedy
recovery. Renee said that she hopes to return to work on Monday 4 November and
will be able to attend the next committee meeting.
4. STAFF RESTAURANT
Jim Cage distributed copies of the accounts for the half year ending 31 July. He
pointed out that a profit of $1300 was made over the first 6 months of the year. He
suggested that some of this be used to buy a new coffee machine as the present one is
old and unreliable. It was agreed that he would obtain some estimates and discuss this
further at the next meeting.
5. CHRISTMAS DINNER AND DANCE
Miss Wendy Sheppard passed around sample menus which had obtained from hotels.
After discussion it was agreed that arrangement should be made with the Marina hotel
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for Saturday 21 December. Miss Sheppard agreed to make all the necessary
arrangements.
6. ANY OTHER BUSINESS
There was no other business.
7. DATE OF NEXT MEETING
It was agreed that the next meeting would be held on Wednesday 20 November at
19:00
(Chairman)
(Date)
ET/ST
30 June 2006
There are suggestions for being interviewer and interviewee:
1. Your name, address and telephone number
2. The title and reference number of the job
3. Your date of birth
4. Your marital status
5. The name of present/ last employer
6. The address of present/ last employer
7. Your hobbies and leisure interests
8. The sports you play
9. Details of the job you have had
10. The languages your speak, read and write
11. Details of examinations you passed at school
12. Details of professional diplomas or degrees you have gained
13. Details of training courses you have attended
14. Details of you achievements and responsibilities in your working career
15. Your suitability for the job advertised
16. You reasons for applying for this job
17. When you are available for interview
18. Details of you present/ last job
19. Your current/ last salary
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20. The salary you would expect to receive
21. The names and addresses of two or three referees

Question on the job and the organization
1. Why do you want this job?
2. Can you work independently?
3. What qualities do you look in your boss?
4. Would you work overtime if necessary?
5. When could you start working?
Question on the secretarys role
1. What are differences between a private secretary and a personal assistant?
2. What qualities should an effective secretary posses?
3. What qualities do you think are most importance?
4. What are the most important functions of the secretarys role?
5. Could there be a conflict between a secretarys loyalty to her boss and firm?
6. What has been the most difficult situation you have ever had to deal with in the
Office?

Question on ambitions
1. Why did you take up a secretarial career?
2. What did you hope to be doing in five years time?
3. Would you consider yourself suitable to enter management?
4. What do you look for in your job?

Question on interest and hobbies
1. What do you do in your free time?
2. How long have you been interested in your hobby/ sport?
3. Are you attending any part time classes?
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APPLICATIONS

THE INTERVIEW (example)
PM : Personnel Manager
MM : Marketing Manager
HB : Hillary Beacham

PM : Come in, ah, good morning Miss Beacham. Thank you for coming
HB : Good Morning
PM : Please sit down
HB : Thank you
PM : Can I introduce you to Alice Everett, our Marketing Manager
HB : How do you do?
MM : How do you do?
PM : And I am Sheila Polson, the Personal Manager. So, Miss Beacham, did you
find us easily this morning?
HB : Yes, its an easy route from where I live in Southtown
PM : And do you have your own car?
HB : Yes, I have
PM : Good. Can we check on a few of your personal details? You were born in
1953, is that right?
HB : Yes, 3rd September 1953 to be exact
PM : And you are single
HB : Yes I am
PM : OK Can we move on to your education now? Youve got four O levels
including English Language?
HB : That right
PM : Thank you very much, Miss Beacham, Allice, would you like to continue?
MM : Yes, certainly, Miss Beacham, can you tell us a little bit about where you
have worked before?
HB : Well, my last job was with format
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MM : And You were a PA there?
HB : Yes, that right
MM : And when did you start with them?
HB : Two years ago
MM : I see, So why did you decide to leave?
HB : Well, Perhaps you heard that company went into liquidation earlier this year
PM : So what did you like about this job?
HB : Well, my job was PA to the marketing Manager. What I enjoyed most was
coming into contact with customers and suppliers both face to face and on
the phone
MM : And where did you work for ideal Systems?
HB : For ten years, as a secretary
PM : And why did you leave that job?
HB : Well, I felt that I needed a change, I think I had learnt all I could there.
MM : going back to format. What did you work for there?
HB : A man called Peter Smith. Do you know him?
MM : Weve met. OK, thats enough on work experience. Do you have any word
processing experience?
HB : Yes, as secretary at ideal system I used a word processing system designed
by the company. It was called word
MM : And what about at Format? That was also a computer company, wasnt it?
HB : Yes, thats right
MM : Show much experience do you have of working in computer companies?
HB : Well, two years at Format and ten at idea system. Oh and I also had some
work experience with a software company while I was at collage
PM : What secretarial qualifications did you get while you were at college?
HB : Well, Ive got two secretarial qualifications. I ve got RSA stage II Typing
PM : So your typing should be pretty good?
HB : Well, in fact I didnt do much typing at Format. I ve got RSA in shorthand
PM : And which qualification exactly?
HB : The RSA 100 so 100 words per minute
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PM : Fine. And one final question. If we decided to offer you the job, when could
you start?
HB : Oh, I could start immediately, or as soon as you wanted me to
PM : Fine. I think thats everything. Have you got any question?
HB : Well, I would like to know .









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UNIT 8
BUSINESS AND APPLICATION LETTERS


6.1 BUSINESS LETTER

All business letter typically include 7 elements:(1) heading,(2) date,(3) inside address,(4)
salutation,(5) body,(6) complimentary close,(7) signature block
1. HEADING
Heading/letterhead shows organizations name, full address, phone number, fax
number. Some organization (bank, trading) often include their branches.
2. DATE
US standard is: June 14, 2002 (without st, nd, rd) or 14 June 2002 (no comma) British
standard is:14
th
June 2002
3. INSIDE ADDRESS
Identifies the recipient of the letter:
If you know the surname Mr. J. E. Smith
International Industries Ltd
Liverpool L22 OPL
Position known Sales Manager
Beverly Hills Toys
3460 Rhodeo Drive
Beverly Hills, California 90123
Department known The Accounting Department
Beverly Hills Toys
3460 Rhodeo Drive
Beverly Hills, California 90123
Company only Soundsonic Ltd.
800 Superior Aveneu
Cleveland, Ohio 44144
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4. SALUTATION
Dear Sir To address a man whose name you dont
know.
Dear Sirs To address a company.
Dear Madame To address woman (single/married)
Dear Sir or Madam To address a person of whom you know
neither the name nor the sex
Dear Mr. Bowl If you know the name. Look: dont write
Dear Mr. John Bowl nor Dear Mr. John.

5. BODY
This section is your message. Almost all letters are single-spaced.

6. COMPLEMENTARY CLOSE
Begin with Close with
Dear Sir/ Dear Sirs/ Dear Madame/ Dear
Sir Madam
Your faithfully
Dear Mr. Smith Yours sincerely

Note:
Americans tend to close even formal letters with Yours truly or Truly yours,
Sincerely, Cordially, which is unusual in the UK in commercial correspondence, but
a latter to a friend or acquaintance may end with yours truly or Best wishes.

7. SIGNATURE BLOCK
Always write your name after your handwritten signature. This is called the signature
block.
Yours faithfully, using comma is optional
T.Lovette
T.Lovette (Mrs)
Here is example of a business letter using standard elements.
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World Talent Agency
2314 Hollywood Boulevard
Hollywood, CA 90021-1654
(213) 695 2864
August 14,2002

Mr.Richard Garcia
Director of Franchises
Snack Shoppes
2344 Western Avenue
Seattle,WA 98123
Dear Mr.Gracia,
Last Monday, my wife and I were on a way home from a long weekend, and we stop
ate snack shopped for a quick sandwich. A sign on the cash register gave your address
in the event customers were interested in operating a franchise of their own
somewhere else. We talked idea all evening and into the night.
Although we talked about changing jobs-Im an administrative analyst for a utility
company and my wife sells real estate- the thought of operating a franchised business
had never occurred to us. Wed always thought in items of starting business from
scratch. However, owning a Snack Shoe can talk you them before pipe is an intriguing
idea.
We would appreciate your sending us full details on owning our own outlet. Please
include the names and telephone numbers of other Snack Shoppe owners so that we
can talk to them before we make any decision to proceed further. Were exited about
hearing from you.
Sincerely,
Peter Simon

Peter Simon

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Additional Letter Part:
1. Addressee Notation
2. Attention Line
3. Subject Line
4. Second-page Heading
5. Initial
6. Enclosure Notation
7. Copy Notation
8. Mailing Notation
9. Postscript

1. Addressee Notation
Letters have a restricted readership or that must be handled in a special way should
include such addressee notation as Personal, Confidential, or Please Forward.
This appears a double space above the inside address.
2. Attention Line
An alternative to including the recipients name or position in the address is to use
an attention line

Soundsonic Ltd.
800 Superior Avenue
Cleveland, Ohio 44144

Attn. Mr. Harry Porter
Or
Attn: The Director of Marketing

3. Subject Line
The subject line lets the recipient know the glance what the letter about. It appears
bellow the salutation: against the left margin, indented as the paragraphs in the
body of the letter, or centered on the line. Sometimes the subject line is placed
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above the salutation. Usually it uses Re: or Subject: (meaning concerning or in
the matter of).

4. Second-page Heading
If the letter is too long and an additional page is required, use a second page
heading. In any case, the second-page heading bears the name, page number, the
date of the letter; you can also include a reference.

Ms. Melisa Baker
May 10,2002
Page 2

Or
Ms. Melisa Baker, May 10,2002, Page 2
Or
Ms. Melisa Baker -2- May 10,2002

Leave 2 blank lines between the second-page heading and the body. If a paragraph
must be continued on a second page, make sure at least two line of that page
appear on the first and the second page. Also, the closing line of business letter
must never appear alone on an continued page. AT least two lines of the body
must precede the complimentary close or signature line. And finally, dont
hyphenate the last word on a page.

5. Initial
Because it can happen in a business that one person may dictate a letter and
another person may type/ produce it, initials (initials) are used to show who helped
prepare the letter.
It appears at the left margin.

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RR/AM (Rhonda Rogers is the person making the draft, Amanda Morgan is the
preparer)


6. Enclosure Notation
It appears at the bottom of a letter, 1 or 2 lines below the reference initials.Some
common forms:
Enclosure

Enclosures (2)

Enclosure: Resume Photograph

Attachment

7. Copy Notation
Copy notation follows reference initials or enclosure. It indicates whos receiving
the courtesy copy (cc), or photocopier (pc), or copy (c).Copy notation may include
the position.

Cc: David Wentworth cc: Head of Management Dept.
Pc: David Wentworth pc: Head of Management Dept.
c: David Wentworth c: Head of Management Dept.
Copy to David Wentworth Copy to Head of Management Dept.

8. Mailing Notation
You may place a mailing notation (such as Special Delivery or Registered Mail )
at the bottom of the letter, after initials or enclosure.

9. Postscript
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Letter may also bear postscript: afterthought to letter, messages that requires
emphasis, or personal notes. Postscript is usually the last thing on any letter and
may be preceded by: PS:
Anyway, postscript usually indicates poor planning, so generally avoid them.

Page 1
Beverly Hills Toys
2341 Hollywood Boulevard Hollywood, CA 90021-1654 (213) 695 2864
August 14, 2002
CONFIDENTAL
The Toy Trunk
356 Emerald Drive
Lexington, KY 40501
Attn: Mr. Clifford Harson,
Dear Mr. Harson,
Re: Contract no. 27-3456
You should receive your shipment of Barbie and accessories within two weeks,
just in time for the holiday shopping season. The merchandise is being shipped by
United Parcel Service.
.

Page 2
Mr. Clifford Harson
August 14, 2002
Page 2
Next month, you will be receiving our spring catalogue. Notice the new series of
action figures that will tie in a TV cartoon featuring King Arthur and The Knights of
the Round Table. As a special introductory incentive a 15 percent discount on all
items in this line until the end of January.
Sincerely,
Rhonda Rogers
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Ms. Rhonda Rogers
Customer Service Representative
CH/AP
Enclosure
Cc: Everest Cunningham, Marketing Manager
Special delivery
PS: Please send your order soon.

CONTENTS OF THE LETTER
First Paragraph
The first sentence or paragraph of a letter is an important one since it sets the tone of
the letter and give your reader his first impression of you and your company.
In the first paragraph you will thank your correspondent for his letter (if replying an
inquiry) ,introduce your self and your company if necessary, state the subject of the
letter, and set out the purpose of the letter.
Here are two examples:
Thank you for enquiry dated 8 July in which you asked us about our range of
cosmetics. As you have probably seen in our advertisements in fashion magazine, we
appeal to a wide age-group from the teenage market through to more mature women,
with our product being retailed in leading store throughout the world.

Thank you for your letter of 19 August which I received today. We can certainly
supply you with the industrial floor coverings you asked about, and enclosed you will
find a catalogue illustrating our wide range of products which are used in factories
and offices throughout the world.

Second Paragraph
This is the main part of your letter and will concern the points that need to be made,
answers you wish to give, or question you want to ask. It is the middle paragraphs of a
letter that planning is most important, to make sure that your points are clearly made,
fully and in a logical sequences.
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Third Paragraph
When closing the letter you should thank the person for writing, if your letter is a
reply and if you have not done so at the beginning. Encourage further enquiries or
correspondence, and mention that you look forward to hearing from your
correspondent soon.
Here two examples:
Once again thank you for writing to us, and please contact us if you would like any
further information. I look forward to hearing from you soon.

We are sure that you have made the right choice in choosing this particular line as it
is proving to be leading seller. If there is any advice or further information you want
to, we shall be happy to supply it, and look forward to hearing from you.

SOME KINDS OF LETTERS:

LETTERS OF INTRODUCTION, FOR BUSINESS ASSOCIATES OF THE FIRM
We have great pleasure in introducing to you, by this letter, Mr. Mark Gillow, a
director of the firm Times Flooring, Ltd., who are business associates of ours.
Mr Gillow is visiting Paris to establish new connections and we should greatly
appreciate any assistance you may be able to give him, which will be considered as a
personal favour to us.
It gives us great pleasure to introduce to you the bearer of this letter, Mr James
Gilbert, a partner in the firm Massey, Worthington & Co. who are our accountants and
auditors.
Mr. Gilbert is visiting London to study the new plan on the spot, and we should be
most grateful if you would give him the benefit of your advice and experience, also
any introductions that may be of the help to him. Needless to say we shall regard this
as a very special favor, and shall be only too pleased to reciprocate if you will give us
that opportunity at any time.
Note :
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In the matter of introductions there is, of course, the letter given to a representative of
a firm; in this case it is probable that a circular letter will be sent out also, enclosing a
copy of the letter that the representative will have with him.

Letter introducing a new Export Manager
We have appointed Mr. Arthur White to the position of Export Manager for our firm
and we have given him a letter of introduction to you, which he will present when he
visits Delhi in the near future. We attach a copy of the letter. Mr. White has wide
experience of the markets in India and he will discuss with you the latest
developments in our production methods. You may have complete confidence in his
advice.
Letter enclosed with the above
This will introduce to you Mr Arthur White, our new Export Manager, who is visiting
our customers in Sweden. He will tell you about our latest fabrics and will be glad to
help you with any technical information you may require.
Or : The bearer of this letter is Mr. A. White
In reply to the above the following could be written:
We shall be very glad to see your new Export Manager when he is in this country, and
we hope he will take an early opportunity to pay us a visit.
Representatives may also be sent to visit customers or suppliers in connection with
offers or complaints:
Announcing the visit of a representative of the firm for purposes of inspection.
As our Export Manager is now in Europe and will be visiting Spain next month (we
have written to ask him) (we have telegraphed to him) to get in touch with you and
arrange to inspect the goods at your warehouse.
Mr. Greening, who is our Buyer for Europe, will visit your warehouse and inspect the
goods as soon as he arrives.

LETTERS OF CONGRATULATION
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From the purely business angle a letter of congratulation is often required; an
executive of a firm may have received some honour, or attained an important position, and
should be congratulated.
It is important to remember that in Britain honours are conferred by the Sovereign
twice a year, at the New Year and at the time of the Sovereign's official birthday in June.
There are a good many business people among the recipients of such honours, which are
given for services to the country.
The following arc suitable phrases for such letters :
1. It was with great pleasure that we learnt of your success
2. May we congratulate you on your success ...
3. We wish to express our great pleasure on hearing of your.
4. It was with great pleasure that we red in the papers that you had received the (name of
honour conferred) and we want to congratulate you at once.
5. We were delighted to read in the papers that you had received the.
6. We should like to say that we feel it is a fitting reward for your work.
7. May we say that we think no one has done more to deserve this reward.
8. We want to send you our very good wishes
9. May we express our sincere good wishes.

LETTERS OF SYMPATHY, CONDOLENCE
These are usually called for on the death of an executive of another firm; they are
always difficult letters to write and much depends on how well the sympathizers know the
people they are writing to. Again , such letters can be written from the angle of business
rather than personal association.
It is not the custom in Britain to send out long announcements of deaths. A notice
is put in the appropriate column of such papers as The Times, and in the case of
companies the Chairman, in his report for the annual general meeting of shareholders,
mentions the death or retirement of any members of the Board of Directors. However,
letters would be written to regular business associates and especially to any who knew the
director personally.
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Something on the following lines would be written by the Secretary of the
company
Letter announcing the death of a Chairman
You will, I know, be very sorry to hear of the sudden death of Sir James Brown, for
thirty years Chairman of this company and a son of the founder of the business ... The
following phrases would be suitable for the reply expressing sympathy:
We were deeply grieved to hear (to learn) of the sudden death of the, Chairman of
your company ...
It was a great shock to hear the sad news of Sir James Brown's sudden death.
We are writing immediately to express our sincere sympathy.
We want to express our heartfelt sympathy ...
All who knew him well remember his many kindness and his helpful advice.
Please (convey) (express) our sympathy also to his family. A rather formal phrase is:
Please accept the expression of our deepest sympathy.

INVITATIONS
There are many occasions on which firms issue invitations, as do societies of
various kinds. There are social gathering for the members of the staff, especially during
the Christmas and New Year season, and there are also official banquets as well as other
activities.
The invitation is a formal one and printed cards are sent, usually with the;
following wording:

Ex. 1:
The Chairman and Directors
of Mar joy Ltd.

request the pleasure of your company at a Banquet
to be held at the Great Hall, Western Avenue,
Bournemouth at 8.30 p.m. on Friday,
20th October, 1998.
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R.S.V.P.
Evening Dress to the Secretary.
R.S.V.P. (=Repondez sil vous plait) is always printed on such formal
invitation; the wording on the" left ensures that full 'evening dress' is worn by everyone.
Sometimes wording on the left indicates the type of entertainment provided for the
guests; when this done the wording such as 'at a Banquet to be held' would be omitted.
As an example, meetings are frequently organised for the early evening, between 6 and
8 o'clock, and in the bottom left-hand corner the word 'Cocktails' is printed.
The name of the company may be left out and printed at the top, or the bottom of
the card.
The answer to such formal invitations is in the third person; the guest uses
notepaper with the address already die-stamped at the head, or writes in his address, but
no name and address of the firm appears, neither is the salutation Dear Sirs' used nor
the ending Yours faithfully'. In fact the reply would look like this.

Ex 2:

30 Ferndale Road
Bournemouth

Mr John Smith thanks the Chairman and Directors of Marjoy Ltd. for their kind
invitation to a Banquet to be held at the Great Hall, Western Avenue, Bournemouth
at 8.30 p Friday, 20th October, 1998, which he has much pleasure in accepting.

(There is no signature to this letter)
If Mr John Smith is obliged to refuse the invitation, the wording of the last
two lines would be: but regrets that he is unable to accept owing to a prior
engagement on that (day) (evening)
Informal, personal invitation are, of course, written and answered in the same
way as other private correspondence.
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HOSPITALITY
A letter from an overseas customer, announcing a visit. (Note that the letter is written
in the American style.)
Gentlemen :
We have the pleasure to announce that our Technical Director, Mr Daly, is
planning to visit you early in October next, the purpose of which visit will be to study on
the spot, with your valuable assistance and co-operation, various questions of importance,
including of course our joint program for research.
It will be very helpful for him to exchange ideas about the promotion of the
business, and meetings could perhaps be arranged with various authorities may be
interested in the constructional projects we have in view. Your kind suggestions will be
highly appreciated.
You will be informed in advance of the exact day on which Mr. Daly will arrive in
England. Meanwhile, with kin regards to your Directors, we are.
Very truly yours.
When he returns to his own country, after the visit proposed in the above letter,
Mr. Daly will write a letter of thanks for the hospitality received. This can be an official
letter from his firm but a much more personal and friendly letter can be written, on the
following lines:

A letter of thanks for hospitality ( See letter before )
(Private address of the American writer,
or the address of his office
but without the firm's name.)

8 June 1998
Sir Walter Drake KC.M.O.
Chairman
The Drake & Sons Engineering Co. Ltd.
BRISTOL 5
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England.

Dear Sir Walter
Back now in my own country I wish to thank you most warmly for your very
excellent hospitality extended to me. The opportunity to meet yourself and your
directors is something I had long looked forward to, and I can only hope / now that
one day I may be able to receive a visit here from you.
I very much appreciated your kindness and that of Mr. James Frobisher in
showing me round the new plant.
I thank you once again, and am,
Sincerely
J. DALY
(A more formal letter of thanks could be addressed to the Secretary of the
company, asking him 'to convey' the thanks of the writer to the Chairman and
directors)

LEGAL MATTERS
In the case of small firms various matters are dealt with by the 'Secretary on the
instructions of, and after discussion with, the directors; in larger firms these matters would
be the concern of the Accounts Department, in other words of the Chief Accountant, or
Accountant, also after discussion with the directors. Among cush matters would be any
legal action to be taken in the case of non-payment of debt, default in carrying out-a
contract, ar a dispute of any kind involving the firm.
The directors of a company do not act without the advice of the company's
solicitors, and all contracts and agreements entered into are first approved by the lawyers.
It is sometimes necessary to ask solicitors in another country to act on the firm's
behalf, and the following type of letter might then be written:
Letter to solicitors, asking them to act for the firm
Your name has been given to us by Green, Black& Green, our solicitors in
Luton, and I am writing ar the request of my Directors to ask if you would be good
enough to act on our behalf in the matter of non - fulfilment of a contract by ... (name
English For Secretary Page 94

given) of your city. The precise facts of the case are set out in the enclosed copy of the
document and attached statement by niy Directors.
We hope you will be willing to undertake the case for our company, and as the
matter is rather urgent your ear'y reply will be greatly appreciated.
(This letter would be signed by the Secretary of the company, and the name of
solicitors might be obtained from the Embassy of the contry in which the legal action
will be brought, or from the Board of Trade in London.)

6.2 APPLICATION LETTER

Responding a Want-ad:
An advertisement /ad offering a job (want-ad) can invite different responses:
1. Candidates should write an application letter supported by the resume.
Candidates can prepare the documents required then they might send them by
mail, e-mail, or if required by the employer, they will come in to the company with
the documents.
2. Candidates should write for an application form.
Candidate can prepare a letter giving some brief details about them, then ask for
the form.
3. Candidate can contact the employer by telephoning.
If they are considered to be the prospective ones, the employer will send them an
application form.

Purpose
The purpose of your application letter is to get the reader interested enough to read your
resume. Always send these two document application letter and resume together because
each have unique job to perform.
Before you read an application letter, learn something about the organization youre
applying to. Imagine yourself in the recruiters situation and show how your background and
talent will solve a particular company problem or fill a need. The more you can learn about
English For Secretary Page 95

the organization, the better you will be able to capture the readers attention and convey your
desire to join the company.
Find out the name, title, and department of the person youre writing to. Reaching and
addressing the right person is the most effective way to gain attention. Avoid phrase such as
To Whom It May Concern and Dear Sir.
Application letter can be solicited (in response to an announced job opening) or
unsolicited (one sent to an organization that has not announced opening).

Adopting the AIDA Approach
The AIDA approach when writing your application letter: attention, interest, desire, action.

Getting Attention
One way to spark attention in the opening paragraph is to show how your strongest
work skills could benefit the organization. A 20-year-old college student in her third
years of college might begin like this:
When you need a secretary in your export division who can take shorthand at
125 words a minute and transcribe note at 70 in English, Spanish, or
Portuguese, call me
Mentioning the name of a person know to and highly regarded by the reader is bound
to capture some attention:
When Janice McHugh of your franchise sales division spoke to our business
communication class last week, she said you often need promising new
marketing graduates at this time of year.
Reference to publicized company activities, achievements, changes, or new
procedures can also be used to gain attention:
Todays issue of Detroit News repots that you may need the expertise of
computer programmers versed in robotics when your Lansing tire plant
automates this spring.
Instead of using an attention-getter, a solicited letter written in response to a job
advertisement usually opens by identifying the publication in which the ad ran and
then describes what the applicant has to offer:
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Your ad in the April issue of Travel & Leisure for a cruise- line social director
caught my eyes. My eight years of experience as a social director in the travel
industry would allow me to serve your new Caribbean cruise division well.
The opening paragraph can also state your reason for writing and the position you are
applying for:
*Please consider my application for an entry-level position in technical
writing.
*Your firm advertised a fleet sales position (on August 23, 2002, in the
Kompas). With my 16 month of new car sales experience, wont you consider
me for that position?
Another way to state your reason for writing at the opening of your letter:
Subject: Application for bookkeeper position

Building Interest and increasing Desire
The middle section of your application letter presents your strongest selling points in terms of
their potential benefit to the organization. If your selling points have already been mentioned
in the opening, dont repeat them.
Mention your key qualifications with supporting evidence that indicate you can do the
job. Show how your studies and your work experience have prepared you for this job. Be
careful not to repeat the facts presented in your resume; simply interpret those facts for the
reader.
Starting that you have all the necessary requirement for the job is rarely enough to
convince the reader, so back up your ability by presenting evidence.
Instead of this Write this
I completed three college courses in
business communication, earning A in
each course, and have worked for the past
year at Imperial Construction.
Using the skills gained from three
semesters of college training in business
communication, I developed a collection
system for Imperial construction that
reduced its 1999 bad-debt losses by 3.7
percent, or $ 9.902 over those of 1998.
Instead of using timeworn terminology,
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the new systems collection letter offered
discount incentives for speedy payment.

Toward the end of this section, refer the reader to your resume. You can do so by citing a
specific fact or general point covered in the resume:
You will find my skills as an asset. As you can see in the attached resume, Ive bee
working part time with a local publisher since my sophomore year, and during that
time, I have successfully resolved more than a few client crises.

Motivating Action
The final paragraph youre your application letter has two functions: to ask the reader for
specific action and to make a reply easy.
In almost all cases, the action you ask for is an interview. Dont demand it. Try to
sound natural and appreciative. Offer to come to the employers office at a convenient time,
or if the firm is some distance way, to meet with its nearest representative. State your phone
number and the best time to reach you, or by mentioning that you will follow up with a phone
call in a few days. Refer again to your selling points.
After you have reviewed my qualification, could we discuss the possibility of putting
my marketing skills to work for your company? Because I will be on the seminar early
next month, I would like to arrange a time to talk then. I will make a phone call in the
late of this month to schedule a convenient time when we could discuss employment
opportunities at your company

The following is the application letter of Glenda Johns. She manages a snapshot of her
qualifications and skills without repeating what is said in her resume.

Glenda Johns
Home: 457 Mountain View Road, Clear Lake, IA 50428 (515) 438 5254
College: 1254 Main Street, Council Bluff. IA 51505 (712) 438 5254
June 16, 2002
Ms. Patricia Downings, Store Manager
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Wall Mart
480 South Oak
Iowa Falls, Iowa 50126

Dear Ms. Downings,
You want retail clerks and managers who are accurate, enthusiastic, and experience. You ant
someone who cares about customer service, who understands merchandising, and who can
work with others to get the job done. When you are ready to hire a manager trainee or clerk
who is willing to work toward promotion, please consider me for the job.
Working as clerk and then as an assistant department manager in large department store has
taught me how challenging a career in retailing can be. Moreover, my AA degree in retailing
(include work in such courses as retailing, marketing, and business information system) will
provide your store with well-rounded associate. Most important, I can offer Wall Mart Iowa
Falls store more my two years of study and filed experience. You will find that I am interested
in very face of retailing, eager to take on responsibility, and willing to continue learning
throughout my career. Please look over my resume to see how my skills can benefit your
store.
I understand that Wall Mart prefers to promote its managers from within the company to, and
I would be pleased to start out from an entry level position until I gain the necessary
experience. Do you have any associate position opening up soon? Could we discuss my
qualification? I will phone you early next Wednesday to arrange a meeting at your
convenience.
Sincerely,

Glenda Johns
Glenda Johns

Enclosure
Compare with Glendas resume (next page ).
Because she is a recent graduate, she describes her resume beginning on her relevant skills.
CURRICULUM VITAE / CV
Resume is a structured, written summary of a person education, employment background,
and job qualifications.
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The fact is that resume is a form of advertising designed to stimulate an employers
interest in meeting you and learning more about you. A good resume inspires the prospective
employer to call and ask you to come in for an interview.
Thus, the objective in writing your resume is to create interest rather than to tell the
reader everything about you. In fact, its best to only hint at some things and leave the reader
wanting more. That way, the potential employer will have reason to call you for an interview.

Preparing a Resume
In preparing a resume, you need to consider two main point:
1. Tailoring the Content
2. Controlling the Format & Style

1. Tailoring the Content
Think in terms of an image youd like to project. Are you academically gifted? a
campus leader? a well-rounded person? a creative genius? a technical wizard?
If you know what you have to sell, you can shape the elements of you
resume accordingly. Dont exaggerate, and dont alter the past or claim skills that
you dont have, but dont well on negatives, either.
By focusing on your strengths, you can convey the desired impression
without distorting the fact.

2. Controlling the Format & Style
If you resume doesnt look sharp, and if you dont grab the readers interest in the
first few lines, the recruiter wont read it long enough to judge your qualification.
To give your resume a sharp look:
Use a clean typeface on high grade
Letter size bond paper (white)
Leave ample margin all around
Be certain any corrections are unnoticeable
Avoid italic typeface that can be difficult to read
Use a quality laser printer
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In general, try to write a one-page resume.
Absolutely avoid using the word I, instead start your phrases with active and
impressive verbs such as these:
Instead of this Use this
Responsible for
development a new filling
system.
I was in charge of
customer complaints and
all ordering problems.
Won a trip to Europe for
opening the most new
customer accounts in my
department.
Developing a new filling
system that reduced paperwork
by 50%.
Handled all customer
complaint and resolve all
product order discrepancies.
Generated the highest number
of new customer accounts in
my department.

The elements of a resume are:
Name and address
The first thing the employer needs to know is who you are and where you can be reached.
Many resume headings are nothing more than name and address centered at the top of page.

Career Objective or Summary of Qualifications
Starting your objective or summarizing your qualifications helps the recruiter
categorize you. If you state your objective, make sure that its effective and be as
specific as possible about what you want to do. For example:
o A software sales position in a growing company requiring international
experience.
o As an alternative to starting your objective, you might want to summarize your
qualifications in a brief statement that highlights your strongest points,
particularly if you have had a good deal of varied experience. Look the
example:
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Ten years of experience in commission selling with track record of generating
new customer leads through creative advertising and community leadership
positions.

Education
List the name and location of each school, the term of your enrollment (in month and year),
your major field of study, significant skills and abilities youve developed in your
coursework, and your degrees or certificates youve earned.
If you are still in school, education is probably your strongest selling point. So, present
your educational background in depth, choosing facts that support your objective. Give this
section a heading such as Education, Professional College Training, or Academic
Preparation.
Anyway, educating is usually given less emphasis in a resume after youve worked in
your chosen field for a year or more. If work experience is your strongest qualification, save
the section on education for later in resume and provide less detail.

Work experience, skill, and accomplishments
Tailor your description to highlight the relationship between your previous responsibilities
and your target field. Call attention to the skills youve developed and the progression from
jobs of lesser to greater responsibilities.
When describing your work experience, youll usually list your jobs in chronological
order, with the current or the last one first. Include any part-time and intern positions even if
the jobs have no relation to your current career objective. Employer will see that you have the
ability to get and hold a job, which is an important qualification in itself.
Dont try to make your role seems more important by glamorizing your job title,
functions, or achievement. Use the phrase to present to denote current employment. If a job
was part-time, say so.
If samples of your work might increase your chances of getting the job, insert a line at
the end of your resume offering to supply the on request. You may put references available
upon request at the end of your resume. List your references on a separate sheet and bring
them to your interview.
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In short, the work experience section lists all the related jobs youve had:
Name & location of employer
What the organization does (if not clear from its name)
Your functional title
How long youve worked there
Your duties and responsibilities
Your significant achievement or contributions

Include miscellaneous facts that are related to your career objective:
Command of other languages
Computer expertise

Actives and achievements
Your resume should also describe any volunteer activities that demonstrate your abilities. List
projects that requires leadership, organization, teamwork, and cooperation. Emphasize career-
related activities such as member of the Student Marketing Association.
List skills you learned in these activities, and explain how these skills are related to the
jobs youre applying for. Include speaking, writing, or tutoring experience; participation in
athletics or creative project; find-raising or community-service activities; and office held in
academic or professional organizations.

Personal Data
Provide only the personal data that help you get the job.
Expert advises that you leave personal interest off your resume unless they would
enhance the employers understanding of why you would be the best candidate for the job.
For instance, a travel company offering a job for a tourist guide will welcome the applicant
starting his/ her personal interest in outdoor activities.
Expert also recommend that you exclude salary information, reason for leaving jobs,
names of previous supervisors and other identification code. Save these items for the
interview, and offer them only if the employer specifically request them.
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Example of Resume:
Glenda Johns
Home: 457 Mountain View Road,
Clear Lake, IA 5028
(515) 438 5254
College:1254 Main Street,
Council Bluff, IA 51505
(712) 438 5254
OBJECTIVE
Retailing position that utilizes my skills.
RELEVANT SKILLS
Personal Selling/ Retailing
Led housewares department in employee sales for spring 1988.
Created end-cap and shelf displays for special housewares promotion.
Sold the most benefit tickets during college fund-raising drive for local
community center.
Public Interaction
Commended by housewares manager for resolving customer
complaints amicably.
Perform in Summer theater production in Clear Lake, Iowa.
Managing
Trade part time housewares employees in cash register operating and
customer service.
Reworked housewares employees schedules as assistant manager.
Organized summer activities for children 6-12 years old for city of
Clear Lake, Iowa-including reading program, sport activities, and field
trips.
EDUCATION
AA Retailing Mild-Management (3.81 GPA / 4.0 scale), Iowa Western
Community College, June 1988.
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In addition to required retailing, buying, marketing and merchandising courses,
completed electives in visual merchandising, business information systems,
principles of management, and business math.
WORK EXPERIENCE
Assistant manager, housewares, at Jeffersons Department Store during off-
campus work experience program, Council Bluff, Iowa (fall 1997-spring
1998).
Sales clerk, housewares, at Jeffersons Department Store during off-campus
work experience program, Council Bluff, Iowa (fall 1996-spring 1997).
Assistant director, summer recreation program, Clear Lake, Iowa (summer
1996).
Actress, Cobblestone Players, Clear Lake, Iowa (summer 1995).
LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCE
Exercise: Respond the ad bellow by imagining that you are the prospective candidate.
You can pretend to be so by showing your qualifications you can properly imagine.

SALES-ACCOUNT MANAGER
MidCity Banking company is seeking an Account Manager to sell and coordinate our
programs to major accounts in the Chicago market. The candidate should possess
strong analytical and selling skills and demonstrate computer proficiency. Previous
sales experience with major account level assignment desire. A degree in business or
equivalent experience preferred. For confidential consideration please mail application
letter and resume to Steven Crane, Director of Sales, Midcity Banking Company,
133N. Railroad Avenue, Nortlake IL 60614.
Write a letter for an application Form
If you write to inquire an application form, you can give some brief details about yourself,
then ask for the form. It is worth remembering, at this point, that your letters, in these cases,
are not for the positions themselves, but are for interviews.
These examples can also be used for unsolicited application, i.e. when applying for a post that
has not been advertised.
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I am 23 years old, was educated at an economics college which I left 23 April
2002 having taken Degree in Management.
I graduate from (college/ university) in (date) with a (diploma/ degree) in
(subject mentioning any special topics that would be relevant to the position).
At present I am employed by (name of firm) where I deal with.

There is no need to give any more information at this stage, so the letter can be closed:
I would be grateful if you could send me an application form, and if in the meantime
you need any further details about, I would be happy to supply them.
Would it possible for you to send me an application form and further details?
Can you please send me an application form and any other relevant details?

Fill-up the application form below
Application form post: Merchant Hill Plc Merchant Bank
11-15 Montague Street, London EC1
5DN
Surname: Forname (s):
Age: Date of birth:
Material status: No of children: Age:
Address: Sex:
Tel daytime Tel evening:
Education School/ Univ/ college From
To
Address
Secondary
Higher




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Employers
Name and address From To Position and duties





Language Fair Fluent Good
English
French
Mandarin
Japan

Hobbies/ activities

Have you any of the following skills? (tick appropriate box)
Typing .wpm
Shorthand wpm
Word processing
Bookkeping
Accounts
Telex
Driving license
Filling

When will you not available for an interview? ..
Date: Signature:
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UNIT 9
PUBLIC RELATION TECHNIQUES FOR A SECRETARY


9.2 General Techniques
A business, whether small or large, relies upon company personnel to strengthen the
public image created by the public relations department. In all of a secretary's dealing with the
public she represents the organization If she provides prompt and pleasant customer service,
she creates goodwill for herself and her company. A secretary is responsible for maintaining a
business like atmosphere.
With a pleasant smile and friendly greeting she communicates goodwill. Therefore she
must practice good public relations techniques. If these techniques ate used wisely and well,
she will provide a good image to the company clients or customer which is useful for the
success and progress of the company.
A customer or client who has been greeted pleasantly by a secretary when he entered the
office will surely also expect a pleasantly spoken goodbye when he leaves, takes only a
moment for the secretary to smile nod goodbye, yet the departing individual will be favorably
impressed and remember the friendly gesture by saying good bye pleasantly.
Public relations techniques are as follows; a pleasant smile, a friendly goodbye, an
appropriate greeting, suitable conversation, pleasant tone of voice, good listening ability
attentive attitude, efficient work habits, good manners.

A. READING
I. Obstacle words:
- Relies upon = mengandalkan
- To strengthen the public image = memperkuat citra pada masyarakat
- Discourteous = kurang sopan

II. Reading text:
A business, whether small or large, relies upon company personnel to strengthen the public
image created by the public relations department. In all of a secretarys dealings with the

public, she represents the organization. If she provides prompt and pleasant customer service,
she creates goodwill for herself and her company. If she is discourteous with a customer, she
does not.
A secretary is responsible for maintaining a businesslike atmosphere. With a pleasant smile
and a friendly greeting she communicates goodwill. Therefore she must practice good public
relations techniques. Her business will be good or poor depending on a very large part upon
her use or lack of use of it.
Public relations techniques a secretary can apply are as varied as her workload. What one
secretary does to exude goodwill might appear foolish if done by one of a different
personality. Some public relations techniques are: a pleasant smile, a friendly goodbye, an
appropriate greeting, and suitable conversation, pleasant tone of voice, good listening ability,
attentive attitude, efficient work habits and good manners.
If these techniques are used wisely and well, they will provide a good image to the companys
clients or customers who are useful for the success and progress of the company. A customer
or client who has been greeted pleasantly by a secretary when he entered the office will surely
also expect a pleasantly spoken goodbye when he leaves. It takes only a moment for the
secretary to smile and goodbye, yet the departing individual will be favorably impressed and
remember the friendly gesture. At the conclusion of these activities, the secretary should say
goodbye pleasantly.

III. Comprehension questions:
1. How does a company get a good image with the public?
2. What does a secretary do to create goodwill for herself and the company?
3. What must a secretary do if she wants to be a successful and professional
secretary?
4. Why must a secretary practice good public relations techniques?
5. What are the results if these techniques are used wisely and well?
IV. Vocabulary:
Image = gambaran; citra
To create = menghasilkan; menciptakan
To represent = mewakili
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Prompt = cepat; segera
To maintain = mempertahankan; memelihara
Businesslike = bersikap bisnis
Effort = usaha
To reflect on . = memberikan gambaran tentang .
To exude = mengeluarkan; menyinari
Foolish = bodoh
Attentive attitude = sikap memperhatikan orang lain
Gesture = gerakan
Friendly gesture = sikap bersahabat

V. Discussion points:
1. What is your idea of a good secretarys public relations techniques?
Explain.
2. A secretary must have a pleasant smile, a friendly goodbye, a suitable
conversation, an attentive attitude, etc. is each one of these important?
Why?

B. STRUCTURE REVIEW
Modals Auxiliaries: Would and Should
I. The Form
Would and should are followed by verb without to.

II. The Function
Would express:
a. Insistence = kemauan keras
e.g : I tried to stop him from smoking everyday but he wouldnt listen.
b. Characteristic habits in the past = kebiasaan pada waktu lampau. Disini
would artinya sama dengan used to.
e.g : On Sundays Hasan would get up early and go fishing. He would
spend
English For Secretary Page 110

the whole day by the river and in the evening he would come home
with stories about the fish he had nearly caught. (terjadi setiap Minggu
dalam waktu lalu).
c. Nonfactual or unreal conditional at present (= yang artinya menyangkal
dari keadaan sebenarnya. Lihat penggunaan Simple Past Tense).
e.g : Harun would smoke too much if I didnt stop him. (arti sebenarnya
Harun tidak merokok berlebihan karena saya menyetopnya).
Should (= ought to) expresses:
a. An obligation (= anjuran yang tidak mempunyai kesan memerintah
dan tidak harus dijalankan) dan logical necessity (=
anjuran/keharusan yang masuk akal)
e.g : You should do as your father says (Anda sebaiknya
mengerjakan seperti yang dikatakan ayah).
They should be home by now. Its already late (mereka
seharusnya sudah berada di rumah karena hari sudah malam).
b. Personal reaction to events (= reaksi kita terhadap sesuatu
kejadian/pernyataan), after certain expressions like : it is a pity that,
Im surprised that, etc.
e.g : Its a pity that Triyono should resign from his job.
Im surprised that the cleverest students in my class should
fail in his final exam on filing.

III. Exercises :
a. Instruction : In the following sentences, identify (= tentukan) the most
suitable meaning of would and should.
e.g : If Aryanto were here he would know how to use this color printer.
Would = non factual or unreal condition.
There should be a switch somewhere. Oh yes, here it is.
Should = logical necessity
The doctor says that I should do some exercise but Ive really been too lazy.
Should = obligation
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1. You shouldnt leave a child alone while you are at work.
2. That hat doesnt suit you; you should buy another one.
3. We should get up early tomorrow so we can see the sun rise between
the mountains.
4. Its better that he should hear about the promotion from you.
5. I would take the robber to the police if I were you.
6. He was determined that his children would go to the best school
available.
7. You shouldnt leave your books lying on that table. Some one will
pick them up.
8. He recommended that the troublemakers in the factory should be
dismissed (= dipecat).
9. Its absurd that women should be paid less than men for doing the
same work.
10. When he went out he left the radio on, so that his parents would
think that he was still in his room.

b. Instruction : Change the following ordinary sentences into more polite
ways by using would.
e.g : Will you be so kind as to keep an eye on my house while Im away?
1. Do you mind opening the door for me, please?
2. What do you want to drink, coffee or tea?
3. Will you please help me carry this luggage?
4. I will be very grateful if you can send the leaflets by airmail.
5. Do you want to come to Tinis graduation day with me?

C. VOCABULARY
I. On handling the mail
- Mail = surat-surat; barang kiriman melalui pos
- To mail = mengirim
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- Incoming mail = surat-surat masuk
- Outgoing mail = surat-surat keluar
- Mailbag = kantong pos
- Mailbox = kotak surat; kotak pos
- Mailman = pengantar surat; tukang pos
e.g : Mail consists of personal mail and company mail = Barang kiriman
melalui pos terdiri dari surat-surat pribadi dan surat-surat perusahaan.
In a company we have to deal with incoming mail and outgoing = Di
suatu perusahaan kita harus menangani surat-surat masuk dan surat-
surat keluar.
In a small company one person deals with the mail = Di suatu
perusahaan kecil satu orang menangani surat-surat.
In a large organisation there is a special mail room = Di suatu
organisasi besar ada satu ruang khusus untuk menangani surat-surat.

- To deliver = menyampaikan (surat, pesanan, dsb)
- Delivery = penyampaian; pengantaran (surat)
e.g : Incoming mail is delivered by the post office as part of a normal
delivery = Surat-surat masuk disampaikan oleh kantor pos sebagai
bagian dari pengantaran keliling surat-surat.

- Handle the mail efficiently = menangani surat-surat secara efisien
e.g : It is essential that the mail is handled efficiently so that
correspondence is rapidly available for distribution = Perlu sekali surat-
surat ditangani secara efisien supaya surat-surat itu dengan segera siap
untuk dibagi - bagikan.

- Registered mail or recorded delivery = surat tercatat
e.g : As soon as the mail arrives, sign the registered or delivery items =
Segera setelah pos tiba, tanda tangani surat pengantar (dari surat-surat
tercatat)
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- To distribute = membagikan
- Distribution = distribusi; pembagian
e.g : Some firms like their mail to be distributed straight away to each
department = Beberapa persahaan menghendaki surat-sarat dibagi-
bagikan langsung ke setiap bagian (departemen)

- To check = mencek; meneliti
e.g : All letters are checked if all the enclosures are in fact enclosed =
Semua surat diteliti untuk melihat apakah setiap lampiran benar-benar
telah terlampir.

- To weigh = menimbang
- To frank = memberikan perangko cap
e.g : Letters and packages are weighed and stamped. Or franked by
machine = Surat-surat dan paket-paket ditimbang dan dibubuhi perangko
atau dicap perangko dengan mesin.

- Envelope = sampul; amplop
e.g : Be careful to remove letters the envelope; you could leave important
documents inside if you arent caeful = Hati-hatilah mengeluarkan
surat-surat dari sampul; Anda dapat meninggalkan dokumen-dokumen
penting di dalam sampul bila Anda tidak hati-hati.

- To attach; to enclose = melampirkan
- Enclosure = lampiran
e.g : Attach all enclosures to the back of the letter = Lampirkan semua
lampiran di belakang surat.

- Date stamp = cap tanggal
English For Secretary Page 114

e.g : some firms require a record of all incoming mail to be kept in a
special file or book = Beberapa perusahaan mengharuskan suatu catatan
dari semua surat masuk disimpan dalam arsip atau buku yang khusus.

- Remittance = pengiriman uang
e.g : Correspondence which contains remittance is recorded in a special
book = Korespondensi yang terdiri dari pengiriman uang, dicatat dalam
buku khusus.

APPLICATIONS
II. Exercises:
a. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word taken from the given list.
Incoming mail mailmen deals with
mailbox
Mail room postage outgoing mail
confidential

1. In an organization there may be a special .. where several people
handle the distribution of the mail.
2. In a small office one person .. all mail.
3. In residential areas we usually find a .. in front of the house.
4. Nowadays there are many . who deliver the mail to residential areas
in the city as well as to the villages.
5. In a small firm . Can be posted by a clerk but the registered or
recorded delivery items with have to be taken to the post office to be
handled.
b. Rewrite the sentences using the appropriate word in parentheses.
1. As soon as the mail arrives, (sort out, open, keep) the items marked
private or confidential.
2. When you open the letter and you find enclosures, attach the enclosures
to the (back, front, inside) of the letter.
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3. When you receive letters, you should (keep, distribute, mail) them
straight away to each department.
4. Make sure that the mail has the correct amount of (postage, money,
payment) before you mail it.
5. You have to check all the letters to see that all the (mail, money,
enclosures, payment) is/are in fact enclosed.

D. DIALOGS
I. Making Preparation for a Meeting
Situation :
Tuan Brown adalah direktur salah satu perusahaan minyak di Jakarta. Dai akan
mengadakan rapat rutin. Untuk itu Tuan Brown meminta Santi (sekretarisnya)
untuk mempersiapkan segal sesuatu yang diperlukan untuk rapat. Karena Tuan
Brown akan menjemput Tuan Thomson (seorang rekannya dari Amerika) di
airport, maka Tuan Brown menginstruksikan Santi meminta Tuan Tobing,
wakilnya, untuk membuka rapat terlebih dahulu. Ini adalah percakapan antara
Tuan Brown dan Santi.
Mr. Brown : Santi, we are going to have our regular meeting at two oclock
tomorrow.
Santi : Yes, Sir. I have ordered the office boys to prepare the room
for the meeting.
Mr. Brown : Good. Now you have to prepare all material needed.
Santi : Yes, Sir. I have prepared the agenda, note books, and other
important material.
Mr. Brown : Good. I know that you would have no problems in preparing
everything.
Santi : Is there anything else that you want me to arrange, Sir?
Mr. Brown : Yes, tomorrow morning. I have to meet Mr. Thomson at the
airport and take him to his hotel.
Santi : What time will you go to the airport, Sir?
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Mr. Brown : The plane arrives at eleven oclock, and I must be there in
good time because this is his first visit to Indonesia.
Santi : If Mr. Thomson goes through immigration and customs
smoothly. I think you still have enough time to get to the office
before the meeting begins, Sir.
Mr. Brown : I am afraid we will be rather late because I will first have
lunch in the hotel with Mr. Thomson.
Santi : So, if you arent here at two, what do you want us to do?
Mr. Brown : If Im late, please ask Mr. Tobing to start the meeting first.
They can read the minutes of the last meeting, and start
discussing the first item on the agenda. Ask him also to explain
my absence and that I will join them as soon as possible.
Santi : Yes, Sir. I will inform them before the meeting.
Mr. Brown : Thank you, Santi.
Santi : Youre welcome, Sir.

a. Comprehension questions :
1. What will Santi do in connection with the meeting tomorrow?
2. Why does Mr. Brown tell Santi to ask Mr. Tobing to open the meeting?
3. What does Mr. Brown have done before the meeting tomorrow?

b. Vocabulary :
Regular meeting = rapat rutin
Prepare = mempersiapkan
Arrange = mengatur
Customs = pabean
To fetch = menjemput
My absence = ketidak hadiran saya
Immigration = imigrasi

c. Discussion points :
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1. As a secretary you are ordered to make preparations for a formal
meeting. What will you do?
2. Besides preparing material for the meeting, what other jobs should be
done by a secretary at the meeting? Explain.

II. Taking Notes At a Meeting
Situation :
Mary adalah seorang Sekretaris di Bank of America di Jakarta. Dia orang
Amerika. Di kantornya ada Anita, seorang Indonesia, yang baru saja bekerja
sebagai Sekretaris Junior. Mary akan mengikuti rapat untuk mencatat notulen
rapat bagi atasannya, Tuan Andrew, General Manager. Oleh karena itu Mary
mengikuti rapat. Ini adalah percakapan mereka. Anita bertanya tentang cara
membuat notulen.
Mr. Andrew : Mary, I have a managers at two oclock. I want you to
be there with me to take the minutes. Tell Anita to
take care of the office while we are at the meeting.
Mary : Yes, Sir.
Mr. Andrew : If there is a call for me, tell her to take the message.
Mary : Yes, Sir. Anita, Im going to take the minutes at the
managers meeting this afternoon. So you will be in
charge of our office. When there is a call for Mr.
Andrew, take the message.
Anita : Take the minutes? What do you mean by that?
Mary : Anita, to take the minutes means to make notes of
things discussed and the decisions made at a meeting.
Afterwards, you type out the minutes. So that there is
a record of what has happened at the meeting.
Anita : I see. But how do you make the notes?
Mary : You listen carefully to the things under discussion.
You note down the topic or subject. Then you wait till
they make a decision on the matter, and you write that
English For Secretary Page 118

down as completely as you can. If some body brings
up a point, you take that down too.
Anita : That sounds like a difficult thing to do.
Mary : Yes, its very difficult when you do it for the first
time. But the more often you do it, the easier it will be
for you. As they say: Practice makes perfect.
Anita : This meeting that you have to take the minutes of, is it
a big meeting?
Mary : Oh, yes, it is! All the branch managers will be there. It
is what we call a formal meeting.
Anita : Whats the difference between a formal and informal?
Mary : Well, a formal meeting is usually planned before, to be
held at a certain place, on certain subjects. An
informal meeting can be suddenly without any
planning when there is a need to discuss something.
Anita : I see. Thank you for the explanation.
Mary : OK. Now I have to go to the meeting. Remember to
take down any messages for Mr. Andrew or for me.
Anita : Yes, I will, Mary.
Mary : OK. Ill see you after the meeting.
Anita : See you.

a. Comprehension questions:
1. Sometimes a secretary has to take the minutes of a meeting. Can you
explain how it is done?
2. What do you do after you taken the minutes of the meeting?
3. Are Mary and Anita close? Explain!
4. What is the difference between a formal and an informal meeting?
Explain!
5. What is Anita expected to do while Mary is away from the office? Why
is it necessary for Mary to say that?
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b. Vocabulary:
Sounds like = agaknya; kedengarannya
To take care of = mengurus
To inform = menginformasikan
The minutes of meeting = notulen rapat
To look after = menjaga; mengawasi
Decision = keputusan

c. Discussion points:
1. Explain the importance of the minutes of a meeting.
2. If a Junior secretary is ordered to take care of the office, what things
does she do?

III. MAKING AN APPOINTMENT
Situation :
A Miller is secretary to Mr. Brown. When someone rings up to make an
appointment to see Mr. Brown, she consults his diary.
Mr. Bram: I wonder If I could see Mr. Brown for about a hour on Monday
morning?
An Miller: Mr. Brown is attending a seminar at nine oclock, Im afraid,
but hell be free in afternoon .
Mr. Bram: Well what about Tuesday afternoon?
An Miller: Mr. Brown is briefing the training staff at half past two, Im
afraid, but hell be free in the morning.
Here is Mr. Browns diary:
September
4 Monday 7
th
Thursday
9.00 a.m Attend seminar 10.30 a.m Hold committee
meeting
5 Tuesday 8 Friday
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22.30 p.m Brief training 3.00 Show visitors
round
6 Wednesday 9 Saturday

September
11 Monday 14th Thursday
9.30 a.m inspect training 11.00 a.m discussion with
Engren
area
1.00 p.m lunch with

12 Tuesday 15 Friday
2.30 p.m Fly to Denmark
13 Wednesday 16 Saturday 17 Saturday
2.00 p.m speak at management conference

IV. CANCELING AN APPOINNTMNET
Mr. Hans is out of the office, he is in the Sales Section when an important
potential customer telephones to cancel an appointment. His secretary, Betty,
has to deal with the situation.
Caller : ?
Secretary : Yes, it is
Caller : ?
Secretary : No, Im afraid he isnt. This is his secretary speaking,
can I help you?
Caller : .
Secretary : Oh I see
Caller :
Secretary : Oh good. Hell be glad to hear that. Well, we look
forward to hearing from you, Mr
Goodbye and thank you for your calling.
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V. ARRANGING AN APPOINTMENT
Situation :
Marisa wants to make an appointment to see Sheila this week. Fill in Annes
half of this telephone conversation.
Marisa : Good morning. Can I make an appointment to see
Sheila, please? She knows Im coming this week.
Anne :
Marisa : Thursday, if possible. Is she free in the morning?
Anne : Im afraid
Marisa : Well, what about Tuesday?
Anne : Im sorry. She ..
Marisa : no, I cant meet her for lunch today or on Wednesday.
Anne : .
Marisa : Well, Im free in the morning, but Im entertaining some
customers in the afternoon.
Anne : .
Marisa : Oh well then, I suppose it must be next week.

9.2 Techniques for Effective Office Operation

Having a well-constructed set of files, current and up-to-date, is almost always taken
for granted . Until things go wrong. If, however, we take steps now to organize an efficient
filing system, we can eliminate many headaches for ourselves in the future.
As we focus on filing, remember that what we are dealing with is more than paper
it is an asset of the company! For example, the files may be needed to avoid tax problems
with government authorities in future years. They may be used to help the company prosecute
or defend a legal action. Or they may be used to help get new business and demonstrate past
performance. Understanding the importance of the record and documents we are responsible
for filing helps we maintain a positive attitude about the time we have to spend on it.

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Reducing our filing workload
Our first step in developing a filing system that works well for us is to determine what should
and should not be filed to begin with. Use the following rules as our initial guide. Also
discuss the matter with our boss, so we can develop additional guidelines to reduce the
avalanche of papers.
Rule 1: Try to keep our desk as clean as possible. Once we start building piles of papers on
our desk, it is hard to find anything and important items get lost.
Rule 2: Establish a specific schedule for filing. For example, we might set aside a half day
once every two weeks or one day a month just for filing. Concentrating on the task will enable
us to work more efficiently. It will also give us the opportunity to recognize duplicate pieces
of correspondence, which can be thrown away instead of double-filed.
Rule 3: Set up a hold file for papers not important enough to file away now. If our boss
wants us to decide for ourselves which correspondence, incoming items, memos and reports
may be tossed out, then set aside a regular time (once a month or every two weeks) to go
through our hold file. Look through everything and throw out every items which is now
dead or no longer needed.
If our boss wants to make the save-or-toss-out determination himself, then give him
the contents of our hold file on a regular basis (again, monthly, or twice a month) so he can
go through everything quietly in one sitting. We could go through it together; or he could
review the pile on his own, tossing items no longer needed and marking the rest for us to
either file or bring to his attention for dictation.
Rule 4: If we are working for more than one boss, have a separate work tray for each. This
will reduce the amount of papers we have to go through if we need to find something. Also
set up a separate hold file for each boss-and make sure we know how each one wants us to
handle it.
Rule 5: Keep an in basket either on our desk or near it. That way, we dont have our boss or
anyone else dropping papers all over our desk. If we wish, we can also have baskets for out
and typing and filing.
Rule 6: Welcome technological changes. More and more businesses are replacing typewriters
with some type of computer. The information which used to be stored in files is now saved on
disks. Dont resist making the change, if we are given the opportunity.
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Filing correspondence on a computer disk is certainly more convenient, but even on a
disk the files of correspondence, reports, memos and lists do take up space, and do become
obsolete. Set aside a regular time for removing outdated files from our disk. Some secretaries
store all correspondence only until their bosses have signed and approved the final draft.
Others store correspondence until their bosses periodically review the list of files and decide
which ones may be removed.
Rule 7: Never stop searching for ways to improve our system. Check frequently with others to
see why things are being retained in files and if there is a better way to solve the problems
that they are being used for.

Inconsistency causes confusion
In many companies there is no written procedure as to how the filing system works.
Here is a typical problem. Two purchase orders have been received from the Robert Smith
Company. One secretary files one order in file folder R for Robert. Another secretary
files the other in folder S for Smith. We can see the inconsistency. What we need here is
a procedure document that specifies whether we should file by first or last name. That way,
there is no wrong way.
This example leads to another filing problems locating files via cross references.
Everyone in business encounters this problem at one time or another. A customer calls the
company. This customer has done quite a bit of business with the company over the years and
has issued hundreds of orders during that time period. Now the customer wants information
concerning one of those orders and gives the order number to the secretary, assuming that she
will be able to pull the records quickly and give him an immediate response.
Going to the files, however, the secretary discovers that the order number is of no
value, since the company maintains its files only by customer name. now she is faced with an
impatient customer who deserves quick and courteous service, and she will have to go
through each order one at a time until the proper one appears.
What is the solution? A cross reference system whereby each alphabetical file is tied
to an order number file. In fact, this really demonstrates two types of filing methods,
alphabetical and numerical.

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Pros and cons of the most popular filing systems
File and record systems are the heart of business. There are several types of systems
commonly used. The most popular ones are:
1. Alphabetical
2. Numerical/job
3. Geographical
4. Chronological
5. Decimal
As an office professional, it is part of our job to understand how each system works.
That way we are in a position to help our boss by suggesting improvements, if needed, to the
way our system currently operates. Equally as important, our knowledge will mean that we
can work with minimal direction, freeing our boss for other work.

Alphabetical files
File cabinets are usually prepared so that they have index guides to divide the
letters. Folders are then inserted either by name or subject.
At first, we should file names or subjects for each alphabet letter in the same
folder. For example, place purchase orders relating to Acme Company, Albright
Company, Action Engineering and Associated Consultants in one file folder marked A.
However, once we have five or more pieces of correspondence for the same company, we
should set up a new file just for that company.
By waiting until a few pieces of correspondence exist, we save the trouble of
having folders which contain only one piece of paper. Also, by keeping the number
needed to start a separate file low, (in this case five) we wont end up with a master A
folder containing too many mixed files.
Once we have several separate files for companies beginning with A, filed in
alphabetical order, our A file will be our file for miscellaneous A companies. Well
then follow the same procedure for the rest of the alphabet, separating files when we
accumulate several items for one company, and keeping the rest in miscellaneous alphabet
letter files.
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Filing alphabetically (as well as numerically) can also mean subdividing the file
drawer through the use of separators. Separators are tabbed guides which identify letters
of the alphabet, headings and subheadings.

Numerical/job files
Using a numerical file works best if our company identifies job efforts by a work
order system, purchase order or any kind of identifying number. The numerical listing
refers us to the file name, and makes an excellent cross-reference document.
For example, the Acme Company has been in the construction business for 30
years. Starting with its first project, each contract was assigned a job number. The filing
system was simple, which is a key to having a good system. A job index log is used and
each job number assigned is issued the next number in the sequence. The first job is given
number 1. The job number file is kept in an index card file of standard index card. We can
go to the index and, with the number, find the details of every job company has ever had.

Geographical files
This type of filing system is based upon location. The locations themselves might
be filed alphabetically, or numerically, by sales region. The geographical file tells the
company how much work is coming from a certain area. It is, therefore, particularly
useful for tracking and recording sales-related information.
Just as with the numerical/job method, the geographical file works well as a cross-
reference system. Its also well suited to being maintained on index cards in a card file.
The type of information appearing on it might include the name of the salesperson,
the sales district, city or town, region, company listings and other related information. To
keep the data manageable, consider using codes for certain items, such as location of
cities.

Chronological files
The chronological file (often referred to as the chrome file is one of the key
types of business files you can have. Unlike the other files, it does not replace any system.
Instead, it is a separate, second file.
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Our chrome file will consist of a copy of every letter, memo, report, that we have
typed for our boss, along with copies of company notices which our boss might want to
keep, all filed by date. Its best to separate our files into monthly folders so they dont
become too unwieldy to work with.
If we are working for more than one boss, make up a separate chrome file for each
one. This is especially important if they give you personal correspondence as well as
company work to do.
Once we have a chrome file, if we or our boss needs to find anything, we can
locate it quickly as long as we have some idea of when it was done. For example, suppose
it is January. Our boss wants a memo he wrote about a problem dealing with a customer,
but it isnt able to remember the customers name. If he knows (or if we remember) that
the problem came up about six months ago, we can go through the chrome files for June
and July. If the date is reasonably accurate, we should come up with it.

Decimal files
The decimal approach is similar to that found in libraries. The files are classified
into no more than 10 main categories or headings. These headings are each assigned a
three-digit number, starting from the 000 series and ending with the 900 series. These, in
turn, are given two-digit subheadings within the series, beginning with the number 10.
For example, say that our subject for the 200 series is Computers. We may then
assign a subheading number 30 for software programs. In the system, computer software
programs would be found in 230. We can continue dividing and create sub-headings,
broken down into single digits, tenths and so forth.

Developing the best system for our needs
Whenever we are developing a filing system or revising one, keep in mind the needs
of the people involved. This may mean conducting interviews with those who generate
information, as well as those who use it. Find out how long records must be kept, both for
business and legal purposes, such as tax authorities. That way we can develop a disposal plan,
and eliminate files which no longer any use.
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Also educate ourselves about the equipment and supplies that are used for files. Heavy
use requires one type of storage folder, light use another. Try to stay with standard sized
paper, so that special file drawers and folders wont be needed.
Consider whether our volume of files is so great that color coding should be used. In
many large organizations, color coded labels and filing schemes have reduced filing time and
virtually eliminated misfiling. Also consider where records will be kept and how accessible
they will be to those who need to use them.
If we are involved with purchasing new office files, be sure that:
1. The files can be rearranged easily.
2. They fit in with the rest of the office decor and meet any standard the company may
have established about office equipment.
3. Employees wont need to use chairs or ladders to get to the active records.
4. The files allow enough space for easy access to records.
5. They can accommodate additional pieces without having to purchase additional
hardware or make major changes in parts.

Indexing and Alphabetizing
Indexing is the arrangement of the name on the folder tab or on cards. The FOLDERS
AND CARSD ARE ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY FOR SIMPLICITY OF FILING
AND FINDING. The following indexing rules are standard rules for filing:
Name Indexing Order
Alfred M. Amell Amell, Alfred M.
Grace R. Gladd Gladd, Grace R.
J. Thomas Williams Williams, J. Thomas.