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The Gilded Age

1878 - 1900
The Gilded Age
How did America change over this time period?
*During this time period there was a huge population and
economic growth that grew rapidly.
*Technology was modernized, and new inventions were
introduced that changed many ways of life.
*Many Americans wanted political and social reforms, but
never fully agreed to what kind.
*Mostly only big businesses people were satisfied and
prospered , unlike farmers and industrial workers who
received low wages and spent many long hours working in
harsh and dangerous conditions.
*workers fought for their workers labor rights.
Influences
* After the civil war people wanted to find new ways to
produces goods faster than it would take by hand, which led to
new machinery.
*Americas rich and varied resources also influenced a lot in
the rise of the big businesses, such as its gold, big water
supply, timber, coal, and iron ore.
*Gold rushes, the thought of a better way of life, freedom from
persecution, job opportunities all thoes encouraged new
immigrants to head to America, leading towards urbanization.
*transcontinental railroad (completed in1869)
Important Events
*1876 Alexander Gram bell invented the telephone , his invention helped
America grow and become more united as well as making long distance
communication possible. RANK:2
*1879 Thomas Edison invented the first effective electric light bulb, major
impact, changed way of life in America and across the whole world, no
longer needed candles, people could now work at night, increased
productivity. RANK:1
*1881 American Federation of labor (AFL) founded by samuel gompers.
Purpose was to have better economic improvements for workers such as
higher pay, better working conditions and an 8 hour workday. RANK:4
*1896 Populist party platforms
principles made by the populists. They were often absorbed by major
parties that led to the making of new laws. Mostly helped out the third
class citizens such as the farmers, industrial workers and miners. RANK:3
* Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) Rank: 1
Industrialist and owner of Carnegie steel company, by 1901 he had the largest steel company in
America. He showed how you can become wealthy by being self-made and raising from poor to
becoming one of the wealthiest individuals of the world.
*John D. Rockefeller (1839-1936) Rank: 3
he was an industrialist and founder of standard oil, by 1882 he controlled 90% of American oil refineries,
until his monopoly was declared illegal in 1892. Big business in America!
*J.P morgan (1860-1913) Rank: 2
He was Americas most successful financier and one of the most powerful bankers of his time. Morgan
helped finance the railroads as well as helping organize General Electric, U.S. Steel and many other
companies and corps. He was also the owner and founder of modern day Chase banks.He helped
stabilize American financial markets during the panic of 1907 to get back on our feet.
* Samuel Gompers (1850-1924) Rank: 5
He helped organize the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the United States in 1881,
which were unions designed to educate the public about working-class issues. He wanted laws on child
labor, shorter hour work days, safe working conditions , and higher pay. He led strikes and Wanted
fairness in America.
*Jacob Riis (1849-1914) Rank: 4
He was a Journalist , and a muckraker. He used his writing and powerful and touchful photography to
show how the poor were living and the horrific conditions their homes were in. In 1890 he wrote a book
called How the Other Half Lives which revealed the overcrowded, unsanitary and poorly ventilated
tenements of those times in New york. This helped open people eyes on what was really happening in
America behind the big businesses .
effects:
*Progressivism ( the idea that you need education to
succeed in life grew)
*growth of large cities ( immigrants and people not living in
the cities were attracted to the rise of wealth, new
technology, job opportunities, and the idea of a better life)
*nativism ( During the gilded age you start to see a peek of
racialism for example the chinese exclusion act of 1882)
*the strive to better the lives of the immigrants due to the
exposure from to the muckrakers
Did you know the Brooklyn Bridge
was built through the years 1870-
1900?
CITATIONS
Krause, Andrew G. "Carnegie, Andrew." In Brosnan, Kathleen A. Encyclopedia of American Environmental History (Volume I). New York: Facts On File, 2010.
American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
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Noonan, Jon. "Edison, Thomas." Nineteenth-Century Inventors, American Profiles. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 1992. American History Online. Facts On
File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE52&iPin=ffap19in0006&SingleRecord=True (accessed October 5, 2013).
Hughes, William. "The Gilded Age." In Hoogenboom, Ari, and Gary B. Nash, eds.Encyclopedia of American History: The Development of the Industrial United
States, 1870 to 1899, Revised Edition (Volume VI). New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2010. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.
com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE52&iPin=EAHVI114&SingleRecord=True (accessed October 5, 2013)
Reef, Catherine. "Industrialization, Immigration, and Urban Poverty: 17901864." Poverty in America, American Experience. New York: Facts On File, Inc.,
2007. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE52&iPin=AEPAEssay02&SingleRecord=True (accessed October 5, 2013).
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Inc., 2008. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE52&iPin=DACH0084&SingleRecord=True (accessed October 5, 2013).
Kohn, George Childs. "J. P. Morgan, business practices and." The New Encyclopedia of American Scandal. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2001. American
History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE52&iPin=EAS0351&SingleRecord=True (accessed October 5, 2013).
Hamilton, Neil A. "Riis, Jacob." American Social Leaders and Activists, American Biographies. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2002. American History Online.
Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE52&iPin=ASL208&SingleRecord=True (accessed October 5, 2013).
"Bell, Alexander Graham." American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE52&iPin=AHI0721&SingleRecord=True (accessed October 5, 2013).
The Progressive Era
1900-1918
The Progressive Era
The main purpose of this time period
was to prosper and become better
as a whole. It was an effort to cure
many off the ills and problems
that developed over time during
the epic spurt of the industrial
revolution. Great cities and
businesses had been developed, an
overseas empire had been
established, but not all citizens
were satisfied or shared in the new
wealth, prestige and optimism.
Influences
*The Industrial revolution
*The gilded age
* demands for women's rights
*muckrakers
*Unfair working conditions
Important events
* The Jungle (1906) Rank: 3
Book written by Upton Sinclair, expressed the lives of immigrants, the poor conditions of their homes,
and also revealed the horrors of the meat packing industry. Helped people realize the need to help
people and to pass laws to make sure their food is sanitary to eat.
*The Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 and Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 Rank: 4
These laws were passed to make sure the manufacturing ,processing and distribution of goods was
sanitary and that the meat products were processed and slaughterd in a clean manner.
*The Adamson Act of 1916 Rank: 2
establishes an eight-hour day for railroad workers operating on interstate lines, without reducing their
wages. Helped the workers and immigrants who were taken advantage of.
*Keating-Owen Act of 1916 Rank: 1
For the effort in putting an end to Child labor abuses Congress passes this law that prohibits
interstate shipments of products made by children under age 14 or by children ages 14 to 16 who had
worked more than eight hours per day. No more taking advantage of children!
Important people
*Mary Kenney Osullivan (1864-1843) RANK:3
In 1903 she and lorena OReilly founded the Womens trade union league, they pushed for an 8 hour
work day, creation of a minimum wage etc. She was important because she fought for women's
suffrage and rights.
*Theodore Roosevelt (1853-1919) RANK: 1
He became president in 1901 and created reform programs called Square deals which was a promise
brought fair and equal treatment to all. He urged the union and owners to accept arbitration as well.
He wanted to bring fairness to the country. He was the only President who has been awarded both a
Nobel Prize and a Congressional Medal of Honor.
* Samuel Gompers (1850-1924) RANK:4
he was a cofounder and first president of American Federation of Labor. He believed that economic
power came before political power. Fought for workers rights.
*Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936) RANK:5
a leading muckraking journalist, joins the staff of McClure's Magazine. As editor, he transforms
McClure's into the leading political magazine throughout the country. Helped to strive toward fairness.
* William D. Haywood (1869-1928) RANK:2
In 1912 he led textile workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts, to have a strike across ethnic and skill
lines, winning wage increases. This was very important to the people, greater wages!
Effects:
*reform of the city government
*wealthy pay heavier taxes than the poor
*regulation of child labor
*the destruction of monopolistic power over banks and
corporations in America
*secure, decent salaries and safe working conditions for workers
*More economic and political rights for women
*Consumer protection laws to prevent the sale of unsafe food
and drugs
citations
Jaycox, Faith. "Introduction: The Progressive Era." The Progressive Era, Eyewitness History. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2005. American History Online.
Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
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Field, Alexander. "Industrial Revolution in the United States." In Geisst, Charles, ed. Encyclopedia of American Business History. New York: Facts On File,
Inc., 2006. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE52&iPin=EABH0153&SingleRecord=True (accessed October 6, 2013).
Hoogenboom, Ari. "environmental concerns in the Gilded Age." In Hoogenboom, Ari, and Gary B. Nash, eds. Encyclopedia of American History: The
Development of the Industrial United States, 1870 to 1899, Revised Edition (Volume VI). New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2010. American History Online.
Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE52&iPin=EAHR6113&SingleRecord=True (accessed October 6, 2013).
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Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
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Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE52&iPin=ESC0264&SingleRecord=True (accessed October 6, 2013).
"The Jungle." Library of Congress. Prints and Photographs Division. Artist Posters Collection. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.
com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE52&iPin=AHI2430&SingleRecord=True (accessed October 6, 2013).
Keating-Owen Act." American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE52&iPin=E09390&SingleRecord=True (accessed October 6, 2013).
BY: America Hernandez