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76 visualizações7 páginasUltrasonic machining has myriad applications in industry, especially with recent trends of using harder and stronger materials. The
cutting performance of a machine depends on the ability of the design of the acoustic horn to facilitate an increase in tool-tip
vibration, allowing a significant amount of material to be removed. In this paper, a computer-aided design procedure for the horn
profile and material, based on finite-element analysis, has been established.
A new design profile is suggested, using parts with different geometries. An optimization procedure for the profile has been followed
to obtain maximum magnification, for higher rates of material removal and safe working stresses for the horn material.

Jul 15, 2014

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Ultrasonic machining has myriad applications in industry, especially with recent trends of using harder and stronger materials. The
cutting performance of a machine depends on the ability of the design of the acoustic horn to facilitate an increase in tool-tip
vibration, allowing a significant amount of material to be removed. In this paper, a computer-aided design procedure for the horn
profile and material, based on finite-element analysis, has been established.
A new design profile is suggested, using parts with different geometries. An optimization procedure for the profile has been followed
to obtain maximum magnification, for higher rates of material removal and safe working stresses for the horn material.

© All Rights Reserved

76 visualizações

Ultrasonic machining has myriad applications in industry, especially with recent trends of using harder and stronger materials. The
cutting performance of a machine depends on the ability of the design of the acoustic horn to facilitate an increase in tool-tip
vibration, allowing a significant amount of material to be removed. In this paper, a computer-aided design procedure for the horn
profile and material, based on finite-element analysis, has been established.
A new design profile is suggested, using parts with different geometries. An optimization procedure for the profile has been followed
to obtain maximum magnification, for higher rates of material removal and safe working stresses for the horn material.

© All Rights Reserved

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Journal of

Materials

Processing

Technology

Computer-aided design of acoustic horns for ultrasonic

using finite-element analysis

S.G. Amin, M.H.M. Ahmed, H.A. Youssef*

Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

Received 1 April 1994

machining

Industrial summary

Ultrasonic machining has myriad applications in industry, especially with recent trends of using harder and stronger materials. The

cutting performance of a machine depends on the ability of the design of the acoustic horn to facilitate an increase in tool-tip

vibration, allowing a significant amount of material to be removed. In this paper, a computer-aided design procedure for the horn

profile and material, based on finite-element analysis, has been established.

A new design profile is suggested, using parts with different geometries. An optimization procedure for the profile has been followed

to obtain maximum magnification, for higher rates of material removal and safe working stresses for the horn material.

1. Introduction

Recent devel opment s in materials t echnol ogy have

given rise to high strength and very-hard materials t hat

are difficult t o machi ne using convent i onal chip-removal

met hods with hard tools. Such materials can be cut

economi cal l y by non-convent i onal processes based on

direct utilization of various forms of energy, such as

ultrasonic machi ni ng (USM), electro-discharge machin-

ing, electron-beam machining, electro-chemical machin-

ing, etc. USM is used extensively in the machi ni ng of

hi gh-performance composites, ceramics, quart z and

graphi t e [1]. This process cuts various shapes in hard

materials by rapid and forceful agi t at i on of fine abrasive

particles in a slurry between t hat tool and the work-

piece [2].

The tool is oscillated at frequencies of between 20 and

40 kHz, obt ai ned by an effect known as "l ongi t udi nal

magnet ost ri ct i on". Wi t h this phenomenon, a magnet i c

field undergoi ng vari at i on at ultrasonic frequencies

causes correspondi ng changes in the length of a fer-

romagnet i c object (a magnet ost ri ct or transducer) placed

within its region of influence [3]. The magnet i c field is

t uned in accordance with the nat ural frequency of the

magnet ost ri ct or, allowing its resonance. The oscillation

ampl i t ude obt ai ned is, however, very small and does not

exceed 5 lam in most cases. Hence, this oscillation must

* Correspondi ng author.

0924-0136/96/$15.00 1996 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved

SSDI 0 9 2 4 - 0 1 3 6 ( 9 5 ) 0 2 0 1 5 - E

be amplified using an acoustic hor n (also called a mech-

anical t ransformer or acoustic amplifier) in order to be

able to provide high cutting rates. No general agreement

has been reached regarding the specific influence of the

ampl i t ude on the machi ni ng rate; but generally, the ma-

chining rate increases with the ampl i t ude of the tool

vibration [4]. Therefore, for maxi mum amplification and

high efficiency, the acoustic horn (with the t ool fixed at its

end) must be designed to operate at resonance, similarly

to the magnet ost ri ct or. Monel metal (a special

copper-ni ckel alloy), cold rolled steel, and brass are

common horn materials [5]. Fig. 1 shows a schematic

di agram of the various elements of an ultrasonic ma-

chine, including the acoustic horn.

2. Design of the acoustic horn

The t radi t i onal met hods for the design of an acoustic

horn are based on the equilibrium of an infinitesimal

element under elastic action, inertia forces, and integra-

tion over the hor n length to at t ai n resonance [1, 6, 7].

Equilibrium leads to the following differential equation:

d2u dl n A(x) du ~o 2

dx ~ q dx dx + -~- u = 0, (1)

where u is the ampl i t ude of vibration in the axial direc-

tion, A(x) is the cross-sectional area at any axial position

x; and ~o is the angul ar velocity; in which c is the acoustic

S.G. Amin et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technologr' 55 (1995) 254-260 255

Suppl y I rom ultrasonic generator

I I

I I I " J - ~ - - E x c ita tio n c o i l

Tronsndtting cone m

Thread stud

/ It / Acoust i chorn

/ / Too,

[ / / j / / ~ / S:~rrrY pi pe

W .R r y

Do Do De Do

L /2

L L L

L I2 t /

DI Df I)t D/

Cy l i n d r i c a l Slopped Conical Exponenti al

Fig. 2. Tr adi t i onal hor n cont our s .

Fig. 1. Var i ous el ement s of a n ul t r as oni c machi ne.

speed of the horn material:

c = ~/-~, (2)

where E is the Modulus of elasticity and p is the density

of the horn material.

Eq. (1) can be solved for specified horn shapes with

a suggested cross-sectional area. The solution includes

two constants that can be obtained using the known

boundary conditions [(du/dx)~=l = O, (du/dx)~=o and

(u)~=o = Uo (initial amplitude)], This leads to the reson-

ant length and the variation of the amplitude along that

length.

The difficulties in solving the general differential equa-

tion have limited horn contours to particular uniform

profiles (cylindrical, stepped, conical, or exponential),

these horn contours being presented in Fig. 2. The ap-

plication of cylindrical and stepped horns are also limited

[-6]: the first does not provide magnification, whilst the

second has high stress concentration from the sudden

change in diameters, which increases the working stress

intensely and may lead to failure. It should be noted (in

Fig. 2) that the working step should be at the middle of

the length, where the axial amplitude is equal to zero (the

nodal point). Exponential and conical horns are used

widely in industry. The exponential horn, however, re-

quires the employment of a contouring or NC machine in

order for it to be manufactured, which machines may not

be available.

When designing a horn, the dimensions of the upper

and lower ends are restricted by the size of the transducer

stack and the outer tool diameter, respectively. The at-

tachment used to hold the horn to the machine transducer

should not be of greater diameter than that of the horn,

otherwise the amplitude of the latter will be damped. The

diameter (Do) is normally about 25-75 mm. The size of

the machined hole imposes the geometry of the smaller

end (D0: the outer diameter of the tool. The next step is

to choose an area function for the horn profile according

to the magnification required and available methods of

manufacture. Then, the resonant length is obtained

through solution of the differential equation. This length

depends on the working frequency and has no effect on

the magnification. Hence, the only variable that affects

the magnification is the horn profile.

A further limitation of the traditional design procedure

is that it does not consider the tool to be attached to the

horn, or the possibility for providing holes in the horn

body. The tool attached to the horn's free end must be

very light so that it does not alter the resonant frequency.

The tool is brazed or cemented to the horn to provide

good acoustic coupling. Accurate design of the horn may

also require a hole for attaching the horn to the transducer

or for suction of the slurry. The finite-element method

(FEM) is one of the most flexible and powerful tools

available for solving engineering problems of this kind

(e.g. the deformation of solids and modal analysis). When

analytical techniques for solving differential equations fail,

FEM can be used to obtain a solution. FEM can be

applied to systems with any geometric configuration or

boundary conditions. Recently, a preliminary attempt to

apply the FEM was used to design the acoustic horn and

its tool as one body having a non-uniform contour [8], the

objective being to tune a specific horn and tool shape at

a particular frequency. The computer program used for

solving the problem was a prototype. Neither the tool-tip

amplitude (magnification) nor the stress distribution over

the horn length were considered in the analysis.

The aim of this work is to allow the tuning of any

geometrical shape of axisymmetrical ultrasonic-machin-

ing horn with an attached tool (and internal holes) using

a computer program based on the FEM. A new design

procedure is developed to allow the horn contour to

achieve the combination of a high magnification and

a safe stress condition.

256 S.G. Amin et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 55 (1995) 254 260

3. F E M application procedure

According to the finite-element method, the horn being

investigated is discretized by a mesh of simple homogene-

ous elements connected by a finite number of nodes, as

seen in Fig. 3. The figure shows only one half of the horn

due to axial symmetry. The types of elements that are

used in FEM include triangular, rectangular and quadri-

lateral elements [9]. Quadrilateral elements using cylin-

drical coordinates have been chosen for the present work,

being more accurate than triangular elements in areas

with high stress gradients. They, also provide a more

adequate definition for the horn than the rectangular

elements, due to the inclination of the outer contour. The

element is defined by four nodal points having two de-

grees of freedom at each node: translations in the lateral

and axial directions.

The formulation of finite-element equations is founded

on the variational approach of virtual work based upon

the potential energy equation of a system. The formula-

tion procedure is text-book material: however, the basic

equations to be used in this application will be stated

briefly. A polynomial displacement function {u} that

satisfies compatibility is assumed to characterize the dis-

placements within the elements. The strains are then

computed in terms of nodal displacements. Using the

stress-strain relationship in the elastic zone of deforma-

tion, the stress-displacement equation is derived in the

form

{el = [B] {u}, (3)

where {e} is the strain matrix and [B] is the matrix of the

nodal coordinates:

{tr} = [D 3 [B] {u} (4)

in which {a} is the stress matrix and [D] is the matrix of

the material elastic constants.

By assembling the coefficients of all of the elements

stiffness matrices, the following simultaneous system

equation occurs:

([K] - ~o2[M]){u} = {F}, (5)

where [K] is the master stiffness matrix of the total

system, [M] is the mass matrix and {F} is the vector of

the generalized nodal forces.

The natural frequency of the horn is determined from

the resonance condition represented by the following

equation:

I[K] - ~oZ[M]l = 0. (6)

An algebric equation of the nth degree for 0) 2 is ob-

tained. The n roots of this equation are the n eigenvalues

or natural frequencies [10, 11]. One of these natural

frequencies will be changed by geometrical modification

of the horn length to coincide with the operating fre-

quency. The displacements, strains and stresses are com-

puted for the frequency described above.

The computation is attained using the ANSYS-PC

package. This is a two-dimensional version of the general

ANSYS program [12, 13]. The input data for the pro-

gram has been designed to simplify the definition of the

problem to the computer. The program contains three

phases. A pre-processor defines the geometry of the struc-

ture as well as all of the other data required for the

analysis (material properties, frequency range, etc.). The

solution phase calculates the natural frequency, displace-

ments, strains and stresses. A post-processor is included

to assess the results of the analysis and to plot the stress

contours.

Before designing new horn shapes, the FEM program

has been checked by introducing data for the stepped,

conical, and exponential horns. A new horn shape is

then designed with the horn and tool as one body, to

obtain both high amplitudes and acceptable working

stresses.

7 5

1

Fig. 3. The hor n di vi ded i nt o quadr i l at er al el ement s.

3.1. Des i gn dat a

Due to its high endurance strength, steel AISI (4063) is

used in the design. It has the following properties:

modulus of elasticity, E- - 200GPa; Poisson's ratio,

7 = 0.33; mass density, p = 7800 kg/m3; and endurance

strength, ae = 733 MPa.

The horn stresses should not exceed the material en-

durance strength. However, this limit has to be modified

by a variety of safety factors, each of which is intended to

account for a single effect. The individual effects include

the surface factor, the size factor, the reliability factor, the

temperature factor, the stress-concentration factor, and

other miscellaneous effects [14]. The allowable endur-

ance limit is given by the equation

cre,ll = kae, (7)

S.G. Amin et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 55 (1995) 254 260 257

where k is a general factor covering all of the previous

factors, calculated as 0.7 for the present conditions.

Accordingly, the allowable endurance limit aea, is equal

to 520 MPa.

The horn is designed to operate on a Sonorode 120

Ul t rasoni c machi ne with the following specifications:

1. resonance frequency = 23-23.5 kHz; 2. t ransducer

ampl i t ude = 15 ~tm; and 3. t ransducer di amet er =

40 mm. The out er di amet er of the tool is assumed to be

10 mm.

4. Results and analysis

4.1. Optimum number of elements

One of the most i mpor t ant consi derat i ons in finite-

element analysis is t hat of the accuracy of the solution. If

the analytical (exact) sol ut i on is known, the accuracy is

easy to determine. The probl em of det ermi ni ng the cor-

rect number of elements depends upon several factors,

these including the sol ut i on quant i t y desired, the element

order and the t ype of differential equat i on [9].

The conical hor n (having a known, exact solution:

resonant frequency = 23.5 kHz) has been discretized by

quadri l at eral elements in bot h the axial and radial direc-

tions. First, the number of elements in the axial direction

has been increased from 4 to 40, considering one element

in the radial direction, the plot of the vari at i on in the

nat ural frequency with these elements being shown in

Fig. 4(a). When fewer elements are used, significant er-

rors occur because of the i naccurat e appr oxi mat i on of

the i nt erpol at i on function to the actual sol ut i on within

each element. Wi t h 15 or more elements, there is no

significant vari at i on in the resonant frequency. Then, the

number of elements in the radial direction is increased

from 1 to 5 in steps of 1, leading to a t ot al number of 15,

30, 45, 60 and 75 elements respectively. Fur t her increase

in the number of elements was added in the axial direc-

tion by increasing the number of axial elements to

18, 21, 24, 27 and 30, leading to a t ot al number of 90,

105, 120, 135 and 150 elements respectively. Fig. 4(b)

shows the vari at i on of the nat ural frequency, with a

t endency to st eady condi t i ons after about 75 elements.

Therefore, the opt i mum number of elements for all con-

tours investigated will be fixed at 15 in the axial direction

and 5 in the radial direction (75 elements, as shown in

Fig. 3).

4.2. Comparison between the results obtained by the FEM

and by the traditional method

Stepped, conical and exponential horns have been for-

mul at ed using the FEM as described earlier. The reson-

ant frequency, the length, and magni fi cat i on factor ob-

tained have been compared with those calculated using

"~25

=

~24

~ 2 4

e ~

~ 2 3

~ 2 3

~22

z 2 2

Exact

. . . . . . . Solution

0 i i L i ~ J

0 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0

N u m b e r o f e l e m e n t s

A

~ , 2 4 . 0 0

> ' 2 3 . 7 5

~ : ~ 2 3 . 5 0

~ 2 3 . 2 5

4 J

z 2 3 . 0 0

0

Exact

Solution

I i I i i i i

2 5 5 0 7 5 I 0 0 1 2 5 1 5 0 1 7 5 2 0 0

N u m b e r o f e l e m e n t s

Fig. 4. Showi ng t he effect on t he na t ur a l f r equency of: (a) t he n u mb e r

of el ement s in t he axi al di rect i on; a nd (b) t he t ot al n u mb e r of el ement s.

Table 1

Comparison between the results obtained using the FEM and the

traditional method

Type Stepped

D o ~ D r 4 : 1

Method FEM

Mag. factor 16.0

Length (cm) 10.05

Freq. (kHz) 23.5

Coni cal Exponent i al

4: 1 4: 1

Tr ad. F EM Tr ad. F EM Tr ad.

16.0 3.39 3.4 3.94 4.0

10.0 12.47 12.2 11.64 11.7

23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5

the t radi t i onal equilibrium technique I-5-7] for the same

hor n dimensions, the results being given in Table 1.

The dat a in the table show t hat the difference in the

results related to the magni fi cat i on factor using the two

met hods does not exceed 2%. This indicative of the high

precision and accuracy of the FEM results. Also, the

difference in the results related to the resonant length lies

within 2.6%.

4.3. Influence of the horn contour on the magnification

factor

Table 1 shows t hat the magnification factor of the

stepped horn is the greatest, as confirmed in previous

258 S.G. Amin et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 55 (1995) 254 260

I

'~ "~ D o / D r

' ~- . . . . . . . . . . e d

r - - ~ l ~ _ . . . . . . . .

' i / / / _

- - ~ 4 - - De / 2

Dlag. 16

E x p o n e n t i a l m a g . 4

C o n i c a l m a g . 3 . 4

Fi g. 5. Tr a d i t i o n a l h o r n c o n t o u r s wi t h t he i r ma gni f i c a t i on.

work being equivalent to the ratio (Do~De) 2 [2]. How-

ever, as stated earlier high stress concentration in the

horn reduces this advantage. Therefore, the maximum-

allowable stress should be included in design calcu-

lations. The magnification factor for the exponential

horn is much lower than that of the stepped horn, being

equal to the ratio (Do/De). The conical horn has the

lowest magnification. Fig. 5 shows these three cont our

shapes with the associated magnifications as specified.

The stepped horn (with the cont our line parallel to the

axis at the extreme left) offered the highest magnification.

The conical cont our (at the extreme right) provided the

lowest magnification. The exponential horn profile, being

as close as possible to the conical contour, gives a greater

and closer magnification. Therefore, thoughts have been

directed towards designing a new cont our shape that lies

as close as possible to the stepped cont our whilst avoid-

ing the abrupt change of the section, and, accordingly,

high stress concentration. A double-conical contour,

shown by dot t ed lines in the figure, would satisfy these

conditions.

The proposed double-conical horn shape is shown

in Fig. 6. The horn is provided with a cylindrical hole

at the top for horn fixation to the transducer. A tool

tip is also added at the bot t om end. Runs have been

done to tune the horn at the specified frequency. The

cylindrical lengths L1 and L 4 a r e fixed, whilst L 2 , L a

and the intermediate diameter (D1) are to be varied

for optimization. This horn uses 96 nodes and 75

elements.

The FEM results for the above horn are presented to

show the details obtained from the analysis. The ampli-

tude values at radial nodes for specific cross-sections are

presented in Fig. 7, this figure showing that the ampli-

tude is maximum at the horn center, and marginally

reduced with out ward movement in the radial direction.

The maximum variation in amplitude is in the medium

area and does not exceed 6%. Therefore, the presentation

D o

1

Fi g. 6. Do u b l e - c o n i c a l hor n.

15. 00 l a . SO 14. 77 14. 54 14. $4

- I S. SO 15. 45 - 1S. 3~ - 15. 30 - 14. $0 - 11, 5|

$ 2 . 3 8 . 9 1 . 3 7 " 9 3 . 3 ~ " J ~ . 2 5 - ~ 3 . t 1 9 3 1 8

- l d. l O , 94. 71 94. 77 - 9d. ?O - $4. 14 - 16. 56

Fi g. 7. El e me n t s p l o t f or t he d o u b l e - c o n i c a l h o r n wi t h t he a mp l i t u d e

va l ue s a t r a di a l node s f or speci fi c cr oss- sect i ons.

of results will be focused only on the axial direction. The

resulting displacements at the nodes provide the oscilla-

tion amplitude variation throughout the horn length, as

shown in Fig. 8. From this graph, the transducer dis-

placement amplitude (15 ttm) decreases to zero value at

the nodal point. When required, the nodal-point position

is used as the suction or pump location of the slurry into

the horn. Then, the amplitude changes direction and

increases, reaching its maximum value at the tool end.

The end value for the given shape is 95 pm which

produces a magnification factor of 6.3. This factor

is higher than that for the exponential horn shape, as

expected, this confirming the merit of the suggested horn

contour.

Relating the displacements to strains and stresses (as

stated in Eqs. (2) and (3)), the horn stresses can be

obtained. Axial, radial, and circumferential stresses along

the double-conical horn length are presented in Fig. 9.

Since no distortion takes place in the horn shape, these

stresses are principal stresses, this being confirmed by

obtaining zero shear stress values from the computer

output. The figure indicates that the axial stress is the

S.G, Amin et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 55 (1995) 254-260 259

I i i

M

4 0

o

m 20

o

~' 0

' U

- 20

o

"" 4 0

m l

-,~ 60

>

,_, t~O

-4

~< - 100

0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 i 0 0 1 2 0 1 4 0

H o z a a x i s { m m )

600

5 0 0

~ 4 0 0

~300

~ 2 0 0

~i00

O

A l l w a b l m o n d u r a n c e s t r e a m l i m i t

2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 i 0 0 k 2 0

Ho z n a x i s ( mm)

Fig. 10. Di st r i but i on of effective stress.

Fi g. 8. Ampl i t ude di st r i but i on al ong t he doubl e- coni cal hor n axis.

4 0 0

3 0 0

z 2 0 0

o~

ol

1 0 0

0

~kxi a l - ~- - Ri dl a l -W~- H o 0 p --t - S h e a z

. i 0 0 t , , , , , , , , , , , ,

0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 1 0 0 1 2 0

H o r n a x i s ( m m )

Fig. 9. Axial, radial, ci rcumferanci al and shear st resses for t he doubl e-

coni cal hor n.

Oo

L

3

~ - ~ - - DI

Fig. 11. Suggest ed hor n cont our .

maxi mum principal stress and is responsible for a

maj or part of the stresses developed in the horn; whilst

the ot her two principal-stress component s approach

zero values over most of the hor n length. This is shown

clearly in Fig. 10, where the effective stress has the same

di st ri but i on and al most the same values as the axial

principal stress. The stress starts with zero value at the

machi ne side and rises to a first peak due to stress

concent rat i on at the hole tip. A second higher, peak

stress is reached, giving the maxi mum stress value; then,

it decreases to zero at the t ool end. The peak effective

stress value (in this case 330 MPa) is well below the

allowable endurance stress limit (520 MPa), as indicated

in the figure.

This illustrates the benefits of designing a shape t hat

is closer to the stepped horn. This woul d provide a

higher magni fi cat i on factor and still possess a peak-

effective stress less t han the allowable stress leading

to a suggested general design procedure for the hor n

t hat satisfies bot h maxi mum magni fi cat i on and safe peak

effective stress.

4.4. Suggested design shape

To avoid exceeding the maxi mum allowable stress, an

opt i mum design based on the condi t i ons stated above

shoul d be as close as possible to the st epped-horn shape

wi t hout the abrupt change in area. Therefore, the double-

conical horn shape (proposed in the previous section) will

conform to a cylindrical part at the lower port i on of the

horn, and a conical part at the upper end as, shown in

Fig. 11. The opt i mi zat i on procedure to be followed be-

gins with the selection of the end diameters (D2 and D1)

and the operat i ng frequency (according to the machi ne

and cut t i ng operat i on conditions). The first run is per-

formed with the length of the conical part equal to zero

(stepped horn, L2 = 0). If the associated effective stress

exceeds the allowable endurance strength, further runs

with gradual increases in the ratio L2/L3 are carried out

until reaching a safe stress condition. The resulting pro-

file is the opt i mum.

The suggested procedure is applied to the case con-

sidered in this paper; i.e. the hor n with Do/Dr -- 4, and

260 S.G. Amin et al, / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 55 (1995) 254 260

, ~ 8 0 0

' ~ 6 0 0

o

" 4 0 0

J.J

a)

~ 2 0 0

1

r ~

0

- ' r ' - E q , s l ; ~ e s s " t - ~ f a c t o i

- - l I I I

0 , 2 0 . 4 0 .6 0 . 8

2 0

0

1

1 5

1 0

0

L 2 / L 3

o

t )

Fig. 12. Effect of the suggested length proportions of the horn on the

effective stress and the magnification factor.

improvement will be negated by the complicated manu-

facturing techniques required.

5. Concl us i ons

The FEM has been applied successfully in the design of

acoustic horns for ultrasonic machines. The design has

included a hole at the upper end for attaching the horn to

the machine, and a tool tip at the free end to avoid

problems arising from brazing or cementing the tool to

the horn.

A new design profile has been suggested, and optimiza-

tion procedure followed, to obtain maximum magnifica-

tion for higher rates of material removal and safe work-

ing stresses for the horn material. The suggested horn

profile is conical at the upper end and cylindrical at the

lower end. The optimization procedure is based on the

length ratio of the two parts.

Table 2

Comparison between the suggested horn and traditional horns

Type of horn Stepped Suggested Exponential Conical

Mag. factor 16 8 3.94 3.39

Eq. stress Greatly 520 220 188

(MPa) exceeding the

allowable

the previously-defined machine specifications. The

change in the magnification factor and in the equivalent

stress with the ratio Lz/L3 are shown in Fig. 12. At

Lz = 0 (stepped horn) the magnification factor has its

greatest value (16); but the stress exceeds the endurance

strength of the horn material. A gradual increase in the

length of the conical part relative to the cylindrical part is

associated with a decrease in the magnification factor

and also in the equivalent stress. The optimum horn with

a cone-to-cylinder ratio equal to 0.68 gives a magnifica-

tion factor of 8 with a permissible equivalent stress for the

horn material.

Table 2 compares the magnification factor and the

equivalent stress of the traditionally designed horns with

those of the suggested horn. It is clear that the magnifica-

tion factor has been increased considerably in the sugges-

ted design relative to the traditionally safe horns. Fur-

ther, when compared with the exponential horn, the

suggested horn can be manufactured easier with no need

for NC machines or copy turning. Replacing the conical

part of the suggested horn with a curved contour, such

as an exponential shape, has been attempted, leading

to a marginal increase in the magnification factor

equivalent to 1%. However, the advantage of this slight

Ref erences

[ I ] P.C. Pandey and H.S. Shan, Modern Machinin9 Processes" Tata

McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.

[2] L.E. Doyle et al., Manufaeturin 9 Processes and Materials f or

Enyineers , Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1985.

[3] J.A. McGeough, Advanced Methods of Machinin9, Chapman and

Hall, London, 1988.

[4] D. Kremer, S.M. Saleh et al., The state of the art of ultrasonic

machining, Ann. CIRP, 30(1)(1981) 107 i i 0.

[5] F.F. Rawson, High power ultrasonic resonant horns. Part

1 Basic design concepts: Effects of material and horn dimensions,

Proc. Ultrasonics Int. 87 Conf., 1987

[6] A. Satyanarayana and B.G. Krishna Reddy, Design of velocity

transformers for ultrasonic machining, Electrical India, 24 (1984)

11 20.

[7] H.A. Youssef, Design of conical acoustic horns necessary for

ultrasonic equipment, Bull. Fac. En9. , Alexandria University,

4 (1971).

[8] G. Coffignal and M. Touratier, A computer aided design program

for the tuning of ultrasonic machining tools using the finite element

method, Proc. 5th Int. Modal Analysis Conf., England, 1987.

[9] P.E. Allair, Basics of the Finite Element Method, C. Brown

Publishers, 1985.

[10] S.S. Rao, The Finite Element Met hod in Engineering, Pergamon

Press, Oxford, 1982.

[11] D.K. Brown, An Introduction to the Finite Element Met hod usin9

Basic Programs, Surrey University Press, 1990.

[12] R.W. Gorman, ANSYS- PC Manual, Swanson Analysis Systems

Inc., Pennsylvania, 1985.

[13] Hayrettin Kardes Tuncer and D.H. Norrie, Finite Element Hand-

book, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987.

[14] J.E. Shigley, Mechanical Engineerin9 Design, McGraw-Hill, New

York, 1986.

[15] B.W. Neibel et al., Modern Manufacturin9 Process Engineerin9,

McGraw Hill, New York, 1989.

[16] P. Tierce and gerant de Sinaptec, Transducteurs US: Une

optimisation par CAO, Mesures, 1987.

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