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Simulation of single phase cycloconverter

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Simulation of single phase cycloconverter

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ISSN: 22503676

[IJESAT] INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE & ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY Volume-2, Issue-2, 346 351

IJESAT | Mar-Apr 2012

Available online @ http://www.ijesat.org 346

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF SINGLE PHASE

CYCLOCONVERTER

Abhishek Pratap Singh

1

, V. K. Giri

2

1

Student, Electrical Engineering Department, MMMEC Gorakhpur, U.P., India, er.singhabhishek@yahoo.com

2

Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, MMMEC Gorakhpur, U.P., India

Abstract

This paper presents simulation of Single phase cycloconverter. Single phase cycloconverter generates double, triple and fourth times

of the output frequency. The split phase induction motor has two windings, the main winding and the auxiliary winding. These

windings are displaced in space by 90 electrical. The single-phase induction motors are widely used in many applications.

Improvements in its performance mean a great saving in electrical energy consumption. A cycloconverter fed variable frequency

motor is a typical example of such improvement. In this regard, the paper presents an analysis of the performance and speed control

of the split phase induction motor when it is fed with cycloconverter. The dynamic models and analysis of the motor behavior during

transient and steady state phases are presented in this paper. A speed controller based on cycloconverter is proposed. The improved

performance of motor at the time of starting is achieved by implementing control action on it. A cycloconverter is a device that

converts AC, power at one frequency into AC power of an adjustable but lower frequency without any direct current, or DC, stage in

between. It can also be considered as a static frequency changer and typically contains silicon-controlled rectifiers. The FFT analysis

of output current waveform has also been discussed in this paper.

I ndex Terms: Cycloconverter, Pulse Generator, Induction Motor and MATLAB.

--------------------------------------------------------------------- *** ------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. INTRODUCTION

This paper presents Single phase induction motor is well

suited to applications requiring constant speed operation with

the help of cycloconverter. The induction motor is cheaper and

easier to maintain as compared to other alternatives. The

induction motor is made up of the stator, or stationary

windings, and the rotor. The stator consists of a series of wire

windings of very low resistance permanently attached to the

motor frame [1]. As a voltage and a current is applied to the

stator winding terminals, a magnetic field is developed in the

windings.The analysis of induction motors controlled with

cycloconverter has been investigated extensively [2&4].The

single phase induction motor in its simplest form is

structurally the same as a poly phase induction motor having a

squirrel cage rotor, the only difference is that the split phase

induction motor has single winding on the stator. A single-

phase input cycloconverter is shown in Fig.1; the auxiliary

winding is made of thin wire (super enamel copper) so that it

has a high R/X ratio as compared to the main winding

which has thick super enamel copper wire. The split phase

induction motor is the most commonly used motor in the

utility network [5&6], A Single Phase Cycloconverter Outputs

are shown in Fig.2, and Single phase cycloconverter generates

double and fourth times of the output frequency shown in

Fig.3. The split phase induction motors are usually built with

small power; they are widely used in domestic and

commercial applications. The single-phase input to single-

phase output cycloconverter is shown in Fig.4, its the

simplest cycloconverter circuit. This paper shows a speed

control scheme for a split phase induction motor fed with

cycloconverter. Fig. 5 shows simulink model of split phase

induction motor, the Cycloconverters are used in very large

variable frequency drives with ratings from few megawatts up

to many folds of megawatts [7].

Fig.1: Single-phase input cycloconverter

The following sections will describe the operation principles

of the cycloconverter starting from the simplest one, single-

phase to single-phase (1f-1f) cycloconverter [8]. The

ABHISHEK PRATAP SINGH* et al. ISSN: 22503676

[IJESAT] INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE & ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY Volume-2, Issue-2, 346 351

IJESAT | Mar-Apr 2012

Available online @ http://www.ijesat.org 347

secondary transformer of the power supply for the

cycloconverter consists of two separate windings, which can

provide 180 displaced input voltages to each of the two

thyristor half bridges. As there are two controlled timing

pulses for each thyristor half bridge, this topology is referred

as a 2-pulse (or 4-pulse in circulating current mode)

cycloconverter [9&10].

1.1 Cycloconverter

The single phase to single phase cycloconverter connects

with split phase induction motor as shown in Fig.6 [2]. Which

is operating without circulating current; the non-conducting

thyristors should always be kept off otherwise the input power

supply could be shorted. When the load current is

positive, the output voltage is only controlled by phase

control of thyristors T1 and T3 at the same time, the other

two negative thyristors T2 and T4 are kept off and vice-

versa when the load current is negative. When the load

current changes its direction at the same time ensuring that the

two thyristor half bridges do not conduct at the same time. If

the cycloconverter is operating in circulating current

mode, both thyristor half bridges are continuously

conducting, eliminating the output voltage distortion during

load current zero crossing but additional coupled reactors

are required between the two thyristor half bridges to

limit the circulating current Although, the output voltage of

the cycloconverter can be improved in circulating current

mode, the circulating current reactor tends to be bulky and

more expensive and the presence of the circulating current will

degrade the input power factor.

Fig. 2: Single Phase Cycloconverter Outputs a) Input

voltage b) Output voltage for zero firing angle c) Output

voltage for firing angle of 60 degrees d) Output voltage

with varying firing angle.

Fig.3: (a) Input 50Hz (b) Output 25Hz

(c) Output 121/2Hz.

Fig.2 (a) shows the single phase cycloconverter input voltage,

firing angle of the thyristors changing over the cycle of the

output. This dynamic process produces an output waveform

that more closely resembles a sinusoid than the non-dynamic

process in Fig.2-b .The single phase cycloconverter sinusoidal

waveform (input voltage) is obtaining different improved

waveform of the output voltage. From Fig, 2 (d) show the

varying firing angle of the single phase cycloconverter output

voltage.

2. MODELING OF THE SINGLE PHASE

INDUCTION MOTOR

Single phase induction motors are usually constructed with

two windings on the stator side and squirrel cage winding in

the rotor side. The auxiliary winding is used to produce a

rotating field to start the motor. The axis of the auxiliary

winding is placed 90 electrical ahead of the main winding as

shown in Fig.4. The lively simulation of the motor is presented

in the stationary d-q frame to facilitate the application of the

inverter and, later on, the feedback regulators. Since, the axis

of the main and auxiliary windings is already orthogonal, the

stationary d-q axis is chosen aligned with the orthogonal axis

of the physical windings. The squirrel cage rotor is represented

by equivalent two coils transformed to the stationary d-q axis

as shown in Fig.4. Since the two stator windings; namely the

main and auxiliary coils, have different number of turns,

Fig.4: d-q Transformation of the Single Phase Induction

Motor

ABHISHEK PRATAP SINGH* et al. ISSN: 22503676

[IJESAT] INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE & ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY Volume-2, Issue-2, 346 351

IJESAT | Mar-Apr 2012

Available online @ http://www.ijesat.org 348

They will yield different mutual reactances. Therefore, a

transformation is made to transfer the auxiliary winding to an

equivalent winding with the same number of turns as that of

the main coil. The new variables referred to the equivalent coil

are given as follows:

[1]

The voltage equation of the motor can be written in the d-q

stationary frame as follows [4]:

.. [2]

The equations of motion are given by:

.......................................................... [3]

Where:

sd ,sq ,sd ,rq are the d-q- stator and rotor flux

linkage, respectively,

X

sd

is the d-axis stator leakage reactance,

rr is the rotor resistance,

rsd,rsq are the rotor resistance,

m is the base speed, 314 rad/sec,

r is the rotor speed, electric rad/sec,

Te is the developed torque,

Tl is the load torque,

Tdamp is the damping torque,

P is the number of poles.

3. SIMULATION RESULT

Simulink model of split phase induction motor and single

phase to single phase cycloconverter is shown in Fig. 5 and 6,

respectively. The objective of this work is to analyses the

speed of split phase induction motor performance. Since, the

d-q axis model of an induction motor is only valid for

sinusoidal input voltage; the cycloconveter voltage output

must be decomposed into its fundamental. Fig. (7 and 8) show

output phase voltages and currents for input frequency is 2

times the output frequency of the 1-phase cycloconverter.

Fig.5: Single Phase Induction Motor

Fig.6: 1- phase to 1- phase cycloconverter

After applying the control strategy, the proposed

cycloconverter simulation results give shown in Fig. 9 and

Fig. 12. In order to get a better understanding of the control

system and to verify the control techniques described by

researcher in previous research papers [2], Fig.10 and 11

shows output phase voltages and currents for input frequency,

which is 2 & 4 times the output frequency of the 1-phase

cycloconverter. The simulation starts with the generation of 60

Hz reference sine wave.

ABHISHEK PRATAP SINGH* et al. ISSN: 22503676

[IJESAT] INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE & ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY Volume-2, Issue-2, 346 351

IJESAT | Mar-Apr 2012

Available online @ http://www.ijesat.org 349

Fig.7: Voltage Waveform shows the input

frequency is 2 times the output frequency.

Fig.10: Voltage Waveform shows the input frequency is

4 times the output frequency.

(a) Main & Aux. Current

(b) Rotor Speed

(c) Load & Electromagnetic Torque

Fig.9: Waveform shows the input frequency is 2 times the

output frequency (a) Main & Aux. Current (b) Rotor

Speed (c) Load & Electromagnetic Torque.

Fig.10: Voltage Waveform shows the input frequency is

4 times the output frequency.

Fig.11: Current Waveform shows the input frequency is

4 times the output frequency.

ABHISHEK PRATAP SINGH* et al. ISSN: 22503676

[IJESAT] INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE & ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY Volume-2, Issue-2, 346 351

IJESAT | Mar-Apr 2012

Available online @ http://www.ijesat.org 350

(a) Main & Aux. Current

(b) Rotor Speed

(c) Load & Electromagnetic Torque

Fig.12: Waveform shows the input frequency is 4 times the

output frequency (a) Main & Aux. Current (b) Rotor

Speed (c) Load & Electromagnetic Torque

Fig.13: FFT Analysis of Current waveforms

From the above waveform shown in different Figs. (9,11), we

can conclude the results obtain as follws.The average output

voltage waveform is far from sinusoidal since the firing

angle is held constant .The current waveform not repeated

after every cycle Fig.8. Some circulating current is allowed

to flow from the positive converter to the negative

converter. Fig. 13 shows the FFT analysis of split phase

induction motor. In this case a circulating current limit in

reactor is connected between the positive and negative

converter.In order to obtain reasonably good sinusoidal or

square output voltage waveform using line commutated two

quadrant converter and eliminating the possibility of short

circuit of the supply voltage, the output frequency is

limited to a value much lower than supply frequency.

4. CONCLUSIONS

The cyloconverter circuits are designed, and simulated and

finally desired results are obtained. The single phase

cycloconverter used for split phase motor to generate

supply the torque characteristics. whom matcheing with

demand torque characteristics of particular machine by the

use of designing cycloconverter different desired frequency

are obtained to equalize the torque demand of the

machine. This different frequency of cycloconverter is also

useful to replace flywheel from the operating machine

which reduces the cause of torsional vibration and fatigue

damage of machine. The paper proposed a feedback control

scheme of cycloconverter fed split phase induction motor.

Furthermore, it provides means for limiting the slip and

consequently the motor current. This means a reduction in the

cycloconverter rating and better efficiency. The results

obtained using MATLAB for single phase cycloconverter

coupled induction motor.

REFERENCES

[1] Paul C. Krause, Oleg Wasynczuk and Scott D. Sudhoff,

Analysis of Electric Machinery and Drive Systems, 2nd

ed., Wiley-IEEE Press, ISBN: 978-0-471-14326-0, 2002.

[2] Sandeep Pande and Harshit Dalvi, Simulation of

Cycloconverter Based Three Phase Induction Motor

International Journal of Advances in Engineering &

Technology (IJAET). ISSN: 2231-1963 July 2011.

[3] A.,"Development of cycloconverters," Canadian

Conference on Electrcal and Computer Engineering,

2003. IEEE CCECE 2003. Vol.1, 4-7 May 2003, pp.521 -

524

[4] I. A. M. Abdel-Halim, H. G. Hamed, and K. M.

Hassaneen, Modeling and Simulation of VSI-FED

ABHISHEK PRATAP SINGH* et al. ISSN: 22503676

[IJESAT] INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE & ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY Volume-2, Issue-2, 346 351

IJESAT | Mar-Apr 2012

Available online @ http://www.ijesat.org 351

Induction Motors, Middle East Power Systems

Conference (MEPCON2000), pp.80-84,2000.

[5] D.M. Manjure and E. Makram Effect of converter Drive

on Power Systems, Middle East Power Systems

Conference (MEPCON2000), March 28-30, 2000, pp.

28- 32. 2000

[6]. Thyristorised Power Controller by G K Dubey, S R

Doraldand A Joshi, New Age International Publisher.

[7] Chen-Mun Ong, Simulation of Electric Machinery, ISBN:

0-13-723785-5, Prentice Hall, NJ 07458, 1998

[8] Songchun Zhang, Fenglin Wu, Shmin Shen, Shuchun

Yang, A Digital Controller Based Cycloconverter

Fed Drive, 1997 IEEE Transaction, pp. 637-641

[9] Z. Wang and Y. Liu, Modeling and Simulation of a

Cycloconverter Drive System for Harmonic studies,

IEEE Transactions on Modern Electronics, vol. 47, no. 3,

June 2000, pp. 533-541.

[10] M. Adli, R. Mecke, F.Palis, A New Control Strategic

of Quasi- Cycloconverter Fed Induction Motor drive

in 1993, The European Power Electronics Association,

pp. 82-87.

BIOGRAPHIES

Abhishek Pratap Singh is the student of

M-Tech (Power Electronics & Drives) in

Madan Mohan Malaviya Engineering

College, Gorakhpur. He has obtained his

B-Tech Degree in Electronics &

Communication Engineering from IET Dr.

R.M.L. Avadh University (Faizabad). He

is doing his research work under the guidance of Dr. V.K. Giri

Professor in the department of Electrical Engineering. I have

received esteemed and kind guidance from him and published

3 research papers. My research work is mainly based on speed

control of induction motor by using cycloconverter.

V K Giri obtained his B.E. (Electrical)

Degree from REC, Surat (Gujrat) in 1988,

M.E. (Measurement and Instrumentation)

Hons. degree from University of Roorkee,

Roorkee in 1997 and Ph.D. degree from

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee,

Roorkee in 2003. He joined the Electrical

Engineering Department of M.M.M

Engineering College, Gorakhpur (UP) in 1989 as lecturer.

Presently, he holds the position of Professor in the same

department since, 2008. He has published more than 30

research papers, guided 6 PG students; and supervising 3

Ph.D. theses. He has received many awards including the best

paper awards of the Institution of Engineers (India) in 23

rd

Indian Engineering Congress in year 2008. He was elected as

Fellow of the Institution of Engineers (I), Institution of

Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers, and is a

member of many professional bodies such as life member

ISTE, member IEE and member CSI. He has also undertaken

large number of consultancy, testing & sponsored projects

from industries and government departments. His research

interests include Digital Signal Processing, Measurement and

Instrumentation, Biomedical Instrumentation, ECG Data

Compression and Telemedicine.

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