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Student Name: Zubaidah Abdul Rehman Al Din
Student ID: 20042080
Course: IST
Internet 2, Voluntar !arti"i#ation
Internet2 or UCAID (University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development)
Internet2 or UCAID (University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development) is a non-profit consortium which develops and deploys
advanced network applications and technologies, for education and high-speed data transfer purposes. It is led by 208 universities [! and
partners from the networking "#isco $ystems%, publishing "&rous $cience% and technology industries such as #omcast, Intel and $un
'icrosystems. $ome of the technologies it has developed include I&v(, I& multicasting and )uality of service. *Internet2* is a registered
trademark [2!.
Internet2 "and its members% created the +bilene ,etwork and was a prime investor "-0 million% in the ,ational .ambda/ail ",./%
pro0ect[citation needed!. 1uring 20023200(, Internet2 and ,./ held e4tensive discussions regarding a possible merger[citation needed!. 5ey to
this merger was the condition that Internet2 would operate its successor to +bilene using ,./6s infrastructure ",./ owns its own fiber
infrastructure, where Internet2 utili7es leased fiber from 8west for +bilene%. 9hose talks broke down in the $pring of 200(, and no future talks
are e4pected[citation needed!. Internet2 has since contracted with .evel: for the infrastructure to operate their ne4t generation research
network[citation needed!. ,./ has cited Internet26s contracts with .evel: as their prime reason for withdrawing from the merger talks[citation
needed!. +dditionally, many feel that ,./6s focus on e4perimentation made their infrastructure less reliable than what has typically been
e4pected of +bilene[citation needed!. + pro0ect to develop new technologies for high-performance computer networking. ;hile specifically
developed to facilitate research and educational purposes, the involvement of research, commercial and government organisations also aims to
distribute these technology into the wider community.
Internet2 is a research pro0ect3a group that is [collectively! acting to establish high-speed service for a closed community of universities and
research organi7ations making use of ne4t-generation technologies designed to deliver advanced multimedia and collaborative applications.*
Internet2 is not a separate, stand-alone network meant to replace or compete with the e4isting Internet. *9his independent pro0ect, undertaken
by more than <0 of the nation=s institutions of higher education seeks to>
enable a new generation of applications to take advantage of advanced networks, such as media integration, interactivity, and ?real-
time= collaboration@
create and sustain a leading-edge network for the nation=s research community@ [and!
rapidly transfer new network services and applications to all levels of educational use.
Internet2 is made up of two backbone services consisting of very high speed, fiber-optic cable that provides a wider bandwidth than the original
Internet. 9his greater bandwidth allows more information to travel much faster along a network linked by access points called *giga&o&s*.
Aiga&o&s have been installed strategically around the Bnited $tates and act as hubs for information transport over the high-speed bandwidth.
vC,$ and the +bilene ,etwork are the two backbone services providing the nationwide infrastructure for the Internet2 initiative.
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Student Name: Zubaidah Abdul Rehman Al Din
Student ID: 20042080
Course: IST
Internet 2, Voluntar !arti"i#ation
Desired Outcomes
1igital Dideo on 1emand
En .ine +ssessment
Dideo #onferencing
+& #oursework F4pansion
5-20 #ollaboratives
;orld ;ide #o-teaching
1istance .earning
$tudent on-line courses
$taff development
Needed Inputs
#onnectivity from school districts to #entral Gub
I2 partner
$tart up funding
Cost Savings to School Districts
1ata storage
$hared software
$tudent records
+dministrative "e.g., accounting, personnel, etc.%
'ove 9hin client systems
/educe personnel costs through centrali7ed server farm
and Characteristics:
Internet2 is working with .evel : #ommunications to provide the B.$. research and education community with a dynamic, innovative and cost-
effective hybrid optical and packet network. 9he new network is designed to provide ne4t-generation production services as well as a platform
for the development of new networking ideas and protocols. ;ith community control of the fundamental networking infrastructure, the new
Internet2 ,etwork will enable a wide variety of bandwidth-intensive applications under development at campuses and research labs today.
9he new network is one component of Internet2=s HsystemsI approach to developing and deploying advanced networking for the research and
education community> ,etwork 9echnologies, 'iddleware, $ecurity, &erformance 'easurement, and #ommunity #ollaboration.
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Student Name: Zubaidah Abdul Rehman Al Din
Student ID: 20042080
Course: IST
Internet 2, Voluntar !arti"i#ation
Characteristics involve:
% technical superiority
2% seamless deployment
:% community control
2% innovation
<% community advantages
(% fle4ibility
J% grooming
8% reliability
K% services
0% higher networking speeds
% connection to the commercial internet
2% dedicated wavelengths
:% access to dark fiber
2% professional services
<% other services
(% responsible
J% accessible
8% advanced
K% versatile
20% focus
2% fle4ibility
22% access
In#ommon eliminates the need for researchers, students, and educators to
maintain multiple, password-protected accounts. Enline service providers no
longer build and manage account provisioning systems. In#ommon uses
innovative $hibbolethL authentication and authori7ation systems to enable cost-
effective, privacy-preserving collaboration among its community of participants.
The Benefit
Enline service providers make access decisions based on a user6s log-in to his or her home organi7ation. +uthori7ed resources stay protected
while users have fewer accounts and passwords to 0uggle. Murthermore, only agreed upon attributes about each user are released. In this way,
levels of privacy are always maintained and controlled by the home organi7ation. 9his *federated identity* system of trust makes it easier on the
user, more scalable for resource providers, and takes advantage of identity management infrastructure already in place at universities and
partner organi7ations.
InCommon and User Identity
In#ommon also preserves privacy since the home institution controls when identity is disclosed. Information can be e4changed about
authori7ed user access, without having to disclose the identity of the user unless both sides agree it6s needed.
Who can currently oin InCommon!
9here are two primary categories of federation participation in In#ommon> Gigher Fducation Institutions and their $ponsored &artners.
&articipation in In#ommon is open to two and four year degree granting institutions that are regionally accredited by agencies on the B.$.
1epartment of Fducation=s list of /ecogni7ed +ccrediting +gencies. Gigher Fducation In#ommon &articipants, may sponsor non-academic
partners for participation in In#ommon. + $ponsored &artner is an organi7ation that makes on-line resources "i.e., information or services%
available to individuals or groups. Mor more information please review the Gigher Fducation Institution and $ponsored &artner information
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Student Name: Zubaidah Abdul Rehman Al Din
Student ID: 20042080
Course: IST
Internet 2, Voluntar !arti"i#ation
What is re"uired to oin InCommon!
Ergani7ations applying to 0oin In#ommon must agree at an e4ecutive level of their organi7ation to the terms and conditions of federation
participation, which include documenting the practices and procedures used to grant and manage user accounts. #ontacts for the institution
must be official representatives and will be verified as such. 9here are also technical re)uirements. $hibboleth v. or higher must be installed,
to support In#ommon6s federated authentication model. Mor more details on the $hibboleth software, please see the )uestion on $hibboleth

Ceing accepted into In#ommon is a two-step process. 9he first step is to complete the In#ommon application, identifying the person who will
act as the F4ecutive .iaison to In#ommon. +fter the application has been reviewed, and F4ecutive .iaison has been vetted by In#ommon, the
+dministrative #ontact for the organi7ation will submit certain information, called metadata, to In#ommon, after which In#ommon will issue
certificates to the organi7ation. +ll information submitted to In#ommon will be verified for correctness.
What is the cost of oinin# the InCommon $ederation!
In#ommon operates on a cost-recovery basis with fees reviewed annually. Mees are> + one time &articipant +pplication Mee of -J00 payable by
credit card at the time of application. +n annual fee of -000 for the basic Gigher Fducation Institution or $ponsored &artner system package,
which includes identity management system and up to 20 /esource &rovider I1s. + /esource &rovider is an organi7ation that makes on-line
resources "i.e., information or services% available to individuals or groups. 9he annual fee is for the calendar year and is not pro-rated. +ll fees
are non-refundable. +dditional resource provider I1s are available at a rate of -000 for every additional 20. Mor more information please see
the In#ommon Mee $chedule.
%o& do I prepare for InCommon!
Ergani7ations that are eligible to 0oin In#ommon may consider 0oining the In8ueue federation to gain familiarity with federation technology,
concepts, and re)uirements. #urrent In8ueue members are encouraged to begin the process to 0oin In#ommon at the In#ommon website
www.incommonfederation.org. Mor more information or to ask )uestions, please send email to incommon-adminNincommonfederation.org.
What is In'ueue!
In8ueue is a federation of organi7ations interested in using the $hibboleth technology and e4ploring how federations work prior to 0oining a
production federation such as In#ommon. &articipation in In8ueue is open to any technically )ualifying organi7ation. Mees are being
determined and will be applied for 200<. Mor more information, please visit http>OOin)ueue.internet2.eduO
What is the difference (et&een In'ueue and InCommon!
;hile both In8ueue and In#ommon are federations, In#ommon participation is limited to research and education institutions recogni7ed by the
B.$. government and their designated resource providers. In#ommon is intended to be a permanent federation for participants while In8ueue is
a transitional phase for organi7ations before 0oining another federation. In8ueue offers )ualifying organi7ations the opportunity to gain
e4perience with a federation without having all the re)uirements of a higher level of trust in place. In#ommon offers the additional benefit of
providing a trust agreement to support trusted sharing of protected resources.
Why is participation in In'ueue temporary!
In8ueue is intended to prepare organi7ations to 0oin other federations by facilitating e4perience with federations and federated authentication
technology. $ince In8ueue is intended as a transition toward the higher trust levels of other federations, In8ueue will be structured to assist
organi7ations in moving toward that goal.
What is )hi((oleth!
$hibboleth software enables the sharing of ;eb resources that are sub0ect to access controls such as user I1s and passwords. $hibboleth
leverages institutional sign-on and directory systems to work among organi7ations by locally authenticating users and then passing information
about them to the resource site to enable that site to make an informed authori7ation decision. 9he $hibboleth architecture protects privacy by
letting institutions and individuals set policies to control what type of user information can be released to each destination. Mor more information
on $hibboleth please visit http>OOshibboleth.internet2.eduO.
Page 4 of 10
Student Name: Zubaidah Abdul Rehman Al Din
Student ID: 20042080
Course: IST
Internet 2, Voluntar !arti"i#ation
$re"uently As*ed 'uestions ($A')
+) What do you consider to (e ,Internet2 Applications,!
+. 9hese are applications that can make a difference in how we engage in teaching, learning, and research in higher education.
Internet2 applications re)uire advanced networks. 9hat is, these applications will not run across commercial Internet connections.
Internet2 applications re)uire enhanced networking functionalityPsuch as high bandwidth, low latency "delay%, or multicastPnot
available on our commercial Internet connections.
2) What disciplines do these applications focus on!
+. Internet2 is about everything we do in higher education. 9herefore, we encourage and support applications development in all
disciplines from the sciences through arts and humanities. ;hether you6re in the classroom, the laboratory, the library, or the dorm,
you should be able to access Internet applications that provide benefit.
-) What.s the ,*iller app, for Internet2!
+. 9he fun thing about participating in Internet2 is working with all the creative minds who are working to create the ne4t generation of
applications. Cut, there6s no way to tell what the *killer app,* if any, might be. Instead, we like to describe four *iller attri(utes that
you6ll find in the most compelling applications.
9he first is interactive colla(oration environments, where you can truly interact with others without the barriers of distance.
9he second is to provide common access to remote resources, such as telescopes and microscopes.
9he third is using the network as a *backplane* to build net&or*/&ide computation and data services, such as those under
development in the Arid.
9he fourth attribute is displaying information through virtual reality environmentsPmoving from statics graphics and images to
moving, three-dimensional animations.
0) 1o2 really2 &hat.s the ,*iller app,!
+. ;ell, the area that will provide the widest benefit and largest aggregate use of the Internet2 network capacity is digital video. Dideo-
based applications cover everything from video conferencing to on-demand content to remote control of microscopes and other
3) What is 14I!
9he ,e4t Aeneration Internet ",AI% is a multi-agency Mederal research and development "/Q1% program that is developing advanced
networking technologies, developing revolutionary applications that re)uire advanced networking, and demonstrating these
capabilities on testbeds that are 00 to ,000 times faster end-to-end than today6s Internet. 9he ,AI initiative began Ectober , KKJ,
with the following participating agencies>
1+/&+ 1efense +dvanced /esearch &ro0ects +gency
,+$+ ,ational +eronautics and $pace +dministration
,IG ,ational Institutes of Gealth
,I$9 ,ational Institute of $tandards and 9echnology
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Student Name: Zubaidah Abdul Rehman Al Din
Student ID: 20042080
Course: IST
Internet 2, Voluntar !arti"i#ation
,$M ,ational $cience Moundation
5) What is vB1)6!
9he very high-speed Cackbone ,etwork $ervice "vC,$R% is a high-speed network backbone developed by the ,ational $cience
Moundation ",$M% and '#I ;orld#om. It was the first Internet2 network backbone.
7) What is A(ilene!
,amed after a pioneering railroad outpost in the +merican ;est, +bilene is an advanced high-speed backbone network that connects
regional network aggregation points, called Aiga&o&s. It was developed by B#+I1 in partnership with 8west #ommunications, ,ortel
",orthern 9elecom% and #isco $ystems. +n important goal of the +bilene pro0ect is to provide a backbone network for Internet2.
8) Is Internet2 a separate 1et&or*!
Internet2 is not a separate physical network and will not replace the Internet. Internet2 brings together institutions and resources from
academia, industry and government to develop new technologies and capabilities that can then be deployed in the global Internet.
9) What is a 4i#a:o:!
Aigabit &oint of &resence is a high-speed switching point being developed by universities across the B.$. as part of the Internet2
pro0ect. 9he first Aiga&o& was deployed in /esearch 9riangle &ark, ,orth #arolina in late KKJ.
+;) What is middle&are!
9he term middleware is used to describe a diverse and broad range of products, tools, and data that help applications use networked
resources and services. It can refer to software that functions as a conversion or translation layer between an application and a
control program.
++) What is %<-2;! What is %<-2-!
G.:20 is the standard for wide area ";+,% videoconferencing over I$1,, switched <(, and 9 lines. It defines the communications
protocol and the compression algorithm for reducing the digital video into a smaller bandwidth. G.:2: is a standard that regulates the
transmission of real-time audio, video, and data communications over an I& network such as the Internet or a .+,. It is designed to
promote interoperability with other multimedia-services networks and also between competing commercial applications by different
vendors. 9he connection between two dissimilar networks is achieved through the use of a gateway which performs the network or
signaling translation re)uired for interoperability.
+2) What is =ulticast! What is =(one!
'ulticast is a suite of protocols designed to form a speciali7ed network
capability to efficiently transmit data streams to multiple receivers
across a network. 9here are three types of traffic on the Internet>
Bnicast, one source to one receiver@ Croadcast, one source to all
receivers@ and 'ulticast, one source to select receivers. I& 'ulticast
"Internet-based 'ulticast Cackbone or *'bone*% is used to stream
audio and video over a 9#&OI& network by relying on the e4isting
network resources to perform the comple4 data replication and routing.
It saves network bandwidth by transmitting files as one data stream
over the backbone and only duplicating them to the target stations by
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Student Name: Zubaidah Abdul Rehman Al Din
Student ID: 20042080
Course: IST
Internet 2, Voluntar !arti"i#ation
the router at the end of the path.
+-) What is 'Bone!
.aunched in Ectober KK8, the 8Cone is an Internet2 initiative to build a testbed for new I& )uality of service "8o$% technologies.
,ew advanced network applications like remote instrument control, scientific collaboratories, and virtual classrooms will give our
universities the tools that they need to fulfill their teaching and research missions in the coming century but only if the demands that
these new applications place on the network can be met. 9he name *8Cone* is not an abbreviation for anythingS In particular, since
the 8Cone is not a backbone network or an overlay network, *8Cone* does not stand for *8o$ Cackbone*. Gowever, *8Cone* is
meant to suggest a 8o$ testbed in the spirit of the 'Cone "an I& native multicast testbed% and the (Cone "an I&v( testbed%.
+0) What is diffserve!
9oday Internet transmissions are *best effort*Ppackets get there when they get there. 9hat6s not a problem with e-mail messages,
which don6t have to be delivered instantaneously. Cut packets in a videoconference stream need to reach their destination without
even a millisecond break. 1iffserve would take care of the issue by assigning levels of priority to different types of packets.
+3) What is I:v5!
Ence referred to as I& ,e4t Aeneration "I&ng%, is the ne4t generation I& protocol. Its specifications were completed in KKJ by the
Internet Fngineering 9ask Morce "IF9M%. I&v( is designed to correct some of the shortcomings of I&v2 such as data security and
ma4imum number of Internet addresses. I&v( increases the address space from :2 to 28 bits and also supports )uality of service
"8o$% parameters for realtime audio and video.
+5) Does the use of the Internet2 net&or* at =aryland re"uire any special hard&are!
9he Internet2 network offers large bandwidth. +t 'aryland our network infrastructure e)uipment offers switched 0O00 'b to the
desktop. 9his speed is more than ade)uate to take advantage of the Internet2 network. In special circumstances, if a AigF connection
to the desktop is desired, then special hardware will be needed. &lease e-mail Internet2Nnts.umd.edu for more information.
Internet2 offers a great deal of research and teaching potential for academic institutions. +cademic librarians have a uni)ue opportunity to lead
their institutions= participation in regional and multi-university collaborations, distance education possibilities, real-time video broadcasting,
computational steering, high-fidelity streaming of video and audio, and much more.
Mactors leading to increased collaboration among information professionals include the need for integration of institutional information resources
in various formats@ management trends3such as process reengineering3that influence the ways information is used@ the need to support cross-
disciplinary work and share information across traditional boundaries@ and the interest in e4ploiting the potential of technology for managing
9he reality is that with or without libraries spearheading the effort, the implementation of the infrastructure needed to utili7e networks with broad
bandwidth capabilities is imminent in every academic institution. 9herefore, leaders in academic libraries should take advantage of the
opportunity to position themselves at the forefront of these initiatives. .ibraries can begin by incorporating system infrastructures within the
library itself, while simultaneously e4ploring collaborative partnering on- and off-campus. 9his is a chance for academic libraries to strengthen
multi-departmental partnerships while implementing new technological measures in the dissemination of scholarly communication, research,
and education. *.ibrarians are arguably the most knowledgeable assessors of whether a particular resource satisfies the information-seeking
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Student Name: Zubaidah Abdul Rehman Al Din
Student ID: 20042080
Course: IST
Internet 2, Voluntar !arti"i#ation
needs of library clientele, and how well it does so. 9his valuable e4pertise gives librarians opportunities to lead their organi7ations in planning
for technology.*
$eatures of $uture Internet
+ccess via Aigapops, similar to ,+&s
Eperate at very high speeds "(22 'bps to 2.2 Abps% using $E,F9, +9' and I&v( protocols
I&v( not I&v2
,ew protocol development focuses on issues like
8uality of $ervice
,ew applications include
'any new pro0ects designing new technologies to evolve Internet
&rimary ,orth +merican pro0ects
,e4t Aeneration Internet ",AI% funded by ,$M
1eveloped very high performance Cackbone ,etwork $ervice "vC,$%
/un by ;orld#om
Bniversity #orporation for +dvanced Internet 1evelopment "B#+I1% with :2 universities
1eveloped +bilene network "also called Internet 2%
+dvanced /esearch and 1evelopment ,etwork Eperations #enter "+/1,E#% funded by #anadian government
1eveloped #+T,et
IU I Geography
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Student Name: Zubaidah Abdul Rehman Al Din
Student ID: 20042080
Course: IST
Internet 2, Voluntar !arti"i#ation
#haracteristics of Internet 2 ,etwork
Internet @in*s:
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Student Name: Zubaidah Abdul Rehman Al Din
Student ID: 20042080
Course: IST
Internet 2, Voluntar !arti"i#ation
Page 10 of 10