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Subnet Mask Value:

Subnet mask value defines properties of IP Address to which it


can communicate and to which it can not
Subnet mask value defines Network component and host
component of an IP address
Ip address uses subnet mask to find out boundaries of network
Subnet mask value is a driver of IP address
Network Bits are always represented with
!ost bits are always represented with "
Subnet Mask Structure:
#lass A Subnet Mast structure
N$!$!$!
$""""""""$""""""""$""""""""
%&&$"$"$"
#lass B Subnet Mask Structure
N$N$!$!
$$""""""""$""""""""
#lass # Subnet Mast Structure
N$N$N$!
$$$""""""""
%&&$%&&$%&&$"
'hat is Network Address
Network Address is the identification address for all the systems in the
network
(he systems with same network address can communicate with each
other
Systems with different network addresses can not communicate
)enerally
'hat is Broadcast Address
Broadcast Address is used to deliver a broadcast messa)e to all the
computers in the network
(he systems with same network address can have same broadcast
address
All the systems in between Network address and broadcast address
form a lo)ical network to communicate with each other$
note:Network Address and Broad cast Address are the boundaries of a
network$ (hey can*t be assi)ned to computers
!ow to find out Network Address
Identify class of IP address and Subnet mask Structure$
+eplace host portion with *"*,or-
Perform a lo)ical AN. operation between IP Address and subnet mask
value
!ow to find out Broadcast Address
Identify class of Ip Address and Subnet mask Structure
+eplace !ost portion with %&&
perform a lo)ical /+ operation between IP Address and inverse
Subnetmask value
01:
"$2&$%%3$4
N$!$!$!
Network Address5"$"$"$"
Broadcast Address5"$%&&$%&&$%&&
6%$%&$4$78
N$N$!$!
Network address56%$%&$"$"
Broadcast Address56%$%&$%&&$%&&
4%$82$""$""
N$N$N$!
Network Address54%$82$""$"
Broadcast Address54%$82$""$%&&
IP address +elated /r)ani9ations:
IANA:internet Assi)ned Numbers Authority
I#ANN:Internet #orporation for Assi)ned Numbers and names
Private IP Address:
(he IP addresses not routable in public network
;sed to communicate within private network
Internet access is not possible with private ip address
.efined in +<# 42
#lassA "$"$"$":"$%&&$%&&$%&&
#lass B 6%$8$"$":6%$3$%&&$%&&
#lass # 4%$82$"$":4%$82$%&&$%&&
Special IP addresses:
Network is reserved for default routin)$ #annot assi)ned to systems
%6$"$"$" Network is reserved for loop back purpose ,NI# dia)nosis-
#lass . Networks are reserved for multicastin)$ Not for systems
#lass 0 Networks are reserved for +esearch and .evelopment$ Not for
systems
Subnettin)
'hat is subnettin)=
>o)ically breakin) the ma?or network into smaller networks:subnets
Advanta)e of subnettin)
+educe wasta)e of ip address
Subnettin) Procedure:
Increase network bits in the subnet mask value from left to ri)ht
Subnettin) formulae:

No$ of networks 5 %pwer n
N5increased network bits
No$ of !osts per network 5,% power !-:%
!5remainin) host bits
Subnettin) Methods:
Subnettin) can be done in two ways
Based on No$of Networks
Based on No$ of !osts
Subnettin) #alculations:
Based on No$ of Networks:
Identify re@uired No$ of subnets
+efer % power chart
Identify N value
Increast the bits in the subnetmask value
Identify ! value
<ind out new subnet mask value
<ind out No$ of subnets and No$ of hosts
Subtract new subnet mask value from %&&$%&&$%&&$%&&
<ind out network address and Broadcast address of all
subnets
Based on No$ of hosts:
o Identify re@uired No$ of hosts per subnet
o +efer % power hart
o Identify ! value
o Increase the bits in the subnetmask value
o Identify N value
o <ind out new subnet mask value
o <ind out No$of subnets and No$of hosts
o Subtract new subnet mask value form %&&$%&&$%&&$%&&
o <ind out network address and Broadcast address of all subnets
01ercise:
.ivide 4%$82$""$" into 7 subnets
.ivide "$"$"$" into " subnets
.ivide 6%$8$"$"$ into 8 subnets
.ivide 4%$82$""$" into subnets with %2 hosts
.ivide "$"$"$" into subnets with 7""" hosts
.ivide 6%$8$"$" into subnets &"" hosts
V>SM
'hat is vlsm
Variable length subnet Mask
Also called as subnetting of subnetting
Subnetting is used to break the network equally
If these networks are subneetted again, different subnets may have different
subnet mask values, also called as Variable length subnet masks
With vlsm, IP addressing scheme is used more efficiently without wastage
Subnetting and VSM com!arisions
Subnetting VSM
"reaking netwok equally "reaking network unequally
Sub#netting Subnetting of subnetting
$as same subnet mask value $as different subnet mask values
%educe IP wastage %educe IP wastage more effectively
&esign IP address scheme for the network with '()*'+,*'*-
"ranch' '-' hosts
"ranch ) )+ hosts
"ranch . ),hosts
"ranch'#) wan link ) hosts
"ranch )#. wan link ) hosts
"ranch .#' wan link ) hosts