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TRIGONOMETRIC RATIO & IDENTITIES
The word 'trigonometry' is derived from the Greek words 'trigon' and ' metron' and it means 'measuring
the sides and angles of a triangle'.
Angl e :
Angle is a measure of rotation of a given ray about its initial point. The original ray is called the initial
side and the final position of the ray after rotation is called the terminal side of the angle. The point of
rotation is called the vertex. If the direction of rotation is anticlockwise, the angle is said to be positive
and if the direction of rotation is clockwise, then the angle is negative.
T
e
r
m
in
a
l
S
id
e
Initial Side
Vertex O
B
A
(i) Positive angle
(anticlockwise measurement)
T
e
r
m
in
a
l
S
id
e
Initial Side
Vertex O
B
A
(ii) Negative angle
(clockwise measurement)
Systems For Measurement of Angles :
An angle can be measured in the following systems.
1. Sexagesimal System (British System) : In this system
360
1
of a complete circular turn is called a
degree (),
60
1
of a degree is called a minute (' ) and
60
1
of a minute is called a second ('').
One right angle = 90, 1 = 60', 1' = 60''
2. Centesimal System (French System) : In this system
400
1
of a complete circular turn is called a
grade (
g
),
100
1
of a grade is called a minute and
100
1
of a minute is called a second .
One right angle = 100
g
; 1
g
= 100 ; 1 = 100
Note : The minutes and seconds in the Sexagesimal system are different with the minutes and seconds
respectively in the Centesimal System. Symbols in both systems are also different.
3. Circular System (Radian Measurement)
The angle subtended by an arc of a circle whose length is equal to the radius of the circle at the centre of the
circle is called a radian. In this system the unit of measurement is radian (
c
)
As the circumference of a circle of radius 1 unit is 2t , therefore one complete revolution of the initial side
subtends an angle of 2t radian.
More generally, in a circle of radius r, an arc of length r will subtend an angle of 1 radian. It is well-known that
equal arcs of a circle subtend equal angle at the centre. Since in a circle of radius r, an arc of length r
subtends an angle whose measure is 1 radian, an arc of length will subtend an angle whose measure is
r

radian. Thus, if in a circle of radius r, arc of length subtends an angle u radian at the centre, we have u =
r

or = ru .
MATHS
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2
u
1
A
B
1
O
1
u = 1 radian
(i)
u
1
A
B
1
O
1
u = 1 radian
(ii)
u
2
A
B
1
O
1
u = 2 radian
(iii)
u
2
A
B
1
O
1
u = 2 radian
(iv)
Note : # If no symbol is mentioned while showing measurement of angle, then it is considered to be
measured in radians.
e.g. u = 15 implies 15 radian
# Area of circular sector :
Area =
2
1
r
2
u sq. units
Relation between radian, degree and grade :
2
t
radian = 90 = 100
g
Trigonometric Ratios for Acute Angles :
Let a revolving ray OP starts from OAand revolves into the position OP, thus tracing out the angleAOP.
In the revolving ray take any point P and draw PM perpendicular to the initial ray OA.
In the right angle triangle MOP, OP is the hypotenuse, PM is the perpendicular, and OM is the base.
The trigonometrical ratios, or functions, of the angleAOP are defined as follows :
OP
MP
, i.e.,
. Hyp
. Perp
, is called the Sine of the angle AOP;
OP
OM
, i.e.
. Hyp
Base
, is called the Cosine of the angle AOP;
OM
MP
, i.e.
Base
. Perp
, is called the Tangent of the angle AOP;
MP
OM
, i.e.
. Perp
Base
, is called the Cotangent of the angle AOP;
OM
OP
, i.e.
Base
. Hyp
, is called the Secant of the angle AOP;
MP
OP
, i.e.
. Perp
. Hyp
, is called the Cosecant of the angle AOP;
The quantity by which the cosine falls short of unity
i.e. 1 cos AOP, is called the Versed Sine of AOP; also the quantity 1 sinAOP, by which the sine falls
short of unity, is called the Coversed Sine of AOP.
It can be noted that the trigonometrical ratios are all real numbers.
The names of these eight ratios are written, for brevity, sinAOP, cos AOP, tanAOP, cot AOP, cosec AOP, sec
AOP, vers AOP, and covers AOP respectively
MATHS
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Trigonometric ratios for angle u e R :
We will now extend the definition of trigonometric ratios to any angle in terms of radian measure and study
them as trigonometric functions. (also called circular functions)
Consider a unit circle (radius 1 unit) with centre at origin
of the coordinateaxes. Let at originof the coordinateaxes.
Let P(a, b) be any point on the circle with angle AOP = x
radian, i.e., length of arc AP = x
We define cos x = a and sin x = b Since A OMP is a right
triangle, we have OM
2
+ MP
2
= OP
2
or a
2
+ b
2
=1 Thus, for
every point on the unit circle, we have
a
2
+ b
2
= 1 or cos
2
x + sin
2
x = 1
Since one complete revolution subtends an angle of 2t radian at the
centre of the circle, ZAOB =
2
t
, ZAOC = t and ZAOD =
2
3t
. All angles which
are integral multiples of
2
t
are called quadrantal angles. The coordinates of the
points A, B, C and D are, respectively, (1, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0) and (0, 1). Therefore,
for quadrantal angles, we have
cos 0 = 1 sin 0 = 0,
cos
2
t
= 0 sin
2
t
= 1
cos t = 1 sin t = 0
cos
2
3t
= 0 sin
2
3t
= 1
cos 2t = 1 sin 2t = 0
Now if we take one complete revolution from the position OP, we again come back to same position OP.
Thus, we also observe that if x increases (or decreases) by any integral multiple of 2t , the values of sine and
cosine functions do not change. Thus,
sin (2nt + x) = sin x , n e Z, cos (2nt + x) = cos x, n e Z
Further, sin x = 0, if x = 0, t , 2t , 3t ....., i.e., when x is an integral multiple of t and cos x = 0, if
x =
2
t
,
2
3t
,
2
5t
, .....i.e., cos x vanishes when x is an odd multiple of
2
t
. Thus
sin x = 0 implies x = nt , where n is any integer
cos x = 0 implies x = (2n + 1)
2
t
, where n is any integer..
We nowdefine other trigonometric functions in terms of sine and cosine functions :
cosec x =
x sin
1
, x = nt , where n is any integer.
sec x =
x cos
1
, x = (2n + 1)
2
t
, where n is any integer..
tan x =
x cos
x sin
, x = (2n + 1)
2
t
, where n is any integer..
cot x =
x sin
x cos
, x = n t, where n is any integer..
We have shown that for all real x, sin
2
x + cos
2
x = 1
It follows that 1 + tan
2
x = sec
2
x (Think ! ) {x = (2n + 1)
2
t
; n e Z}
1 + cot
2
x = cosec
2
x (Think !) {x = nt ; n e Z}
MATHS
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Sign of The Trigonometric Functions
(i) If u is in the first quadrant then P(a, b) lies in the first quadrant. Therefore a > 0, b > 0 and hence the
values of all the trigonometric functions are positive.
(ii) If u is in the II quadrant then P(a, b) lies in the II quadrant. Therefore a < 0, b > 0 and hence the
values sin, cosec are positive and the remaining are negative.
(iii) If u is in the III quadrant then P(a, b) lies in the III quadrant. Therefore a < 0, b < 0 and hence the
values of tan, cot are positive and the remaining are negative.
(iv) If u is in the IV quadrant then P(a, b) lies in the IV quadrant. Therefore a > 0, b < 0 and hence the
values of cos, sec are positive and the remaining are negative.
Values of trigonometric functions of certain popular angles are shown in the following table :
. D . N 3 1
3
1
0 tan
0
2
1
2
1
2
3
1 cos
1
4
4
2
3
4
3
2
1
4
2
2
1
4
1
0
4
0
sin
2 3 4 6
0
= = = = =
t t t t
N.D. implies not defined
The values of cosec x, sec x and cot x are the reciprocal of the values of sin x, cosx and tan x, respectively.
Trigonometric Ratios of allied angles
If u is any angle, then u,
2
t
u, t u,
2
3t
u, 2t u etc. are called allied angles.
Trigonometric Ratios of ( u ) :
Let u be an angle in the standard position in the I quadrant. Let its terminal side cuts the circle with centre O
and radius r in P (x, y).
Let P' (x', y') be the point of intersection of the terminal side of the angle u in the standard position with the
circle.
Now ZMOP = ZMOP' (numerically) and P & P' have the same projection M in the x - axis
A OMP A OMP' x = x' and y = y'
y
x
P
P'
O
r
M
Z u POM =
Z ' u MOP =
(x , y)
(x , y ) ' '
sin ( u) =
r
y'
=
r
y
= sin u.
cos ( u) =
r
x'
=
r
x
= cos u.
tan ( u) =
'
'
x
y
=
x
y
= tan u.
cot ( u) =
'
'
y
x
=
y
x
= cot u.
sec ( u) =
' x
r
=
x
r
= sec u.
cosec ( u) =
' y
r
=
y
r
= cosec u.
Similarly if u is in the other quadrants then the above results can also be proved.
MATHS
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Trigonometric Ratios of t u
Let u be an angle in the standard position in the I quadrant. Let its terminal side cuts the circle with centre O
and radius r at P (x, y). Let P' (x', y') be the point of intersection of the terminal side of the angle t u with
the circle. Let M and M' be the projections of P and P' respectively in the x-axis.
Since A OM'P' A OMP, x' = x, y' = y
sin (t u) =
r
y'
=
r
y
= sin u.
cos (t u) =
r
x'
=
r
x
= cos u.
tan (t u) =
'
'
x
y
=
x
y
= tan u.
cot (t u) =
'
'
y
x
=
y
x
= cot u.
sec (t u) =
' x
r
=
x
r
= sec u.
cosec (t u) =
' y
r
=
y
r
= cosec u.
Trigonometric Ratios of |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
:
Similarly we can easily prove the following results.
sin |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
= cos u , tan |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
= cot u, cosec |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
= sec u,
cos |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
= sin u, cot |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
= tan u, sec |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
= cosec u
Trigonometric Ratios of |
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
Similarly we can easily prove the following results.
sin
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
= cos u, tan
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
= cot u, cosec
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
= sec u,
cos
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
= sin u, cot
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
= tan u, sec
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
= cosec u
Trigonometric Ratios of (t + u)
Similarly we can easily prove the following results.
sin (t + u) = sin u, tan (t + u) = tan u, cosec (t + u) = cosec u,
cos (t + u) = cos u, cot (t + u) = cot u, sec (t + u) = sec u
Trigonometric Ratios of |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
3
Similarly we can easily prove the following results.
MATHS
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sin |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
3
= cos u, tan |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
3
= cot u, cosec |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
3
= sec u
cos |
.
|

\
|
u
t
2
3
= sin u, cot |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
3
= tan u, sec |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
3
= cosec u,
Trigonometric Ratios of |
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
3
Similarly we can easily prove the following results.
sin |
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
3
= cos u, cos |
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
3
= sin u, tan |
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
3
= cot u,
cot |
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
3
= tan u, sec |
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
3
= cosec u, cosec |
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
3
= sec u
Think, and fill up the blank blocks in following table.
. D . N 3 1
3
1
0 tan
0
2
1
2
1
2
3
1 cos
1
2
3
2
1
2
1
0 sin
2
6
11
3
5
2
3
3
4
6
7
6
5
3
2
2 3 4 6
0 t
t t t t t
t
t t t t t t
Trigonometric functions:
(i) y = sin x Domain : x e R
Range : y e [1, 1]
t
0
1
y
1
x
t
2
3t
2
t
2
3t
2
2t 2t t
(ii) y = cos x Domain : x e R
Range : y e [ 1, 1]
t
0
1
y
1
x
t
2
3t
2
t
2
3t
2
2t 2t t
MATHS
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(iii) y = tan x Domain : x e R
)
`

t
+
2
) 1 n 2 (
, n e I
Range : y e R
0
x
y
t t
2
3t

2
3t
2
t
2
t
0
(iv) y = cot x Domain : x e R {nt}, n e I
Range : y e R
0
x
y
t
t
2
t
2
t
3t
2
2t
(v) y = cosec x Domain : x e R {nt}, n e I
Range : y e ( , 1] [1, )
(vi) y = sec x Domain : x e R
)
`

t
+
2
) 1 n 2 ( , n e I
Range : y e ( , 1] [1, )
MATHS
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Trigonometric functions of sum or difference of two angles:
(a) sin (A B) = sinA cosB cosA sinB
(b) cos (A B) = cosA cosB sinA sinB
(c) sinA sinB = cosB cosA = sin (A+B). sin (A B)
(d) cosA sinB = cosB sinA = cos (A+B). cos (A B)
(e) tan (A B) =
B tan A tan 1
B tan A tan

(f) cot (A B) =
A cot B cot
1 B cot A cot


(g) sin (A + B + C) = sin A cos B cos C + sin B cos A cos C + sin C cos A cos B sin A sin B sin C
(h) cos (A + B + C) = cos A cos B cos C cos A sin B sin C sin A cos B sin C sin A sin B cos C
(i) tan (A + B + C) =
A tan C tan C tan B tan B tan A tan 1
C tan B tan A tan C tan B tan A tan

+ +
.
(j) tan (u
1
+ u
2
+ u
3
+ ....... + u
n
) =
....... S S 1
...... S S S
4 2
5 3 1
+
+
where S
i
denotes sum of product of tangent of angles taken i at a time
Example # 1 : Prove that
(i) sin (45 + A) cos (45 B) + cos (45 + A) sin (45 B) = cos (A B)
(ii) tan
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
4
tan
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
4
3
= 1
Solution : (i) Clearly sin (45 + A) cos (45 B) + cos (45 + A) sin (45 B)
= sin (45 + A + 45 B) = sin (90 + A B) = cos (A B)
(ii) tan
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
4
tan
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
4
3
=
u
u +
tan 1
tan 1

u +
u +
tan 1
tan 1
= 1
Self practice problems :
(1) If sin o =
5
3
, cos | =
13
5
, then find sin (o + |)
(2) Find the value of sin 105
(3) Prove that 1 + tan A tan
2
A
= tan A cot
2
A
1 = sec AA
Answers : (1)
65
33
,
65
63
(2)
2 2
1 3 +
Transformati on formulae :
(i) sin(A+B) + sin(A B) = 2 sinA cosB (a) sinC + sinD = 2 sin
2
D C+
cos
2
D C
(ii) sin(A+B) sin(A B) = 2 cosA sinB (b) sinC sinD = 2 cos
2
D C+
sin
2
D C
(iii) cos(A+B) + cos(A B) = 2 cosA cosB (c) cosC + cosD = 2 cos
2
D C+
cos
2
D C
(iv) cos(A B) cos(A+B) = 2 sinA sinB (d) cosC cosD = 2 sin
2
D C+
sin
2
C D
MATHS
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Example # 2 : Prove that sin 5A + sin 3A = 2sin 4A cos A
Solution : L.H.S. sin 5A + sin 3A = 2sin 4A cos A = R.H.S.
[ sin C + sin D = 2 sin
2
D C+
cos
2
D C
]
Example # 3 : Find the value of 2 sin 3u cos u sin 4u sin 2u
Solution : 2 sin 3u cos u sin 4u sin 2u = 2 sin 3u cos u [2 sin 3u cos u ] = 0
Example # 4 : Prove that
(i)
u u u u
u u u u
4 sin 3 sin cos 2 cos
3 cos 6 sin cos 8 sin
= tan 2u
(ii)
u u
u + u
3 tan 5 tan
3 tan 5 tan
= 4 cos 2u cos 4u
Solution : (i)
u u u u
u u u u
4 sin 3 sin 2 cos 2 cos 2
3 cos 6 sin 2 cos 8 sin 2
=
u + u u + u
u u u + u
7 cos cos cos 3 cos
3 sin 9 sin 7 sin 9 sin
=
u u
u u
2 cos 5 cos 2
5 cos 2 sin 2
= tan 2u
(ii)
u u
u + u
3 tan 5 tan
3 tan 5 tan
=
u u u u
u u + u u
5 cos 3 sin 3 cos 5 sin
5 cos 3 sin 3 cos 5 sin
=
u
u
2 sin
8 sin
= 4 cos2u cos 4u
Self practice problems
(4) Prove that
(i) cos 8x cos 5x = 2 sin
2
x 13
sin
2
x 3
(ii)
A 2 cos A cos
A 2 sin A sin

+
= cot
2
A
(iii)
A 7 cos A 5 cos A 3 cos A cos
A 7 sin A 5 sin A 3 sin A sin
+ + +
+ + +
= tan 4A
(iv)
A 7 sin A 5 sin 2 A 3 sin
A 5 sin A 3 sin 2 A sin
+ +
+ +
=
A 5 sin
A 3 sin
(v)
A 13 cos A 9 cos A 5 cos A cos
A 13 sin A 9 sin A 5 sin A sin
+
+
= cot 4A
(5) Prove that sin
2
u
sin
2
7u
+ sin
2
3u
sin
2
11u
= sin 2u sin 5u
(6) Prove that cos A sin (B C) + cos B sin (C A) + cos C sin (A B) = 0
(7) Prove that 2 cos
13
t
cos
13
9t
+ cos
13
3t
+ cos
13
5t
= 0
Mul tiple and sub- mul ti ple angl es :
(a) sin 2A = 2 sinA cosA
Note : sin u = 2 sin
u
2
cos
u
2
etc.
MATHS
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10
(b) cos 2A = cosA sinA = 2cosA 1 = 1 2 sinA
Note : 2 cos
2
u
= 1 + cos u, 2 sin
2
u
= 1 cos u.
(c) tan 2A =
A tan 1
A tan 2
2

Note : tan u =
2
2
2
tan 1
tan 2
u
u

(d) sin 2A =
A tan 1
A tan 2
2
+
, cos 2A =
A tan 1
A tan 1
2
2
+

(e) sin 3A = 3 sinA 4 sin


3
A
(f) cos 3A = 4 cos
3
A 3 cosA
(g) tan 3A =
A tan 3 1
A tan A tan 3
2
3


Example # 5 : Prove that
(i)
A 2 cos 1
A 2 sin
+
= tan AA
(ii) tan A + cot A = 2 cosec 2 A
(iii)
) B A cos( B cos A cos 1
) B A cos( B cos A cos 1
+ +
+ +
= tan
2
A
cot
2
B
Solution : (i) L.H.S.
A 2 cos 1
A 2 sin
+
=
A cos 2
A cos A sin 2
2
= tan AA
(ii) L.H.S. tan A + cot A =
A tan
A tan 1
2
+
= 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
A tan 2
A tan 1
2
=
A 2 sin
2
= 2 cosec 2 AA
(iii) L.H.S.
) B A cos( B cos A cos 1
) B A cos( B cos A cos 1
+ +
+ +
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
B
2
A
cos
2
A
cos 2
2
A
cos 2
B
2
A
sin
2
A
sin 2
2
A
sin 2
2
2
= tan
2
A
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
B
2
A
cos
2
A
cos
B
2
A
sin
2
A
sin
= tan
2
A
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
| +
|
.
|

\
| +
2
B
sin
2
B A
sin 2
2
B
cos
2
B A
sin 2
= tan
2
A
cot
2
B
Self practice problems
(8) Prove that
u + u +
u + u
2 cos cos 1
2 sin sin
= tan u
(9) Prove that sin 20 sin 40 sin 60 sin 80 =
16
3
(10) Prove that tan 3A tan 2A tan A = tan 3A tan 2A tan A
(11) Prove that tan
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
A
45
= sec A + tan AA
MATHS
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11
Important trigonometric ratios of standard angles :
(a) sin nt = 0 ; cos n t = (1)
n
; tan n t = 0, where n e I
(b) sin 15 or sin
12
t
=
2 2
1 3
= cos 75 or cos
12
5t
;
cos 15 or cos
12
t
=
2 2
1 3+
= sin 75 or sin
12
5t
;
tan 15 =
1 3
1 3
+

= 3 2 = cot 75 ; tan 75 =
1 3
1 3

+
= 3 2+ = cot 15
(c) sin
10
t
or sin 18 =
4
1 5
= cos 72
cos 36 or cos
5
t
=
4
1 5+
= sin 54
Condi ti onal i denti ti es:
If A + B + C = t then :
(i) sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 4 sinA sinB sinC
(ii) sinA + sinB + sinC = 4 cos
2
A
cos
2
B
cos
2
C
(iii) cos 2 A + cos 2 B + cos 2 C = 1 4 cos A cos B cos C
(iv) cos A + cos B + cos C = 1 + 4 sin
2
A
sin
2
B
sin
2
C
(v) tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA tanB tanC
(vi) tan
2
A
tan
2
B
+ tan
2
B
tan
2
C
+ tan
2
C
tan
2
A
= 1
(vii) cot
2
A
+ cot
2
B
+ cot
2
C
= cot
2
A
. cot
2
B
. cot
2
C
(viii) cot A cot B + cot B cot C + cot C cot A = 1
(ix) A + B + C =
2
t
then tan A tan B + tan B tan C + tan C tan A = 1
Example # 6 : If A + B + C = 180, Prove that, sin
2
A + sin
2
B + sin
2
C = 2 + 2cosA cosB cosC.
Solution : Let S = sin
2
A + sin
2
B + sin
2
C
so that 2S = 2sin
2
A + 1 cos2B +1 cos2C
= 2 sin
2
A + 2 2cos(B + C) cos(B C)
= 2 2 cos
2
A + 2 2cos(B + C) cos(B C)
S = 2 + cosA [cos(B C) + cos(B+ C)]
since cosA = cos(B+C)
S = 2 + 2 cos A cos B cos C
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
12
Example # 7 : If x + y + z = xyz, Prove that
2
x 1
x 2

+
2
y 1
y 2

+
2
z 1
z 2

=
2
x 1
x 2

.
2
y 1
y 2

.
2
z 1
z 2

.
Solution : Put x = tanA, y = tanB and z = tanC,
so that we have
tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA tanB tanC A + B + C = nt, where n e I
Hence L.H.S.

2
x 1
x 2

+ 2
y 1
y 2

+
2
z 1
z 2

=
A tan 1
A tan 2
2

+
B tan 1
B tan 2
2

+
C tan 1
C tan 2
2

.
= tan2A + tan2B + tan2C [ A + B + C = nt ]
= tan2A tan2B tan2C =
2
x 1
x 2

. 2
y 1
y 2

.
2
z 1
z 2

Self practice problem


(12) If A + B + C = 180, prove that
(i) sin(B + 2C) + sin(C + 2A) + sin(A + 2B) = 4sin
2
C B
sin
2
A C
sin
2
B A
(ii)
C sin B sin A sin
C 2 sin B 2 sin A 2 sin
+ +
+ +
= 8 sin
2
A
sin
2
B
sin
2
C
.
(13) If A + B + C = 2S, prove that
(i) sin(S A) sin(S B) + sinS sin (S C) = sinA sinB.
(ii) sin(S A) + sin (S B) + sin(S C) sin S = 4sin
2
A
sin
2
B
sin
2
C
.
Sine and Cosine series:
(i) sin o + sin (o + |) + sin (o + 2| ) +...... + sin{ } | + o ) 1 n ( =
2
2
n
sin
sin
|
|
sin
|
.
|

\
|
|

+ o
2
1 n
(ii) cos o + cos (o + |) + cos (o + 2| ) +.... + cos { } | + o ) 1 n ( =
2
2
n
sin
sin
|
|
cos
|
.
|

\
|
|

+ o
2
1 n
where : | = 2mt, m e I
Example # 8 : Find the summation of the following series
(i) cos
7
2t
+ cos
7
4t
+ cos
7
6t
(ii) cos
7
t
+ cos
7
2t
+ cos
7
3t
+ cos
7
4t
+ cos
7
5t
+ cos
7
6t
(iii) cos
11
t
+ cos
11
3t
+ cos
11
5t
+ cos
11
7t
+ cos
11
9t
Solution : (i) cos
7
2t
+ cos
7
4t
+ cos
7
6t
=
7
sin
7
3
sin
2
7
6
7
2
cos
t
t
|
.
|

\
| t
+
t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
13
=
7
sin
7
3
sin
7
4
cos
t
t t
=
7
sin
7
3
sin
7
3
cos
t
t t

=
7
sin 2
7
6
sin
t
t
=
2
1
(ii) cos
7
t
+ cos
7
2t
+ cos
7
3t
+ cos
7
4t
+ cos
7
5t
+ cos
7
6t
=
14
sin
14
6
sin
2
7
6
7
cos
t
t
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
| t
+
t
=
14
sin
14
6
sin
2
cos
t
t t
= 0
(iii) cos
11
t
+ cos
11
3t
+ cos
11
5t
+ cos
11
7t
+ cos
11
9t
=
11
sin
11
5
sin
22
10
cos
t
t t
=
11
sin 2
11
10
sin
t
t
=
2
1
Self practice problem
Find sum of the following series :
(14) cos
1 n 2 +
t
+ cos
1 n 2
3
+
t
+ cos
1 n 2
5
+
t
+ ...... up to n terms.
(15) sin2o + sin3o + sin4o + ..... + sin no, where (n + 2)o = 2t
Answers : (14)
2
1
(15) 0.
Product series of cosine angles
cos u . cos 2u . cos2
2
u . cos2
3
u ...... cos2
n1
u =
u
u
sin 2
2 sin
n
n
Range of trigonometric expression:
E = a sin u + b cos u
E =
2 2
b a +

)

u
+
+ u
+
cos
b a
b
sin
b a
a
2 2 2 2
Let
2 2
b a
b
+
= sin o &
2 2
b a
a
+
= cos o
E =
2 2
b a + sin (u + o), where tan o =
a
b
Hence for any real value of u,
2 2 2 2
b a E b a + s s +
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
14
Example # 9 : Find maximum and minimum values of following :
(i) 3sinx + 4cosx (ii) 1 + 2sinx + 3cos
2
x
Solution : (i) We know

2 2
4 3 + s 3sinx + 4cosx s
2 2
4 3 +
5 s 3sinx + 4cosx s 5
(ii) 1 + 2sinx + 3cos
2
x = 3sin
2
x + 2sinx + 4
= 3
|
.
|

\
|

3
x sin 2
x sin
2
+ 4 = 3
2
3
1
x sin |
.
|

\
|

+
3
13
Now 0 s
2
3
1
x sin |
.
|

\
|

s
9
16

3
16
s 3
2
3
1
x sin |
.
|

\
|

s 0
1 s 3
2
3
1
x sin |
.
|

\
|

+
3
13
s
3
13
Self practice problems
(16) Find maximum and minimum values of following
(i) 3 + (sinx 2)
2
(ii) 10cos
2
x 6sinx cosx + 2sin
2
x
(iii) cosu + 3 2 sin
|
.
|

\
| t
+ u
4
+ 6
Answers : (i) max = 12, min = 4. (ii) max = 11, min = 1.
(iii) max = 11, min = 1