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4.1 Multimedia Concepts

4.1.1 Definition of Multimedia
4.1.2 Usage of multimedia in various fields
i. Entertainment industry
ii. Business
iii. Arts
iv. Medicine
v. Engineering
4.1.3 Interactivity: !aracteristics of linear and non"linear multimedia
4.1.4 Differentiate #et$een c!aracteristics of linear and non"linear multimedia
4.1.% Medium of delivery
4.1.& om'are and contrast t!e mediums of delivery
4.1.( Multimedia elements
i. )e*t
ii. +ra'!ics
iii. ,ideo
iv. Audio
v. Animation
4.1.- .tandard file formats
4.2 a!d"a!e and So#t"a!e
4.2.1 Identifying !ard$are t!at can #e used to 'roduce multimedia 'roducts
i. .canner
ii. ,ideo camera
iii. Digital camera
iv. Audio devices
v. ,ideo ca'ture devices
4.2.2 Identify editing soft$are t!at can #e used to 'roduce multimedia elements
i. )e*t editor
ii. +ra'!ics and image editor
iii. Audio editor
iv. ,ideo editor
v. Animation editor
4.2.3 Aut!oring tools Define t!e conce'ts in aut!oring tools
i. )ime frame conce't
ii. Icon conce't
iii. ard conce't
4.2.4 /e# editor Descri#e and give e*am'les of:
i. )e*t"#ased
ii. /0.I/0+
4.$ Multimedia De%elopment
4.3.1 User interface 'rinci'les .tate user interface 'rinci'les
i. onsistency
ii. larity
iii. onte*t
iv. 1avigation
v. .earc!
vi. 2ersonalisation
vii. 3earna#ility
viii. 4le*i#ility A''ly suita#le user interface 'rinci'les in a 'ro5ect
4.3.2 Develo'ment )eam .tate t!e role of eac! mem#er in develo'ment team
i. 2ro5ect manager
ii. .u#5ect matter e*'ert
iii. Instructional designer
iv. +ra'!ics artist
v. Audio"video tec!nician
vi. 2rogrammer
4.3.3 Multimedia 'roduction Descri#e t!e '!ases in multimedia 'roduction
i. 2!ase 1 " Analysis
ii. 2!ase 2 " Design
iii. 2!ase 3 " Im'lementation
iv. 2!ase 4 " )esting
v. 2!ase % " Evaluation
vi. 2!ase & " 2u#lis!ing
4.1 Multimedia Concepts
4.1.1 Definition of Multimedia
6Multimedia7 comes from t!e $ord 6multi7 and 6media7. 6Multi7
means various. 6Media7 refers to any !ard$are or soft$are used for
Multimedia is t!e 'resentation of information #y using a com#ination
of te*t8 audio8 gra'!ic8 video and animation.
In t!e field of Information and ommunication )ec!nology8
multimedia is an interactive communication 'rocess t!at uses an
integration of five main elements suc! as te*ts8 gra'!ics8 audio8 video
and animation.
4.1.2 Usage of multimedia in various fields
i. Entertainment industry
2roduces com'uter games8 and develo' animations or s'ecial
effects for cartoons and movies.
ii. Business
Multimedia a''lications are used in advertising 'roducts.
Many com'anies no$adays develo' and distri#ute catalogues in
t!e form of a D"9:M as it is more interesting to t!e consumers.
iii. Arts
Artists use multimedia elements #y com#ining dra$ing and
iv. Medicine
Doctors can 'ractice or #e trained in 'erforming !ig!"ris;
surgery #y using virtual surgery.
v. Engineering
Uses an a''lication called om'uter"Aided Design or AD.
By using t!is a''lication8 engineers can vie$ t!e design from
many as'ects and im'rove on it #efore 'roduction.
4.1.3 Interactivity: !aracteristics of linear and non"linear multimedia
FIGURE 1: Characteristics of linear and non-liner multimedia
4.1.4 Differentiate #et$een c!aracteristics of linear and non"linear multimedia
FIGURE 2: Difference between linear and non-linear multimedia
4.1.% Medium of delivery
Medium of delivery means t!e $ays to distri#ute a multimedia
)!ere are t$o most common medium of delivery.
)!ey are:
i. /e#"#ased
ii. D"#ased
4or $e#"#ased multimedia8 t!e multimedia content $ill #e delivered
t!roug! /e# 'ages using t!e Internet tec!nology. It can only #e vie$ed
using a $e# #ro$ser suc! as Internet E*'lorer and Mo<illa 4irefo*.
4or D"#ased multimedia8 t!e multimedia content $ill #e delivered in
D"9:Ms. )!ese D"9:Ms are usually used $it! com'uters.
4.1.& om'are and contrast t!e mediums of delivery
/e#"#ased D"#ased
3imited in 'icture si<e and lo$
resolution video
an store !ig! end multimedia
elements suc! as video
an #e c!anged8 damaged or deleted
#y irres'onsi#le individuals
an #e 'ermanently stored and are
not c!angea#le
Information for multimedia can #e
u'dated easily and its c!ea'er
Information on a multimedia can #e
=uic;ly outdated
T!"E 1: Com#arison between mediums of deli$er%
4.1.( Multimedia elements
FIGURE &: ' (ain Elements of (ultimedia
vi. )e*t
)!e most #asic element
Involves t!e use of te*t ty'es8 si<es8 colours and #ac;ground

vii. +ra'!ics
+ra'!ics !el' to illustrate ideas t!roug! still 'ictures.
)!ere are t$o ty'es of gra'!ics used> #itma's and vector.
Bitma's are real images ca'tured using cameras or scanners
,ectors are images dra$n on t!e com'uter
viii. ,ideo
,ideos can #e o#tained from various sources
It can #e recorded using a digital video camera and transferred to
a com'uter or created from a '!oto slides!o$ and saved in video
i*. Audio
E*am'les of audio elements are s'eec!8 music and sound effects.
)!ere are t$o ty'es of audio> analog and digital
In multimedia8 digital audio is used
/e must convert an analog audio into digital audio #efore using it
in a multimedia a''lication
*. Animation
Animation is a 'rocess of ma;ing a static image loo; li;e its
In multimedia8 digital animation is used.
Digital animation can #e divided into 2 areas> 2D ?2"
Dimensional@ and 3D ?3"Dimensional@ animations.
4.1.- .tandard file formats
Eac! of t!e five elements of multimedia !as various standard file
4ile formats can #e determined #y loo;ing at t!e file e*tensions.
4or e*am'le8 a file named Multimedia.doc !as t!e file e*tension of
FIGURE ): *tandard File Formats of the (ultimedia Elements
4.2 a!d"a!e and So#t"a!e
FIGURE ': +ardware Used In (ultimedia ,roduction
4.2.1 Identifying !ard$are t!at can #e used to 'roduce multimedia 'roducts
i. .canner
Used to convert conventional images8 te*ts8 dra$ings and '!otos
into digital form t!at can #e understood #y t!e com'uter.
)!ere are four ty'es of scanners: flat#ed scanner8 !and !eld
scanner8 s!eet"fed scanner and 3D scanner.
FIGURE -: T%#es of *canner
ii. ,ideo camera
)!ere are t$o ty'es of video cameras: analog video camera and
digital video camera ?D,@.
An analog video camera records video in analog signals on a
magnetic video ta'e.
A digital video camera records video in digital signals8 $!ic! can #e
stored in various forms of media8 suc! as digital video ta'e or
memory cards.
FIGURE .: T%#es of /ideo Camera
iii. Digital camera
In a digital camera8 images are ca'tured and stored in a media card.
)!e advantages of !aving a digital camera is t!at t!e images ca'tured
can directly #e used in t!e com'uter.
It saves cost as $e do not !ave to #uy films and can c!oose to ;ee' or
delete t!e 'ictures in t!e memory card.
FIGURE 0: T%#es of Camera
iv. Audio devices
Audio devices are needed to record analog sound.
)!e sounds are t!en c!anged into digital sound.
E*am'les of devices used for recording sounds or audio are
micro'!one8 sound card and voice synt!esi<er.
FIGURE 1: T%#es of udio De$ices
v. ,ideo ca'ture devices
,ideo ca'ture devices !el' to convert analog video to digital video.
)!e fire$ire !el's to transfer t!e video from video camera to t!e
)!ey also transfer digital video to t!e com'uter so t!at t!e data can
#e edited or stored.
FIGURE 12: +ow /ideo Ca#ture De$ice 3or4s
4.2.2 Identify editing soft$are t!at can #e used to 'roduce multimedia elements
FIGURE -: Editin5 *oftware Used in (ultimedia ,roduction
i. )e*t editor
Used to edit 'lain te*t
ii. +ra'!ics and image editor
Used to edit images8 dra$ or illustrate 'ictures or o#5ects
iii. Audio editor
Used for voice recording or 'roducing music and s'ecial sound
iv. ,ideo editor
Used to edit video
v. Animation editor
Used for 'roducing 2D8 3D8 s'ecial effects and animation for t!e
E3EME1). EDI)I1+ .:4)/A9E
)e*t 1ote'ad
Microsoft /ord
:'en :ffice /riter
Microsoft 2aint
Ado#e 2!otos!o'
orel Dra$
Audio .ound 9ecorder
.ony .ound 4orge
Ado#e Audition
Ado#e 2remiere
2innacle .tudio
Ulead Media.tudio 2ro
Animation Macromedia 4las! ?2D@
Asymmetri* 3D4A ?3D@
Magic Mor'! ?s'ecial effect@
Ulead +if Animator ?/e# animation@
T!"E 2: E6am#les of Editin5 *oftware
4.2.3 Aut!oring tools
Aut!oring tool is a 'rogram t!at !el's you $rite multimedia
Aut!oring tools usually ena#le you to create a final a''lication #y
lin;ing toget!er o#5ects suc! as a 'aragra'! of te*t8 gra'!ic or a video.
By se=uencing t!em in an a''ro'riate order8 aut!oring tools can
'roduce attractive and useful multimedia a''lications. Define t!e conce'ts in aut!oring tools
i. )ime frame conce't
t!e multimedia elements or events are 'resented and
organised along a time line
)!is ty'e of tool !el's users coordinate $!en eac!
multimedia element ?te*t8 gra'!ics8 audio8 video or
animation@ 'lays.
E*am'les of aut!oring tools using t!e time frame conce't are
'las( and Di!ecto!.
FIGURE .: Time Frame Conce#t
ii. Icon conce't
)!e icon conce't 'rovides t!e multimedia develo'er $it! a
visual 'rogramming a''roac! to se=uencing events in t!e
multimedia a''lication.
In t!is conce't8 elements and events are organised in a
structural frame$or;.
Users can 'resent visually a logical flo$ of events #y
dragging icons from an icon menu.
)!e icon can re'resent gra'!ics8 audio files8 animation8 te*t8
movies8 and ot!er elements
)!ese icons re'resent:
o events suc! as mouse clic;s8 ;ey 'ress
o actions to #e 'erformed after an event e.g. a transition8
a sound
o routines to 'erform loo's8 conditional #ranc!es
.everal multimedia aut!oring tools $!ic! use t!is icon
conce't are Aut(o!"a!e and IconAut(o!.
FIGURE 0: Icon Conce#t
iii. ard conce't
)!e card conce't is #ased on t!e idea of card stac;s
containing gra'!ics8 audio8 video8 te*t and animation.
Elements and events in card conce't aut!oring tools are
organised as 'ages in a #oo; or a stac; of cards.
/!en card conce't aut!oring tools starts8 a #lan; 'age is
dis'layed. ertain o#5ects can #e inserted e.g. te*t8 'ictures
and #uttons.
By inserting o#5ects into several 'ages8 a multimedia D#oo;EE
is eventually created.
E*am'les of t!e card conce't in aut!oring tools are
Tool)oo*8 +pe!Ca!d and Supe!Ca!d.
FIGURE 1: Card Conce#t
4.2.4 /e# editor
/e# editor is a 'rogram t!at you use to create /e# 'age.
It can #e somet!ing as sim'le as t!e te*t editor t!at came $it! your
o'erating system.
It can #e somet!ing as sim'le as t!e te*t editor.
It can also #e somet!ing t!at creates t!e /e#sites as you 'oint and clic;
a$ay. Descri#e and give e*am'les of:
iii. )e*t"#ased
A te*t"#ased /e# editor is a #asic editor $!ere you $or; $it!
Fy'erte*t Mar;u' 3anguage ?F)M3@ tags to create a /e#
It can #e used to c!ange F)M3 source codes.
Using a te*t"#ased /e# editor re=uires you to !ave F)M3
;no$ledge to get started.
1ote'ad and 2.2ad are e*am'les of te*t"#ased editors.
FIGURE 12: E6am#les of Te6t-based Editors
iv. /0.I/0+
/0.I/0+ stands for ,(at -ou See Is ,(at -ou .et.
/0.I/0+ $e# editors 'rovide an editing interface t!at
s!o$s !o$ t!e 'ages $ill #e dis'layed in a $e# #ro$ser.
Using a /0.I/0+ editor does not re=uire any F)M3
;no$ledge. It is easier for an average com'uter user.
E*am'les of /0.I/0+ $e# editor are Microsoft 4ront2age
and Macromedia Dream$eaver.
FIGURE 11: +ow 37*I37G Editor 3or4s
FIGURE 12: E6am#les of 37*I37G Editors
4.$ Multimedia De%elopment
4.3.1 User interface 'rinci'les
User interface refers to !o$ !uman can interact $it! a com'uter
In multimedia8 t!e most common ty'e of user interface used is
+ra'!ical User Interface ?+UI@
)o create a good user interface8 t!ere are several 'rinci'les t!at $e
must consider .tate user interface 'rinci'les
i*. onsistency
onsistency means t!e interface design is in !armony and
a''lies to all screen in a soft$are 'rogram.
)!e same $ords or commands 'erform t!e same functions
t!roug!out t!e user interface.
FIGURE 1&: E6am#le of Consistenc%
*. larity
larity means t!at t!e icons8 $ords or commands are
clearly la#eled and easy to understand.
Users s!ould #e a#le to use relevant icons or gra'!ics to
guide t!em t!roug! t!e multimedia a''lication.
FIGURE 1): E6am#le of Clarit%
*i. onte*t
onte*t means t!at t!e content of t!e multimedia
a''lication s!ould #e relevant to its title.
Ideas must #e 'resented in relation to t!e title.
*ii. 1avigation
1avigation means users can move around or navigate
t!roug! t!e multimedia a''lication easily using t!e
menus8 #uttons8 lin;s !el' files or ot!er screens in a
FIGURE 1': E6am#le of 8a$i5ation
*iii. .earc!
.earc! means t!e system ena#les users to searc!
;ey$ords or glossary.
)!e user interface s!ould !ave a searc! function.
FIGURE 1-: E6am#le of *earch Function
*iv. 2ersonalisation
2ersonalisation means t!e users can ma;e t!eir o$n
'ersonal or individual learning.
Users can c!oose t!eir dis'lay o'tions.
FIGURE 1.: E6am#le of ,ersonalisation
*v. 3earna#ility
3earna#ility means t!e system 'rovides su''ort
information and !el' files to ma;e t!e system easy to
.u''ort information is im'ortant8 es'ecially in !el'ing t!e
user to use t!e system.
)!e !el' function s!ould #e availa#le to s'eed u' t!e
interaction for #ot! e*'erienced and ine*'erienced users.
FIGURE 10: E6am#le of +el# Tool
*vi. 4le*i#ility
4le*i#ility means a user !as t!e aut!ority to navigate
t!roug! all t!e sections $it!out any limitations.
4or e*am'le8 t!e user is allo$ed to access any of t!e
lessons8 sections and 'ages of t!e 'rogram.
FIGURE 11: E6am#le of Fle6ibilit% A''ly suita#le user interface 'rinci'les in a 'ro5ect
4.3.2 Develo'ment )eam
A multimedia 'roduction team consists of a 2ro5ect Manager8 .u#5ect
Matter E*'ert ?.ME@8 +ra'!ic Artist8 Audio",ideo )ec!nician8
Instructional Designer and 2rogrammer.
FIGURE 22: +ierarch% of a (ultimedia De$elo#ment Team
1& .tate t!e role of eac! mem#er in develo'ment team
i. 2ro5ect manager
Define t!e sco'e of t!e 'ro5ect
Meet and discuss $it! clients
.earc! for financial resources
.earc! for e=ui'ment and facilities
oordinate t!e 'roduction team
ii. .u#5ect matter e*'ert
Do researc! on t!e content of a multimedia 'rogram
2rovide content for t!e multimedia content
iii. Instructional designer
Decide t!e #est educational strategies and 'ractices to
'resent t!e information
i%. +ra'!ics artist
Develo' t!e gra'!ic elements of t!e multimedia 'rogram
suc! as #ac;grounds8 #uttons8 '!oto collages8 animations8 3D
o#5ects and logos.
%. Audio"video tec!nician
9es'onsi#le for recording t!e voice or audio for t!e
Edits audio files suc! as sound effects8 music and
a'turing8 editing and digiti<ing videos
%i. 2rogrammer
/rites t!e 'rogram code or scri'ts using t!e aut!oring
om#ines all t!e multimedia elements into a multimedia
4.3.3 Multimedia 'roduction Descri#e t!e '!ases in multimedia 'roduction
FIGURE 21: ,hases of (ultimedia ,roduction
i. P(ase 1 / Anal+sis
)!e Analysis 2!ase is t!e main '!ase of a multimedia 'roduction.
Ena#les multimedia develo'ers to set t!e focus of t!e 'ro5ect.
)!e multimedia develo'ers $ill identify t!e 'ro5ect title8 'ro#lem8
o#5ectives8 'ossi#le solution and target users.
ii. P(ase 2 / Desi0n
)!e Design 2!ase refers to t!e 'lanning of t!e design of t!e
multimedia 'rogram to #e develo'ed.
)!ere are t$o 'o'ular tools used in t!e Design 2!ase8 namely
t!e 4lo$ !art and .tory#oard.
FIGURE 22: E6am#le of *tor%board
iii. P(ase $ / Implementation
)!e multimedia develo'ers $ill convert a design 'lan suc! as
a .tory#oard into a multimedia 'rogram.
)!is is t!e '!ase $!ere t!e multimedia 'rogram is 'roduced
using an aut!oring tool suc! as )ool#oo; Assistant 2CC4.
i%. P(ase 4 / Testin0
)!e )esting 2!ase #egins after t!e Im'lementation 2!ase.
)!e )esting 2!ase involves multimedia develo'ers and does
not involve t!e users yet.
)!e 'ur'ose of testing is to ensure t!at t!e 'rogram runs
correctly $it!out errors.
%. P(ase 1 / E%aluation
.elected users are involved in t!e evaluation of multimedia
4ocuses on overall 'resentation and effectiveness of t!e
%i. P(ase 2 / Pu3lis(in0
In t!e 'u#lis!ing '!ase8 t!e multimedia contents $ill #e
'u#lis!ed so t!at it can #e delivered to t!e client.
/e !ave t$o o'tions of mediums used in delivering
multimedia contents:
o D"#ased
o /e#"#ased