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[Agro]: Economics of Animal Rearing

#1: Fowl Breeding & Tribal Developmen !"#$


Indian farmers doing backyard poultry for many years.
The birds grow by scavenging on kitchen and other waste. They help in
o egg sale=side income
o Cheap source of protein for farmers family.
T%en w%a is %e problem&
Poultry sector is focusing more on commercial poultry rearing like broilers for meat and
eggs.
As a result many indigenous species about to become e!tinct.
"ne such breed is the #alamasi or #adaknath fowl breed$ found in %hil and %hila tribal
regions of &adhya Pradesh.
'alamasi('ada)na% Fowls
black in color. &eat is softer than that of other desi birds contains less fat and more
protein
%ecause of these 'ualities #alamasi fowls commend good prices. ( year old bird sells for
)*s.+,, -while other desi varieties fetch barely *s.(,,.(/,0
%ut this breed is slowly becoming e!tinct.
Economics:
(. These fowls can be reared 'uite easily. 1ont need any special attention or round the
clock caretaking.
2. Theyre good scavengers= feed cost gets considerably reduced. -in each bird sells for
more than *s.+,, after one year0
3. They can be housed in large bamboo baskets or inside store rooms. 1ont need elaborate
shelter like in professional broilers.
4. Their hens grow fast start laying eggs from si!th month of age onwards. In a year a
single hen lays 5,.(2, eggs.
Benefis o Tribal of "ad%*a #rades%
(. 6overnment provides vaccination training for feed.marketing.
2. The tribal beneficiaries rearing this breed are today able to get an income of Rs+,-.---/
0-.--- a year.
3. 7ess rural.urban migration. 8ncourages people to stay in villages continue farming
operations along with fowl rearing.
#1: 2oas rearing. 3mall "arginal Farmers !'erala$
9rom time immemorial Indian peasants have always been rearing animals for e!tra income. %ut
there are challenges$
(. Pasture lands shrinking=) 7ess green fodder
2. *ich farmers with pumpsets and borewells so grow green fodder but it is not possible for
small and marginal farmers.
3. 7ack of veterinary services in remote areas.
4ase s5d*: 6oat rearing in #o:hikode 1istrict of #erala
2overnmen s5ppor: #rishi ;igyan #endra of the Indian Institute of <pices *esearch -II<*0
Aim: help small farmers and landless laborers to do goa rearing wi% minim5m cos+
6ow&
(. 9armers given %reeding charts$ to fully e!ploit the reproductive efficiency of female
goats.
2. In a large herd synchroni:ation of estrus cycle by administering P692 alpha in=ection.
Careful rearing of baby goats for (2, days after birth. Theyre given concentrated feed
prepared specifically by the institutes e!perts. 9armers can also make them by mi!ing
rice wheat mai:e horsegram etc.
3. > %aby goats are given liver tonics mi!ed with fish oil =) increase appetite and aid good
healthy growth goad 'uickly fattens for slaughtering.
Economics(benefis
DE37 "ET68D 8F
REAR792
98: :7T6 347E9T7F74 REAR792
Animal will weigh (, kg in +
months
within 4 months the goat will weigh 2/> kg =provides big returns
in 'uick time.
9armers with only few cents of land can also grow goats.
They dont need not spent much time gra:ing them out in the open.
e!pense of feeding one baby goat *s.(2,, per month ! 4 months = 3+,,
Income from selling that goat after 4 months. close to *s.?,,,
profit @ou calculate for the aptitude practice.
[Agro] Researc%: 9ew ;arieies
6imala*an
:onder
Indias first throneless rose plant variety.
by a research institute in Palampur Aimachal Pradesh
*egions around Pune.%anglore= known for commercial rose cultivation.
Theyre interested in this new throneless variety of rose.
<am5na 3afed/
=
Bew garlic variety
by Bational Aorticultural *esearch and 1evelopment 9oundation
-BA*190 in Basik
suitable for growing in Borthen states such as 1elhi Cttar
Pradesh Aaryana %ihar Pun=ab *a=asthan.
These 6arlic %ulbs are white and big in si:e matures 'uickly
and and shelf life is also good.
8nion B5lbes
%y Bational Aorticultural *esearch and 1evelopment
9oundation Bashik
Theyve devised new techni'ue for successful '%arif onion
nursery production d5ring %eav* rains+
Dan.9eb$ "nion bulbets raised in nursey beds
Duly.Aug. theyre transplanted to the farm
This method increases the yield of onion.
[Agro]:Ferili>er("an5re relaed
#1: ?i@5id "an5re
Present day farming re'uire e!ternal inputs such as fertiliser and pesticides.
but theyre e!pensive > harmful to soil and environment.
Bow a new technology developed to produce li'uid manure from cow dung and cow
urine by a farmer in TB.
6ow&
The basic principles= 9ermentation > <edimentation.
Cow dung > cow urine >(, parts of water=)mi! in barrel let it ferment for a day.
Be!t day add one kg of =iggery along with decomposed fruits vegetables or practically
any vegetative matter available in the farm.
"nly indigenous cow dung and urine must be used because the microbial acivi* in
local cow wase is more %an in o%er cross bred animals+
After a week farmers can use this li'uid solution as manure via drip irrigation. Aence it is
called E7i'uid &anureF.
Benefis&
(. increases the water holding capacity of the soil
2. Improves the beneficial micro organisms present in the soil.
3. "nly *s.5,, investment to buy a plastic barrel.*est of the inputs can be easily sourced
from the farm itself. Aence even small and marginal farmers can do it.
4. farmer can save *s.4,,,.2,,,, per hectare in fertili:er
#1: ;ermicompos
Chemical fertili:ers=decrease soil fertility after prolonged use.
;ermicompost is an organic manure -bio.fertili:er0 by earth worm
8arthworm can be grown on animal dung poultry droppings vegetable and other kinds
of biodegradable wastes. They feed on such items produce a compost.
Benefis of ;ermicompos&
(. odorless clean organic material
2. contains ade'uate 'uantities of B P # -Bitrogen Phosphorus Potassium0 and several
micronutrients that are essential for plant growth.
3. Contains organic matter= makes the soil productive.
4. 8co.friendly non.to!ic consumes low energy input for composting.
#A:8rganic c5livaion
4ase s5d*$ 8nabavi a small village in Garangal district Andhra
The farmers grow paddy pulses millets cotton chilli tobacco and vegetables.
BEF8RE AFTER
In the (H?,s like many other Indian
villages they also went through the same
process of using more and more chemicals
to increase the productivity.
%y (HH/ problems started showing up.
8ven though they increased Investments on
seeds.fertili:ers.pesticides the returns were
not good.
The village started shifting to non.
chemical farming about a decade ago.
%y 2,,+ entire area was converted to
organic farming.
There is strong social regulation
within the community towards organic
cultivation.
average spending on chemical fertili:ers and
pesticides$ I*s.3/,, per crop per acre
They started using tank silt poultry
manure vermicompost and farm yard
manure.
They set up their own compost
manufacturing units in their fields and
started following various ecological
practices
<eeds$ I *s. /,, per acre for seeds
depend on their own seed for many
crops e!cept for cotton
The traders would dictate the price for the produce
in addition to charging interest for the inputs
supplied
The farmers do not spend a single rupee
anymore for buying all the inputs.
<ale of agro.produce through &iddlemen JAP&C
They process their paddy and sell direcl* to
consumers and also through a marketing
channel called 3a%aBa A%aram in
Ayderabad.
?essons from %is village:
(. <ustainable farming can be profitable.
2. social regulation learning from each other.
3. the benefits of conviction born out of e!perience and most importantly the way out of
agricultural distress by taking control over ones own farming
[Agro]: "isc+
#1: F5ng5s as Bio/conrol Agen
Trichoderma viride -Tv0 a soil fungus =bio control agent
controls diseases in trees such as root rot leaf blight etc.
6ood alternative for chemical based fungicides
9armers can make it by themselves using agricultural wastes to reduce cost
#1: Fr5i Ripening
9ruits are classified into two groups
4?7"A4TER74 989/ 4?7"A4TER74
ripen even after harvest do not ripen after harvest
%anana apple avocado banana Kg mango papaya
passionfruit pear and tomato
6rapes blueberry cherry citrus
cucumber pineapple and strawberry.
ethylene gas is used in godowns to hasten the ripening
-e.g. for %anana0. <imilarly Calcium carbide is used to
ripen &angoes.
not needed L wont work.
C+ 7 is impossible o peel %e s)in of a planain fr5i w%en i is raw b5 %e same can be
done ver* easil* w%en f5ll* ripe+ :%*&
*aw banana fruit is firm and not peelable since the cell cementing material is made of
non.soluble calcium pectin.
%ut "n ripening the non.soluble pectin will become soluble and hence the softness.
Eno5g% of Agro relaed. now moving on o Environmen and Biodiversi* [EnB]
[EnB] Flora/Fa5na
#1: 2ian 4lams
Clam = one type of mollusk. -"ctopus <'uid.fish are other e!amples of mollusk0
6iant Clam= an endangered species of clam -although ICCB red list puts it in
M;ulnerable category but Thehindu says its an endangered species0. Then who is rightN
That well know once C<AT.2,(3 official answer key comes out and we find whether
<wamp 1eer was endangered or notO If CP<C answerkey says <wamp deer was
endangered thatd mean CP<C had setup 'uestion from ICCB list.
Anyways back to topic$ 6iant Clams are found in the tropical coral reefs including
Andaman Bicobar.
All %e species of 6iant Clam are protected under <chedule ( of the Gildlife Protection
Act.
B5 :%* in 9ews&
C# based charity organi:ation gave money to %ombay Batural Aistory <ociety -%BA<0.
&oney will be used create database of 6iant clams in Andaman.Bicobar.
#1: 6o5se/3parrow: official bird of Del%i
3TATE 8FF747A? 3TATE B7RD
Dammu and #ashmir %lack Becked Crane
Aaryana %lack 9rancolin
6u=arat 6reater 9lamingo
&aharashtra @ellow 9ooted 6reen Pigeon.
Del%i 6o5se/sparrow !declared 3ae Bird in 1-1A$
&arch 2, = Gorld Aouse <parrow 1ay
:%* 6o5se/sparrow pop5laion declining&
(. 7ess tress=not place to setup nests >increase in air pollution
2. %uildings use glass facades= they show reflection of trees. %irds crash into the glass
panel mistaking it for a tress. They get in=ured even die.
3. Aouse sparrows and their chicks need protein which means they need a lot of insects.
%ut urban =unta uses chemical pesticides in their gardens=) Bo worms insects or pests
left for the birds to feed. Thus use of pesticides invariably affects house sparrow
population.
4. Cities have less number of open vegetable markets= lack of waste food for the birds.
/. 8arlier <parrows fed on open bags of rice and cereals in the markets. The traders too
didnt try to avoid them as they consumed only a little and also preyed on small pests in
rice bags. %ut these bags have now been replaced with sealed plastic bags at many
places=no grain leakage=no food for birds.
+. 8ven in places where grain.bags are kept open the birds avoid them owing to the use of
pesticides. A house sparrow weighs =ust a few milligrams and feeding on cereals with
pesticides even in micro levels could kill them.
?. 8ven in *ural areas reduced grain spillage and improved storage facilities > use of
pesticides P herbicides=sparrow population declined.
#A: Fores 4orridors for Tiger breeding
2,(, data$ (?,, tigers in 3H tiger reserves.
Bowadays Tiger reserves are surrounded by farms villages and towns.
<uch small and enclosed tiger reserves=) Aabitat fragmentation=)inbreeding among
tigers.
Inbreeding=) new generations will have geneic disorders+ Theyll be more vulnerable
to environmental changes.
If tiger reserves are connected through forest corridors then tiger from one region can
move to different area=) decreases inbreeding and promoes gene flow between isolated
tiger populations.
Thus forest corridors= imp. for genetic variation among tigers.
Challenge$ Tiger corridors in central India face threats from road widening railway lines
construction and coal mining.
#D: Anarcic 4onservaion
commission for conservation of Antarctic marine living resources -CCA&7*0
&embers$ 24 countries and the 8uropean Cnion.
*ecent proposals by
(. designate *oss <ea as marine protected area -&PA0 in the AntarcticC<>BQ
(. designate seven marine protected areas in 8ast Antarctica covering
more than ( million s'uare kilometres
Australia>9rance>8C
%ut *ussia voted against both proposals during meeting hence no result.
[EnB] 4lean Energ* Relaed
#1: Bio/refiner*: Bioplasics. Bio6*drogen
%io.electric Chemical Treatment <ystem=designed by a research organi:ation in
Ayderabad theyve also filed for Patent.
inp5 affluentLto!ic water discharged from chemical factories and households.
o5p5 1+ f55risic green f5els
a. bio/%*drogen: This system uses anaerobic reactors to produce the environmentally
sustainable bio.hydrogen instead of methane.
b. bio/elecrici*$ from anaerobic bacterial metabolism by putting e!ternal electrodes in the
reactor
bio/plasics$ 1uring above anaerobic processing volatile fatty acids generated. These
fatty acids are used for making bio.plastics. These bio.plastics could replace to some
e!tent synthetic plastics in future.
Pro=ect funded by the &inistry of Bon.*enewable 8nergy.
#1: Biof5el: Ani/Arg5mens
(. The amount of energy produced by biofuels is only a little more than the amount of
energy invested in growing and manufacturing them.
2. %iofuels are nothing but a byproduct of sunlight. A combination of solar cells batteries
and electric cars is +,, times more effective at harnessing suns energy than biofuels.
3. Their energy.efficiency is not so good. 8ven if all agricultural land in 6ermany was
directed to biofuels we will get only enough to replace up to 2,R of all fuel consumption
in 6ermany.
4. At present 6ermany uses only 2,R of agricultural land for crops used for biomass
production. The money farmers earn for this is probably double compared to growing
wheat. As a result of that 6ermany which was a big e!porter of wheat now imports it.
%ecause farmers decreased wheat cultivation.
/. <everal studies had shown that global crop production needed to double by 2,/, to meet
demands from
o Increasing human population
o 1emand from meat.industry -recall geography location factor article$ how corn is
used to fatten the cattle in C<A. <imilarly poultry rearing also need corn soybean
as feed.0
o demand from dairy.industry
Therefore it is a bad idea to devote agricultural land for biofuels.
#A: 95)e Energ* pos F5)5s%ima
2,((9ukushima nuclear plant accident in Dapan
2,226ermany plans to shut down all of its Buclear plants.
IA8A Chief -@ukiya Amano0 said following$
After Chernobyl disaster in (H5+ there was a Eperiod of stagnationF in nuclear industry
%ut after the 9ukushima accident construction of new nuclear plants continued in many
countries
In the ne!t few years five countries S %angladesh Dordan Bigeria Turkey and ;ietnam
S will =oin the nuclear energy club
Buke 8nergy is safe reliable low greenhouse gas emission gives steady supply of
electricity Jstable prices.
#D: ?5mos: 3olar Bac)pac)
7umos=<olar backpack designed by an Indian couple
It is water. impact. and shock.proof
allows you to charge your gadgets through solar energy.
These backpacks have a sleek fle!ible solar panel unlike conventional panels -large
rigid plates used for rooftop installation0.
#=: Flow Baeries
Renewable energ*problem
wind depends on speed of the wind not continuous
solar doesnt work on cloudy day
Therefore such ErenewableF sources cannot be connected directly to the electric grid
-%ecause they dont work on 24L?0.
Instead youve to store this solarLwind electricity in a battery and use this Mcharged
battery to run electric appliances.
#roblem: convenional baeries sol5ion: flow baeries
Conventional batteries include a porous membrane
between the anode and the cathode to prevent short.
by &IT C<A.
Theyve membrane.less
circuits while facilitating charge.carrying ions to move
between them.
%ut this membrane increase batterys weight reduce its
efficiency bring structural defects and life.cycle
limitations.
hydrogen.bromine fuel
cell.
Csing li'uid bromine and
hydrogen gas.
It is rechargeable. doesnt
have membrane like
conventional batteries.
Aas more power density
than conventional
batteries.
#E: Elecrici* from cale wase
Pro=ect in an Agro.university in 7udhiana.
cattle waste=) bio gas=)generator=)electricity.
The electricity is being used for chaffing green fodder machine milking operating the
fans coolers and foggers installed inside the animal sheds.
waste slurry obtained from the bio gas plant is used as manure for crops.
Their ne!t plan is to separate methane and carbon dio!ide from biogas then bottle the
carbon dio!ide for industrial use
&inistry of renewable energy is giving them subsidy.
[EnB] 4limae 4%ange relaed
#1: R5nawa* 2reen%o5se effec
In a life sustaining planet e.g. 8arth the <olar absorption and radiation levels are
balanced=) life can e!ist.
%ut if the solar radiation absorbed by the planet e!ceeds the thermal radiation given out
by the planet then result=)
(. uncontrollable heating of planets surface
2. rapid water evaporation from oceans and rivers.
This is known as runaway greenhouse effect. Cltimate result$ planet becomes inhospitable life
cannot e!ist. It is believed that once ;enus planet had ocean but all the water evaporated thanks
to runaway greenhouse effect.
#1: 8cean Acidificaion
"ceans absorb more 2/R carbon dio!ide in the atmosphere.
this carbon dio!ide dissolves in the water =)forms carbonic acid.
This way the oceans act as a carbon dio!ide sink
%ut when C"2 increase in atmosphere=)Carbonic acid also increases in sea.water=
"cean acidification -"A0.
ProblemN %y 2(,, the corals and starfishes might become e!tinct due to this "cean
Acidification.
Corals spend their entire life in one place. They secrete calcium carbonate =)form coral
reefs.
These coral reefs provide support to variety of fishes and marine organisms.
%ut Aigher "cean acidification and warmer climates = less new coral reefs formed >
even the e!isting coral reefs get damaged.
Ghen Coral reefs are reduced=)indirectly many species will be affected.
Thus "cean acidification poses grave danger to all marine species.
#A: Dime%*ls5lp%ide
It is a volatile organic compound.
*eleased by certain species of phytoplankton and algae.
Ghen dimethylsulphide mi!es with air it reduces the amount of solar energy reaching
8arths surface
Thus dimethylsulphide cools the atmosphere.
%ut "cean Acidification harms the population of phytoplankton > algae=) less
dimethylsulphie emitted =more global warming.
#D: 4limae 4%ange and Apple Tase
9actor determines Apples TTTT
Acid concentrationsourness
soluble solids sweetness
As per the Dapanese study when temperature rose during the fruit maturation period
there was a change in the taste and te!ture of the fruit.
&eaning due to climate change in last decades the taste.te!ture of apple must have
changed. Apples would have tasted differently (,, years ago.
[EnB] Disaser "anagemen Relaed
Since the main-subject of this article is Sci-tech compilation, Im only doing basic coverage of
Uttarakhand cloudburst, without going into all details. therwise article will become e!tremely
lengthy.
6imala*an Ts5nami
:%a is clo5db5rs&
8!treme amount of precipitation
in a short span of time.
creates flash.flood conditions.
"ften accompanied by thunder and lightning.
:%* clo5db5rs&
A cloudburst can occur anytime and at any place which is affected by convective weather
systems.
India surrounded by oceans from three sides. Aence favorable location for convective
weather systems.
Convective weather system in$ result
%ay of %engal rainfall over the Indian subcontinent
Gestern Pacific "cean 1iverts rain.bearing winds away from the Indian subcontinent.
1uring Cloudburst massive coagulated clouds with heavy water content hover over a
very small location.
The dead weight of the cloud is so massive and unbearable that it simply collapses under
its own weight=)e!treme precipitation within a short span of time=)flash flood.
Addiional facors
"89T6 :6AT 6A##E9ED&
"arc% April
"a* 1-1A
heavy snow in Aimalayas
1D/1E F5ne 1-1A Bon.stop Intense rainfall. It helped the snow to melt fast from Chorabari 6larier. but Aow can water help
ice meltN
Gater has a higher heat capacity than air.
The molecules in li'uid water are more tightly packed than the molecules in air
Therefore when water molecules touch snow=) greater rate of heat transfer. -Compared to when
air touches the snow0
This accelerates the process of snow melting. e.g heavy snow melting from 4%orabari glacier
water level increased in the river "anda)ini and 4%orabari ?a)e+
1E F5ne 1-1A
Cloudburst over Chorabari 7ake.
7ake e!ploded from water. =) flash floods.
These flash floods washed the mud stones and slush -Partially melted snow0 from
mountains into rivers.
%hagirathi Alaknanda and &andakini rivers were already flowing with lot of water -due
to snow.melting0.
9ow imagine wo si5aions:
(. Police uses water cannon on the mob.
2. Police mi!es stones ball bearings and ice cubes into their water tank and then uses water
cannon on the mob. This time you know the water will hurt a lot more.
<ame way the rivers filled with mud snow ice. rushes through the hills and cliffs. they will
cause more erosion sweep away whatever comes in their way. Thus all those shops hotels
apartments were constructed very close to the river banks got washed away.
Additionally landslides destroyed the road network in the mountains hence relief couldnot reach
on time.
:%* is i called "an/"ade Disaser&
Cloudbursts have happened in past also but the amount of death and damage in Cttarakhand is
unprecedented. GhyN
#1: Roads ca5sing landslides
Aimalayan &ountains will remain steady if not tampered with much. %ut
(. the huge e!pansion of roads and transport.
2. heavy machines plying the earth everyday.
3. 8ven dynamites are used to cut the mountains and make roads.
UAll these activities had already rendered the mountains unstable. Then rainfall=)landslides.
roads blocked=rescue force cant go in victims cant go out.
#1: Too m5c% consr5cion
(. In 2,(2 &inistry of 8nvironment and 9orests gives a notification under 8nvironment
Protection Act. This notification declares the region 6aumukh and Cttarakashi along the
%hagirathi river as an eco.sensitive :one. &eaning following activities had to be banned$
a. Aydro pro=ect in %hagirathi = too many hydropower pro=ects changing river
courses poor structural safety
b. &ining= use of dynamites weakened the mountains
c. Construction activities especially hotels and resorts guest houses and travel
lodges on the river bed. 8veryone trying to make mint money from
pilgrimsLtourists yet none of them were build with sound engineering or structural
safety.
#A: Fragile #oli* of %e 3ae
Cttarakhand has seen + different Chief &inisters within last (3 years. &eaning average
tenure of a C& is I2 years.
This has resulted in lack of continuity and failure in getting a firm grip on the issues
plaguing the state. including disaster management.
<uccessive CA6 reports have made scathing remarks on the lack of disaster management
preparations in the Cttarakhand state. @et no action was taken.
political fragility has resulted in ad.hoc and unplanned development.
<uccessive governments have failed in creating any sort of medium term or long.term
plan or vision for the state.
To put this in other words when governments change too 'uick. the main goal of &7As
and &inisters is how to e!tract ma!imum cash from builders mining mafias and corrupt
bureaucrats who want transfer.posting in plump position. Aence 1isaster management
doesnt even come in their top.(,, priority list of such politicians.
#D: 4areless organi>aions
1+ 7"D
I&1 was unable to alert <tate.authorities in time. It didnt have
1oppler radars in the Aimalayan region to predict onset of cloudbursts.
"nly after this disaster happened 1ept. of sci.tech now talks about
setting up 1oppler radars in the region.
1+ 9DRF
Bational 1isaster &anagement Authority -B1&A0 was formed after
Tsunami in 2,,3.
but has grossly failed both in planning and implementation.
It didnt even have sufficient life.=ackets in *udraprayag.
"verall there was no accountability and no coordination.
4an we #redic 4lo5db5rss&
Bephology=study of clouds
%ut unlike cyclones forecasting a cloudburst= mission almost impossible.
Cloudburst can occur even outside the monsoon seasons -e.g. &arch to &ay if the
weather conditions are right0.
A cloudburst can occur Janytime Janyplace in a short span of time. -but it usually
favors mountainous regions0
The specific location and time of cloud burst can be predicted in B"GCA<T mode only
i.e. a few hours in advance.
To detect these sudden developments you need a 1oppler Geather *adar -1G*0.
Doppler :ea%er Radar !D:R$
%y and large &eteorologists use there are three different types of weather radars$
RADAR GT7?7T<
(. conventional
gives information only about the rainfall
estimation
(. 1oppler &easuring rainfall winds and clouds.
(. polarisation radar -or multi.parameter
radar0
measure winds rainfall -including shape and
number of raindrops0
"ne 1oppler Geather *adar costs I(, crore can cover an area I4,, km.
I&1 wants to moderni:e its *adar system. %A87 is manufacturing <.%and 1oppler
*adars for I&1. Theyll be setup a (2 locations across India including &umbai.
And since the Cttarakhand Tragedy now 1epartment of <ci.Tech is setting up 1oppler
Geather radars in Aimalayas
Benefis of Doppler :ea%er Radar&
(. *adar uses the 1oppler 8ffect in microwaves. Ghen &icrowaves are reflected from
ob=ects at different times this *adar detects their relative position. Thus 1oppler *adar
can detect even tiny water particles in clouds and in which direction theyre moving.
2. 1oppler radar has a detection range of I4,, kms. It can transmit information about a
cloud its distance from land its composition which direction it is moving and even
minute details like the number and si:e of water droplets found in a cloud.
3. Ge can predict the amount of rainfall to an area 2.3 hours in advance. Thus if a flood.
like situation is likely to happen in &umbai %&C could be alerted to avert a 2,,/.like
disaster.
4. can predict thunderstorms as well.
4risis "apping
Crisis mapping is the real.time data gathering and analysis during natural disaster or riots
elections etc.
1uring Cttarakhand tragedy International Betwork of Crisis &appers came to help.
These crisis mappers monitor different channels of information on Cttarakhand. 8!ample
official sources
blogs social media facebook twitter
B6"s
news media
Csing such data the Crisis &appers generate Msituation reports
They also update with vital information an online crisis map set up by the 6oogle$
-http$LLgoogle.orgLcrisismapL2,(3.uttrakhand.floodsN gl=in0
UThat google crisis map has information on rescued people cleared areas people
stranded relief camps medical centres road networks and so on.
Thus crisis mapping helps bridge the gap between
(. information.seekers vs providers
2. government vs public
3. situation on the ground vs action that needs to be taken
Gs%a%idi = open.source platform for crisis mapping during 2,(, Aaiti 8arth'uake. They
even had an international <&< number was created for people to input information
relating to the 'uake.
2oogle #erson Finder
6oogle Person 9inder is a web application available in Aindi and 8nglish. -link$
http$LLgoogle.orgLpersonfinderL0
Allows individuals to post and search for the status of relatives or friends affected by a
disaster.
All data entered into 6oogle Person 9inder is available to the public and searchable by
anyone.
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[EnB] "isc+
6ari%avanam
man.made forest in #erala. "n the banks of the &angalapu:ha river.
The man.made forest renders almost all the functions of a natural forest e!cept
that there are no wild animals.
minisc5le
mon)e*s
<cientists had been studying fossil primate skeleton from China since 2,,3
Conclusion$ 8arly ancestors of human beings might be Eminiscule monkeysF
smaller than rats
35mara 6a>e
9ire in <umatras =ungle=) ha:e=) air pollution in three nations$ <ingapore
Indonesia and &alaysia.
Dinosa5rs
%ardl* relevan for G#34 b5 for %e sa)e of imepass
#1: 9as5oceraops: 9ew H;egearianI
Dinosa5r
Translates to Ebig.nosed horned face.F
Bew horned dinosaur species discovered in Ctah desert of C<A.
%elongs to the group of plant.eating rhinoceros.like dinos.
Basuceratops used their horns to deter rivals for se!ual selection and 1eflect predators
similar to modern.day elk or deer.
#1: T/reJ was indeed %e ;illain Dinosa5r
#aleonologis <cientist that studies fossil organisms.
#redaor Aunts his prey by himself. 8.g. 7ion Tiger
3cavenger
Any organism that feeds on dead animals hunted by others > and other decaying
organic matter. 8!ample$ ;ultures Ayenas *accoons certain bacteria and
insects.
T+ReJ That Bon.;egetarian ;illain.1inosaur youve seen in Aollywood movies.
:%a is %e iss5e&
<ome paleontologists believe that T. re! was a scavenger not a predator. &eaning all
Aollywood movies where T.*e! is villain= scientifically bogus. %ecause T.*e! didnt
kill anyone during his timeO Ae was merely a humble dinosaur who ate dead carcasses
left by Predator dinosaurs.
%ut now Paleontologists found tooth marks of a T.*e! on a vegetarian -herbivore0
dinosaurs tail. 9rom scientific analysis they found vegetarian dinosaur was alive when it
got bitten by T.*e!
&eaning T.*e! was a predator who would hunt in live animals and B"T a scavenger. It
means Aollywood scriptwriters are indeed correct$ T.*e! was indeed the villain dinosaur.