Task 1: Study of protection issues in micro grids

T1.A Literature review
T1.A1: Impact of inverter interfaced PV sources on over current protection of
distribution network
T1.A2:Adaptive protection using distributed intelligence with / without
communication (local/global data) with standard protocols(IEC61850,TCP/IP)

T1.B. Simulation study

T1.B1. Modeling of distribution network with PV sources and fault analysis studies
T1.B1. Design of decentralized adaptive protection- algorithm development

T1.C. Hardware implementation and verification
T1.C.1 Implementation of over current relay in FPGA
T1.C.2 Integration of decentralized adaptive protection (agent based)

Responsibility 2014 2015
Tasks SubTasks Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2
Task 1: Study of protection issues in micro grids
Literature survey : Requirements of micro grid protection

Fault in upstream grid – isolate the micro grid from utility grid – islanded operation –
load/gen management for isolated operation (added function /additional requirement)

If fault is in load end/source end isolate the source/load

If fault is in feeder isolate the smallest part

1. Technical report on advanced architectures and control concepts for more microgrids,

Literature review : Protection issues with distributed generation

 The paper [2] a UK industry view, formulated using the outcomes of
questionnaires, seminars and other academic-industry exchanges carried out
under the auspices of the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) funded centre
for DG and sustainable electrical energy (CDG&SEE), of the present and
anticipated future protection system challenges in active distribution networks.

Protection issues are arranged in the decreasing order of severity
1. Loss Of Mains Detection – Currently prevailing practice-ROCOF based
2. Islanding – significant challenge to protection when islanding permitted
3. Protection discrimination issues –existing distribution network protection is
affected /compromised by installation of DG
4. Varying fault current levels –totally intermittent operating nature
5. Power quality impact on protection –relatively less occurred but there are

A. Dys´ ko, G.M. Burt, S. Galloway, C. Booth and J.R. McDonald UK distribution system
protection issues, IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2007, 1, (4), pp. 679–687
Literature Review on :Protection discrimination issues

Summary of protection discrimination issues discussed in References 3 – 5

A. Blinding of protection – Sensitivity issues
B. False tripping and back feeding
C. Fuse saving scheme
D. Mis- coordination of preciously coordinated relays
E. Selectivity issues

[3] A. Girgis and S. Brahma, “Effect of Distributed Generation on Protective Device Coordination
in Distribution System,” IEEE Large Engineering Systems Conference on Power Engineering,

[4] J. A. Silva, H. B. Funmilayo and K. L. Butler-Purry, “Impact of Distributed Generation on the
IEEE 34 Node Radial Test Feeder with Overcurrent Protection,” IEEE 39th North American
Power Symposium, 2007

[5] M.E. Baran, I El-Markaby, “Fault analysis on distribution feeders with distributed
generators,” IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 1757-1764, Nov. 2005
A.Blinding of protection
B. False tripping and back feeding C. Fuse saving scheme
Summary of protection discrimination issues discussed in References 3 – 5
Summary of protection discrimination issues discussed in References 3 – 5
D. Mis- coordination of relays
E. Selectivity issues
Impact of inverter based distributed generation on protection

Fault Current behavior of Inverter Interfaced distributed generation highly
determined by the converter control and protection which is designed and
implemented by manufactures both to protect their equipment and to follow industry
Different aspects of IIDG’s and how they are affected by various considerations
1.Voltage Vs Current control scheme
2.Fault current RMS profile
3.Fault current Composition
4.Grounding issues
5.Sequence currents
[6] Y. Pan, W. Ren, S. Ray, R. Walling and M. Reichard, Impact of Inverter Interfaced Generation
on Overcurrent Protection in Distribution Systems, Power Engineering and Automation
conference (PEAM), 2011 IEEE, Wuhan, China.
[7] Mozina, C. Impact of green power inverter-based distributed generation on distribution
systems Protective Relay Engineers, 2014 67th Annual Conference for March 31 2014-April 3


[8] Mohammed A. Haj-ahmed , Mahesh S. Illindala, The Influence of Inverter-Based DGs and
Their Controllers on Distribution Network Protection IEEE Transactions on Industry
applications , 2013
Impact of inverter control modes on fault current contribution
DG under voltage control mode: output voltage (top) and output current (bottom)
for a short-circuit fault at t = 0.3 sec
DG under current control mode: output voltage (top) and output current (bottom)
for a short-circuit fault at t = 0.3 sec
Work to be done

1. Modeling of PV
2. Modeling of inverter based DG
3. Modeling of distribution network and fault studies

Dao Van Tu, Surachai Chaitusaney, Impacts of Inverter-based Distributed Generation
Control Modes on Short-circuit Currents in Distribution Systems 7th IEEE Conference on
Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA) 2012

Proposed : Decentralized/ centralized intelligent adaptive protection

Algorithm development for a decentralized adaptive protection scheme
Topology processor data base of relay hold nearby relays upstream and down stream
parent and child
These details can also be communicated to central system to generate the entire
distribution network – for optimal operation and control
Each relay has unique Id that should help the appropriate tagging – Compatible
communication protocols/IEC 61850
Relay program structure
relay subroutine- protection functions
Coordination subroutine

Topology processors
Initializing – When new sources added/at the beginning
Adjusting- generation changes /power flow changes /relay status changes
Fault current calculation –establishing coordination
FPGA- O/C relay
Coordination and
control algorithm
uP based logic
Relay algorithm

Proposed Hardware Realization