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# Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/1

## Budapest University of Technology and Economics

Department of Mechanics, Materials and Structures
English courses
Reinforced Concrete Structures
Code: BMEEPSTK601

Lecture no. 9:

TWO-WAY SLABS
Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/2

Content:

1. Definition, internal force components
2. Methods of analysis of two-way slabs
3. The method of Marcus
4. The effect of fixing the corners of the slab against lifting
5. The yield line theory
6. Design conditions set up for the parameter to determine the
yield line pattern
7. Application of the yield line theory for more complex situations
8. Application of the yield line theory for different support condtions
and ground plan forms
9. Numerical example
Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/3

1. Definition, internal force components

specific force components
in unit-length sections of two-
way slabs
If
l
l l 5 , 0
sh
, the interaction of perpendicular strips of the slab through
torsion (t
x
and t
y
(kNm/m)) is taken into account by determining the
internal force distribution: the slab is regarded two-way slab
Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/4

2. Methods of analysis of two-way slabs

The partial differential equation of slabs:
EI
p
y x
w
y x
w
x
w
2 2
4
2 2
4
4
4
=

## w: deflection p=p(x,y) load

Analythical solutions
-exact: were only elaborated for very simple cases
(for example: uniformly distributed load, rectangular slab, simply
supported along the perimeter, EI= constant)
-approximate analythical solutions by use of Fourier functions for
limited no. of cases
Numerical solutions can be computerized:
-method of finite differences, finite element method (FEM)
Results of both analythical and numerical solutions are available in
tabulated form.
Two manual approximate methods will be shown below.
Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/5

3. The method of Marcus

For rectangular slab, simply supported along the perimeter, loaded with
uniformly distributed load.
The load is distributed between series of two perpendicular strips by
considering the condition, that at the intersection of two perpendicular
strips the deflection is the same (effect of torsion is neglected):

EI
p
384
5
w
EI
p
384
5
w
4
sh sh
sh
4
l l
l l
l
= = =
4
sh
sh
p
p

=
l
l
l
l
(1)
p= p
sh
+p

(2)

By introducing the parameters
p
p
sh
sh
= and
p
p
l
l
=

Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/6

4
sh
sh
1
1

+
=
l
l
l

sh
1 =
l

The load intensities can then be determined:

p
sh
=
sh
p and p

p

For the two extreme cases, this yields in:

5 , 0
sh
= =
l

9 , 0
sh

0,1

Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/7

4. The effect of fixing the corners of the slab against lifting

the corners of the slab lift, if they are
not loaded by vertical forces of const-
ructions above, resulting in torsional
moments

Moment distribution
along a diagonal strip
Moments equilibrium at corners

8
p
3 , 0
8 2
) 1 , 1 (
2
p
m
2
2
l
l
=

=
Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/8

Top reinforcement designed for negative moments

bottom bars

in practice:
top mesh reinforcement parallel to sup-
ports is used with the same intensity
as that, designed for positive moments
top bars

Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/9

5. The yield line theory

Yield lines: straight lines along primary cracks
Along yield lines: m=m
max
, v=0
,

More exact model at corners:
y =
l
l where can be freely
adopted between 0,1 and 0,5 .

For example:

2
l
sh
opt
l
l
2
1

= (results min.
quantity of reinforcement)

yield line
l
sh
m
sh
m
l

Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/10

Equilibrium of triangular and trapezoidal panels of the slab

Consider one of the triangular panels and the equilibrium of moments
with respect to axis y :

M
y
=0:
sh
sh
m
3
y
2
y p
l
l
l
=
l l
l l l
l
l l l
, o
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
m
8
p
3
4
8
p
6
8
6
p
6
py
m = = = = =

where
2
3
4
=
l
and
8
p
m
2
, o
l
l
l
=

Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/11

Consider now one of the trapezoidal panels and the equilibrium of
moments with respect to axis x :

M
x
=0:
l l l
l
l
l l
l l
l l l
sh
sh sh sh sh
m
2 2
p
2
) 2 (
3 2
p
2
2 =

Expressing m
sh
, we get:
m
sh
=
sh , o sh
2
sh
m
8
p
)
3
4
1 ( =
l

where: =
3
4
1
sh
and m
o,sh
=
8
p
2
sh
l

The load p =p
Ed
will be substituted in direction of the shorter and longer
span respectively with modified values corresponding to the directions:
p
3
4
1 p
sh

=

p
3
4
p
2
=
l
( ) p p p
l sh
+
Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/12

6. Design conditions set up for the parameter to determine
the yield line pattern
Beside
2
sh
opt
2
1

= =
l
l
l
some further conditions that can be set up to
determine the value of the parameter :
-let the steel necessary in direction of the longer span be equal to
the area of the distribution steel of that necessary in direction of the
shorter span: a
s,
=0,2a
s,sh
(or approximately: m

=0,2m
sh
)
-let the reinforcement be same in the two perpendicular directions:
a
s,
=a
s,sh
(or approximately: m

=m
sh
)
-let the triangle of the yield line pattern be rectangular:

sh
5 , 0 y l l
l
= = that is:
l
l l / 5 , 0
sh
=
Limits of y determine limites of , which should be checked:

2
y
10
l l
l l
that is: 5 , 0 1 , 0
Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/13

7. Application of the yield-line theory for more komplex situations:

-a system of continuous two-way slabs

Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/14

-irregular ground plan forms can be completed to rectangle and handled
like that

Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/15

8. Application of the yield line theory for different support
condtions of rectangualr slabs and different ground plan forms

-rectangular slab panel simply supported along three sides
and free along the forth side:
the maximum
moment:
8 / l p m
2
x Ed
= ,

Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/16

-rectangular slab with two free neighbouring edges and two
restrained edges:

the maximum
moment:
8 / l p m
2
x Ed
=

-rectangular slab with two free neighbouring edges and two
restrained edges

Maximum
moment:
2 / l p m
2
y Ed
=

Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/17

Circular and other ground plan forms that can be characterized
with inscribed circle, simply supported along the perimeter

8
D p
m
2
Ed
=

b

a

1
1
Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/18

9. Numerical example

Rectangular slab simply supported along the perimeter with
optimal sidelength rate

Problemt
By what sidelength rate will the relationship m
sh
= 5 m

be true just at
=
opt
? Lifting of the corners is impeded.

Solution
Let be: =
l
l
l
sh

opt
=
2
2
1
(1)

Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/19

(1-
8
p
3
4
. 5
8
p
)
3
4
2
2
opt
2
sh
opt
l
l l
= (2)
From (2) with the substitution =
l
l
l
sh
we get:
(1-
2
opt
2
opt
3
20
)
3
4
=

By expressing
2
and substituting it in (1):

opt
(1-
2
opt opt
3
20
2
1
)
3
4
=

We get the solution

opt
= 0,214 =
2 2
h
r
2
1
) (
2
1
=
l
l

Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 9/20

654 , 0 214 , 0 2 = =
That means: in case of
sh
= 0,654
,

or

= 1,528
sh
that is at about
by the sidelength rate 1:1,5 will the rate of moments in the two
directions be equal to 1:5 just by =
opt
.

In the shorter direction will then be
715 , 0 214 , 0
3
4
1
3
4
1
sh
= = =
m
sh
= 0,715
8
p
2
sh
l

that is by 28,5 % smaller, then in case of not taken into account the
effect of two-way ection. It is reasonable not to forget this rate, and try
to apply in the practice when possible!