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Physics Final Notes

Chapter 20 Travelling Waves

Sinusoidal Waves
velocity=wavelength frequency
angular frequency=2 frequency

wave number = 2/wavelength
Displacement of a Wave

Displacement = Amplitude sin(wave number(position)-angular frequency(time)+initial
phase constant)
Wave Motion on a String


Waves in Two and Three Dimensions
By replacing displacement x with displacement r, the distance measured outward from the
source and not just the position we can use the equation for multidimensional waves

Displacement = Amplitude sin(wave number(distance)-angular frequency(time)+initial
phase constant)

Intensity = power/area
Doppler Effect for Light
Doppler Effect for receding source

Doppler Effect for approaching source

=speed of the source relative to the observer

c = speed of light

= wavelength emitted by the source

Chapter 21 Superposition
Principle of Superposition
If waves are laid on top of one another you find their superposition by adding them together
Net Displacement = Displacement 1 + Displacement 2..
Standing Waves
Points of maximum displacement
Points of no displacement or points that do not move
Constructive Interference (in phase)
Points where Displacement 1 = Displacement 2, superposition is a wave with 2x the
Destructive Interference (out of phase)
Points where Displacement 1 = -Displacement 2, superposition is a wave with no amplitude
Displacement of Standing Waves
D= (2a sin(kx)) cos(t)
Interference in One Dimension
Maximum Constructive Interference
= 2

x = m
Example: phase difference coming out of source (

) is 0 but the distance between

sources (x) is multiples of wavelength
Perfect Destructive Interference
= 2

= (m + )2
x = (m + )
Example: phase difference coming out of source (

) is 0 but the distance between

sources (x) is multiples of wavelength
Amplitude of Two Superimposed waves
A = abs value(2a cos

Interference in Two and Three Dimensions
Maximum Constructive Interference
= 2

= m2
Chapter 22 Wave Optics
The Interference of Light
Position of Bright Fringes

Position of Dark Fringes

Fringe Spacing
y = L/d
Intensity of Double Slit Interference

Single Slit Diffraction
Angles of Dark Fringes
P = the dark fringe (1,2,3), a = slit width
Positions of Dark Fringes

Width of Central Max
W =

Chapter 23 Ray Optics
When light changes from one medium to another it is refracted at a certain angle
Snells Law of Refraction

Cmedium = the speed of light in the medium, n = index of refraction

Sprime= object distance, s = image distance
Chapter 26 Electric Forces and Charges
Force on Charges

K = electrostatic constant, q = charge on particle, r = distance between charges

Epsilon naught or the permittivity constant
Study Examples on Pages 803-804
Electric Field

Electric Field of a point charge

Chapter 27 The Electric Field
Alexis is the shit
Continuous Charge Distribution
Linear Charge Density

Surface Charge Density

Volume Charge Density

Examples on Pages 827-830
E Field of Capacitor

Motion in a Uniform Field
Acceleration= qE/m
Chapter 28 Gausss Law
Electric Flux and Gausss Law


See examples pages 867-869
Chapter 29 The Electric Potential
Potential of a Point Charge

Scalar, not a Vector, no direction
See examples pages 900-901
Potential inside a Parallel Plate Capacitor
Electric Potential Energy
Potential Energy = charge x uniform electric field x distance

Chapter 30 Potential and Field
Finding Potential from Electric Field

Electric field = the derivative of potential with respect to direction
Kirchhoffs Loop Law

Chapter 31 Current and Resistance
Drift Speed

Drift speed=(charge of electron x mean time between collisions/mass of electron)E Field
Electron Current

Electron current = (electron density x charge x mean time/mass electron)E Field
Conventional Current (I)

Current moves in the opposite direction of electron current
Current Density (J)

Kirchhoffs Junction Law

Conductivity and Resistivity


Resistance and Ohms Law

(Ohms Law)

Chapter 33 The Magnetic Field
Moving Charges
Magnetic Field of Point Charge

V = velocity of charged particle, =angle between v and r, r = distance to the point you want
to find the B field
Magnetic Field of Wire

Only Moving Charges create magnetic fields

Magnetic Field of a Current

Magnetic field of a very short segment of current
See pages 1007-1009 for examples
Amperes Law

Where A is are of radius you are looking for

Where A is area of entire wire


N = Number of turns in solenoid, I = current

Chapter 34 Electromagnetic Induction
Magnetic Flux
Uniform Field
Nonuniform field

Faradays Law

emf = derivative of magnetic flux with respect to time
examples pages 1056-1057
Induced Electric Field

Chapter 35 Electromagnetic Fields and Waves
Ampere Maxwell Law