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Feature: Ipil ipil


Feature title: Functional aquafeeds: Ipil ipil leaf meal as supplements to soybean and fish meal

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THE INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR THE AQUACULTURE FEED INDUSTRY


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Ipil ipil Ipil ipil
input cost by substituting
fishmeal with a wide vari-

Ipil ipil leaf meal as supplements ety of vegetables and meats


(Olvera-Novoa et al 1990;
Olvera-Novoa et al 1997;

to soybean and fish meal El-Saidy and Gaber, 2003).


The larvae of monosex
tilapia are habitat to feed
by Dr Hossain Zamal, Prabal Barua, Belal Uddin at surface. So, experimental
diets were prepared in
granulated form for the purpose of achieving Hatchery and Fisheries Project for nursery D: Experimental design
Estimation of growth and financial analysis through the application of Ipil ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf better floating characteristics. feed as reliable protein sources. Rice bran was The experiment was conducted in four
meal as supplements to soybean and fish meal in the diet of juvenile monosex tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) collected from a local market. 'hapa' each 3 × 1.5 × 0.45 m (L × W ×
Methodology: C.2: Diet Formulation: Four isonitrog- H). Each 'hapa' contained three similar

A
enous diets, which contained a crude protein chambers for replication in order to study
mong plant protein ingre- The findings in the study demonstrate and phosphorus (P), and it is also a good
A: Experimental location value 30 percent, were formulated as shown the growth of monosex tilapia fry with
dients, ipil ipil (Leucaena that ipil ipil leafmeal could be used as pro- source of b-carotene. (NAP 1984).
The experiment was performed for a in Table 1. The protein requirement was different experimental diets. Diet-1 (was
leucocephala) leafmeal tein substitute at up to 25 percent - opti- By production volume, tilapia culture is
period of 21 days at a nursery pond of
(ILLM) is considered mumally at 15 percent - in diet of growing the second largest aquaculture system in
Allahwalla Hatchery and Fisheries Project,
the most nutritive plant protein juvenile monosex tilapia. Table 2: Proximate composition of feed ingredients
Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh.
source after soybean meal in aquatic Tilapias are endemic to
Table 1: Ingredient composition of experimental diet Nitrogen
feeds. That was proven in a 21-day Africa, but interest in their Crude Crude Crude
B: Collection & preparation Ingredients Protein Fat Fibre
Ash Moisture Free
experiment conducted to assess the aquaculture potential has led Diet-1 Diet-2 Diet-3 Diet-4 (%) (%) Extract
Ingredients Ipil ipil leaf (IIL) collection and prepara- (%) (%) (%)
response of juvenile Monosex Nile to their almost worldwide (%) (%) (%) (%) (NFE)
tion: The ipil ipil tree was cultivated in the
tilapia Oreochromis niloticus with four distribution over the past 50
Fish meal 33 30 30 35
dyke and roadside of the research station.
iso-nitrogenous formulated diets: One years. Initial enthusiasm was
The green, soft and fleshy leaves were col- Ipil-Ipil leaf meal - (IILM) 23 8 16 10 14 29
control diet was formulated based on based on characteristics that Soybean meal 35 33 30 25
lected from the tree and Figure-1 shows the Fish meal 55 6 8 8 15 8
fishmeal, one on soybean meal and made tilapia appropriate for Rice bran 32 17 15 25 procedure of Ipil ipil leafmeal preparation. Soybean meal 38 7 13 9 12 21
one on rice bran, ipil ipil leafmeal was subsistence fish farming in
Ipil ipil leaf meal
also included in experimental diets. developing countries: several ---- 20 25 15 Rice bran 11 10 30 11 13 25
(leucaena leaf) C: Diet preparation
species are herbivorous, readily
Use of 15 percent ILLM in fish feed led reproduce in small ponds and C.1: Ingredient selection: Four ingredi-
to a significant improvement from the view ents - fishmeal, soybean meal (SBM), Ipil ipil balanced using the square method (Pearson, denoted as control); Diet-2, Diet-3 and
are highly tolerant of poor water quality. use worldwide in sweet-water and is mostly
of growth performance and cost benefit. The Leafmeal and rice bran - were selected for 1976). The blended feeds were used as Diet-4 were respectively applied in 'hapa-1',
Interest in commercial production of tila- carried out using semi-intensive systems
results indicated that weight and length gain, experimental diet preparation. The fishmeal experimental diets and stored in an airtight 'hapa-2', 'hapa-3' and 'hapa-4' for comparative
pia was initially dampened by a small harvest in developing countries (FAO, 2000). Nile
absolute growth, specific growth rate, feed and soybean meal were used as protein polythene bag for longer term use. Four study of their effect on growth.
size resulting from excessive reproduction Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was introduced
conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio source. The ipil ipil leafmeal was partially different ingredients: fishmeal, soybean meal
and stunting (Thomas and Leonard, 1995). first in Bangladesh in 1954 from Thailand
and average daily growth rates were recorded In order to reduce the cost of a balanced (Ahmed, 1956). incorporated with fishmeal and soybean as (SBM), Ipil-Ipil Leafmeal and rice bran were E: Larvae collection & stocking
significantly highest in the fourth diet (which protein sources. Rice bran was selected as selected for experimental diet preparation The juvenile monosex tilapias were col-
diet, locally available ingredients, such as In populations of tilapia, males grow faster
contained 15 percent IILM) compared to a carbohydrate and energy source. All the based on their composition. The control diet lected from nursery pond of the research
agricultural by-products and plant proteins, and are more uniform in size than females.
the other three. The lowest feed conversion ingredients were sieved to remove larger (Diet-1) was formulated without mixing of station with an average weight of 0.634g
should be included in the diet or substituted For this reason, the farming of monosex
ratio and cost-per-unit production were also particles. The fishmeal and soybean meal Ipi ipil leafmeal. Table-2 shows the proximate and length of 3.52cm. A numerous fry
for expensive animal plant protein sources. populations of tilapias, which is achieved
recorded to be lowest in the fourth diet. were imported from Thailand by Allahwala composition of the four ingredients. were stocked in cemented tank without
Legumes such as Ipil ipil are potentially a either by manual sexing, direct hormonal sex
On the other hand, the higher cost- valuable feed resource for aquaculture in the reversal, hybridisation or genetic manipula-
per-unit fish production was recorded for tropics because of their widespread distribu- tion, has been reported as solutions to the
Ipil- Ipil
diet-1, where ipil ipil leaf meal was absent. tion in those areas. Most varieties have not problem of early sexual maturation and

I
This study also showed that profit was been evaluated as feed for fish. Leucaena leu- unwanted reproduction. pil-ipil, (Leucaena leucocephala) is a small Mimosoid tropical tree native to Mexico, one
maximised using diet-4, reducing feed costs cocephala compares favourably with lucerne As in most fish culture systems, balanced of the most versatile species of all tropical trees because of its exceptionally high rate Classification of Ipil- Ipil
by 24.04 percent. in terms of crude protein (CP), calcium (Ca) feed is one the most significant inputs in tilapia of growth, ability to fix nitrogen and high nutritional value as feed for livestock (Hughes,
Kingdom : Plantae
culture and accounts for Colin E., 1998 ). It has been considered for biomass production, as its reported yield of foliage
Division : Magnoliophyta
between 30-60 percent of corresponds to a dried mass of 2000-20000 kg/ha/year, and that of wood 30-40 m³/ha/year, Class : Magnoliopsida
production costs (El-Sayed, with up to twice those amounts in favourable climates. Order : Fabales
1990; Goddard, 1996; Tudor High rates of nitrogen fixation (100-500 kg N/ha/yr), which contribute to high foliar N Family : Fabaceae
content (4.3% dry wt.), and rapid decomposition of its foliage make ipil-ipil an excellent mulch Subfamily: Mimosoideae
et al 1996). Substitution of
(surface application) or green manure (incorporated) crop. In addition to inorganic nutrients, Genus: Leucaena
fishmeal in balanced feed has Species: L. leucocephala,
been vital to reducing feed ipil-ipil mulch/green manure can increase soil organic matter (Duke 1983). During the 1970s
(Lam.). de Wit
costs and overall tilapia pro- and 1980s it was promoted as a "miracle tree" for its multiple uses It has also been described
Figure 1: Ipil Ipil leaf
meal preparation process duction costs. Efforts have as a "conflict tree" in that it is both promoted for forage production and spreads like a weed in
been made to reduce this some places ( Gutteridge and Shelton, 1998).

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Ipil ipil Ipil ipil
feed for one day. Total 2400 uniform size I: Bio-Chemical Evaluation (percent) was recorded for Diet-3. The
Table 5: Comparative Benefit Analysis among different
fry were taken into 12 polythene bags. Moisture, ash, lipid and protein content higher fat 7.63 (percent) was recorded experimental diet
The fry within polythene bags were accli- of the ingredients were determined by for Died-1 and lower fat 7.4 (percent)
matised with water temperature of the standard AOAC methods (AOAC, 1995). was recorded for Diet-3. The huger Cost per unit
Total
production % of
'hapa' for three-to-five minutes. Just after Ash 9.24 (percent) was recorded for Diet Benefit
of fish ( taka Benefit
acclimatised the fry were finally stocked J: Feed Economics Diet-1 and lower Ash 9.24 (percent) was (taka)
/ kg)
into 'hapa'. Each 'hapa' contained 600 fry The economical feasibility of the experi- recorded for Diet-2. The higher NFE
and each experimental chamber contained mental diets was studied by analysed unit 19.7 (percent) was recorded for Diet- Diet-1 45.6 ------- -----
200 fry. cost and total costs
Diet-2 35.46 10.14 22.24
of all ingredients Table 3: Growth performance of juvenile tilapia in experimental
F: Feed management were used in the diets Diet-3 35.71 9.89 21.69
Due to the feeding behaviour of experiments. Diet- Diet- 4 34.65 10.95 24.01 Ipil leafmeal. The Discussion:
tilapia, granulated experimental diets parameter Diet-1 Diet-2 Diet-4 higher formulating
3 Ingredients selection is one of the most
were spread on centre of each chamber Results cost was 20.82tk/ important factors for formulation and com-
by a small plate arrangement to avoid The nutrient ele- Absolute Growth (g) 919.26 929.2 979.26 1119.26 FCR, FCE and PER were observed in Diet- kg for Diet-1 and lower formulating cost mercial production for supplemental quality
feeding competition between exterior ments, such as crude 4, Diet-3 and Diet-2 respectively. was 17.85tk/kg for Diet-3. The estimated feed of aquatic species. In the present study
fish. The amount of feed supplied to the protein, crude fat, Specific Growth Rate In the present experiment, feed prepa- higher cost for production of 100kg juve- ingredient were selected to consider their
5.86% 5.90% 6.05% 6.52%
reared fry was 25 percent of the total (SGR) ration cost (Tk/kg) and proportional ben- nile monosex tilapia was four, 560taka*
crude fibre, ash con- nutritional quality and cost effectiveness.
biomass per day for the first 10 days and tents, moisture con- Feed Conversion efit analysis among different experimental for Diet-1 and lower cost for production
2.74 2.73 2.78 2.42
20 percent of total biomass per day for Ratio (FCR) diets (Tk/kg) were observed in the Table of 100kg juvenile monosex tilapia was
tents and NFE were
* This article refers to Bangladesh Currency (Taka)
second 11 days. evaluated for each of Feed Conversion 4 and Table 5; The lowest production cost 3465taka for Diet-4. The higher benefit
36.43 36.67 35.99 41.23 1 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) = 0.01424 US Dollar (USD)
Efficiency (%) indicating economic viability of the feed. was 24.01 percent (taka) was estimated
the isonitrogenous 1 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) = 0.009804 British Pound (GBP)
G: Periodical observation diets for the suitabil- Protein Efficiency
1.04 1.047 1.028 1.178
The higher price of feed ingredients was for Diet-4 and lower benefit 21.69 per- 1 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) = 0.01109 Euro (EUR)
The growth and survival of the reared Ratio 37.00tk/kg for fishmeal and lower price cent (taka) was estimated for Diet-3 (exchange rate correct at time of printing)
ity of their finished
specimen in each 'hapa' with three product for mono- for ingredients was 3.00tk/kg for Ipil- when compared with Diet-1.
Survival Rate ( %)) 100 100 100 100
replicates were recorded at seven days sex tilapia fry. The 96272_GTC_Aquafeed_FebAd_2009_4:Layout 1 2/3/09 10:22 AM Page 1
interval. Ten percent of the estimated fry four experimental
were sampled and collected samples were diets were contained 35 percent crude 2 and lower NFE 18.0 (percent) was
placed on the well-marked stillness scale protein. The higher moisture content recorded for Diet-1 (see Table-1).
and recorded the total length from the 13.6 (percent) was recorded for Diet- Table-3 represents the growth and
nutrient utilisation of juvenile
monosex tilapia on the test
diets. There were significant dif-
ferences (P <0.05) in the mean “Your Reliable Supply Chain Manager”
weight gain (MWG) and specific
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• Banana Powder
extreme mouth to the tip of tail. 20 spe- 4 and lowest moisture content 13.31 Highest MWG, MLG, SGR, AG, ADG, FCE F o r t o d a y ’s
cies were taken from each chamber for
measuring total length. The mean weight
(percent) was recorded for Diet-1. The
higher crude fibre 16.79 (percent) was
and
least
PER were
MWG,
found
MLG,
in fish fed Diet-4. The
SGR, AG, ADG were • Crude Tuna Fish Oil Naturally Healthy Animals
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Mean weight gain (MWG), mean Feed Total Total Total fish Cost
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nutrient utilization
length gain (MLG), absolute growth Diets
cost (Tk / used cost at the end of production
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Sedgwick (1979). Feed conversion ratio Diet-1 20.82 2.523 52.53 1.152 45.6
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Diet-2 18.33 2.534 46.45 1.31 35.46
protein efficiency ratio (PER) were Email: palmview@pldtdsl.net
Diet-3 17.85 2.721 48.57 1.36 35.71
calculated as described by Castell and Website: www.palmviewtrade.com © 2009 G TC Nutrition SD96272
Tiews (1980). Diet-4 19.15 2.714 51.97 1.5 34.65

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Palm view QP.indd 1 27/02/2009 09:29
Wenger_Joe_Gen_92mmx267mm 12/11/08 7:51 AM Page 1
Images courtesy of FRM Ltd

Ipil ipil We could talk all day about our aquatic feed systems.

be obtained using the Diet-4 mixed with tion cost of experimental diets were found
But we’d rather
yours.
protein of plant and animal origin. The result highest 20.82tk/kg for Diet-1 and lowest
of the present study is in closer agreement
with the report of Djunaidah et al 1986
17.85tk/kg for Diet-3 and also the amount
of cost per unit production was highest talk about
found the best result in growth with diets, 45.6tk/kg for Diet-1 and lowest 34.65tk/
which were composed of fishmeal 35 per- kg for Diet-3. The lowest production cost
Wenger offers you more extruder, dryer, and
cent and soybean meal 30 percent. indicating economic viability of the feed
In evaluating Leucaena leucocephala (Table 3 and 4). Partial replacement of
control choices, and more ways to put together the
leafmeal as a protein source in Indian major fishmeal or marine animal protein and perfect aquatic feed production system, than anyone in the
carp, Labeo rohita, Hassan et al (1994) soybean meal by ipil ipil leafmeal resulted industry. We’ll custom design your system with a wide range
observed a trend of reduced performance in better growth performance, indicating an of features and options uniquely configured and expertly
with the highest growth, in terms of weight economical profit for juvenile tilapia. Edinburgh Conference Centre, Heriot-Watt Univerity, engineered to produce optimally for your specific application.
in fish fed diets with 25 percent soaked In commercial aquaculture, feed cost is We bring unmatched technical expertise
leucaena diets. the major part of overall production cost. Edinburgh to your process requirements,
Vogt et al (1986) found that growth and Benefit of aquaculture is calculated with making a Wenger aquatic feed
survival of the tiger prawn was better fed
diets in which 20 percent of the soybean
per unit production and cost of feed for it.
The achievement of the present study was Scottish Aquaculture - A sustainable future system your Wenger aquatic
feed system.
was replaced with Leucaena leucocephala that 24 percent feed cost were reduced by
Scotland is a leader in seeking to use science based policy, regulation and voluntary industry
leaves. Ghatnkar et al (1983) reported that using experimental Diet-4 which contained
diets with 30-65 percent Leucaena leuco- 15 percent IILM (non conventional feed codes to increase the sustainability of the aquaculture sector within the context ofTalkincreasingly
to Wenger today,
and surround yourself
cephala had no adverse affects on growth or ingredients) in the diet. focused regulation and global environmental and economic forces. The symposium will explore
with unrivaled resources
reproductive behaviour of Mossabique tilapia sustainability under four broad themes of the environment, fish health and welfare,forthe role of
exceeding your
Conclusions science within regulation and policy, together with the socio-economic impact of aquaculture.
processing The
(S. mossambicus) and Indian major carps
goals.
(Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla) Tilapia culture in rural area of developing
symposium is being organised by the Scottish Aquaculture Research Forum (SARF) in conjunction
although the diets did not improve their countries requires strategies for better
performance over that of a standard diet. performance. with The Royal Society of Edinburgh and The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, and
When Rahman et al (1988) fed Nile tilapia From the overall discussion of the aims to engage delegates from a wide range of backgrounds with an interest in aquaculture and
(T. niolotica) a diet containing Leucaena leuco- present experimental results it has estab- bring together the extensive portfolio of SARF sponsored research, complemented by interna-
cephala leaves; the fish grew more slowly than lished that better growth and minimum feed tionally recognised keynote speakers.
those on a standard rat diet. The leaves also cost of reared species may also be obtained
caused alterations in the female gonads. In the using the feed with mixed protein of plant
present study it was found that Ipil ipil leafmeal and animal origin. PRELIMINARY PROGRAMME
at 15 percent level used in the diets have good Supplementation of artificial diets to the Joe Kearns, Aquaculture
Tuesday 21st April Thursday 23rdTechnology
Process and Friday
Manager24th April
nutritive values and have a significant role on natural food may further increase the growth
Jackson et al (1982) reported that the the growth, FCR, FCE and all of the perform- and survival and decrease the feed conversion Plenary Session 1: Aquaculture- Current EU and Global Status Field Trip to Stirling, Institute of Aquaculture,
ance measure of Oreochormis niloticus. of the rearing species. To achieve a balance Session 1: Understanding our environment
success of commercial aquaculture system Oban, Scottish Association of Marine Science
It also found that FCR increased with nutritional composition in fish feed, a more Session 2: Science into Policy and Regulation
depends on proper selection of feed ingredi- Laboratory and boat trip in Loch Creran to visit
increased in ipil ipil leafmeal level in the diverse choice should be made in selecting feed
ents that should be contain optimum level of fish and shellfish farms.
protein and energy, necessary for the growth diet, being highest in Oreochormis niloticus ingredients. A mixture of feed ingredients will Evening: Conference Dinner
of the respective culture species and the fed 25 percent ILLM and lowest in tilapia 15 provide more balance nutrients than only use We anticipate presentations from 34 invited
ingredients should also be low cost. percent for both optimum and high energy limited feed ingredients to formulate fish feed. experts and an open call for posters. The sym-
In the present study, ingredients were diets. Tilapia showed very poor growth Products derived from ipil ipil have been posium programme will deliver a co-ordinated
selected to considered their nutritional when Leauceana leucocephala constituted shown to be important ingredients for prac- Wednesday 22nd April series of presentations designed to meet the
quality and cost effectiveness. 25 percent or more of the dietary protein. tical feeds for tilapia.This is primarily because needs of delegates from a broad spectrum of
Pascual (1980) reported that not only The reduced value of FCR is very significant of the high level of protein, its low price and Plenary Session 2: The Future- Challenges and Opportunities specialist and non-specialist backgrounds. The
the quantity of protein but also the quality for commercially and economically and also the case of incorporation into feeds and the Session 1: Fish health and welfare proceedings will be published in a special volume
of protein cause the difference in weight prove the better growth performance. low level of anti-nutritional elements. The Session 2: Sustainability of Aquaculture Research.
gain between the crude ipil ipil leafs and Better performance in growth, nutrient findings in the present study shown that ipil
utilisation and proximate composition in O. ipil leafmeal could be used as protein sub- The symposium is receiving generous support form SARF Members with additional support from:
soaked ipil ipil leaf. The soaked ipil ipil leaf
extracted harmful mimosine and achieved niloticus fed diets with leaf protein concen- stitute up to 25 percent and optimum level
better weight gain than crude ipil ipil leaf trates showed that leaf proteins made from 15 percent in diet of growing tilapia. IILM at
which content toxic element mimosine. He leucaena could be viable means of improving 15 percent level used in the diets have good Superior Technology.
observed that fishmeal and ipil ipil leavemeal fish feed specially for Oreochormis niloticus.The nutritive values and have a significant role on Unparalleled Service.
proximate compassion of the feed ingredients the growth, FCR, FCE and all of the perform-
was the best attractant followed by fish.
The present experimental result of abso- and ipil ipil leafmeal used in the experimental ance measure of O. niloticus.
Further information and on-line registration is available at:
lute growth (AG) on Oreochromis niloticus diets in the present studies were within the http://www.sarf.org.uk/symposium.htm
SABETHA, KANSAS USA 785-284-2133
INFO@WENGER.COM WWW.WENGER.COM
showed the greater value of AG is more expected ranges (Ayuk et al 2002; Nas, 1977; Acknowledgement:
significant for commercially economically. Mutayoba et al 2003; Adeparusi et al 2005) The authors are deeply indebted and
USA BELGIUM TAIWAN BRASIL CHINA TURKEY
Better growth of the reared tilapia may also In the present experiment, feed prepara- grateful to Master Abul Kashem, proprietor The Royal Society of Edinburgh, Scotland’s National Academy, is Scottish Charity No SC000470
SARF is Scottish Charity No. SC035745
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5
It‘s the mix that makes the difference. Feed manufacturers desire high

Ipil ipil durability, reliability and sanitation. Quality feed with minimum operating costs is
a must. Your needs are Buhler‘s first priority. That is why we commit our-
and managing director Allahwalla Hatchery www.fao.org/fi/statist/fisoft/fishplus.asp 02/06/2002. Linaaeus. Indian Journal of fisheries, 17: 90-96. selves to delivering seamless solutions meeting your highest requirements. Get
and Fisheries Project, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh,
for offering permission and experimental
Goddard, S.1996. Feed management in intensive Sedgwick, G.W., 1979. length-weight relationship in touch with one of our specialists worldwide and we will deliver a complete
aquaculture. Chapman & Hall. New York.130pp. and relative condition factor of the canine catfish
facilities including financial support in his
Goswami, U and Goswami, S. C., 1979.
Plotosus canius Hamilton. Journal of the Marine process design package, equipment, automation and customer service. You and
project for conducted this research work. bio. Asso. India, 23: 39-43.
Khandaker Shafiqul Islam, technical adviser of Formulation of cheaper artificial for shrimp
culture. Preliminary biochemical, physical and Thomas J. Popma and Leonard L. Lovshin. 1995.
Buhler – the perfect mix.
this hatchery also provided technical support
biological evaluation. Aquaculture, 16: 309-317pp Worldwide Prospects for commercial production
for carrying out research successfully. of Tilapia.pp.26-125
Ghatnekar, S. D, Auti, D. G and Kamat, V. S. 1983.
Feeding Leuceana to Mozambique tilapia and Tudor, K. W., Rosati, R. R., O’Rourke, P. D., Wu,
References: Indian major carps. In: Leuceana Research in the Y. V., Sessa, D. and Brown, P. 1996. Technical
Ahmed, N.1956. Transportation of food fish to Asia-Pacific Region. Proceedings of a workshop and economical feasibility of on-farm fish feed
East Pakistan. Pak J. Sci. 8 (4) 167-170 held in Singapore, 23-26 November 1982, IDRC, production using fishmeal analogs. Aquaculture
Ottawa, Canada. pp. 61-63. Engineering 15 (1): 53–55
Anonymous 1980. Feeding, fish farming handbook. Bühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96
SEAFDEC, Tigbauan, IIOIL, Philippines. 152-160 Hassan, M. R., Roy, P. K. and Akand, A. M. 1994. Vogt,G., Quinito, E. E. and Pascual, I. P. 1986. fu.buz@buhlergroup.com, www.buhlergroup.com
Evaluation of Leucaena leaf meal as a protein source Leuceana leucocephala leaves in formulated feed
AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis of for Indian major carp, Labeo rohita, fingerlings. for Penaeus monodon: a concrete example of
AOAC International, 16th ed., P. Cunniff. AOAC In: De Silva, S. S. (ed.). Fish Nutrition Research in the application of histology in nutrition research.
International, Arlington, Virginia, USA Asia, Proceeding of the Fifth Asian Fish Nutrition Aquaculture, 59: 209-234.
Ayuk, A., Iyayi, E.a., Okon, B.I., 2002. Proximate Workshop. Asian Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. 9, Asian
West, E.S. Mason, T.H.S. and Bruggen, J.T.V. 1966.
composition and tannin contents of some Fisheries Soc., Manila, Philippines. pp. 69 - 76.
Text book of Biochemistry, Macmillan Company
multipurpose tree leaves. Global Jnl Agric Res Vo. Jackson, A.J., Capper, B.S., Matty, A. J., 1982. N.Y. 341-342 pp.
1(2) 2002: 77-82
Evaluation of some plant proteins in complete
Duke, J.A. 1983. Handbook of Energy crops. http://
Adeparusi, E.O. and Agbede, J. O. 2005. Evaluation diets for the tilapia ( Sarothrodon mossambicus).
www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke-energy/
of leucaena and gliricidia leaf protein concentrate as Aquaculture 27, 97-109.
Medicago-sativa.htm#cultivation.
supplements to bambara groundnut (vignas subterranean
Mutayoba, S. K., Mutayoba, B. M., and Okot, P., 2003. Gutteridge, Ross C., and H. Max Shelton. 1998.
(l. verdc) in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture
The performance of growing pullets fed diets with Forage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture.
Nutrition.Volume 12, Issue 2. 335-342pp
varying energy and Leucaena leaf meal levels. Livestock Tropical Grassland Society of Australia, Inc., 2.1
Alam, M.J. 1993. Determination of optimum Research for Rural Development 15 (8) 2003 "Leucaena leucocephala - the Most Widely Used
protein level and effects of high-incorporated
Forage Tree Legume"
soybean meal in the diet related to growth NAS (1977) Leucaena - Promising Forage and
and survivability of M. rosenbergii post larvae. Tree Crop for the Tropics. National Academy Hughes, Colin E. (1998). Monograph of Leucaena
M. Sc. desertion. Institute of Marine Sciences, Press, Washington DC, 115 pp. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae). Systematic botany
University of Chittagong. 65pp. monographs v. 55. ISBN 091286155X
NAP 1984. National Academy Press. Innovations
Boonyaratpalin, M., P. Suraneiranat and T. Tunpibal. in Tropical Reforestation. In Leucaena: Promising
1998. Replacement of fishmeal with various types forage and tree crop for the tropics. 2nd Edition
More inforMation:
of soybean products in diets for the Asian seabass, Washington, pp 1-10; 41-51
Lates calcarifer. Aquaculture 161: 67-78 Hossain Zamal
Nyirenda, J., Mwabumba, M., Kaunda, E and Sales, Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries,
Barnes, 1959. Apparatus and methods of J.2000. Effect of Substituting Animal Protein Sources University of Chittagong, Bangladesh
oceanography, part-1 (chemical) Academic Press, with Soybean Meal in Diets of Oreochromis Tel: +880 1712110841
London. 341pp Email: hzcu@yahoo.com
karongae. Naga, The ICLARM Quarterly (Vol. 23,
Bhattacharjee, H.1989. Formulation of quality No. 4) October-December 2000 Prabal Barua
Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries,
fish feeds for the better growth and survival Olvera-Novoa, M. A., Campos, S., Sabido, M. and University of Chittagong, Bangladesh
of the fries and fingerlings of Greenback Grey Martínez-Palacios, C. A. (1990). The use of alfalfa Tel: +880 1818896874
Mullet Liza Subviridis, M.Sc. dissertation (Un leaf protein concentrates as a protein source Email: prabalims@gmail.com
pub.), Institute of marine Sciences, university of in diets for tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.
Chittagong.50pp. Belal Uddin
Aquaculture 90: 291–302.
Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries,
Castell, S. and Tiews, W.,1989. Composition of feed Olvera-Novoa, M. A., Pereira-Pacheco, F., Olivera- University of Chittagong, Bangladesh
and effects for commercial farming of shrimp intensive Tel: +880 1818274011
Castillo, L., Pérez-Flores, V., Navarro, L. and
culture in Hundurus. J. of. Aqua.Vol 10(2): 34pp. Samano, J. C. (1997). Cowpea Vigna unguiculata
El-Sayed, A. F. M.,1990. Long-term evaluation of protein concentrate as replacement for fish meal introDUCtion anD aDDreSS of
cotton seed meal as a protein source for Nile tilapia in diets for tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fry. CorreSPonDinG aUtHor:
Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture 84: 315–320 Aquaculture 158: 107–116 • Completed Post Graduation from Institute
of Marine Sciecnes and Fisheries, University
El-Saidy, D. M. and Gaber, M. M., 2003. Replacement Pascual, F. P. 1983. Nutrition and feeding of P. of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh
of fish meal with a mixture of different plant protein monodon. Extension manual no.3. 1-10pp. 3rd
sources in juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus edition, ISSN-0115-5369, aqua. Dept. SEAFDEC • M. Phil Fellow of Department of Zoology,
(L.) diets. Aquaculture Research 34: 1119-1127. Tigbaun, Hoilo, Philippines University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West

FAO, 2000. Aquaculture production: quantities 1970- Solbe, J., 1954. On the length-weight relationship
Bengal, India.
Email : prabalims@gmail.com
The solution behind the solution.
2000, Dataset for Fishstat Plus Version 2.3, in http:// and relative condition factor of Trichiurus lepturus

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ipil the link above.
Table 5: Comparative Benefit Analysis among different Table 5: Comparative Benefit Analysis among different
experimental diet experimental diet

Cost per unit Cost per unit


Total Total
production % of production % of
Diet Benefit Diet Benefit
of fish ( taka Benefit of fish ( taka Benefit
(taka) (taka)
/ kg) / kg)

Diet-1 45.6 ------- ----- Diet-1 45.6 ------- -----

Diet-2 35.46 10.14 22.24 Diet-2 35.46 10.14 22.24


Diet-3 35.71 9.89 21.69 Diet-3 35.71 9.89 21.69
Diet- 4 34.65 10.95 24.01 Ipil leafmeal. The Discussion: Diet- 4 34.65 10.95 24.01 Ipil leafmeal. The Discussion:
higher formulating Ingredients selection is one of the most higher formulating Ingredients selection is one of the most
cost was 20.82tk/ important factors for formulation and com- cost was 20.82tk/ important factors for formulation and com-
FCR, FCE and PER were observed in Diet- kg for Diet-1 and lower formulating cost mercial production FCR,for FCE and PER were
supplemental observed in Diet-
quality kg for Diet-1 and lower formulating cost mercial production for supplemental quality
4, Diet-3 and Diet-2 respectively. was 17.85tk/kg for Diet-3. The estimated feed of aquatic 4, Diet-3Inand
species. theDiet-2
presentrespectively.
study was 17.85tk/kg for Diet-3. The estimated feed of aquatic species. In the present study

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In the present experiment, feed prepa- higher cost for production of 100kg juve- ingredient were selectedIn the present experiment,
to consider their feed prepa- higher cost for production of 100kg juve- ingredient were selected to consider their
ration cost (Tk/kg) and proportional ben- nile monosex tilapia was four, 560taka* nutritional qualityration
and cost
cost (Tk/kg) and proportional ben-
effectiveness. nile monosex tilapia was four, 560taka* nutritional quality and cost effectiveness.
efit analysis among different experimental for Diet-1 and lower cost for production efit analysis among different experimental for Diet-1 and lower cost for production
diets (Tk/kg) were observed in the Table of 100kg juvenile monosex tilapia was diets (Tk/kg) were observed in the Table of 100kg juvenile monosex tilapia was
* This article refers to Bangladesh Currency (Taka) * This article refers to Bangladesh Currency (Taka)
4 and Table 5; The lowest production cost 3465taka for Diet-4. The higher benefit 4 and Table 5; The lowest production cost 3465taka for Diet-4. The higher benefit
1 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) = 0.01424 US Dollar (USD) 1 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) = 0.01424 US Dollar (USD)
indicating economic viability of the feed. was 24.01 percent (taka) was estimated 1 Bangladeshiindicating
Taka (BDT) =economic viability
0.009804 British of the feed.
Pound (GBP)
was 24.01 percent (taka) was estimated 1 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) = 0.009804 British Pound (GBP)
The higher price of feed ingredients was for Diet-4 and lower benefit 21.69 per- 1 BangladeshiThe higher
Taka (BDT) =price
0.01109ofEuro
feed ingredients was
(EUR) for Diet-4 and lower benefit 21.69 per- 1 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) = 0.01109 Euro (EUR)
37.00tk/kg for fishmeal and lower price cent (taka) was estimated for Diet-3 37.00tk/kg
(exchange rate for offishmeal
correct at time printing) and lower price cent (taka) was estimated for Diet-3 (exchange rate correct at time of printing)
for ingredients was 3.00tk/kg for Ipil- when compared with Diet-1. for ingredients was 3.00tk/kg for Ipil- when compared with Diet-1.
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