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Collins
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French
Crammar
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PUBLISHING DIRECTOR
Lorna Knight
EDITORIAL DIRECTOR
Michela Clari
MANACING EDITOR
Maree Airlie
CONTRIBUTORS
WendyLee
Cadlle Amiot-Cadey
Di Larkin
We would like to give special thanks to
Di Larkin, Foreign Languages Consultant,
and Irene Muir, Faculty Head, Belmont
House School, for all their advice on
teaching practice in today's classroom.
Their contributions have been invaluable
in the writing of this book.
CONTENTS
Foreword for language teachers
Introduction for students
Glossary of grammar terms
Nouns
Using nouns
Gender
Forming plurals
Articles
Different types of article
The definite article: le, la, l' and les
The indefinite article: un, une and des
The partitive article: du, de la, de l'and des
Adjectives
Using adjectives
Making adiectives agree
Word order with adjectives
Comparatives and superlatives of adjectives
Demonstrative adjectives: ce, cette, cet and ces
Possessive adjectives
Indefinite adjectives
Pronouns
Personal pronouns: subject
Personal pronouns: direct object
Personal pronouns: indirect object .
Emphatic pronouns
Possessive pronouns
en and y
Using different types of pronoun together
Indefinite pronouns
Relative pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns
Verbs
The three coniugations
The present tense
The present tense: regular -er (first conjugation) verbs
The present tense: regular -ir (second conjugation) verbs
The present tense: regular -re (third conjugation) verbs
The present tense: spelling changes in -er verbs
The present tense: irregular verbs
The imperative
Reflexive verbs
V
vi
vill
1
1
2
9
12
12
13
't9
22
25
25
27
32
34
37
39
4'l
42
43
47
49
51
54
56
59
60
62
65
69
69
71
72
74
76
78
82
85
88
The imperfect tense
The future tense
The conditional
The perfect tense
The pluperfect tense
The passive
The present participle
lmpersonal verbs
The subjunctive
Verbs followed by an infinitive
Other uses of the infinitive
Negatives
Questions
How to ask a question in French
Question
words
Adverbs
How adverbs are used
How adverbs are formed
Comparatives and superlatives of adverbs
Some common adverbs
Word order with adverbs
Prepositions
How prepositions are used
i, de and en
Some other common prepositions
Prepositions consisting of more than one word
Prepositions after verbs
Prepositions after adjectives
Conjunctions
et mais, ou, parce que and si
Some other common conjunctions
The conjunction que
Numbers
Time and date
Some common difficulties
The alphabet
Main index
Verb tables
Verb index
Note on trademarks
Entered words which we have reason to believe constitute trademarks have been
designated as such. However, neither the presence nor the absence of such designation
should be regarded as affecting the legal status of any trademark.
FOREWORD FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS
The fosy Leorning French Crommar is designed to be used with both young
and adult learners, as a group reference book to complement your course
book during classes, or as a recommended text for self-study and
homework/coursework.
The text specifically targets learners from ab initio to intermediate or CCSE
level, and therefore its structural content and vocabulary have been matched
to the relevant specifications up to and including Higher CCSE.
The approach aims to develop knowledge and understanding of grammar and
your learners' ability to apply it by:
r defining parts of speech at the start of each major section with
examples in English to clarify concepts
e minimizing the use of grammar terminology and providing clear
explanations of terms both within the text and in the Glossary
o illustrating all points with examples (and their translations) based on
topics and contexts which are relevant to beginner and intermediate
course content
The text helps you develop positive attitudes to grammar learning in your
classes by:
o giving clear, easy-to-follow explanations
o prioritizing content according to relevant specifications for the levels
. sequencing points to reflect course content, e.g. verb tenses
o highlighting useful Tips to deal with common difficulties
. summarizing Key points at the end of sections to consolidate
learning
In addition to fostering success and building a thorough foundation in French
grammar, the optional Grammar Extra sections will encourage and challenge
your learners to further their studies to higher and advanced levels.
92
98
105
111
1't9
122
12s
127
129
133
"t37
138
142
142
146
',52
1s2
'152
155
157
160
162
162
163
17'l
177
178
183
"184
184
186
187
188
190
193
198
199
1-94
95-105
INTRODUCTION FOR STUDENTS
Whether you are starting to learn French for the very first time, brushing up on
topics you have studied in class, or revising for your CCSE exams, the fosy
Leorning French Grommor is here to help. This easy-to-use guide takes you
through all the basics you will need to speak and understand modern,
everyday French.
Newcomers can sometimes struggle with the technical terms they come across
when they start to explore the grammar of a new language. fhe Eosy Leorning
French Crammor explains how to get to grips with all the parts of speech you
will need to know, using simple language and cutting out jargon.
The text is divided into sections, each dealing with a particular area of
grammar. Each section can be studied individually, as numerous cross-
references in the text point you to relevant points in other sections of the book
for further information.
Every major section begins with an explanation of the area of grammar
covered on the following pages. For quick reference, these definitions are also
collected together on pages viii-xii in a glossary of essential grammar terms.
What is a verb?
A verb is a 'doing' word which describes what someone or something
does, what someone or something is, or what happens to them, for
exampfe, be, sing, live.
Each grammar point in the text is followed by simple examples of real French,
complete with English translations, helping you understand the rules.
Underlining has been used in examples throughout the text to highlight the
grammatical point being explained.
l lf you are talking about a part of your body, you usually use a word like
my or his in English, but in French you usually use the definite article.
rtp
lf you are in doubt as to which form of you to use, it is safest to
use vous and you will not offend anybody.
Key points sum up all the important facts about a particular area of grammar,
to save you time when you are revising and help you focus on the main
grammatical points.
Key points
y'
Wittr masculine singular nouns
+
use un.
y'
Witn feminine singular nouns
i
use une.
y'
witn
plural
nouns
r
use des.
y'
un, une and des
*
change to de or d'in negative
sentences.
(
tne indefinite article is not usually used when you say what
jobs people do, or in exclamations with quel.
lf you think you would like to continue with your French studies to a higher
level, check out the Grammar Extra sections. These are intended for advanced
students who are interested in knowing a little more about the structures they
will come across beyond CCSE.
Orammar Extra!
lf you want to use an adjective after quelque chose, rien, quelqu'un and
personne, you link the words with de.
quelqu'un d'important
quelque chose gl'int6ressant
rien d'amusant
someone important
something interesting
nothing funny
ln French, as with any foreign language, there are certain pitfalls which have
to be avoided. Tips and Information notes throughout the text are useful
reminders of the things that often trip learners up.
Finally, the supplement at the end of the book contains Verb Tables, where 93
important French verbs (both regular and irregular) are declined in full.
Examples show you how to use these verbs in your own work. lf you are
unsure of how a verb declines in French, you can look up the Verb Index on
pages 95-1 05 to find either the conjugation of the verb itself, or a cross-
reference to a model verb, which will show you the patterns that verb follows.
We hope that you will enjoy using the Eosy Learning French Grqmmor and fnd it
useful in the course of your study.
Tourne la tete i gauche.
ll s'est cass6 le bras.
J'ai mal d la gorge.
Turn your head to the left.
He's broken his arm.
l've got a sore throat.
ABSTRACT NOUN a word used to
refer to a quality, idea, feeling or
experience, rather than a physical
object for example, size, reoson,
hoppiness. Compare with concrete
noun.
ADf ECTIVE a 'describing' word that
tells you more about a person or
thing, such as their appearance,
colour, size or other qualities, for
example, pretty, blue, big.
ADVERB a word usually used with
verbs, adjectives or other adverbs
that gives more information about
when, where, how or in what
circumstances something happens,
for example, quickly, happily now.
AGREE (to) to change word endings
according to whether you are
referring to masculine, feminine,
singular or plural people or things.
AGREEMENT changing word
endings according to whether you
are referring to masculine, feminine,
singular or plural people or things.
APOSTROPHE s an ending ('s) added
to a noun to show who or what
someone or something belongs to,
for example, Danielle's dog, the
doctor's wife, the book's cover.
ART|CLE a word like the, o and an,
which is used in front of a noun. See
also definite article, indefinite
article and partitive article.
AUXILIARY VERB a verb such as be,
hove and do when it is used with a
main verb to form tenses, negatives
and questions.
BASE FORM the form of the verb
without any endings added to it, for
example, wolk, have, be, go. Compare
with infinitive.
CARDINAL NUMBER a number used
in counting, for example, onet seven/
ninety. Compare with ordinal
number.
CLAUSE a group of words containing
a verb.
COMPARATIVE an adjective or
adverb with -er on the end of it or
more or /ess in front of it that is used
to compare people, things or actions,
for example, slower, less importont,
more corefully.
COMPOUND NOUN a word for a
living being, thing or idea, which is
made up of two or more words, for
example, tin-opener, roilway stotion.
CONCRETE NOUN a word that refers
to an object you can touch with your
hand, rather than to a quality or
idea, for example, ball, map, opples.
Compare with abstract noun.
CONDITIONAL a verb form used to
talk about things that would happen
or would be true under certain
conditions, for example, I would help
you if I could. lt is also used to say
what you would like or need, for
example, Could you give me the bill?
CONIUGATE (to) to give a verb
different endings according to
whether you are referring to I, you,
they and so on, and according to
whether you are referring to past
present or future, for example, I hove,
she had, they will hove.
CONfUGATION a group of verbs
which have the same endings as each
other or change according to the
same pattern.
GLOSSARY OF GRAMMAR TERMS
CON|UNCTION a word such as and,
becouse or but that links two words
or phrases of a similar type or two
parts of a sentence, for example,
Diqne and I hove been friends for
yeors.; I left because I was bored.
CONSONANT a letter of the
alphabet which is not a vowel, for
example, b, f, m, s,
y
etc. Compare
with vowel.
CONSTRUCTION an arrangement of
words together in a phrase or
sentence.
DEFINITE ARTICLE the word the.
Compare with indefinite article.
DEMONSTRATIVE ADTECTIVE one of
the words this, thot, these and those
used with a noun to point out a
particular person or thing, for
example, this woman, thot dog.
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN one of
the words this, thqt, these and those
used instead of a noun to point out
people or things, for example, Ihot
looks fun.
DIRECT OBTECT a noun referring to
the person or thing affected by the
action described by a verb, for
exampfe, She wrote her nome.; I shut
the window. Compare with indirect
object.
DIRECT OBTECT PRONOUN a word
such as me, him, us and them which
is used instead of a noun to stand in
for the person or thing most directly
affected by the action described by
the verb. Compare with indirect
object pronoun.
EMPHATIC PRONOUN a word used
instead of a noun when you want to
emphasize something, for example,
ls this for me?; 'Who broke the
window?'
-'He
did.' Also called
stressed pronoun.
ENDING a form added to a verb, for
example, go-> gogg and to
adjectives and nouns depending on
whether they refer to masculine,
feminine, singular or plural things.
EXCLAMATION a word, phrase or
sentence that you use to show you
are surprised, shocked, angry and so
on, for exampfe/ Wow!; How dore
you!; What o surprise!
FEMININE a form of noun, pronoun
or adjective that is used to refer to a
living being, thing or idea that is not
classed as masculine.
FUTURE a verb tense used to talk
about something that will happen or
will be true.
GENDER whether a noun, pronoun
or adjective is feminine or masculine.
IMPEMTIVE the form of a verb used
when giving orders and instructions,
for example, Shut the door!; Sit down!;
Dont go!
IMPERFECT one of the verb tenses
used to talk about the pasf especially
in descriptions, and to say what was
happening or used to happen, for
example, I used to walk to school; It
was sunny at the weekend. Compare
with perfect.
IMPERSONAL VERB one which does
not refer to a real person or thing
and where the subject is represented
by it, for example, lt's going to ioin;
It's 10 o'clock
INDEFINITE ADIECTIVE one of a
small group of adjectives used to talk
about people or things in a general
way, without saying who or what
they are, for example, several, oll,
every.
INDEFINITE ARTICLE the words o and
an. Compare with definite article.
INDEFINITE PRONOUN a small
group of pronouns such as
everything, nobody and something,
which are used to refer to people or
things in a general way, without
saying exactly who or what they are.
INDIRECT OBf ECT a noun used with
verbs that take two objects. For
example, in I gove the carrot to the
robbit, the rqbbitis the indirect object
and carrot is the direct object.
Compare with direct object.
INDIRECT OBIECT PRONOUN when
a verb has two objects (a direct one
and an indirect one), the indirect
object pronoun is used instead of a
noun to show the person or the
thing the action is intended to
benefit or harm, for example, me in
He gave me
q
book and Cqn you get
me a towel? Compare with direct
object pronoun.
INDIRECT QUESTION used to tell
someone else about a question and
introduced by a verb such as osk, tell
or wonder, for example, He osked me
whot the time wos; I wonder who he is.
INFINITIVE the form of the verb with
fo in front of it and without any
endings added, for example, to wolk,
to hove, to be, to go. Compare with
base form.
INTERROGATIVE ADIECTIVE a
question word used with a noun to
ask who?, whqfT or which? for
example, Whqt instruments do you
ploy?; Which shoes do you like?
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN one of
the words who, whose, whom, what
and which when they are used
instead of a noun to ask questions,
for example, Whsls hoppening?;
Who's coming?
INVARIABLE used to describe a form
which does not change.
IRREGULAR VERB a verb whose
forms do not follow a general pattern
or the normal rules. Compare with
regular verb.
MASCULINE a form of noun,
pronoun or adjective that is used to
refer to a living being, thing or idea
that is not classed as feminine.
NEGATIVE a question or statement
which contains a word such as not,
never or nothing, and is used to say
that something is not happening, is
not true or is absenf for example,
I never eat meot; Don't you love me?
NOUN a'naming'word for a living
being, thing or idea, for example,
womary desk, hoppiness, Andrew.
NUMBER used to say how many
things you are referring to or where
something comes in a sequence. See
also ordinal number and cardinal
number.
OBTECT a noun or pronoun which
refers to a person or thing that is
affected by the action described by
the verb. Compare with direct
obiect, indirect object and subject.
OBIECT PRONOUN one of the set of
pronouns including me, him and
them, which are used instead of the
noun as the object of a verb or
preposition. Compare with subject
pronoun.
ORDINAL NUMBER a number used
to indicate where something comes
in an order or sequence, for example,
first, fifth, sixteenth. Compare with
cardinal number.
PART OF SPEECH a word class, for
exampfe, noun, verb, odjective,
preposition, pronoun.
PARTITIVE ARTICLE the words sorne
or eny, used to refer to part of a
thing but not all of it, for example,
,
Have you got
Sny
money?; l'm going
to buy some breod.
PASSIVE a form of the verb that is
used when the subject of the verb is
the person or thing that is affected
by the action, for example
t
we were
told.
PAST PARTICIPLE a verb form which
is used to form perfect and
pluperfect tenses and passives, for
example, wotched, swum. Some past
participles are also used as adjectives,
for exampfe, a broken watch.
PERFECT one of the verb tenses used
to talk about the past especially
about actions that took place and
were completed in the past.
Compare with imperfect.
PERSON one of the three classes: the
first person (1, we), the second person
(you singular and you plural), and the
third person (he, she, it and they).
PERSONAL PRONOUN one of the
group of words including l, you and
they which are used to refer to
yourself, the people you are talking
to, or the people or things you are
talking about.
PLUPERFECT one of the verb tenses
used to describe something that had
happened or had been true at a
point in the past, for example, /'of
forqotten to finish mv homework.
PLURAL the form of a word which is
used to refer to more than one
person or thing. Compare with
singular.
POSSESSIVE ADf ECTIVE one of the
words m1q your, his, her, its, our or
their, used with a noun to show that
one person or thing belongs to
another.
POSSESSIVE PRONOUN one of the
words mine, yours, hers, his, ours or
theirs, used instead of a noun to
show that one person or thing
belongs to another.
PREPOSITION is a word such as af,
for; with, into or from, which is usually
followed by a noun, pronoun or, in
Engfish, a word ending in -ing.
Prepositions show how people and
things relate to the rest of the
sentence, for example, She's of home;
a tool
fel
cutting gross; lt's from Dovid.
PRESENT a verb form used to talk
about what is true at the moment
what happens regularly, and what is
happening now, for example, /'m o
student; I trqvel to college by train; l'm
studvino lonauqses.
PRESENT PARTICIPLE a verb form
ending in -ing which is used in
English to form verb tenses, and
which may be used as an adjective or
a noun, for example, What ore you
doing?; the setting sun; Swimming is
easy!
PRONOUN a word which you use
instead of a noun, when you do not
need or want to name someone or
something directly, for example, lf,
you, none.
PROPER NOUN the name of a
person/ place, organization or thing.
Proper nouns are always written with
a capitaf letter, for example, Kevin,
Glasgow, Europe, London Eye.
QUESTION
WORD a word such as
why, where, who, which or how which
is used to ask a question.
REFLEXIVE PRONOUN a word
ending in -self or -selves, such as
myself or themselves, which refers
back to the subject, for example,
He hurt himself.; Toke care of ypunell.
REFLEXIVE VERB a verb where the
subject and object are the same, and
where the action 'reflects back' on
the subject. A reflexive verb is used
with a reflexive pronoun such as
myself, yourself, herself, for example,
I wqshed myself.; He shaved himself.
REGULAR VERB a verb whose forms
follow a general pattern or the
normal rules. Compare with irregular
verb.
RELATIVE PRONOUN a word such as
thot, who or which, when it is used to
link two parts of a sentence together.
SENTENCE a group of words which
usually has a verb and a subject. In
writing, a sentence has a capital
letter at the beginning and a full
stop, question mark or exclamation
mark at the end.
SINGULAR the form of a word which
is used to refer to one person or
thing. Compare with plural.
STEM the main part of a verb to
which endings are added.
STRESSED PRONOUN used instead
of a noun when you want to
emphasize something, for example,
ls this for me?; 'Who broke the
window?'
-'Hs
did.' Also called
emphatic pronoun.
SUBIECT the noun in a sentence or
phrase that refers to the person or
thing that does the action described
by the verb or is in the state
described by the verb, for example,
My cqt doesn't drink milk. Compare
with object.
SUBTECT PRONOUN a word such as
l, he, she and theywhich carries out
the action described by the verb.
Pronouns stand in for nouns when it
is clear who is being talked about, for
example, My brother isn't here ot the
moment. He'll be back in an hour.
Compare with object pronoun.
SUBTUNCTIVE a verb form used in
certain circumstances to express
some sort of feeling, or to show
doubt about whether something will
happen or whether something is
true. lt is only used occasionally in
modern English, for example, /f /
were you, I wouldn't bother.; So be it.
SUPERLATIVE an adlective or adverb
with -esf on the end of it or mosf or
/eosf in front of it that is used to
compare people, things or actions,
for example, thinnesL most quickly,
leqst interesting.
SYLIABLE consonant+vowel units
that make up the sounds of a word,
for example, co-the-dral (3 sylloble),
im-po-ssi-ble (4 syllobles).
TENSE the form of a verb which
shows whether you are referring to
the past, present or future.
VERB a 'doing'word which describes
what someone or something does,
what someone or something is, or
what happens to them, for example,
be, sing, Iive.
VOWEL one of the letters o, e, i, o or
u. Compare with consonant.
NOUNS
What is a noun?
A noun is a 'naming'word for a living being, thing or idea, for example,
womont happiness, Andrew.
Using nouns
D In French, all nouns are either masculine or feminine. This is called their
gender. Even words for things have a gender.
D Whenever you are using a noun, you need to know whether it is mascullne
or feminine as this affects the form of other words used with it, such as:
o adiectives that describe it
o
articles (such as le or une) that go before it
. pronouns (such as il or elle) that replace it
t)
For more informotion on Adjectives, Articles or Pronouns, see pages 25, 12
and 42.
D You can find information about gender by looking the word up in a
dictionary. When you come across a new noun, always learn the word for
the or o that goes with it to help you remember its gender.
o
le or un before a noun tells you it is masculine
o la or une before a noun tells you it is feminine
D We refer to something as singular when we are talking about just
one of
them, and as plural when we are talking about more than one. The singular
is the form of the noun you will usually find when you look a noun up in the
dictionary. As in English, nouns in French change their form in the plural.
) Adjectives, articles and pronouns are also affected by whether a noun is
singular or plural.
Remember that you have to use the right word for the, o and
so on according to the gender of the French noun.
2 Nourus
Gender
tr
Nouns referring to people
l Most nouns referring to men and boys are masculine.
Nourus 3
',21 Nouns referring to animals
> ln English we can choose between words like bull or cow, depending on the
sex of the animal we are referring to. In French too there are sometimes
separate words for male and female animals.
F Most nouns referring to women and girls are feminine.
a girl
a queen
) When the same word is used to refer to either men/boys or women/girls,
its gender usually changes depending on the sex of the person it refers to.
Sometimes, the same word with different endings is used for male and
female animals.
un chien
une chienne
un homme
un roi
une fille
une reine
un camarade
une camarade
un Belge
une Belge
a man
a king
a (male) friend
a (female) friend
a Belgian (man)
a Belgian (woman)
un taureau
une vache
a bull
a cow
a (male) dog
a (female) dog, a bitch
Grammar Extn!
Some words for people have only one possible gender, whether they refer to a male
or a female.
rrp
When you do not know or care what sex the animal is, you can
usually use the masculine form as a general word.
Words for other animals do not change according to the sex of the animal.
Just
learn the French word with its gender, which is always the same.
un poisson
a fish
une souns a mouse
11]
Nouns referring to thinqs
) ln English, we call all things
-
for example, toble, cor, book, apple
-
'i( . ln
French, however, things are either masculine or feminine. As things do not
divide into sexes the way humans and animals do, there are no physical
clues to help you with their gender in French. Try to learn the gender as
you learn the word.
L There are lots of rules to help you:
o words ending in -e are generally feminine (une boulangerie a baker's;
une banque a bank)
o words ending in a consonant (any letter except e, e, i, o or u) are
generally masculine (un a6ropo{ an airporf un film a film)
D There are some exceptions to these rules, so it is best to check in a
dictionary if you are unsure.
un b6b6
un guide
une personne
une vedette
a (male or female) baby
a (male or female) guide
a (male or female) person
a (male or female) star
D In English, we can sometimes make a word masculine or feminine by
changing the ending, for example, Englishngn and EnglishwpmsL or prince
and princess. In French, very often the ending of a noun changes
depending on whether it refers to a man or a woman.
un Anglais
une Anglaise
un prince
une princcssc
un employ6
une employ6e
an Englishman
an Englishwoman
a prince
a princess
a (male) employee
a (female) employee
+ For more informotion on Masculine snd feminine forms of words, see poge 7.
For further explanation of grammatical tems, please see pages viii-xii.
Masculine ending Examples
-age un villaqe a village
un voyagg a journey
un 6tage a floor
le fromage cheese
BUT:
une image a picture
une page a page
la plage the beach
-ment un appartement a flat
un b6timent a building
le ciment cement
un vGtement a garment
-olr un mirqL a mirror
un couloir a corridor
le sqL the evening
un mouchoir a handkerchief
-sme le tourismc tourism
le racisme racism
un cadeau a present
un chapeau a hat
un gdteeu a cake
le rideau the curtain
BUT:
la peau skin
lleau
water
-eu un leu a oame
-ou un cheu a cabbage
le genou the knee
-rel le cahier the exercise book
un quaillel an area
un escalier a staircase
-tn un magas!4 a shop
un
jardin a garden
un dessin a drawing
le vin the wine
BUT:
la fin the end
une main a hand
4 Nourus
) These endings are often found on masculine nouns.
Nourus 5
-on
I
un champignon a mushroom
un ballon a ball
le citrgn the lemon
BUN
une maison a house
la saison the season
> The following types of word are also masculine:
. names of the days of the week, and the months and seasons of the year
Tu apprends le frangais depuis How long have you been learning
combien de temps? French?
o most metric weights and measures
le lundi
septembre prochain
le printemps
o
the names of languages
le frangais
le portugais
un gramme
un mdtre
un kilomitre
o
English nouns used in French
le football
un tee-shirt
un sandwich
Monday
next September
Spring
French
Portuguese
a gramme
a metre
a kilometre
football
a tee-shirt
a sandwich
D These endings are often found on feminine nouns.
Feminine endinq Examples
-anGe
-anse
-ence
-ense
la chance luck, chance
une danse a dance
la patience patience
la d6fense defence
BUT:
lc silence silence
-ton une r6gion a region
une addition a bill
une r6union a meeting
la circulatlon traffic
BUT:
un avion a plane
-t6
-ti6
une sp6cialit6 a speciality
la moiti6 half
BUT:
un 6t6 a summer
le p6t6 p6t6
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
6 Nourus
Grammar E><tra!
A few words have different meanings depending on whether they are masculine or
feminine. These are the most common:
Masculine Meaning Example Feminine Meaning Example
un livre a book un livre de
poche
a paperback
une livre a pound une livre
sterling
a pound
sterling
un mode a method le mode
d'emploi
the directions
for use
la mode fashion d la mode
in fashion
un poste a set
(TV/rodio)'
a post
(job);
an extension
(phone)
un poste de
professeur a
teaching job
la poste posr
the post
office
mettre
quelque
chose i la
poste
to post
something
un tour a turn;
a walk
faire un tour
to go for a
walk
une toul tower la tour
Eiffel the
Eiffel Tower
Nourus 7
4l Masculine and feminine forms of words
D In French there are sometimes very different words for men and women,
and for male and female animals, just as in English.
> Many masculine French nouns can be made feminine simply by changing
the ending. This is usually done by adding an -e to the masculine noun to
form the feminine.
a (male) friend
a (female) friend
a (male) employee
a (female) employee
a Frenchman
a Frenchwoman
> lf the masculine singular form already ends in -e, no further e is added.
un homme
une femme
un taureau
une vache
un neveu
une nidce
un aml
une amie
un employ6
une employ6e
un Frangais
une Frangaisg
un 6live
une 6live
un camarade
une camarade
un colldgue
une colldgue
a man
a woman
a bull
a cow
a nephew
a niece
a (male) pupil
a (female) pupil
a (male) friend
a (female) friend
a (male) colleague
a (female) colleague
Key points
y'
Vtost nouns referring to men, boys and male animals are
masculine: most nouns referrinq to women. oirls and female
animals are feminine. The endiig of a French- noun often changes
depending on whether it refers to a male or a female.
y'
Generally, words ending in -e are feminine and words ending in a
;;,:t""T:.",
are masculine, though there are many exceptions to
y'
These endings are often found on masculine nouns:
-age, -ment, -oir, -sme, -eau, -eu, -ou, -ier, -in and -on.
y'
These endings are often found on feminine nouns:
-ance, -anse, -ence, -ense, -ion, -t6, -ti6.
y'
Oays of the week, months and seasons of the year are masculine.
So are languages, most metric weights and measures, and English
nouns used in French.
rtp
lf a masculine noun ends in a vowel, its pronunciation does not
change when an -e is added to form the feminine. For example,
ami and amie (meaning friend) are both pronounced the same.
lf a masculine noun ends with a consonant that is not pronounced,
for example, -d, -s, -r or -t, you DO pronounce that consonant when
an -e is added in the feminine. For example, in 6tudiant (meaning
For further explanation of grammatical tems, please see pages viii-xii.
student), you cannot hear the
U
in 6tudiante, you can hear the t.
8 Noutrts
Ttp
Some masculine nouns, such as voisin (meaning neighbour), end
in what is called a nasal vowel and an -n. \Mth these words, you pronounce
the vowel 'through your nose' but DO NOT say the n. When an -e is
added in the feminine
-
for example, voisine
-
the vowel becomes a
normal one instead of a nasal vowel and you DO pronounce the n.
trl
Some other patterns
l Some changes to endings from masculine to feminine are a little more
complicated but still fall into a regular pattern.
Nouls 9
Forming plurals
t
I
Plurals ending in -s
> In English we usually make nouns plural by adding an -s to the end
(gorden +
gardens; house'+ houses), although we do have some nouns
which are irregular and do not follow this pattern (mouse
-
mice;
child
*
children).
Most French nouns also form their plural by adding an -s to their singular
form.
Key points
y' ly'rany masculine French nouns can be made to refer to females
by adding an -e. lf the masculine singular form already ends in
-e, no further e is added.
l/ tne pronunciation of feminine nouns is sometimes different from
that of the corresponding masculine nouns.
y'
Other patterns include:
-f
*
-ve -teur
*
-teuse or -trice -er
*
-Ere
-x
+
-se -an, -en and -on
>
-anne -et +
-ette
-eur
+
-euse -enne and -onne -el
-
-elle
un
jardin
des jardins
une voiture
des voitures
un h6tel
des h6tels
> lf the singular noun ends in
un fils
des fils
une vorx
des voix
un nez
des nez
a garden
gardens
a car
cars
a hotel
hotels
-s/ -x or -2, no further -s is added in the plural.
a son
50n5
a voice
voices
a nose
noses
a hat
hats
l4
Plurals ending in -x
) The following nouns add an -x instead of an -s in the plural:
. nouns ending in -eau
un chapeau
des chapeaux
Masculine
ending
Feminine
endinq Example Meaning
-f -ve un veut/une veuve a widower/a widow
-x -se un 6poux/une 6pouse a husband/a wife
-eur -euse un dansegr/
une danseuse
a (male) dancer/
a (female) dancer
-teur -teuse
-trice
un chanteur/
une chanteuse
un acteul/unc acldce
a (male) singer/
a (female) singer
an actor/an actress
-an -anne un paysan/
une paysannc
a (male) farmerl
a (female) farmer
-ten -tenne un Parisiea/
une Parisienne
a (male) Parisian/
a (female) Parisian
-on -onne un lion/une lionne a lion/a lioness
-er -ere un 6trange/
une 6trangire
a (male) foreigner/
a (female) foreigner
-et -ette le cadet/la cadette the youngest (male)
child
the youngest (female)
child
-el -elle un professionnel/
une professionnelle
a (male) professional/
a (female) professional
rtp
Remember that you have to use les with plural nouns in
Any adjective that goes with the noun has to agree with
any pronoun that replaces it.
* for more information on Adjectives, Articles ond Pronouns, see
pages 25,12 and 42.
For further explanation of grammatical tems, please see pages viii-xii.
10 Nourus
o most nouns ending in -eu
un
jeu
a game
des
jeux games
o a FEW nouns ending in -ou (MOST nouns ending in -ou add -s as usual)
Nourus 11
rtp
The plural of un eil (an eye) is des yeux (eyes).
3I Plural versus singular
D A few words relating to clothing are plural in English but NOT in French.
un slip
un short
un pantalon
A few common words are plural in French but NOT in English.
les affaires business
les cheveux hair
desrenseignements information
Grammar E><tra!
When nouns are made up of two separate words, they are called compound nouns, for
example, les grands-parents (meaning grandparents), des ouvre-boites (meaning tln-
openers). The rules for forming the plural of compound nouns are complicated and it is
best to check in a dictionary to see what the plural is.
un bijou
des bijoux
un caillou
des cailloux
un chou
des choux
un genou
des genoux
un hibou
des hiboux
un
joujou
des
joujoux
un pou
des poux
l lf the singular noun
un
journal
des
journaux
un animal
des animaux
un travail
des travaux
rrp
Adding an -s or -x to the end of a noun does not usually change
the way the word is pronounced. For example, professeur and
professeurs and chapeau and chapeaux sound just the same when
you say them out loud.
a jewel
jewels
a pebble
pebbles
a cabbage
cabbages
a knee
knees
an owl
owls
a toy
toys
a louse
lice
ends in -al or -ail, the plural usually ends in -aux.
a newspaper
newspapers
an animal
animals
a job
jobs
'y'
tutostFrench nouns form ,nt?rtoo,,lrjitl, adding an -s to their
singular form. lf the singular noun ends in -s, -x or -2, no further
-s is added in the plural.
y'
Most nouns ending in -eau or -eu add an -x in the plural.
y'
trrtost nouns ending in -ou take an -s in the plural, with a few
exceptions.
y'
lI the singular noun ends in -al or -ail, the plural usually ends in
-
-aux.
y'
naaing an -s or -x to the end of a noun does not generally affect
the way the word is pronounced.
y'
lfew common words are plural in English but not in French, and
vice versa.
pants
shorts
trousers
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
ARTICLES
What is an article?
ln English, an article is one of the words the, a, and on which is given in
front of a noun.
Different types of article
D There are three types of article:
o
the definite article: fhe in English. This is used to identify a particular
thing or person.
l'm going to the supermarket.
That's the woman I was talking to.
o
the indefinite article: a or on in English, some or any (or no word at all) in
the plural. This is used to refer to something unspecific, or that you do
not really know about.
ls there a supermarket near here?
I need a day off.
. the paltllyc article: some or any (or no word at all) in English. This is
used to talk about quantities or amounts.
Can you lend me some sugar?
Did you buy any wine?
Do you like chocolate?
ARncus 13
The definite article: le, la, l'and les
t The basic rules
> In English we only have one definite article: the. In French, there is more
than one definite article to choosefrom. All French nouns are either
masculine or feminine and, just as in English, they can be either singular or
plural. The word you choose for the depends on whether the noun it is
used with is masculine or feminine, singular or plural. This may sound
complicated, but it is not too difficult.
t
f For more informotion on Nouns, see page 1.
with masculine noun with feminine noun
Singular le (l') la (l')
Plural les les
> le is used in front of masculine singular nouns.
> la is used in front of feminine singular nouns.
le roi
le chien
le
jardin
la reine
la souris
la porte
llh6pital
le hamster
la hi-fi
the king
the dog
the garden
the queen
the mouse
the door
f is used in front of singular nouns that start with a vowel (a, e, i, a, or u),
whether they are masculine or feminine.
I'ami (masculine) the friend
leau
(feminine) the water
f'6tage (mqsculine) the floor
[]
Note that l' is also used in front of most words starting with h but
some others take le or la instead.
the hospital
the hamster
the stereo
le and la change to l'when they are used in front of a word
starting with a vowel and most words starting with h.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
14 Anncus
rtp
It is a good idea to learn the article or the gender with the noun
when you come across a word for the first time, so that you know
whether it ls masculine or feminine. A good dictionary will also give
you this information.
les is used in front of plural nouns. whether they are masculine or feminine
and whatever letter they start with.
Anrrcus 15
When i is followed by les, the two words become aux.
aux maisons to the houses
aux 6tudiants to the students
When ir is followed by la or l', the words do not change.
i la bibliothdque to/at the library
dr l'h6tel to/at the hotel
3
I
Using de with le, la, l' and les
> The French word de is translated into English in several different ways,
including of and from. There are special rules when you use it together with
le and les.
t
) For more information on the preposition de, see poge 166.
> When de is followed by le, the two words become du.
a
+
les chiens
les portes
les amis
les h6tels
au cin6ma
aux professeurs
the dogs
the doors
the friends
the hotels
to/at the cinema
to the teachers
du cin6ma
des professeurs
des maisons
des 6tudiants
from/of the cinema
from/of the teachers
from/of the houses
from/of the students
Note that you have to make the noun plural too, just as you would
in English. In French, as in English, you usually add an -s.
For more information on Forming plurals, see poge 9.
rrp
t
When les is used in front of a word that starts with a consonant,
/
you DO NOT say the s on the end of les: les chiens the dogs.
When les is used in front of a word that starts with a vowel, most
words starting with h, and the French word y, you DO pronounce
the s on the end of les. lt sounds like the z in the English word zip:
f es amis the friends, lefh6tels the hotels.
E
Using i with le.la.l'and les
) The French word ir is translated into English in several different ways,
including ot or to. There are special rules when you use it together with le
and les.
+ For more informqtion on the preposition d, see page t 63.
) When i is followed by le, the two words become au.
> When de is followed by les, the two words become des.
D When de is followed by la or l', the words do not change.
de la bibliothique from/of the library
de I'h6tel from/of the hotel
T'P
le and la change to l' when they are used in front of a word
starting with a vowel and most words starting with h.
le and la change to l' when they are used in front of a word
starting with a vowel and most words starting with h.
For further explanation of grammatical tems, please see pages viii-xii,
16 Anncus Amcles 17
lf you are talking about a part of your body, you usually use a word like my
or hrs in English, but in French you usually use the definite article.
Key points
y'
Wtfr masculine sinqular nouns
,
use le.
y'
Wittr feminine singular nouns
,
use la.
y'
Wi|h nouns starting with a vowel, most nouns beginning with h
and the French word y ,
use l'.
y'
tntn plural nouns
'
use les.
y'
i+ le=au
i+les=aux
de+le=du
de+les=des
> ln French you have to use the definite article in front of the names of
countries, continents and regions.
la Bretagne
l'Europe
Tourne la t6te d gauche.
ll s'est cass6 le bras.
J'ai mal d la gorge.
Tu parles espagnol?
ll parle bien I'anglais.
Turn your head to the left.
He's broken his arm.
l've got a sore throat.
Brittany
Europe
E
Using the definite article
L The definite article in French (le, la, l' and les) is used in more or less the
same way as we use fhe in English, but it is also used in French in a few
places where you might not expect it.
} The definite article is used with words like prices, flu and time that describe
qualities, ideas or experiences (called abstract nounS) rather than something
that you can touch with your hand. Usually, the is missed out in English
with this type of word.
Les prix montent. Prices are rising.
J'ai la grippe.
l've got flu.
Je n'ai pas le temps. I don't have time.
@
trtote that there are some set phrases using avoir, avec or sans
followed by a noun, where the definite article is NOT used.
La France est tris belle. France is very beautiful.
J'ai achet6 ce poster au Japon. I bought this poster in
Japan.
Je viens des Etats-Unis. I come from the United States.
[J
Note that if the name of the country comes after the French word
en, meaning to or in, you do not use the definite article. en is used
with the names of countries, continents and regions that are
feminine in French.
Je vais en Ecosse le mois prochain. l'm going to Scotland next
month.
ll travaille en Allemagne. He works in Cermany.
I
) For more information on the preposition en, see page 168.
) You often use the definite article with the name of school subjects,
languages and sports.
Tir aimes les maths? Do you like maths?
J'apprends le frangais depuis trois l've been learning French for
ans. three years.
Mon sport pr6t6r6, c'est le foot. My favourite sport is football.
[J
Note that the definite article is not used after en.
Gomment est-ce qu'on dit'fils' How do you say 'fils' in English?
en anglais?
Sophie est nulle en chimie. Sophie's no good at chemistry.
L When you use the verb parler (meaning to speak) in front of the name of
the language, you do not always need to use the definite article in French.
avoir faim
avec plaisir
sans doute
to be hungry (literally to have hunger)
with pleasure
probably (lite ra lly. wi thout d o u bt)
I don't like coffee.
} You also use the definite article when you are talking about things like coffee
or computers thatyou can touch with your hand (called concrete nouns) if
you are talking generally about that thing. Usually, the is missed out in
English with this type of word.
Je n'aime pas le caf6.
Les ordinateurs co0tent trds cher. Computers are very expensive.
Les professeurs ne gagnent pas
Teachers don't earn very much.
beaucoup.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Do you speak Spanish?
He speaks English well.
18 Anncus
) You use le with dates, and also with the names of the days of the week and
the seasons when you are talking about something that you do regulady or
that is a habit.
Elle part le 7 mai. She's leaving on the seventh of May.
Je vais chez ma grand-mdre I go to my grandmother's on
le dimanche. Sundays.
@
Note that you do not use the definite article after en.
En hiver nous faisons du ski. In winter we go skiing.
L You often find the definite article in phrases that tell you about prices and
rates.
Anncus 19
The indefinite article: un, une and des
t I
The basic rules
> In English we have the indefinite article o, which changes to an in front of a
word that starts with a vowel. ln the plural we say either some, any or
nothing at all.
D In French, you choose from un, une and des, depending on whether the
noun is masculine or feminine, and singular or plural.
with masculine noun with feminine noun
Singular un une
Plural des des
> un is used in front of masculine singular nouns.
6 euros le kilo
3 euros la pidce
On roulait d 100 kilomitres
d l'heure.
6 euros a kilo
3 euros each
We were doing 100 kilometres an
hour.
a king
a dog
a garden
> une is used in front of feminine singular nouns.
un rol
un chien
un
jardin
une reine
une souris
une porte
des chiens
des souris
des amis
a queen
a mouse
a door
des is used in front of plural nouns, whether they are masculine or
feminine, and whatever letter thev start with.
(some/any) dogs
(some/any) mice
(some/any) friends
[J
Note that des is also a combination of de + les and has other
meanings, such as saying who something belongs to or where
something is from.
+ For more information on des, see poge 166.
T'P
When des is used in front of a word that starts with a consonant
(any letter except o, e, i, o or u), you DO NOT say the s on the end
of des: des chiens (some/ony) dogs,
When des is used in front of a word that starts with a vowel, and
most words starting with h, you DO pronounce the s on the end.
lt sounds like the z in the English word zip: des amis (some/any)
friends, des h6tefs (some/ony) hotels.
Key points
y'
The definite article is used in French with:
. abstract nouns
. concrete nouns (when you are saying something that is true obout
.;:[fi^z':::l
. countries/ continents and regions
r school subjects, languages and sports
: ::;:t"t the week and the seasons (when you are tolking obout
something that you do regularly or thot is a habit)
. prices and rates
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
20 Amcus
A
The indefinite article in negative sentences
} f n English we use words like not and neverto indicate that something is not
happening or is not true. The sentences that these words are used in are
called negative sentences.
I don't know him.
I never do my homework on time.
) In French, you use word pairs like ne ... pas (meaning not) and ne ...
jamais (meaning never) to say that something is not happening or not true.
When un, une or des is used after this type of expression, it has to be
changed to de.
Je n'ai pas de v6lo. I don't have a bike.
Nous n'avons pas de cousins. We don't have any cousins.
+ For more information on Negotives, see page 138.
Orammar Et<tra!
There are some very common adjectives, like beau, bon and petit, that can come
BEFORE the noun instead of after it. When an adjective comes before a plural noun,
des changes to de.
Anrrcus 21
lrr questions and negative sentences des means any, or is not translated at
all.
T'P
As an English speaker, you will know what sounds right in
your own language. The important thing to remember is that des
can NEVER be missed out in French, even if there is no word in
English.
4l Using the indefinite article
> The indefinite article is used in French in much the same way as we use
4
some and ony in English, but there are two places where the indefinite
article is NOT used:
o with the adjective quel (meaning what a), in sentences like
Tu as des frires?
ll n'y a pas
deufs.
Avez-vous des timbres?
O,uel dommage!
Ouelle surprise!
Ouelle bonne id6e!
,)
For more information on quel, see page 148.
o when you say what jobs people do
ll est professeur.
Ma mdre est infirmidre.
Have you got any brothers?
There aren't any eggs.
Do you have stamps?
What a shamel
What
a
surprise!
What
a
good idea!
He's a teacher.
My mother's a nurse.
J'ai regu de beaux cadeaux.
Gette r6gion a de trds
jolis
villages,
I got some lovely presents.
This area has some very pretty
villages.
+ For more information on Word order with odjectives, see page
j2.
r3 r The meaninq of des
F des can mean different things in
is often the best word to use.
J'ai un chien, deux chats et
des souris.
Tu veux des chips?
English, depending on the sentence. Some
l've got a dog, two cats and
some mice.
Would you like some crisps?
Key points
y'
wtn masculine singular nouns
+
use un.
y'
Wttr feminine singular nouns
)
use une.
y'
witfr plural nouns
-
use des.
y'
un, une and des
-
change to de or d' in negative sentences.
y'
tne indefinite article is not usually used when you say what jobs
people do, or in exclamations with quel.
r0p
de changes to d' in front of a word starting with a vowel and
most words starting with h.
Je n'ai pas d'ordinateur. I don't have a computer.
ll n'y a pas d'horloge dans la salle.There isn't a clock in the room.
T'P
When you use c'est (to mean he/she is), you DO use un or une.
When you use ce sont (to mean they are), you DO use des.
He's/She's a doctor.
They're actors.
Q For more information on c'est ond ce sont, see poge 65.
G'est un m6decin.
Ge sont des acteurs.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
22 Anncus
The partitive article: du, de la, de l' and des
tr
The basic rules
) du, de la, de l' and des can all be used to give information about the
amount or quantity of a particular thing. They are often translated into
English as some or any.
) In French, you choose between du, de la, de l'and des, depending on
whether the noun is masculine or feminine, singular or plural.
with masculine noun with feminine noun
Singular du (de l'l de la (de l')
Plural des des
rrp
de + le and de la change to de l'when they are used in front of a
word starting with a vowel, most words starting with h, and the
French word y.
) du is used in front of masculine sinoular nouns,
Anncus 23
D des is used in front of plural nouns, whether they are masculine or feminine
and whatever letter they start with.
des g6teaux
des lettres
des h6tels
(some/any) cakes
(some/any) letters
(some/any) hotels
@
Note that du is also a combination of de + le and has other
meanings, such as saying who something belongs to or where
something is from.
+ For more informotion on du, see page 166,
) de la is used in front of feminine singular nouns.
@
Note that des is also a combination of de + les and has other
meanings, such as saying who something belongs to or where
something is from.
+ For more information on des, see poge 166.
te
The partitive
article in negative sentences
D In French, you use word pairs like ne ... pas (meaning not) and ne ...
jamais (meaning never) to say that something is not happening or not true.
In this type of expression, du, de la, de l' and des all change to de.
Nous n'avons pes de beurre. We don't have any butter.
Je
p
mange
iamais
de viande. I never eat meat.
ll
n1y a pas de timbres. There aren't any stamps.
t)
For more information on Negatives, see poge 138.
Grammar Ertra!
There are some very common adjectives, like beau, bon and petit, that can come
BEFORE the noun instead of after it. When an adjective comes before a plural noun, des
< hanges to de.
J'ai regu de beaux cadeaux. I got some lovely presents.
Cette r6gion a de trds jolis
villages. This area has some very pretty villages.
t
:) For more informotion on Word order with odjectives, see poge 32.
du beurre
du
jus
d'orange
de la viande
de la margarine
(some/any) butter
(some/any) orange
juice
(some/any) meat
(some/any) margarine
de l' is used in front of singular nouns that start with a vowel and
nouns starting with h, whether they are masculine or feminine.
de l'argent (masculine) (some/any) money
de
l'eau (feminine) (some/any) water
de l'herbe (feminine) (some/any) grass
most nouns starting with h.
ll n'a pas d'argent. He doesn't have any money.
ll n'y a pas d'horloge dans la salle. There isn't a clock in the room.
For further explanation of grammatical tems, please see pages viii-xii.
24 Anncus
tr
The meaning of du. de la. de l'and des
} du, de la, de l' and des are often translated into English as some
?r
onyt
but there are times when no word is used in English to translate the French.
rrp
Remember that du, de 14 de l' and des can NEVER be missed
out in French, even if there is no word in English.
ADJECTIVES
What is an adjective?
An adjective is a 'describing'word that tells you more about a person or
thing, such as their appearance, colour, size or other qualities, for example,
pretty, blue, big.
Using adjectives
D Adjectives are words like clever, expensive and sl//y that tell you more about
a noun (a living being, thing or idea). They can also tell you more about a
pronoun, such as he or they. Adjectives are sometimes called 'describing
words'. They can be used right next to a noun they are describing, or can
be separated from the noun by a verb like be, Iook, feel and so on.
a clever girl
an expensive coat
a silly idea
He's just
being silly.
t
) For more information on Nouns and Pronouns, see pqges 1 and 42.
> In English, the only time an adjective changes its form is when you are
making a comparison.
She's cleverer than her brother.
That's the silliest idea I ever heard!
D In French, however, most adjectives agree with what they are describing.
This means that their endings change depending on whether the person or
thing you are referring to is masculine or feminine, and singular or plural.
Key points
y'
wittr masculine singular nouns
+
use du'
y'
Wth feminine singular nouns
+
use de la.
y'
Wth singular nouns starting with a vowel and some nouns
beginning with h
*
use de l'.
y'
Wtn plural nouns
'use
des'
y'
du, de la, de l'and des
'
change to de or d'in negative
sentences.
ll me doit de llargent'
Je vais acheter de la farine et
du beurre
pour faire un gdteau'
Est-ce qu'il y a des lettres
Pour
moi?
Elle ne veut pas de beurre.
Je ne prends
Pas
de lait.
He owes me (some) money.
l'm going to buy (some) flour and
butter to make a cake.
Are there any letters for me?
She doesn't want any butter'
I don't take milk.
un mot frangais
une chanson frangaise
des traditions francaises
a French word
a French song
French traditions
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii'xii'
26 Ao.lecnvrs
) In English we put adjectives BEFORE the noun they describe, but in French
you usually put them AFTER it.
un chat noir a black cat
Ao.lecnves 27
Making adjectives agree
ll
The basic rules
D In dictionaries, regular French adjectives are usually shown in the masculine
singular form. You need to know how to change them to make them agree
with the noun or pronoun that they are describing.
D To make an adjective agree with the noun or pronoun it describes, you
simply add the following endings in most cases:
with masculine noun with feminine noun
Singular -e
Plural -s -es
+ For further information, see Word order with adjectives on poge 32.
un chat noir
une chemise noire
des chats noirs
des chemises noires
a black cat
a black shirt
black cats
black shirts
A
Making adiectives feminine
> With most adjectives you add an -e to the masculine singular form to make
it feminine.
un chat noir a black cat
-+
une chemise noirc a black shirt
un sac lourd a heavy bag
--+
une valise lourde a heavy suitcase
> lf the adjective already ends in an -e in the masculine, you do not add
another -e.
un sac
jaune
a yellow bag
>
u.. chemise
jaune
a yellow shirt
un gargon sage a good boy
+
une fille sage a good girl
l Some changes to endings are a little more complicated but still follow a
regular pattern. Sometimes you have to double the consonant as well as
adding an -e. On the next page there is a table showing these changes.
Key points
y'
Most French adjectives .han# [r'"ir]orr, according to whether
the person or thing they are describing is masculine or feminine,
singular or plural.
y'
In French adjectives usually go after the noun they describe.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Masculine ending Feminine ending Example
Meaning
-f -ve neuf/neuve
new
-x -se heureux/heureuse
hapPy
-el -ere cher/chire dear, expensive
-an
-en
-on
-anne
-enne
-onne
paysan/paysanne
europ6en/euroP6ennt
bon/bonne
farming, country
European
good, right
-el -elle cruel/cruelle cruel
-eil
-eille pareil/pareille similar
-et
-ette
-dte
net/nette
complet/comPlite
clear
complete, full
28 Aolecnvps
un bon repas a good meal
-)
de bonne humeur in a good mood
un homme cruel a cruel man -) une remarque cruelle a cruel remark
rw
lf a masculine adjective ends in a vowel (o, e, i, o or u), its
pronunciation does not change when an -e is added to form the
ieminine. For example,
ioli
and
iolie
are both pronounced the same'
lf a masculine adiective ends with a consonant that is not
pronounced, such as -d, -s or -t you DO pronounce that consonant
when an -e is added in the feminine. For example, in chaud
(meaning hot, worm), you cannot hear the d when it is said out loud;
in the feminine form chaude, you can hear the d sound'
This is also true when you have to double the consonant before the
-e is added, for example, gros (meanin g big, fot), where you cannot
hear the s, and the feminine form grosse, where you can hear the s
sound.
Aolecrves 29
L Some very common adjectives have irregular feminine forms.
mon spoft favori my favourite sport
-+
ma chanson favorite my
favourite song
un ami grec a Creek (male) friend
+
une amie grecque a Greek
(female) friend
A very small group of French adjectives have an extra masculine singular
form that is used in front of words that begin with a vowel (a, e, i, o or u)
and most words beginning with h. These adjectives also have an irregular
feminine form.
un bel appartement a beautiful flat
le Nouvel An New Year
un vieil arbre an old tree
Some masculine adjectives, such as bon (meaning good) or italien
.
(meaning ltalion), end in what is called a nasal vowel and an -n' With
ih"r" *Jtdt, you pronounce the vowel 'through your nose' Uy- d.o.
not say the n. When the consonant is doubled and an -e is added in
the feminine
-
bonne, italienne
-
the vowel becomes a normal one
instead of a nasal vowel and you do pronounce the n'
Masculine form Feminine form Meaning
blanc blanche white, blank
doux douce soft, swee! mild, gentle
faux fausse untrue
favori favorite favourite
frais fraiche fresh, chilly, cool
gentil gentille
nice, kind
grec grecque
Greek
gros grosse
big, fat
long longue rong
nul nulle useless
roux tousse red, red-haired
seG sdche dry, dried
turc turque Turkish
Masculine form in
front of a word
beginning with a
consonant
Masculine form in
front of a word
beginning with a
vowel or most
words beginning
with h
Feminine
form
Meaning
beau bel belle lovely, beautiful,
good-looking,
handsome
fou fol folle mad
nouveau nouvel nouvelle new
vreux vieil vieille old
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii'
30 Aorecnvrs
tr
Making adiectives plural
> With most adjectives you add an -s to the masculine singular or feminine
singular form to make it plural.
un chat noir a black cat
+
des chats noirs black cats
une valise lourde a heavy suitcase
-
des valises lourdes heavy suitcases
Ttp
When an adjective describes a masculine and a feminine noun or
pronoun, use the masculine plural form of the adjective.
La maison et le
iardin
sont The house and garden are
beaux. beautiful.
Sophie et son petit ami sont Sophie and her boyfriend are
trds gentils. very nrce.
lf the masculine singular form already ends in an -s or an -x, you do not
add an -s.
un fromage frangais a French cheese
-
des fromages frangais French
cheeses
un homme dangereux a dangerous man
-)
des hommes dangereux
dangerous men
lf the masculine singular form ends in -eau or -al, the masculine plural is
usually -eaux or -aux.
le nouveau professeur the new teacher
+
les nouveaux professeurs
the new teachers
le r6le principal the main role
*
les r6les principaux the main roles
rrp
Adding an -s or an -x does not change the pronunciation of a
word. For example, noir and noirs sound
just the same, as do
nouveau and nouveaux.
When the -s or -x ending comes before a word starting with a vowel
or most words starting with h, you have to pronounce the s or x on
the end of the adjective. lt sounds like the z in the English word zip.
les anciens 6ldves the former pupils
de grands h6tels big hotels
Ao;rcrvrs 31
+ Invariableadiectives
> A small number of adjectives (mostly relating to colours) do not change in
the feminine or plural. They are called invariable because their form NEVER
changes, no matter what they are describing. These adjectives are often
made up of more than one word
-
for example, bleu marine (meaning
novy blue), or else come from the names of fruit or nuts
-
for example,
orange (meaning orange), marron (meaning brown).
des chaussures maron brown shoes
une veste bleu marine a navy blue
jacket
-
Key points
y'
fo make an adjective agree with a feminine singular noun or
pronoun, you usually add -e to the masculine singular. lf the
adjective already ends in an -e, no further -e is added.
y'
Several adjectives ending in a consonant double their consonant
as well as adding -e in the feminine.
y'
beau, fou, nouveau and vieux have an irregular feminine form
and an extra masculine singular form that is used in front of
words that begin with a vowel and most words beginning with h:
bel, fol, nouvel, vieil,
y'
To make an adjective agree with a masculine plural noun or
pronoun, you usually add -s to the masculine singular. lf the
adjective already ends in an -s or an -x, no further -s is added.
y'
t tne adjective ends in -eau or -al, the masculine plural is usually
-eaux or -aux.
y'
To make an adjective agree with a feminine plural noun or
pronoun, you usually add -es to the masculine singular.
y'
Some adjectives relating to colours never change their form.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Word order with adiectives
tr
The basic rules
>> when adjectives are used right beside the noun they are describing, they
go BEFORE it in English. French adiectives usually go AFTER the noun'
32 Aruecnvrs
I'heure exacte the right time
la page suivante the following page
)> Adjectives describing colours, shapes or nationalities always go AFTER the
noun.
des cravates rouges red ties
une table ronde a round table
un mot frangais a French word
) Some very common adiectives usually come BEFORE the noun'
beau
lovely, beautiful, good-looking, handsome
Aouecnvrs 33
Ttp
dernier (meaning /ost) and prochain (meaning nexf) go AFTER
nouns relating to time, for example, semaine (meaning week) and
mois (meaning month). Otherwise they go BEFORE the noun.
la semaine demiire last week
la demidre fois que je
t'ai vu the last time I saw you
la semaine prochaine next week
la prochaine fois que j'y
vais the next time I go there
Grammar Extra!
When certain adjectives are used with certain nouns, they take on a meaning you
cannot always guess. You may need to check these in your dictionary and learn them.
Here are a few:
bon
court
grand
gros
good, right
short
tall, big, long, great
big, fat
high
youn9
pretty
long
bad, poor
better
new
small, little
first
old
a lovely day
Cood luck!
mon petit ami
les petits pois
my boyfriend
peas
haut
jeune
joli
long
mauvais
meilleur
nouveau
petit
premier
vieux
une belle
journ6e
Bonne chance!
les grandes vacances the summer holidays
une grande personne an adult, a grown-up
]d
Using more than one adiective
D In French you can use more than one adjective at a time to describe
someone or something. lf one of the adjectives usually comes BEFORE the
noun and the other usually goes AFTER the noun, the word order follows
the usual pattern.
une
icgnc
femme blonde
un nouveau film int6ressant
a young blonde woman
an interesting new film
There is a small group of common adjectives whose meaning changes
depending on whether they come before the noun or
9o
after it'
> lf both adjectives usually come AFTER the noun, they are joined together
with et (meaning ond).
un homme mince et laid a thin, ugly man
une personne intelligente et dr6le an intelligent, funny person
Key points
y'
Most French adjectives go after the noun they describe.
y'
Some very common adjectives usually come before the noun:
bon,/mauvais, court/long, grand/petit, jeune/nouveau/vieux,
gros, haut, beau, joli, premier, meilleur.
y'
The meaning of some adjectives such as ancien, cher and propre
varies according to the position in the sentence.
Adjective Example before
noun
Meaning Example after
noun
Meaning
ancten un ancien
colldgue
a former
colleague
un fauteuil
ancien
an antique
chair
cher Chire Julie Dear
lulie
une robe chdre an expensrve
dre55
propre ma propre
chambre
MV OWN
bedroom
un mouchoir
propre
a clean
handkerchief
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii'
34 Ao.rpcnves
Gomparatives and superlatives of adiectives
tr
Making comparisons using comparative adiectives
What is a comparative adjective?
A comparative adjective in English is one with -er on the end of it or
more or /ess in front of it, that is used to compare people or things, for
example, slower, Iess important, more beautiful.
} ln French, to saythatsomething is easier, more expensive and so on, you use
pfus (meaning more) before the adjective.
Cette question est plus facile. This question is easier.
Cette veste est olus chdre. This
iacket
is more expensive.
L To say something is less expensive, less complicoted and so on, you use
moins (meaning /ess) before the adjective.
Gette veste est moins chdre. This
iacket
is less expensive.
un projet moins compliqu6 a less complicated plan
) To introduce the person or thing you are making the comparison with, use
que (meaning fhan).
Elle est plus petite que moi. She's smaller than me.
Cette question est plus facile This question is easier than the
que la premidre. first one.
) To say that something or someone is as ... os something or someone else,
use aussi ...que.
ll est aussi inquiet que moi. He's as worried as me.
Cette ville n'est pas aussi This town isn't as big as Bordeaux.
grande que Bordeaux.
A
Making comparisons using superlative adiectives
What is a superlative adiective?
A superlative adjective in English is one with -esf on the end of it or
most ot leostin front of it, that is used to compare people or things, for
example, thinnest, most beoutiful, least interesting.
} ln French, to say that something or someone is easiest, prettiest, most
expensive and so on, you use:
o le plus with masculine singular adjectives
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii'xii'
Ao.lecrves 35
a
a
la plus with feminine singular adjectives
les plus with plural adjectives (for both masculine and feminine)
le guide le plus utile
la question la plus facile
les plus grands h6tels
les
plus petites voitures
the most useful guidebook
the easiest question
the biggest hotels
the smallest cars
> To say that something or someone is the leqst easy, the leost pretty, the leost
expensive and so on, you use:
o le moins with masculine singular adjectives
o la moins with feminine singular adjectives
o les moins with plural adjectives (for both masculine and feminine).
le guide le moins utile the least useful guidebook
Cette question est la moins This question is the least easy (or
facile. the hardest).
les mois les moins agr6ables the least pleasant months
les moins belles photos the least attractive photos
rtp
)
When the adjective comes AFTER the noun, you repeat the
/
definite article (le, la or les).
les mois les moins agr6ables the least pleasant months
When the adjective comes BEFORE the noun, you do not repeat the
definite article.
les moins belles photos the least attractive photos
Q for more information on Word order with adjectives, see poge 32.
D In phrases like the biggest hotel in London and the oldest person in the village,
you use de to translate ln.
le plus grand h6tel de Londres the biggest hotel in London
la personne la plus Ag6e du village the oldest person in the village
I
) For more information on de and du, see poge 166.
s
l
Inegular comparative and superlative adiectives
>
Just
as English has some irregular comparative and superlative forms
-
better
instead of 'more good', and worst instead of 'most bod'
-
French also has a
few irregular forms.
Adjective Meaning Comparative Meaning Superlative Meaning
bon
9ooo
meilleur better le meilleur the best
mauvats bad prre
plus mauvais
worse le pire
le plus
mauvais
the worst
petit small moindre
plus petit
smaller,
lesser
le moindre
le plus petit
the smallest
the leas!
the slightest
36 Aorrcrves
J'ai une meilleure id6e.
ll ne fait pas le moindre effort.
l've got a better idea.
He doesn't make the slightest effort.
Grammar Ertra!
bien and its comparative and superlative forms mieux and le mieux can be both
adjectives and adverbs.
lf est bien, ce restaulant. (=adjective) This restaurant is good.
Elle va mieux aujourd'hui, (=odverb) She's better today.
Q For more informotion on Adverbs, see poge 152.
Ao.lecnvEs 37
Demonstrative adjectives ce, cette, cet and ces
What is a demonstrative adjective?
A demonstrative adjective is one of the words this, thot, these and those
used with a noun in English to point out a particular thing or person, for
example, this womon, thot dog.
In French you use ce to point out a particular thing or person. Like all
adjectives in French, ce changes its form depending on whether you are
referring to a noun that is masculine or feminine, singular or plural.
rtp
cet is used in front of masculine singular nouns which begin with
a vowel and most words beginning with h.
cet oiseau this/that bird
cet hOpital this/that hospital
ce comes BEFORE the noun it refers to.
Combien co0te ce manteau? How much is this/that coat?
Comment s'appelle cette What's this/that company called?
entreprise?
Ces livres sont trds
int6ressants.
Ces couleurs sont
jolies.
These/Those books are very
interesting.
These/Those colours are pretty.
lf you want to emphasize the difference between something that is close to
you and something that is further away, you can add:
o -ci on the end of the noun for things that are closer
T'P
Choose the right form of the adjective to match the noun or
pronoun, depending on whether it is masculine or feminine, singular
or plural. Don't forget to change le to la or les too in superlatives.
Masculine Feminine Meaning
Singular ce (cet) cette this
that
Plural ces ces these
those
_
Key points
y'
To compare people or things in French you use plus + adjective,
moins + adjective or aussi ... que.
y'
than in comparatives corresponds to que.
y'
French superlatives are formed with lellalles plus + adjective and
le/la/les moins + adjective.
l/
in after superlatives corresponds to de.
y'
bon, mauvais and petit have irregular comparatives and
superlatives: bon/meilleur/le meilleur, mauvais/pire/le pire,
petit/moindre/le moindre.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Prends cette valisqqi. Take this case.
38 Aorecnves
o
-lir on the end of the noun for things that are further away
Est-ce que tu reconnais cette Do you recognize that person?
personnel!i?
Possessive adjectives
What is a possessive adjective?
frr tnglish a possessive adjective is one of the words mv yourl
rur or their used with a noun to show that one person or thing
,rnother.
Key points
y'
Theadjective ce corresponds io thrs and thatin the singular, and
these and thosein the plural.
y'
Theforms are ce and cette in the singular, and ces in the plural.
cet is used with masculine singular nouns beginning with a vowel
and most words beginning with h.
y'
You can add -ci on the end of the noun for things that are closer,
or -li for things that are further away, to emphasize the difference
between them.
Ao.recnves 39
his, her, its,
belongs to
Here are the French possessive adjectives. Like all French adjectives, these
agree with the noun they refer to.
D Possessive adjectives come BEFORE the noun they describe.
Voild mon mari. There's my husband.
Mon frdre et ma s@ur habitent My brother and sister live in
i Glasgow. Clasgow.
Est-ce que tes voisins vendent Are your neighbours selling their
leur maison?
Rangez vos affaires.
house?
Put your things away.
with masculine
singular noun
with feminine
singular noun
with plural noun
(masculine or feminine)
Meaning
mon ma (mon) mes my
ton ta (tonl tes your
son sa (sonl ses his
her
its
one's
notre notre nos our
votte votre vos your
leur leur leurs their
rrp
You use mon, ton and son with feminine singular nouns in front
of words that begin with a vowel and most words beginning with h.
This makes them easier to say.
mon assiette my plate
ton histoire your story
son erreur his/her mistake
mon autre s@ur my other sister
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
40 Aouecrves
rw
Possessive adjectives agree with what they describe, NOT with the
person who owns that thing. For example, sa can mean his, her, its
and one's, but can only ever be used with a feminine singular noun.
Paul cherche sa montre. Paul's looking for his watch.
Paul cherche ses lunettes. Paul's looking for his glasses.
Gatherine a appel6 son frdre. Catherine called her brother.
Catherine a appel6 sa s(Eur. Catherine called her sister.
) The equivalent ol your in French is ton/taltes for someone you call tu, or
votre/vos for someone you call vous.
+ For more information on the difference between tu ond vous, see page 43.
@
Note that possessive adjectives are not normally used with parts of
the body. Use le, la, l' or les instead.
J'ai mal d la main. My hand hurts.
+ For more informotion on Articles, see poge 12.
Ao.lecrves 41
Indefinite adjectives
What is an indefinite adjective?
Arr indefinite adjective is one of a small group of adjectives that are used
to talk about people or things in a general way without saying exactly
who or what they are, for example, severol, oll, every.
In French, this type of adjective comes BEFORE the noun it refers to. Here
are the most common French indefinite adiectives:
(
Key points
The French possessive adjectives are:
. mon/ton/son/notre/votre/leur in the masculine singular
o ma/ta/sa/notre/votre/leur in the feminine singular
. mes/tes/ses/nos/vos/leurs in the plural
Possessive adjectives come before the noun they refer to. They
agree with what they describe, rather than with the person who
owns that thing.
You use mon, ton and son with feminine singular nouns when
the following word begins with a vowel. You also use them with
most words beginning with h.
Possessive adjectives are not normally used with parts of the body.
Use le, la, l' or les instead.
{
t/
1/
J'ai d'autres projets.
J'y vais chaque ann6e.
J'ai le m6me manteau.
ll a quelques amis d Paris.
ll reste
quelques
bouteilles.
ll travaille tout le temps.
l've got other plans.
I go every year.
I have the same coat.
He has some friends in Paris,
There are a few bottles left.
He works all the time.
[)
Note that these words can also be used as pronouns, standing in place
of a noun instead of being used with one. chaque and quelques have
a slightly different form when they are used in this way.
t
) For more information on Pronouns, see page 42.
Key points
l/ tne most common French indefinite adjectives are autre, chaque,
mme, quelques and tout.
y'
tney come before the noun when they are used in this way.
Masculine
singular
Feminine
singular
Masculine
plural
Feminine
plural
Meaning
autre autre autres autres other
chaque chaque every, each
meme meme memes memes same
quelques quelques some, a few
tout toute tous toutes all, every
rrp
You can also use tout to talk about how often something happens.
tous les
jours
tous les deux
jours
For further oxplanation of grammatical tems, please see pages viii-xii.
PRONOUNS
What is a pronoun?
A pronoun is a word you use instead of a noun, when you do not need
or want to name someone or something directly, for example, it, you,
none.
l There are several different types of pronoun:
o Personal pronouns such as l, you, he, her and they, which are used to
refer to yourself, the person you are talking to, or other people and
things. They can be either subject pronouns (1, you, he and so on) or
obiect pronouns (him, her, them and so on).
o Possessive pronouns like mine and yours, which show who someone or
something belongs to.
o lndefinite pronouns like someone or nothing, which refer to people or
things in a general way without saying exactly who or what they are.
o Relative pronouns like who, which or fhot, which link two parts of a
sentence together.
. Demonstrative pronouns like thrs or those, which point things or people
out.
o Reflexive pronouns, a type of object pronoun that forms part of French
reflexive verbs like se laver (meaning to wosh) or s'appeler (meaning fo
be colled).
+ For more information on Reflexive verbs, see poge 88.
o The two French pronouns, en and y, which are used in certain
constructions.
o The pronouns qui? (meaning who?, whom), que? (meaning whot?),
quoi? (meaning whot) and lequel? (meaning which one), which are
used in asking questions.
+ For more information on
Questions,
see poge 142.
) Pronouns often stand in for a noun to save repeating it.
I finished my homework and gave it to my teacher.
Do you remember
Jack?
| saw him at the weekend.
) Word order with personal pronouns is usually different in French and
English.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Pnoruourus 43
Personal pronouns: subiect
What is a subject pronoun?
A subject pronoun is a word such as l, he, she and they, which performs
the action expressed by the verb. Pronouns stand in for nouns when it is
clear who is being talked about for example, My brother isn't here
qt
the
moment. He'll be bqck in
qn
hour.
1" I Usinq subiect
pronouns
D Here are the French subject pronouns:
Je pars en vacances demain.
Nous habitons d Nice.
l'm going on holiday tomorrow.
We live in Nice.
rtp
je changes to j' in front of words beginning with a vowel, most
words beginning with h, and the French word y.
J'arrive! l'm just coming!
Bon,
j'y
vais. Righf l'm off,
2l tu or vous?
> ln English we have only one way of saying you. In French, there are two
words: tu and vous. The word you use depends on:
o
whether you are talking to one person or more than one person
o whether you are talking to a friend or family member, or someone else
> lf you are talking to one person you know well, such as a friend, a young
person or a relative, use tu.
Tu me pr6tes ce CD? Will you lend me this CD?
Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
je (i'l nous we
tu you vous you
il he
it
ils they (masculine)
elle she
it
elles they (feminine)
on one
(we/you/they)
44 Pnoruourus
) lf you are talking to one person you do not know so well, such as your
teacher, your boss or a stranger, use vous.
Vous pouvez entrer. You may come in.
D lf you are talking to more than one person, you have to use vous, no
matter how well you know them.
Vous comprenez, les enfants? Do you understand, children?
[J
Note that the adjectives you use with tu and vous have to agree in
the feminine and plural forms.
Vous 6tes certain, Monsieur Are you sure, Mr Leclerc?
Leclerc? (mo scu li n e si ng u I o r)
Vous 6tes certains, les enfants? Are you sure, children?
(masculine plurol)
Grammar Ertra!
Any past participles (the form of the verb ending in -6, -i or -u in French) used with tre
in tenses such as the perfect also have to agree in the feminine and plural forms.
Vous 6tes oartie quand, Estelle? When did you leave, Estelle?
(feminine singular)
Estelle et Sophie
-
vous 6tes Estelle and Sophie
-
when did you
parties quand? (feminine plurol) leave?
+ For more informotion on the Past participle, see poge 111.
tr
illelle and ils/elles
} In English we generally refer to things (such as table, book, cor) only as it. In
French, il (meaning he, it) and elle (meaning she, it)are used to talk about
a thing, as well as about a person or an animal. You use il for masculine
nouns and elle for feminine nouns.
Pnoruourus 45
il is also used to talk about the weather, the time and in certain other set
phrases, often in the same way as some phrases with it in English.
ifs (meaning they) and elles (meaning they) are used in the plural to talk
about things, as well as about people or animals. Use ils for masculine
nouns and elles for feminine nouns.
lls vont appeler ce soir.
'Oi sont Anne et Rachel?'
*
'Elles sont d la piscine.'
'Est-ce qu'il reste des billets?'
-'Non,
ils sont tous vendus.'
'Tu aimes ces chaussures?'-
'Non, elles sont affreuses!'
ll pleut.
ll est deux heures.
ll faut partir.
On va i la plage demain.
On y va?
It's raining.
It's two o'clock.
We/You have to go.
They're going to call tonight.
'Where are Anne and Rachel?'-
'They're at the swimming pool.'
?re there are any tickets left?'
-
'No, they're all sold.'
'Do you like those shoes?'- 'No,
they're horrible!'
We're going to the beach tomorrow.
Shallwe go?
lf you are talking about a masculine and a feminine noun, use ils.
Oue font ton pdre et ta mire What do your father and mother do
quand ils partent en vacances? when they go on holiday?
'Oi sont le poivre et la 'Where are the pepper and the
moutarde?'-'lls sont d6jdr sur mustard?'
-
'They're already on the
la table.' table.'
4l on
D on is frequently used in informal, everyday French to mean h/e.
on can also have the sense of someone or they.
On m'a vol6 mon polte-monnaie. Someone has stolen my purse.
On vous demande au t6l6phone: There's a phone call for you.
rrp
on is often used to avoid a passive construction in French.
On m'a dit que tu 6tais malade. I was told you were ill.
* For more informotion on the Possive, see poge 122.
ll est d6jd parti.
Elle est actrice.
ll mord, ton chien?
Prends cette chaise. Elle est
plus confortable.
He's already left.
She's an actress.
Does your dog bite?
Take this chair. lt's more
comfortable.
lf you are in doubt as to which form of you to use, it is safest to
use vous and you will not offend anybody.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viiS-xii.
46 PRoruourus
) You can also use on as we use
you
in
general.
On peut visiter le ch6teau en
616.
D'ici on peut voir les c6tes
frangaises.
Ttp
The form of the verb you use with on is the same as the illelle
form.
4 For more informotion on Verbs, see poges 69-1 37.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Pnoruourus 47
Personal pronouns: direct object
What is a direct object pronoun?
A direct object pronoun is a word such as me, him, us and them, which is
used instead of the noun to stand in for the person or thing most directly
affected by the action expressed by the verb.
,
1l Using direct obiect pronouns
D Direct object pronouns stand in for nouns when it is clear who or what is
being talked aboug and save having to repeat the noun.
l've lost my glasses. Have you seen them?
'Have you met
Jo?'-'Yes,
I really like her!'
D Here are the French direct object pronouns:
Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
me (m') me nous u5
te (t'l you vous you
le (l') him
it
les them (mosculine
ond feminine)
la (l') her
it
English when we mean people in
You can visit the castle in the
5Ummer.
From here you can see the French
coast.
lls vont nous aider.
Je la vois.
'Tu aimes les carottes?'-
'Non, je les d6teste!'
They're going to help us.
I can see her/it.
'Do you like carrots?'- 'No, I hate
them!'
E
+
Note that you cannot use direct object pronouns after a preposition
like i or de, or when you want to emphasize something.
For more informotion on Emphotic pronouns, see poge 51.
Key points
y'
tne French subject pronouni ire: je (j'), tu, il, elle, on in the
singular, and nous, vous, ils, elles in the plural.
y'
to say you in French, use tu if you are talking to one person you
know well or to a young person. Use vous if you are talking to
one person you do not know so well or to more than one person.
y'
il/ils (masculine singular/plural) and elle/elles (feminine
singular/plural) are used to refer to things, as well as to people or
animals. il is also used in certain set
phrases.
y'
lf there is a mixture of masculine and feminine nouns, use ils.
y'
on can mean we, someone, you, they, or people in general.
It is often used instead of a passive construction.
T'P
me changes to m', te to t', and le/la to l' in front of words
beginning with a vowel, most words beginning with h, and the
French word y.
Je t'aime.
Tu m'entends? Can you hear me?
48 Pnoruourus
D ln orrk'rs and instructions telling someone to do something, moi is used
instr,,rrl of me, and toi is used instead of te.
PRoruourus 49
Personal pronouns: indirect object
What is an indirect object pronoun?
When a verb has two objects (a direct one and an indirect one), the
indirect object pronoun is used instead of a noun to show the person or
thing the action is intended to benefit or harm, for example, me in He
gove me a book; Can you get
m9. o towel?
1l Using indirect obiect pronouns
> lt is important to understand the difference between direct and indirect
object pronouns in English, as they can have different forms in French:
o an indirect object answers the question who to/for? or to/for
whaf?
He gave me a book.
-
Who did he give the book to?
+
me (=indirect
object pronoun)
Can you get me a towel?
'+
Who con you get o towel for? +
me
(=i ndi rect ob j ect p ro no u n)
o if something answers the question what or who, then it is the direct
object and NOT the indirect oblect
He gave me a book.
+
What did he give me?
+
a book (=jjyssl
object)
Can you get me a towel? +
Whot cqn you get me?
+
a towel (=direct
object)
D Here are the French indirect object pronouns:
Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
me (m') me, to me, for me nous us, to us, for us
te (t') you, to you, for you vouS you, to you, for you
lui him, to him, for him
it, to it, for it
leur them, to them, for them
(mosculine ond feminine)
lui her, to her, for her
it, to it, for it
ll nous 6crit tous les jours.
lls te cachent quelque chose.
le is rornetimes used to refer back to an idea or information that has already
been given. The word lf is often missed out in English.
Aidez-mo_i!
Assieds-toi.
'Ta chemise est trds sale.'-
'Je l9 sais.'
Les voyez-vous?
Elle ne nous connait pas.
ll voudrait la revoir.
Puis-je vous aider?
Help me!
Sit down.
'Your shirt's very dirty.'-
'l know.'
Can you see them?
She doesn't know us.
He'd like to see her again.
Can I help you?
C.l
Word order with direct obiect pronouns
L The direct object pronoun usually comes BEFORE the verb.
Je t'aime. I love you.
@
Note that in orders and instructions telling someone to do something,
the direct object pronoun comes AFTER the verb.
Asseyez-vous. Sit down.
D In tenses like the perfect that are formed with avoir or tre and the past
participle (the part of the verb that ends in -4 -i or -u in French), the direct
object pronoun comes BEFORE the part of the verb that comes from avoir
or 6tre.
ll m'a vu. He saw me,
} When a verb like vouloir (meaning to want) or pouvoir (meaning to be oble
to, can) is followed by another verb in the infinitive (the 'fo'form of the
verb), the direct object pronoun comes BEFORE the infinitive.
Key points
y'
The French direct object pronouns are: me (m,), te (t,), lella (t,)
in the singular, and nous, vous, les in the plural.
y'
Except in orders and instructions telling someone to do
something, the direct object pronoun comes before the verb.
He writes to us every day.
They're hiding something from you.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
50 PRotrtoutrts
rq
me changes to m' and te to t' in front of words beginning with a
vowel, most words beginning with h, and the French word y.
ll m'a donn6 un livre. He gave me a book.
Tu m'apportes une serviette? Can you get me a towel?
The pronouns shown in the table are used instead of the preposition i with
a noun.
l'6cris
i Suzanne. l'm writing to Suzanne.
-+
fe
lui 6cris. l'm writing to her.
Donne du lait au chat. Give the cat some milk.
-+ Donne-lui du lait. Give
it some milk.
Some French verbs like demander i (meaning to osk) and t6l6phoner i
(meaning to phone) take an indirect object even though English uses a
direct obiect.
ll leur tril6phone tous les soirs. He phones them every evening.
On the other hand, some French verbs like attendre (meaning to wait for),
chercher (meaning to look for) and regarder (meaning to /ook ot) take a
direct object even though English uses an indirect obiect.
Je les attends devant la gare. l'll wait for them outside the station.
E
Word order with indirect obiect pronouns
) The indirect object pronoun usually comes BEFORE the verb'
Dominique vous 6crit une lettre. Dominique's writing you a letter'
ll ne nous parle pas. He doesn't speak to us.
ll ne veut pas me r6pondre. He won't answer me.
@
Note that in orders and instructions telling someone to do
something, the indirect obiect pronoun comes AFTER the verb.
Donne-moi ga! Give me that!
PRoruourus 51
Emphatic pronouns
What is an emphatic pronoun?
An emphatic pronoun is used instead of a noun when you want to
emphasize something, for example ls this for me?
1l Using emphatic pronouns
) In French, there is another set of pronouns which you use after
prepositions, when you want to emphasize something and in certain other
cases. These are called emphatic pronouns or stressed pronouns.
Singular Meaning Plural Meaning
mot I
me
nouS we
u5
toi you vouS you
lui he
him
eux they (mosculine)
them
elle she
her
elles they (feminine)
them
sol oneself
$ourself,
ourselves
Je pense souvent a toi.
C'est pour moi?
Venez avec moi.
ll a besoin de nous.
I often think about you.
ls this for me?
Come with me.
He needs us.
KeY
Points
y'
fhe French indirect object pionouns are: me (m'), te (t'), lui in
the singular, and nous, vous, leur in the plural.
y'
Except in orders and instructions telling someone to do
something, the direct object pronoun comes before the verb.
soi (meaning oneself is used with the subiect pronoun on and with words
like tout fe monde (meaning everyone) or chacun (meaning each one).
ll faut avoir confiance en soi. You have to have confidence in
yourself.
Tout le monde est rentr6 chez Everyone went home.
soi.
4
When to use emphatic pronouns
> Emphatic pronouns are used in the following circumstances:
o after a preposition
C'est pour-mqi?
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
ls this for me?
52 PRoruourus
o for emphasis, especially where a contrast is involved
Toi, tu ressembles d ton pdre, You look like your father, she
Pnoruouus 53
mais elle non.
ll m'6nerve, lui!
o on their own without a verb
'Oui a cass6 la fen6tre?'-'Lul.' 'Who broke the window?'
-
'Je suis fatigu6e.'-'Moi aussi.' 'l'm tired.'
-
'Me too''
o after c'est and ce sont (meaning it ts)
C'est toi, Simon?
Ge sont eux.
o in comparisons
Tu es plus jeune que moi.
ll est moins grand que toi.
doesn't.
He's getting on my nerves!
ls that you, Simon?
It's them.
You're younger than me.
He's smaller than you (are).
9 For more informotion on c'est and ce sont, see page 65.
. when the sublect of the sentence is made up of two pronouns, or of a
pronoun and a noun
Mon pire et elle ne
s'entendent pas.
My father and she don't get on.
Grammar Extra!
You can add -mme or -m6mes to the emphatic pronouns when you particularly want
to emphasize something. These forms correspond to English myself, ourselves and so on
Form with -m6me Meaning
mot-meme myself
toi-mme yourself
lui-mme himself, itself
elle-mme herself, itself
soFmeme oneself
$ourself,
ou rselves)
nous-memes ourselves
vous-meme
vous-memes
yourself
yourselves
eux-meme5 themselves (m a scu I i n e)
elles-mGmes themselves (feminine)
Je I'ai fait moi-m6me.
Elle l'a choisi elle-m6me.
I did it myself.
She chose it herself.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii'xii.
54 Pnoruourus
Possessive pronouns
What is a possessive pronoun?
A possessive pronoun is one of the words mine, yours, hers, his, ours or
thelrs, which are used instead of a noun to show that one person or thing
befongs to another, for example, Ask Carole if this pen is hers.
) Here are the French possessive pronouns:
Masculine
singular
Feminine
singular
Masculine
plural
Feminine
plural
Meaning
le mien la mienne les miens les miennes mrne
le tien la tienne les tiens les tiennes yours
le sien la sienne les siens les siennes his
hers
le n6tre la n6tre les n6tres les n6tres ourS
le vdtre la vdtre les vdtres les vdtres yours
le leur la leur les leurs les leurs theirs
PRoruourus 55
Grammar Ertra!
Remember that ir with the definite article le becomes au, and i with les becomes aux,
\o:
d + le mien
+
au mien
i + les miens + aux miens
d + les miennes
+
aux miennes
Tu pr6fdres ce manteau au mien? Do you prefer this coat to mine?
Remember that de with the definite article le becomes du, and de with les becomes
des, so:
de + le mien + du mien
de + les miens
+
des miens
de + les miennes r
des miennes
J'ai oubli6 mes cl6s. J'ai besoin l've forgotten my keys. I need
des tiennes, yours.
t
) For more informotion on Articles, see poge 12.
Ces CD-ld, ce sont les miens.
Heureusement que tu as tes
c163. J'ai oubli6 les miennes.
'C'est le v6lo de Paul?'-
'Oui, c'est le sien.'
'C'est le v6lo d'lsabelle?'-
'Oui, c'est le sien.'
Those CDs are mine.
It's lucky you've got your keys.
lforgot mine.
'ls that Paul's bike?'
-
'Yes, it's his,'
'ls that lsabelle's bike?'-
'Yes, itt hers.'
Key points
y'
The French possessive pronouns are le mien, le tien, le sien for
singular subject pronouns, and le n6tre, le v6tre and le leur for
plural subject pronouns. Their forms change in the feminine and
the plural.
y'
In French, the pronoun you choose has to agree with the noun it
replaces, and not with the person who owns that thing.
rtp
In French, possessive pronouns agree with what they describe,
NOT with the person who owns that thing. For example, le sien
can mean his or hers, but can only be used to replace a masculine
singular noun.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
56 Pnoruourus
en and y
) en and y do not usually refer to people. How we translate them into English
depends on where en and y are found in French.
tren
D en is used with verbs and phrases normally followed by de to avoid
repeating the same word.
Si tu as un probldme, tu peux lf you've got a problem, you can
m'en parler. talk to me about it. (en replaces de
in parler de quelque chose)
Est-ce que tu peux me prGter Can you lend me that book? | need
ce livre? J'eo ai besoin. it. (en reploces de in svoir besoin de
quelque chose)
ll a un beau
iardin
et il en est He's got a beautiful garden and is
trds fier. very proud of it. (en reploces de in
Qtre fier de quelque chose)
) en can also replace the partitive article (du, de la, de l', des).
. Je n'ai pas d'argent.Tu en as? | haven't got any money. Have you
got any?
'Tu peux me prGter des timbres?' 'Can you lend me some stamps?'-
-'Non,
je dois en acheter.' 'No, I have to buy some.'
.)
For more information on the Portitive article, see poge 22.
l en is also used:
o as a preposition
o with the present participle of verbs
+ For more information on Prepositions and the Present participle, see poges
1 62
qnd
1 25.
) When en is used with avoir, with il y a or with numbers, it is often not
translated in English but can NEVER be missed out in French.
'Est-ce que tu as un 'Have you got a dictionary?'
-'Yes,
dictionnaire?'-'Oui,
j'en ai un.' l've got one.'
'Gombien d'6ldves y a-t-il dans 'How many pupils are there in your
ta classe?'-'ll y en a trente.' class?'
-
'There are thirty.'
J'en veux deux. I want two (of them).
used with verbs and phrases normally followed by i to avoid repeating
'l was thinking about the exam.'-
'Well, stop thinking about it!' (y
replaces d in penser d quelque chose)
'l wasn't expecting that.'-'Well, I
was expecting it.' (y reploces d in
s'qttendre d quelque chose)
y can afso mean there. lt can be used to replace phrases that would use
prepositions such as dans (meaning tn) and sur (meaning on).
Elle y passe tout l'6t6.
Regarde dans le tiroir. Je pense
que les cl6s y sont.
t
I
Word order with en and y
en and y usually come BEFORE the verb.
J'gn veux. I want some.
Elle en a parl6 avec moi. She talked to me about it.
En Gtes-vous content?
{re
you pleased with it/them?
Comment fait-on pour y aller? How do you get there?
N'y pense plus. Don't think about it any more.
In orders and instructions telling someone to do something, en or y come
A[f EB the verb and are attached to it with a hyphen
O.
zlY
>yis
the :same word.
'Je pensais i l'examen.'-'Mais
arr6te d'y penser!'
'Je ne m'attendais pas i ga.'-
'Moi, je m'y attendais.'
Prenez-en.
Restez-y.
PRonourrrs 57
She spends the whole summer
there.
Look in the drawer. I think the keys
are in there.
Take some.
Stay there.
rrp
The final -s of -er verbs is usually dropped in the tu form used for
orders and instructions. When an -er verb in the tu form is used
before en or y, however, the -s is not dropped, to make it easier to
sav.
Donne des bonbons i ton frire. Cive some sweets to your brother.
Donnes-en i ton frire. Cive some to your brother.
Va dans ta chambre! Go to your room!
Vis;y| Co on!
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii'xii.
t
) For more information on the Imperotive, see poge 85.
58 PRoruoulvs
L en and y come AFTER other direct or indirect obiect pronouns.
Pnoruourus 59
Using different types of pronoun together
D Sometimes you find a direct object pronoun and an indirect object pronoun
in the same sentence.
He gave me (indirect obiect) them (direct obiect).
He gave them (direct object) to me (indirect object).
) When this happens in French, you have to put the indirect and direct obiect
pronouns in a certain order.
Donnez-leur-en.
ll m'en a parl6.
Cive them some.
He spoke to me about it
+ For more informqtion on Direct obiect pronouns
qnd
lndirect obiect
pronouns, see poges 47 ond 49.
Key points
y'
en is used with verbs and expiessions normally followed by de to
avoid repeating the same word.
y'
en can also replace the partitive article.
y'
When en is used with avoir and il y a or with numbers, it is often
not translated in English but can never be missed out in French.
y'
y is used with verbs and expressions normally followed by i to
avoid repeating the same word.
y'
y can also mean there and may replace expressions that would be
used with dans and sur or some other preposition indicating
a place.
y'
en andy usually come before the verb, except in orders and
instructions telling someone to do something, when en or y
follows the verb and is attached to it with a hyphen.
y'
en and y come after other direct or indirect object pronouns.
Dominique vous l'envoie
demain.
ll te les a montr6s?
Je les lui ai lus.
Ne la leur donne pas.
Elle ne m'en a pas parl6.
Dominique's sending it to you
tomorrow.
Has he shown them to you?
I read them to him/her.
Don't give it to them.
She didn't speak to me about it.
Key points
y'
lf a direct and an indirect object pronoun are used in the same
sentence, you usually put the indirect object pronoun before the
direct object pronoun.
y'
With lui and leur, this order is reversed and you put the direct
object pronoun before the indirect object pronoun.
;;
---
Direct ---}ei*E---*-----..-
te
te :- lui
en
For further explanation of grammatacal terms, please see pages viii-xii.
60 Pnoruourus
lndefinite pronouns
What is an indefinite pronoun?
An indefinite pronoun is one of a small group of pronouns such as
everything, nobody and something which are used to refer to people or
things in a general way without saying exactly who or what they are.
) Here are the most common French indefinite pronouns:
o chacun (masculine singular)lchacune (feminine singular) each, everyone
Nous avons chacun donn6 We each gave ten euros.
dix euros.
Chacun fait ce qu'il veut. Everyone does what they like.
Toutes les villas ont chacune Each villa has its own swimming
leur piscine. pool.
. personne nobody/no one, anybodylanyone
ll nly a personne d la maison. There's no one at home.
Elle ne veut voir
personne.
She doesn't want to see anybody.
+ For more informotion on Negatives, see page 138.
o quelque chose something, anything
f'ai
quelque chose pour toi. l've got something for you.
Avez-vous quelque chose i Do you have anything to declare?
d6clarer?
o quelqu'un somebody/someone, anybody/anyone
ll y a
quelqu'un
i la porte. There's someone at the door.
Ouelqu'un a vu mon parapluie? Has anybody seen my umbrella?
o rien nothing, anything
Elle n'a rien dit.
Rien n'a chang6.
+ For more informotion on Negatives, see page 138.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
. tous (mosculine pluraf)ltoutes (feminine plurat) all
Je les connais tous. I know them all.
Elles sont toutes arriv6es? Are they all here?
You can use quelque chose de/rien de and quelqu'un de/personne de
with adjectives if you want to say nothing interesting, something new and
so on.
rien d'int6ressant nothing interesting
PRoruourus 61
. tout everything
ll organise tout.
Tout va bien?
He's organizing everything.
ls everything OK?
Key points
y'
rlen and personne can be used on their own to answer
questions, but need to be used with ne when there is a verb in
the sentence.
y'
quelque chose/rien and quelqu'un/personne can be followed
by de + adjective.
She didn't say anything.
Nothing's changed.
'What did you buy?'-
lf the sentence contains a verb you have to use ne with it.
He's eaten nothing.
Oui sait la r6ponse? Personne. Who knows the answer? No one.
lf the sentence contains a verb you have to use ne with it.
Relative pronouns: qui, que, lequel, auquel, duquel
What is a relative pronoun?
ln English a relative pronoun is one of the words who, which and thot
(and the more formal whom) which can be used to introduce information
that makes it clear which person or thing is being talked about, for
example, The mon who has just come in is Ann's boyfriend; The vase that
you broke wos quite valuable.
Relative pronouns can also introduce further information about someone
or something, for example, Peter, who is
q
brilliant painter, wonts to study
ort;
lone's
house, which was built in 1890, needs o lot of repoirs.
62 PRotrtoutrts
D In French, the relative pronouns are qui, que, lequel, auquef and duquel.
tr
qui and que
) qui and que can both refer to people or things.
Relative pronoun Meaning
Subject qui who
which
that
Direct object que who, whom
which
that
Pnoruourus 63
> qui is also used after a preposition such as
i
de or pour to talk about
pcaplc.
la personne d qui il parle the person he is speaking to
les enfants
pour qui j'ai achet6 the children I bought sweets for
des bonbons
T(/p
ln English we often miss out the object pronouns who, which
and that. For example, we can say both the friends thot I see most, ol
the friends I see most, and the house which we wqnt to buy, or the
house we wont to buy. In French you can |{EVER miss out que or qui
in this way.
2l lequel, laquelle. lesquels. lesquelles
> fequel (meaning which)is used after a preposition such as
i
de or pourto
talk about things. lt has to agree with the noun it replaces.
Masculine Feminine Meaning
Singular lequel laquelle which
Plural lesquels lesquelles which
le livre pour lequel elle est the book she is famous for
GOnnue
la table sur laquelle j'ai mis the table I put my bag on
mon sac
Remember that ir and de combine with the definite article le to become au
and du, and with les to become aux and des. lequel/lesquels/lesquelles
combine with ir and de as shown in the table. laquelle doesn't change.
+ lequel + laquelle + lesquels + lesquelles Meaning
a auquel i laquelle auxquels auxquelles to which
de duquel de laquelle desquels desquelles of which
t
|
' For more information on d ond dq see poges 14 and 15.
Mon frdre,
qui
a vingt ans, est
i l'universit6.
Est-ce qu'il y a un bus qui va
au centre-ville?
Les amis que je vois le plus
sont L6a et Mehdi.
Voild la maison
que
nous
voulons acheter.
My brother, who's twenty, is at
university.
ls there a bus that goes to the town
centre?
The friends (that) | see most are L6a
and Mehdi.
That's the house (which) we want
to buy.
que changes to qu' in front of a word beginning with a vowel
and most words beginning with h.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
64 Pnoruourus
Orammar Extra!
dont means whose, of whom, of which, about which and so on. lt can refer to people or
things, but its form NEVER changes.
Pnoruourus 65
Demonstrative pronouns: ce, cela/ga, ceci, celui
What is a demonstrative pronoun?
ln English a demonstrative pronoun is one of the words this, that, these,
and fhose used instead of a noun to point people or things out, for
exampfe, Thqt looks fun.
rl ce
> ce is usually used with the verb Gtre (meaning to be) in the expressions
c'est (meanin g it's, that's), c'6tait (meaning it wos, that wos), ce sont
(meaning it's, that's) and so on.
la femme dont la voiture est
en panne
les films dont tu parles
the woman whose car has broken
down
the films you're talking about
rrp
ce becomes c' when
with e or 6.
ce becomes
E'
when
with a.
Qa
6t6 difficile.
Note that after c'est and ce sont and so on you have to use the
emphatic form of the pronoun, for example, moi instead of je, eux
instead of ils and so on.
C'est moi. It's me.
Q For more informotion on Emphotic pronount see poge 51.
D ce is used:
o with a noun or a question word to identify a person or thing
C'est moi.
C'6tait mon frdre.
Ce sont eux.
Oui est-ce?
Ce sont des professeurs.
Ou'est-ce que c'est?
C'est un ouvre'boite.
It's me.
That was my brother.
It's them.
it is followed by a part of the verb that starts
it is followed by a part of the verb that starts
It was difficult.
Who is it?, Who's this/that?
They're teachers.
What's this/that?
It's a tin-opener.
Key points
y'
qui and que can both refer to people or things: qui is the subject
of the part of the sentence it is found in; que is the object.
y'
f n Engfish we often miss out the object pronouns who, which and
thot, but in French you can never miss outque orqui.
y'
After a preposition you use qui if you are referring to people, and
lequel if you are referring to things
-
lequel agrees with the noun
it replaces.
y'
a+ lequel
'auquel
i+lesquels
,auxquels
i + lesquelles
*
auxquelles
y'
de+ lequel
'
duquel
de+lesquels'desquels
de+ lesquelles' desquelles
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
66 PRotuoutrts
o with an adjective to refer to a statement, idea and so on that cannot be
classed as either masculine or feminine
C'est trds int6ressant.
C'est dangereux.
Ce n'est pas grave.
o for emphasis
G'est moi qui ai t6l6phon6. lt was me who phoned.
Ce sont les enfants qui ont fait It was the children who made the
le g6teau. cake.
E
cela, ga and ceci
l cefa and
Ea
mean it, this or that. Both refer to a statement, an idea or an
obfect. ga is used instead of cela in everyday, informal French.
PRorrroulus 67
celui and its other forms are used before:
o qui, que or dont
'Ouelle robe pr6f6rez-vous?' 'Which dress do you like best?'
-'Celle
qui est en vitrine.'
-
'The one in the window.'
Prends ceux que tu pr6fires. Take the ones you like best.
celui dont je t'ai parl6 the one I told you about
o prepositions like i, dans and so on.
celui proche de la fontaine the one near the fountain
celui and its other forms can be used with de to show who something
belongs to. In English, we would use 's.
Je n'ai pas d'appareil photo I haven't got a camera but I can
mais je peux emprunter celui borrow my sister!.
de ma seur.
Qa
ne fait rien.
Ecoute-moi gal
Cela d6pend.
Je n'aime pas cela.
Donne-moi ga!
That's/lt's very interesting.
That's/lt's dangerous.
It doesn't matter.
It doesn't matter.
Listen to this!
That/lt depends.
I don't like that.
Give me that!
You can add the endings -ci and -lir to celui and its other forms to
emphasize the difference between something that is close to you and
something that is further away.
r use -ci for something that is closer to you
o use -li for something that is further away
Comparez vos r6ponses d
celles de votre voisin.
On prend quel fromage?
Celui-ci ou celui-ld?
Ces chemises ont deux poches
mais celles-li n'en ont pas.
Compare your answers with your
neighbour's.
L ceci means fhis and is not as common as cela and ga. lt is used to talk
about something that has not yet been mentioned.
Lisez ceci. Read this.
) ceci is also used to hand or show someone something.
Prends ceci.Tu en auras besoin. Take this. You'll need it.
tr
celui, celle. ceux, celles
} celui and celle mean the one; ceux and celles mean the ones. The form you
choose depends on whether the noun it is replacing is masculine or
feminine, and singular or plural.
For further explanation of grammatical tems, please see pages viii-xii.
Which cheese shall we get? This
one or that one?
These shirts have two pockets but
those have none.
Masculine Feminine Meaning
Singular celui celle the one
Plural ceux celles the ones
rtp
ga and cela are used in a more general way than il and elle,
which are usually linked to a noun that has already been mentioned.
Qa
te plait d'aller d l'6tranger? Do you like going abroad?
Elle te plait, ma nouvelle Do you like my new car?
voiture?
Masculine Feminine Meaning
Singular celui-ci
celui-lir
celle-ci
celle-lir
this, this one
that that one
Plural ceux-cl
ceux-lir
celles-ci
celles-lir
these, these ones
those, those ones
y'.
cei.soften found ," ,n"
",lo"rlrl,"",lr'".'"rt
." sont and so on.
"
:il',:!iil"i0",,"" or thins
;J:,fi:"J;""#n:T:?"t;*:l:no'o
on that cannot be crassed
"
:jffff|l'i"un
it, this or thot;ceci means rhis, but is not as
y'
cefui and celle mean fhe one; ceuxand celles mean the ones.
They are often found with the endings -ci and -li and are used
to distinguish between things which are close and things which
are further away.
68 PRor,roulvs
VERBS
What is a verb?
A verb is a 'doing' word which describes what someone or something
does, what someone or something is, or what happens to them, for
example, be, sing, live.
The three coniugations
D Verbs are usually used with a noun, with a pronoun such as I, you or she, or
with somebody's name. They can relate to the present the past and the
future; this is called their tense.
t
) For more informotion on Nouns and Pronouns, see pages 1 ond 42.
) Verbs are either:
. regular; their forms follow the normal rules
o irregular; their forms do not follow the normal rules
D Regular English verbs have a base form (the form of the verb without any
endings added to it for example, walk). The base form can have fo in front
of it for example, to wolk. This is called the infinitive. You will find one of
these forms when you look a verb up in your dictionary.
D French verbs also have an infinitive, which ends in -er, -ir or -re, for
example, donner (meaning to give), finir (meaning to finish), attendre
(meaning to woit). Regular French verbs belong to one of these three verb
groups, which are called conjugations. We will look at each of these three
conjugations in turn on the next few pages.
> English verbs have other forms apart from the base form and infinitive: a
form ending in -s (wolks), a form ending in -ing (wolking), and a form
ending in -ed (wolked).
D French verbs have many more forms than this, which are made up of
endings added to a stem. The stem of a verb can usually be worked out
from the infinitive.
D French verb endings change, depending on who you are talking aboul je
(l), tu (you), illelle/on (he/she/one) in the singular, or nous (we), vous (you)
and ifs/elles (they) in the plural. French verbs also have different forms
depending on whether you are referring to the present, future or past.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
70 Venss
) Some verbs in French do not follow the normal rules, and are called
irregular verbs. These include some very common and important verbs like
avoir (meaning to hove), tre (meaning to be), faire (meaning to do, to
make) and aller (meaning to go). There is information on many of these
irregular verbs in the following sections.
+ For Verh tables, see supplement.
Venss 71
The present tense
What is the present tense?
The present tense is used to talk about what is true at the momenf what
happens regulady and what is happening now, for example, l'm a student,
I travel to college by train, l'm studying languoges.
D You use a verb in the present tense to talk about:
o things that are happening now
It! raining.
The phoneS ringing.
. things that happen all the time or at certain intervals, or things that you
do as a habit
It always snows in
January.
I play football on Saturdays.
o things that are true at the present time:
She's not very well.
It's a beautiful house.
D There is more than one way to express the present tense in English. For
exampfe, you can say either I give, I am giving, or occasionally I do give. ln
French you use the same form (e donne) for all of these!
> ln English you can also use the present tense to talk about something that is
going to happen in the near future. You can do the same in French.
y'
French verbs have different forms depending on what noun or
pronoun they are used with, and on their tense.
( tfey are made up of a stem and an ending. The stem is usually
based on the infinitive.
y'
Regular verbs fit into one of three patterns or conjugations:
-er, -ir, or -re verbs.
Key points
y'
lrregular verbs do not follow the normal rules.
Je vais en France le mois
prochain.
Nous prenons le train de dix We_fegetling the ten o'clock train.
heures.
Ttp
Although English sometimes uses parts of the verb to be to form
present tense of other verbs (for example, I am listening, shel
talking), French NEVER uses the verb 6tre in this way.
l'm ooino to France next month.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
72 Vrnes
The present tense: regular -er
{first
conjugationl verbs
) lf an infinitive in French ends in -er, it means the verb belongs to the first
coniugation, for example, donner, aimer, parler.
) To know which form of the verb to use in French, you need to work out
what the stem of the verb is and then add the correct ending. The stem of
-er verbs in the present tense is formed by taking the infinitive and
chopping off -er.
Infinitive Stem (without -er)
donner (to give) donn-
aimer (to like, to love) atm-
parfer (to speak, to tolk) parl-
Now you know how to find the stem of a verb, you can add the correct
ending. Which one you choose will depend on whether you are referring to
je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vout ils or elles.
For more information on Pronouns, see poge 42.
Here are the present tense endings for -er verbs:
Pronoun Ending Add to stem,
e.g. donn-
Meanings
ie
(i') -e je donne I give
I am giving
tu -es tu donnes you grve
you are giving
il
elle
on
-e il donne
elle donne
on donne
he/she/itlone gives
he/she/itlone is
giving
.nou5 -ons nous donnons we grve
we are giving
vous -ez vous donnez you grve
you are giving
ils
elles
-ent ils donnent
elles donnent
they give
they are giving
VeRes 73
rtp
je changes to j' in front of a word starting with a vowel (o, e, i,
o or u), most words starting with h, and the French word y.
Note that there are a few regular -er verbs that are spelled slightly
differently from the way you might expect.
Q For more information on Spelling changes in -er verbs, see page 78.
il
y'
Verbs endins in -e, uuunfil i^"itln, conlugation and form their
present tense stem by losing the -er from the infinitive.
/
lj".:j:::::"T:::"T:::,T
for -er verbs are:
c
Marie regarde la t616.
Le train arrive d deux heures.
Marie is watching W.
The train arrives at 2 o'clock.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
74 Venes
The present tense: regular -ir (second
conjugation)
verbs
l lf an infinitive ends in -ir, it means the verb belongs to the second
conjugation, for example, finir, choisir, remplir.
) The stem of -ir verbs in the present tense is formed by taking the infinitive,,
D The nous and vous forms of -ir verbs have an extra syllable.
and chopping off -ir. tu filnis (two syllobles)
Venes 75
Infinitive Stem (without -ir)
finir (to finish) fin-
choisir (to choose) chois-
rempfir (to fill, to fill in) rempl-
) Now add the correct ending, depending on whether you are referring to
tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles,
+ For more informotion on Pronouns, see page 42.
D Here are the present tense endings for -ir verbs:
Pronoun Ending Add to stem, e.g. fin- Meanings
ie 0')
-ts
ie
finis I finish
I am finishing
tu -t5 tu finis you finish
you are finishing
il
elle
on
-it il finit
elle finit
on finit
he/she/itlone
finishes
he/she/it/one is
finishing
nous -tssons nous finissons we finish
we are finishing
vous -tssez vous finissez you finish
you are finishing
ils
elles
-issent ils finissent
elles finissent
they finish
they are finishing
vous filnilssez (three syllables)
Le cours finit i onze heures.
Je finis mes devoirs.
The lesson finishes at eleven o'clock,
l'm finishing my homework.
je changes to j' in front of a word starting with a vowel, most
words starting with h, and the French word y.
y'
Verbs ending in -i, u"toniiJ,i""'r"lona conjugation and form
their present tense stem by losing the -ir from the infinitive.
y'
The present tense endings for -ir verbs are:
-ls, -is, -it, -issons, -issez, -issent.
Key points
y'
Remember the extra syllable in the nous and vous forms.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
76 Vrnes
The present tense: regular -re (third
coniugationl verbs
) lf an infinitive ends in -re, it means the verb belongs to the third
coniugation, for example, attendre, vendre, entendre.
) The stem of -re verbs in the present tense is formed by taking the infinitive
and chopping off -re.
Infinitive Stem (without -re)
attendre (to wait) attend-
vendre (fo sel/) vend-
entendre (to hear) entend-
L Now add the correct ending, depending on whether you are referring to
je,
tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles.
+ For more informqtion on Pronouns, see poge 42.
) Here are the present tense endings for -re verbs:
Pronoun Ending Add to stem,
e.g. attend-
Meanings
je
0')
-s
i'attends lwait
I am waiting
tu -s tu attend! you wait
you are waiting
il
elle
on
il attend
elle attend
on attend
he/she/itlone waits
he/she/itlone is
waiting
nous -on5 nous attendons we wait
we are waiting
vouS -ez vous attendez you wait
you are waiting
ils
elles
-ent ils attendent
elles attendent
they wait
they are waiting
Venes 77
Ttp
je changes to j' in front of a word starting with a vowel, most
words starting with h, and the French word y.
Key points
y'
Yerbsending in -re belonfil,Ii"'l-rtita conjugation and form
their present tense stem by losing the -re from the infinitive.
y'
tne present tense endings for -re verbs are:
-s, -5, -, -ons, -gz, -ent.
J'attends ma s(Eur.
Chaque matin nous attendons
le train ensemble.
l'm waiting for my sister.
Every morning we wait for the train
together.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
78 Venas
The present tense: spelling changes in -er verbs
} Learning the patterns shown on pages 72-73 means you can now work out
the forms of most -er verbs. A few verbs, though, involve a small spelling
change. This is usually to do with how a word is pronounced. In the tables
below the form(s) with the irregular spelling is/are underlined.
tr
Verbs ending in -cer
> With verbs such as lancer (meaning to throw), which end in -cer, c
becomes
E
before an a or an o. This is so the letter c is still pronounced as
in the English word ice.
Pronoun Example verb: lancer
le lance
tu lances
il
elle
on
lance
nouS langons
vous lancez
ils
elles
lancent
l2l Verbs ending in -ger
> With verbs such as manger (meaning to eot), which end in -ger, g
becomes ge before an a or an o. This is so the letter g is still pronounced
fike the s in the English word leisure.
Pronoun Example verb; manger
je
man9e
tu manges
il
elle
on
mange
nous manqeons
vous man9ez
ils
elles
mangent
Venes 79
3I Verbs ending in -eler
> With verbs such as appeler (meaning to col[), which end in -eler, the I
doubles before -e, -es and -ent. The double consonant (ll) affects the
pronunciation of the word. In appeler, the first e sounds like the vowel
sound at the end of the English word teacher, but in appelle the first e
sounds like the one in the English word pet.
Pronoun Example verb: appeler
I
aopelle
tu appelles
il
elle
on
appelle
nous appelons
vous appelez
ils
elles
apoellent
The exceptions to this rule are geler (meaning to freeze) and peler
(meaning to peel), which change in the same way as lever (see page 81).
Verbs like this are sometimes called '1 , 2, 3, 5 verbs' because they change
in the first person singular (je), second person singular (tu), and third
person singular and plural (illelle/on and ils/elles).
4
Verbs ending in -eter
> With verbs such as jeter (meaning to throw),which end in -eter, the t
doubles before -e, -es and -ent. The double consonant (tt) affects the
pronunciation of the word. In jeter, the first e sounds like the vowel sound
at the end of the English word teacher, but in
iette
the first e sounds like
the one in the English word pef.
Pronoun Example verb:
jeter
le iette
tu iettes
il
elle
on
iette
nous
ietons
vouS ietez
ils
elles
ictten!
For {urther explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
80 Venss
L The exceptions to this rule include acheter (meaning to buy), which
changes in the same way as lever (see page 81).
D Verbs like this are sometimes called'1, 2.3. 6 verbs'.
tr
Verbs ending in -yer
> With verbs such as nettoyer (meaning to cleon), which end in -yer, the y
changes to i before -e, -es and -ent.
Pronoun Example verb: nettoyer
le
nettoie
tu nettoies
il
elle
on
nettoie
nous nettoyons
vous nettoyez
ils
elles
nettoient
} Verbs ending in -ayer, such as payer (meaning to poy) and essayer
(meaning to try), can be spelled with either a y or an i. So je paie and
je paye, for example, are both correct.
} Verbs like this are sometimes called "1 ,
2, 3, 6 verbs'
tr
Ghanges involving accents
> With verbs such as lever (meaning to roise), peser (meaning to weigh) and
acheter (meaning to buy), e changes to 6 before the consonant + -e, -es
and -ent. The accent changes the pronunciation too. In lever the first e
sounds f ike the vowel sound at the end of the English word teocher, but in
fdve and so on the first e sounds like the one in the English word pet.
Pronoun Example verb: lever
je
live
tu lives
il
elle
on
live
nous levons
vous levez
ils
elles
livent
Vengs 81
With verbs such as esp6rer (meaning to hope), r6gler (meaning to adjust)
and pr6f6rer (meaning to prefer),6 changes to E before the consonant +
-e, -es and -ent.
D Verbs fike this are sometimes called '1,
2.
3, 6 verbs'.
Pronoun Example verb: esp6rer
I'
esDere
tu esDeres
il
elle
on
eSDere
nous esperons
vous esperez
ils
elles
espirent
Key points
"
Ir*::T'i'J:,"il: xi-unr..
/l'-''Tiffi
itr?.'il-:,'ffi1;":::,andvousrorms
/
I
l:H:'iti,t
llffX, una vous rorms (optionar in -ayer verbs).
For further explanation of grammatical tems, please see pages viii-xii.
82 Venss
The present tense: irregular verbs
) Some verbs in French do not follow the normal rules. These verbs include
some very common and important verbs like avoir (meaning to hove), 6tre
(meaning to be), faire (meaning to do, to moke) and aller (meanin g to go).
The present tense of these four verbs is given in full below.
O For Verb tables, see supplement.
tr
The
present
tense of avoir
Pronoun avoll Meaning: to have
I al I have
tu a5 you have
il
elle
on
a he/she/itlone has
nous avonS we have
vous avez you have
ils
elles
ont they have
J'4j deux s(Durs.
ll a les yeux bleus.
Elle a trois ans.
O,u'est-ce qu'il y a?
e
The present tense of 6tre
Venes 83
3
I
The present tense of faire
Je fais un gdteau.
Ou'est-ce que tu fais?
ll fait chaud.
Qa
ne fait rien.
l+'l
The present tense of aller
Je suis heureux.
Mon pdre est instituteur.
ll est deux heures.
l'm happy.
My father's a primary school
teacher.
It's two o'clock.
Je vais i Londres.
'Comment allez-vous?' -'Je
vais bieni
'Comment ga va?'-'Qa va bien.'
l'm making a cake.
What are you doing?
It's hot.
It doesn't matter.
l'm going to London.
'How are you?'
-'l'm
fine.'
'How are you?'
-'l'm
fine.'
I have two sisters.
He has blue eyes.
She's three.
What's the matter?
Pronoun faire Meaning: to do, to make
je fais ldo/make
I am doinq/makinq
tu fais you do/make
you are doing/making
il
elle
on
fait he/she/it/one does/makes
he/she/itlone is doing/making
nous faisons we do/make
we are doinq/makinq
vous faites you do/make
vou are doinq/makinq
ils
elles
font they do/make
they are doing/making
Pronoun 6tre Meaning: fo be
ie
suls tam
tu es you are
il
elle
on
est he/she/itlone is
nous 50mmes we are
vouS 6tes you are
ils
elles
sont they are
Pronoun aller Meaning: fo go
,e
vats l90
I am going
tu vas you
90
you are qoinq
il
elle
on
va he/she/itlone goes
he/she/it/one is going
nous allons we go
we are qoinq
vous allez you go
vou are
qoinq
ils
elles
vont they go
they are going
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
84 Venes
tr
lrregular -ir verbs
D Many irregular verbs that end in -ir, such as partir (meaning to go) and
tenir (meaning to hold), have a common pattern in the singular. The je and
tu forms often end in -s, and the illelle/on form often ends in -t.
Pronoun partir
tenir
,e
parS tien5
tu par! tien5
illelle/on pa(t tient
Venes 85
The imperative
What is the imperative?
An imperative is a form of the verb used when giving orders and
rrrstructions, for example, Shut the door!; Sit down!; Don't go!
t
I
Using the imperative
> In French, there are two forms of the imperative that are used to give
instructions or orders to someone. These correspond to tu and vous.
r
i, For more information on the difference between tu ond vous, see poge 43.
> There is also a form of the imperative that corresponds to nous. This means
the same as /ef3 in English. lt is not used as often as the tu and vous forms.
2l Forming the present tense imperative
D For regular verbs, the imperative is the same as the tu, nous and vous
forms of the present tense, except that you do not say the pronouns tu,
nous and vous. Also, in the tu form of -er verbs like donner, the final -s
is dropped.
Pronoun -er verbs:
donner
Meaning -ir verbs:
finir
Meaning -re verbs:
attendre
Meaning
tu donne give finis finish attends wait
nouS donnons Iet's qive finissons lett finish attendons let's wait
vous donnez grve finissez finish attendez wait
l'm leaving tomorrow.
She is holding the baby.
+ For Verb tables, see supplement.
Je
pars
demain.
Elle tient le b6b6.
Donne-moi ga!
Finissez vos devoirs et allez
vous Goucher,
Attendons le bus.
Give me that!
Finish your homework and go to
bed.
Let's wait for the bus.
t'
{
rtp
When a tu imperative comes before en or y, the final -s is kept to
make the words easier to pronounce. The s is pronounced like the z
in the English word zipi
Vaglg! Co on!
Donnes:gn d ton frdre. Give some to your brother.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
86 Venes
Lg"l
Where to put the obiect pronoun
} An object pronoun is a word like la (meaning her/it), me/moi (meaning
me) or leur (meaning to them) that is used instead of a noun as the object
of a sentence. In orders and instructions, the position of these object
pronouns in the sentence changes depending on whether you are telling
someone TO DO something or NOT TO DO something.
+ For more informotion on Object pronouns, see page 47.
) lf you are telling someone NOT TO DO something, you put the oblect
pronouns BEFORE the verb.
Ne me d6range pas.
Ne leur parlons pas.
Ne le regardez pas.
Excuse me.
Help us.
Let's wait for her/it.
INDIRECT
moi
toi
lui
nous
VeRes 87
lmperative forms of inegular verbs
avoir (meanin g to have),6tre (meanin g to be), savoir (meaning to know)
and vouloir (meaning to wont) have irregular imperative forms.
4
Sois sage.
Veuillez fermer la porte.
Be good.
Please shut the door.
L lf you are telling someone TO DO something, you put the object pronouns
AFTER the verb and join the two words with a hyphen. The word order is
the same as in English.
Excusez:nng!.
Aide-nous.
Attendonsi!a.
Orders and instructions telling someone to do something may contain
direct obiect and indirect obiect pronouns. When this happens, the
pronouns go in this order:
DIRECT
le
la BEFORE
les
Pr6te-les moi! Lend them to me! or Lend me them!
Donnez-la-nous! Give it to us! or Cive us it!
E)
For imperatives using Reflexive verbs, see poge 90.
Don't disturb me.
Let's not speak to them.
Don't look at him/it.
vous
leur
Pronoun avotl 6tre savolr vouloir
tu ate sorS sache veuille
nouS ayons soyons sachons veuillons
vouS ayez soyez sachez veuillez
For further explanation of grammatical terml please see pages viii-xii.
What is a reflexive verb?
A reflexive verb is one where the sublect and oblect are the same, and
where the action 'reflects back' on the subject. lt is used with a reflexive
pronoun such as myself, yourself and herself in English, for example, /
washed myself; He shoved himself.
rw
se changes to s'in front of a word starting with'a vowel, most
words starting with h, and the French word y.
88 Vrnes
Reflexive verbs
tr
Using reflexive verbs
l In French, reflexive verbs are much more common than in English, and
many are used in everyday French. They are shown in dictionaries as se
the infinitive (se means himself, herself, itself, themselves or oneself). seis
called a reflexive
pronoun.
) Reflexive verbs are often used to describe things you do (to yourself) every
day or that involve a change of some sort (going to bed, sitting down,
getting angry, going to sleep). Some of the most common French reflexive
verbs are listed here:
Venes 89
O,u'est-ce qui se passe? What's happening?
Le soleil se ldve d cinq heures. The sun rises at five o'clock.
Assevez-vous! Sit down!
fl
Note that se and s' are very rarely translated as himself and so on in
English.
D Some French verbs can be used with a reflexive pronoun or without a
reflexive pronoun, for example, the verbs appeler and s'appeler, and
arrter and s'arr6ter. Sometimes, however, their meaning may change.
Appelle le chien.
Je m'appelle Jacques.
ll an6te le moteur.
Call the dog.
l'm called
facques.
He switches off the engine.
s'amuser
s'appeler
s'arr6ter
s'asseoir
se baigner
se coucher
se d6p6cher
s'habiller
s'int6resser i quelque chose
se laver
se lever
se passer
se promener
se rappeler
se r6veiller
se trouver
to play, to enjoy oneself
to be called
to stop
to sit down
to go swimming
to go to bed
to hurry
to get dressed
to be interested in somethinq
to wash, to have a wash
to get up, to rise, to stand up
to take place, to happen, to go
to go for a walk
to remember
to wake up
to be (situated)
Je me ldve t6t.
Elle s'habille.
lls s'int6ressent beaucoup aux
animaux.
Elle s'an6te devant une vitrine. She stops in front of a shop window.
2l Forming the present tense of reflexive verbs
D To use a reflexive verb in French, you need to decide which reflexive
pronoun
to use. The forms shown in brackets in the table are used before
a word starting with a vowel, most words starting with h, or the French
word y.
Subject pronoun Reflexive Dronoun Meaning
le
me (m') myself
tu te (t') yourself
il
elle
on
se (s') himself
herself
itself
oneself
nous nouS ourselves
vouS vous yourself (singulor)
vourselves
(p/urol)
ils
elles
se (s') themselves
I get up early.
She's getting dressed.
They're very interested in animals.
For lurther explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
90 Venes
) The present tense forms of a reflexive verb work in just the same way as an
ordinary verb, except that the reflexive pronoun is used as well.
Reflexive forms Meaning
ie me lave lwash (myself)
tu te laves you wash (yourself)
il se lave
elle se lave
on se lave
he washes (himself)
she washes (herself)
it washes (itself)
one washes (oneself)
nous nous lavons we wash (ourselves)
vous vous lavez you wash (yourself) (singular)
you wash (yourselves) (p/urol)
ils se lavent
elles se lavent
they wash (themselves)
} Some reflexive verbs, such as s'asseoir (meaning to sit down), are irregular.
Some of these irregular verbs are shown in the Verb tables.
+ For Verb tables, see supplement.
tr
Where to put the reflexive pronoun
) In the present tense, the reflexive pronoun almost always comes BEFORE
the verb.
Je me couche t6t.
Comment t'appelles-tu?
) When telling someone NOT TO DO something, you put the reflexive
pronoun BEFORE the verb as usual.
Vrnes 91
Ttp
When you are telling someone TO DO something, te or t'
changes to toi.
Assieds-toi. Sit down.
When you-are telling someone NOT TO DO something, te or t' is
used, not toi.
Ne te live pas. Don't get uP.
t
) For more informotion on the Imperative, see poge 85.
a] Each otherand one another
D We use each other in English when we are talking about two people, and
one anotherwhen we are talking about three or more people. The French
reflexive pronouns nout vous and se can all mean two or more people.
Nous nous parlons tous les We speak to each other every day.
jours.
On se voit demain? Shall we see each other tomorrow?
Les trois pays se ressemblent The three countries are really like
beaucoup. one another.
l When telling someone TO DO something, you put the reflexive pronoun
AFTER the verb and join the two words with a hyphen.
Ne te ldve pas.
Ne vous habillez pas.
Live-toi!
D6p6chez-vous!
Habillons-nous.
I go to bed early.
What's your name?
Don't get up.
Don't get dressed.
Get up!
Hurry up!
Let's get dressed.
For further oxplanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
92 Venss
The imperfect tense
What is the imperfect tense?
The imperfect tense is one of the verb tenses used to talk about the past,
especially in descriptions, and to say what used to happen, for example,
I used to wolk to school; lt was sunny at the weekend.
tr
Using the imperfect tense
) The imperfect tense is used:
. to describe what things were like and how people felt in the past
I was very sad when she left.
It was oourino with rain.
o to say what used to happen or what you used to do regularly in the past
We used to get up very early in those days.
I never used to like milk.
o to indicate things that were happening or something that was true when
something else took place
I was watchino TV when the
phone
rano.
As we were looking out of the window, we saw someone walk across
the lawn.
@
Note that if you want to talk about an event or action that took place
and was completed in the past, you use the perfeet
tensc.
* for more informotion on the Perfect tense, see poge 111.
L You can often recognize an imperfect tense in English because it uses a
form like were looking or wos roining. The words used to also show an
imperfect tense.
rtp
Remember that you NEVER use the verb tre to translate was ol
were in forms like was roining or were looking and so on. You change
the French verb ending instead.
VeRes 93
2l Forming the imperfect tense of -er verbs
) To form the imperfect tense of -er verbs, you use the same stem of the verb
as for the present tense. Then you add the correct ending, depending on
whether you are referring to je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles.
Pronoun Ending Add to stem,
e.g. donn-
Meanings
je (j') -ars je donnais I gave
I was giving
I used to give
tu -at5 tu donnais you gave
you were giving
you used to give
il
elle
on
-ait il donnait
elle donnait
on donnait
he/she/it/one gave
he/she/it/one was giving
he/she/it/one used to give
nous -rons nous donnions we gave
we were giving
we used to give
vous -rc2 vous donniez you gave
you were giving
you used to give
ils
elles
-aient ils donnaient
elles donnaient
they gave
they were giving
they used to give
ll portait toujours un grand
'
chapeau noir.
Nous habitions d Paris d cette
6poque.
Pour gagner un peu d'argent,
ie
donnais des cours de frangais.
He always wore a big black hat.
We were living in Paris at that time.
To earn a little money I used to
give French lessons.
rrp
je changes to j' in front of a word starting with a vowel, most
words starting with h, and the French word y.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
94 Vrnes
tr
Forming the imperfect tense of -ir verbs
) To form the imper-fect tense of -irverbs, you use the same stem of the verb
as for the present tense. Then you add the correct ending, depending on
whether you are referring to jq tq i[ ellg on, nous, voug ils or eller
Pronoun Ending Add to stem, e.g. fin Meanings
ie 0')
't55at5 ie finissais I finished
I was finishing
I used to finish
tu -t5sars tu finissais you finished
you were finishing
you used to finish
il
elle
on
-issait il finissait
elle finissait
on finissait
he/she/itlone finished
he/she/itlone was finishing
he/she/itlone used to finish
nous -rssrons nous finissions we finished
we were finishing
we used to finish
vous -rssrez vous finissiez you finished
you were finishing
you used to finish
ils
elles
-issaient ils finissaient
elles finissaient
they finished
they were finishing
they used to finish
ll finissait souvent ses devoirs He often finished his homework
avant le diner. before dinner.
Get apris-midi-ld ils That afternoon they were choosing
choisissaient une bague de an engagement ring.
fiangailles.
tr
Forming the imperfect tense of -re verbs
) To form the imperfect tense of -re verbs, you use the same stem of the verb
as for the present tense. Then you add the correct ending, depending on
whether you are referring to
ig
tu, il elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles.
These endings are the same as for -erverbs.
Venes 95
Pronoun Ending Add to stem,
e,g, attend-
Meanings
i'c')
-als
i'attendais
I waited
I was waiting
I used to wait
tu -at5 tu attendais you waited
you were waiting
you used to wait
il
elle
on
-ait il attendait
elle attendait
on attendait
he/she/it/one waited
he/she/it/one was waiting
he/she/itlone used to wail
nouS -lons nous attendions we waited
we were waiting
we used to wait
vous -rc2 vous attendiez you waited
you were waiting
you used to wait
ils
elles
-aient ils attendaient
elles attendaient
they waited
they were waiting
they used to wait
Christine m'attendait tous les Christine used to wait for me every
soirs a la sortie. evening at the exit.
Je vivais seule aprds mon I was living alone after my divorce.
divorce.
il
Spelling changes in -er verbs
> As with the present tense, a few -erverbs change their spellings slightly
when they are used in the imperfect tense. The forms with spelling changes
have been underlined in the tables.
> With verbs such as lancer(meaning to throw), which end in -ce4 c
becomes g before an a or an o. This is so that the letter c is still pronounced
as in the English word lce.
Pronoun Example verb: lancer
le
lanfais
tu lanEais
il
elle
on
lanEait
nous lancions
vouS lanciez
ils
elles
lanEaient
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
96 Venes
> With verbs such as manger (meaning to eot), which end in -ger, g
becomes ge before an a or an o. This is so the letter g is still pronounced
like the s in the English word leisure.
Pronoun Example verb: manger
je manoeats
tu manoeats
il
elle
on
mangeait
nous mangrons
vouS mangiez
ils
elles
mangeaient
These verbs follow the 1.2,3,6 pattern. That is, they change in the firs!
second and third person singular, and in the third person plural.
tr
Reftexive verbs in the imperfect tense
) The imperfect tense of reflexive verbs is formed just as for ordinary verbs,
except that you add the reflexive pronoun (me, te, se, nous, vous, se).
Subject
pronoun
Reflexive
pronoun
Example with
laver
Meaning
,e
me (m') lavais I washed
I was washing
I used to wash
tu te (t') lavais you washed
you were washing
you used to wash
il
elle
on
se (s') lavait he/she/itlone washed
he/she/it/one was washing
he/she/itlone used to wash
nous nous lavions we washed
we were washing
we used to wash
vouS vous laviez you washed
you were washing
you used to wash
ils
elles
se (s') lavaient they washed
they were washing
they used to wash
VeRes 97
rwr
me changes to m', te to t' and se to s' before a vowel, most
words starting with h and the French word y.
/
I
lrregular verbs in the imperfect tense
> The only verb that is irregular in the imperfect tense is tre.
Pronoun 6tre Meaning
t'
6tais I was
tu 6tais you were
il
elle
on
6tait he/she/itlone was
nouS 6tions we were
vouS 6tiez you were
ils
elles
6taient they were
I was happy.
My father was a primary school
teacher.
J'6kis heureux.
Mon pdre 6tait instituteur.
/
r'
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
What is the future tense?
The future tense is a verb tense used to talk about something that will
happen or will be true.
98 Venes
The future tense
tr
Using the future tense
} fn English the future tense is often shown by will or its shortened form
,/l
What will you do?
The weather will be warm and dry tomorrow.
He'll be here soon.
l'll give you a call.
L
Just
as in English, you can use the present tense in French to refer to
something that is going to happen in the future.
fe
pfends le train de dix heures. l'm taking the ten o'clock train.
Nous allons i Paris la semaine We're going to
paris
next week.
prochaine.
} In English we often use going to followed by an infinitive to talk about
something that will happen in the immediate future. You can use the
French verb aller (meaning to go) followed by an infinitive in the same way.
Tu vas tomber si tu continues. You're going to fall if you carry on.
ll va manquer le train. He's going to miss the train.
A
Forming the future tense
) To form the future tense in French, you use:
o the infinitive of -er and -ir verbs, for example, donner, finir
o the infinitive without the final e of -re verbs: for example, attendr-
) Then add the correct ending to the stem, depending on whether you are
talking about je, tq if elle, ory nous, vous, ils or elles. The endings are
the same for -er, -ir and -re verbs.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
Note that apart from the nous and vous forms, the endings are the
same as the
Present
tense of avoir.
For the present tense of ovoir, see page 82.
Vsnes 99
m
Elle te donnera mon adresse.
Le cours finira ir onze heures.
Nous t'attendrons devant
le cin6ma.
She'll give you my address.
The lesson will finish at eleven
o'clock.
We'll wait for you in front of the
cinema.
tr
Spelling changes in'er verbs
>' As with the present and imperfect tenses, a few -er verbs change their
spellings slightly in the future tense. The forms with spelling changes have
been underlined in the tables.
Pronoun Ending Add to stem, e.g.
donner-, f inir-, aftendr-
Meanings
ie 0')
-al je donner4i
je finiraj
j'attendraj
I will give
I will finish
lwill wait
tu
-45 tu donneras
tu finiras
tu attendras
you will give
you will finish
you will wait
il
elle
on
-a illelle/on donnera
illelle/on finira
illelle/on attendra
he/she/itlone will give
he/she/it/one will finish
he/she/it/one will wait
nouS -ons nous donnerqE
nous finirqns
nous attendrqn!
we will give
we will finish
we will wait
vous
-ez vous donnercz
vous finirez
vous attendrez
you will give
you will finish
you will wait
ils
elles
-ont ils/elles donnerQnt
ils/elles finiren!
ils/elles attendrsnt
they will give
they will finish
they will wait
Remember that French has no direct equivalent of the word will in
verb forms like will rain or will look and so on. You change the French
verb ending instead to form the future tense.
ie
changes to j' in front of a word starting with a vowel,
starting with h, and the French word y.
100 Venes
> With verbs such as appeler (meaning to cal[), which end in -eler, the
I doubles throughout the future tense. The double consonant (ll) affects
the pronunciation of the word. ln appeler, the first e sounds like the vowel
sound at the end of the English word teacher, but in appellerai the first
e sounds like the one in the English word pet.
Pronoun Example verb: appeler
t'
appellerai
tu appelleras
il
elle
on
appellera
nous appellerons
vouS appellerez
ils
elles
appelleront
The exceptions to this rule are geler (meaning to freeze) and peler
(meaning to peel), which change in the same way as lever (see poge 101).
With verbs such as jeter (meaning to throw), that end in -eter, the t
doubles throughout the future tense. The double consonant (tt) affects the
pronunciation of the word. In jeter, the first e sounds like the vowel sound
at the end of the English word teocher, but in jetterai the first e sounds like
the one in the English word pet.
Pronoun Example verb: jeter
le tstlcralt
tu
ielterc!
il
elle
on
jctteIa
nous
ietterons
vouS
ietterez
ils
elles
ietteront
The exceptions to this rule include acheter (meaning to buy), which
changes in the same way as lever (see page 101).
Venes 101
With verbs such as nettoyer (meaning to clean), that end in -yer, the y
t hanges to i throughout the future tense.
> Verbs ending in -ayer, such as payer (meaning to pay) and essayer
(meaning to try), can be spelled with either a y or an i. So
ie
paierai and
ie
payerai, for example, are both correct.
> With verbs such as lever (meaning to raise), peser (meaning to weigh) and
acheter (meaning to buy), e changes to E throughout the future tense. In
lever the first e sounds like the vowel sound at the end of the English
wotd teocher, but in lEverai and so on the first e sounds like the one in
the English word pef.
Pronoun Example verb: lever
le
lEverai
tu
lEveras
it
elle
on
lEvera
nouS
liverons
vous
lEverez
ils
elles
lEveront
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages vlii-xii.
102 Venss
tr
Reflexive verbs in the future tense
) The future tense of reflexive verbs is formed in just the same way as for
ordinary verbs, except that you have to remember to give the reflexive
pronoun (me, se, nous, vous, se).
Subject
pronoun
Reflexive
plonoun
Example with
laver
Meaning
je me (m') laverai I will wash
tu te (t') laveras you will wash
il
elle
on
se (s') lavera he/she/it/one will wash
nous nous laverons we will wash
vous vous laverez you will wash
ils
elles
se (s') laveront they will wash
rq
me changes to m', te to t'and se to s' before a vowel, most words
starting with h and the French word y.
tr
lregular verbs in the future tense
) There are some verbs that do not use their infinitives as the stem for the
future tense, including avoi4 6tre, faire and aller, which are shown in full
on pages 103-104.
) Other irregular verbs include:
Verb Meaning
le tu illelle/on nous vous ils/elles
devoir to have
to, must
devrai devras devra devrons devrez devront
pouvoir to be oble
to, con
pourral pourras
POUrra
pourrons pourrez pourront
Savotr to know saural sauras Saura Saurons saurez sauront
tenir to hold tiendrai tiendras tiendra tiendrons tiendrez tiendront
venrr to come viendrai viendras viendra viendrons viendrez viendront
votr to see verral verras verra verrons verrez verront
vouloir to wont voudiai voudras voudra voudrons voudrez voudront
il faut becomes il faudra (meaning it will be necessary to)'
il pleut becomes il pleuvra (meaning it will rain).
fhis is the future tense of avoir:
> This is the future tense of tre:
) This is the future tense of faire:
Venes 103
Pronoun avolr
Meaning: to have
I aural
I will have
tu auras
you will have
il
elle
on
aura he/she/it/one will have
nouS aurons we will have
vouS aurez
you will have
ils
elles
auront they will have
Pronoun 6tre Meaning: to be
ie
seral lwill be
tu seras
you will be
il
elle
on
sera
he/she/itlone will be
nous seron5 we will be
vous Serez
you will be
ils
elles
seront they will be
Pronoun faire Meaning: to do, to make
le
ferai I will do/make
tu
feras
you will do/make
il
elle
on
fera he/she/it/one will do/make
nous ferons we will do/make
vous ferez vou will do/make
ils
elles
feront they will do/make
For further oxplanation of grammatical tems, please see pages viii-xii,
Pronoun aller Meaning: fo go
I
Iral lwill go
tu tras you will go
il
elle
on
tra he/she/it/one will
9o
nous rrons we will go
vouS tfez you will go
ils
elles
iront they will go
104 Venes
) This is the future tense of aller:
Venes 105
1] Using the conditional
D You can often recognize a conditional in English by the word would or its
shortened form 'd.
I would be sad if you left.
lf you asked him, he'd helP
You.
L You use the conditional for:
o asking for something formally and politely, especially in shops
l'd like a kilo of pears, please.
. saying what you would like
l'd like to go to the United States.
o making a suggestion
I could come and pick
You
uP.
o giving advice
rrp
There is no direct French translation of would in verb forms like
would be, would like, would help and so on. You change the French
verb ending instead.
l4
Forming the conditional
L To form the conditional in French, you have to use:
o the infinitive of -er and -ir verbs, for example, donner-, finir-
o the infinitive without the final e of -re verbs, for example, attendr-
> Then add the correct ending to the stem, depending on whether you are
talking about je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles' The endings are
the same for all verbs. In fact, they are the same as the -er and -re endings
for the IMPERFECT TENSE, but the stem is the same as the FUTURE TENSE.
r)
For more informotion on the Imperfect tense ond the Future tense, see pqges
92
qnd
98.
+ For Verb tables, see supplement.
The conditional
What is the conditional?
The conditional is a verb form used to talk about things that would
happen or that would be true under certain conditions, for example, I
wpuk! help you if I could.
lt is also used to say what you would like or need, for example, Could you
1/
youcan
use a present,""l""l"oflt"?ti ro tatk about something
that will happen or be true in the future, just as in English.
y'
You can use aHer with an infinitive to refer to things that will
happen in the immediate future.
( the stem is the same as the infinitive for -er, -ir and -re verbs,
except that the final -e of -re verbs is lost.
1/ fhe future tense endings are the same for -er, -ir and -re verbs:
-ai, -as, -a, -ons, -ez, -ont.
y'
In verbs ending in -eler and -eter:
| - ll and t
*
tt throughout the future tense.
y'
In verbs ending in -yer:
y
,
i throughJut the future tense (optional in -ayer verbs).
y'
S.omeverb.s are irregular in the future tense. lt is worth learning
these in full.
You should say you're sorry.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Pronoun Ending Add to stem, e,g,
donner-, f inir-, attendr-
Meanings
ie
(') -ats
ie
donner4iE
ie
finirai5
i'attendrais
I would give
I would finish
I would wait
tu -at5 tu donnerai!
tu finiraiE
tu attendrai!
you would give
you would finish
you would wait
il
elle
on
-ait illelle/on donnerai!
illelle/on finiraft
illelle/on attendrai!
he/she/it/one would give
he/she/itlone would finish
heishe/it/one would wait
nous -tons nous donnerions
nous finirlo45
nous attendrienl
we would give
we would finish
we would wait
vous -lez vous donnerlcz
vous finirlg;
vous attendrlcz
you would give
you would finish
you would wait
ils
elles
-aient ils/elles donneraienI
ils/elles finiraient
ils/elles attendraient
they would give
they would finish
they would wait
106 Venss
J'atmcrals aller aux Etats Unis. l'd like to go to the United States.
T'P
je changes to j' in front of a word starting with a vowel, most
words starting with h, and the French word y.
Note that you have to be careful not to mix up the future tense and
the conditional. They look very similar.
VrRes 107
3
]
Spelling changes in -er verbs
> As with the future tense, a few -er verbs change their spellings slightly in
the conditional. The forms with spelling changes have been underlined in
the tables below.
> With verbs such as appeler (meaning to cal[), which end in -eler, the I
doubles throughout the conditional. The double consonant (ll) affects the
pronunciation of the word. ln appeler, the first e sounds like the vowel
sound at the end of the English word teocher, but in appellerais the first
e sounds like the one in the English word pet.
Pronoun Example verb: appeler
I'
appellerais
tu aooellerais
il
elle
on
aopellerait
nouS appellerions
vouS appelleriez
ils
elles
aooelleraient
The exceptions to this rule are geler (meaning to freeze) and peler
(meaning to peef), which change in the same way as lever (see page 1 08).
\Mth verbs such as jeter (meaning to throw), which end in -eter, the t
doubles throughout the conditional. The double consonant (tt) affects the
pronunciation of the word. In jeter, the first e sounds like the vowel sound
at the end of the English word teocher, but in
ietterais
the first e sounds
like the one in the English word pet.
Pronoun Example verb: jeter
je ietterais
tu ietterais
il
elle
on
ietterait
nous icttedsns
vous ietteriez
ils
elles
je$sdcn!
The exceptions to this rule include acheter (meaning to buy), which
changes in the same way as lever (see poge 108).
a
FUTURE
je donnerai
je finirai
j'attendrai
j'aimerai
je voudrai
je viendrai
je serai
CONDITIONAL
je donnerais
je finirais
j'attendrais
j'aimerais
je voudrais
je viendrais
je serais
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
108 Vrnes
> With verbs such as nettoyer (meaning to cleon), that end in -yer, the y
changes to i throughout the conditional.
Pronoun Example verb: nettoyer
le
nettoierais
tu nettoierais
iI
elle
on
nettoierait
nous nettoierions
vous nettoieriez
ils
elles
nettoieraient
Verbs ending in -ayer, such as payer (meaning to poy) and essayer
(meaning to try), can be spelled with either a y or an i. So
ie
paierais and
je payerais, for example, are both correct.
With verbs such as lever (meanin g to roise), peser (meaning to weigh) and
acheter (meaning to buy), e changes to E throughout the conditional' In
lever the first e sounds like the vowel sound at the end of the English word
teocher, but in liverais and so on the first e sounds like the one in the
English word pef.
Pronoun Example verb: lever
le
liverais
tu lEverais
il
elle
on
lEverait
nous liverions
vous lEveriez
ils
elles
lEveraient
Venes 109
ll_J
Reflexive verbs in the conditional
> The conditional of reflexive verbs is formed in
lust
the same way as for
ordinary verbs, except that you have to remember to give the reflexive
pronoun (me, te, se, nous, vous, se).
Subject
pronoun
Reflexive
pronoun
Example
with laver
Meaning
ie
me (m') laverais lwould wash
tu te (t') laverais you would wash
il
elle
on
se (s') laverait he/she/it would wash
nous nouS laverions we would wash
vous vous laveriez you would wash
ils
elles
se (s') laveraient they would wash
Ttp
me changes to m', te to t' and se to s' before a vowel, most words
starting with h and the French word y.
lil
lrregular verbs in the conditional
L The same verbs that are irregular in the future tense are irregular in the
conditional, including: avoir, etre, faire, aller, devoir, pouvoir, savoir,
tenir, venir, voir, vouloir.
t
) For more information on lrregulor verbs in the future tense, see poge 102.
D To form the conditional of an irregular verb, use the same stem as for the
future tense, for example:
avoir
-
aur-
tre
+
ser-
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii'
lnfinitive Future
stem
Gonditional
endings
Conditional form
avorr aur- -ais, -ais, -ait
-ions, -iez, -aient
j'auralg tu aurait illelle/on aurait.
nous aurisns, vous aurlez
ils/elles auraicnl
tre ser- -ais, -ais, -ait,
-ions, -iez, -alent
ie
seraig tu seralg illelle/on serail
nous serions, vous serigz,
ils/elles seralco!
faire fer- -ais, -ais, -ait,
-ions, -iez, -aient
je fergig tu ferais illelle/on ferai!
nous ferions. vous ferlgz,
ils/elles feretcot
aller tr- -ais, -ais, -ait,
-ions, -iez, -aient
i'iraig
tu ira!5, illelle/on irail
nous irisn!, vous irlcz,
ils/elles iiaient
110 Vrnss
) Then add the usual endings for the conditional.
VrRes 111
The perfect tense
What is the perfect tense?
The perfect is one of the verb tenses used to talk about the past,
especially about actions that took place and were completed in the past.
!
Using the perfect tense
D You can often recognize a perfect tense in English by a form like I gove,
I hove finished.
I gave her my phone number.
I have finished my soup.
Ttp
The perfect tense is the tense you will need most to talk about
that have happened or were true in the past. lt is used to talk about
actions that took place and WERE COMPLETED in the past.
Use the imperfect tense for regular events and in most descriptions.
* for more information on the lmpertect tense, see page 92.
2) Forming the
perfect
tense
> The imperfect, future and conditional tenses in French are made up of just
one word, for example,
je donne, tu finissais or il attendra. The perfect
tense has TWO parts to it:
. the ge$n! tense of the verb avoir (meaning to have) or tre (meaning
to be)
. a part of the main verb called the past participle, like given, finished and
done in English
D ln other words, the perfect tense in French is like the form I hove donein
English.
r
) For more informotion on forming the present tense of ovoir ond etre, see
page 82.
3
|
Forming the past participle
> To form the past participle of regular verbs, you use the infinitive of the
verb:
J'llais si
j'avais le temps.
Je voudrais un kilo de poires,
s'il vous plait.
Tu devrais t'excuser.
lwould go if I had time.
l'd like a kilo of pears, please.
You should say you're sorry.
Key points
y'
Theconditional endings ur" ift" same for -er, -ir and -re verbs:
-ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -alent.
( Theconditional endings are the same as the endings for the
imperfect tense of -er and -re verbs, but the stem is the same as
the stem of the future tense.
y'
In verbs ending in -eter,and. -eter:
|
'
ll and t
+
tt throughout the conditional.
y'
In verbs ending in -yer:
y
-
i throughout the conditional (optional in -ayer verbs)'
y'
tne same verbs that are irregular in the future are irregular in the
conditional. lt is worth learning these in full.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii'xii.
. For -er verbs, you replace the -er at the end of the infinitive with 6.
Infinitive Take off -er Add -6
donner (to give) donn- donn6
tomber (fo foll) tomb- tomb6
112 Venes
tr
Verbs that form their perfect tense with avoir
D Most verbs form their perfect tense with avoir, for example donner:
Venes 113
Ttp
je changes to j' in front of a word starting with a vowel, most
words starting with h, and the French word y.
> The perfect tense of -ir verbs like finir is formed in the same way, except for
the past participle: j'ai fini, tu as fini and so on.
> The perfect tense of -re verbs like attendre is formed in the same way,
except for the past participle: j'ai attendu, tu as attendu and so on.
6l avoir or 6tre?
> MOST verbs form their perfect tense with avoir; these include donner as
shown on page112.
> There are two main groups of verbs which form their perfect tense with
tre instead of avoir:
o all reflexive verbs
t
) For more informqtion on Reflexive verbs, see page 88.
. a group of verbs that are mainly used to talk about movement or a
change of some kind, including these ones:
'T,;{h
Elle a donn6 son num6ro de
t6l6phone i Glaude.
ll a achet6 un ord:nateur.
Je n'ai pas regard6 la t6l6 hier.
She gave Claude her phone number.
He's bought a computer.
I didn't watch W yesterday.
aller
venir
arriver
partir
descendre
monter
entrer
sortir
mourir
naitre
devenir to become
rester to stay
tomber to fall
Je suis all6 au match de
football hier.
ll est sorti acheter un journal.
Vous 6tes descendu d quelle
station?
to go
to come
to arrive, to happen
to leave, to go
to go down, to come down, to get off
to go up, to come up
to go in, to come in
to go out, to come out
to die
to be born
I went to the football match
yesterday.
He's gone out to buy a newspaper.
Which station did you get off at?
o For -ir verbs, you replace the -ir at the end of the infinitive with -i.
lnfinitive Take off -ir Add -i
finir (to finish) fin- fini
partir (fo leove, to go) part- parti
. For -re verbs, you replace the -re at the end of the infinitive with -u.
lnfinitive Take off -re Add -u
attendre (to wait) attend- attendu
descendre (to go down,
to come down, to get off
descend- descendu
Pronoun avotr Past participle Meaning
I
al donn6 I gave
I have given
tu a5 donn6 you gave
I
you have given
il
elle
on
a donn6 he/she/it/one gave
he/she/it/one has given
nous avons donn6 we gave
we have given
vouS avez donn6 you gave
you have given
ils
elles
ont donn6 they gave
they have given
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii.xii.
114 Venes
Gnmmar Extra!
Some of the verbs on the previous page take avoir when they are used with a direct
object for example:
descendre quelque chose to get something down, to bring
something down, to take something
down
to go up something, to come up
something
to take something out
Did you bring the bags down?
5he went up the stairs.
She took her purse out of her handbag:
* For more information on Direct objects, see page 47.
tr
Verbs that form their perfect tense with 6tre
F When a verb takes tre, the past participle ALWAYS agrees with the subject
of the verb; that is, the endings change in the ferninine and plural forms.
Masculine
endings
Examples Feminine
endings
Examples
Singular tomb6
parti
descendu
-e tomb6e
partie
descendue
Plural -5 tomb6g
partis
descenduj
-es tomb6cs
parties
descendu!i!
Venes 115
D Here are the perfect tense forms of tomber in full:
Grammar Extra!
When on means we, the past participle can agree with the subiect of the
sentence, but it is optional.
On est arriv6s en retard. We arrived late. (masculine)
On est rentr6es toutes les deux We both came in at the same time
d la m6me heure. (feminine)
) The perfect tense of -ir verbs like partir is formed in the same way, except
for the past participle:
ie
suis parti(e), tu es parti(e) and so on.
) The perfect tense of -re verbs like descendre is formed in the same way,
except for the past participle:
ie
suis descendu(e), tu es descendu(e) and
so on.
monter quelque chose
sortir quelque chose
Est-ce que tu as descendu les
bagages?
Elle a mont6 les escaliers,
Elle a sorti son pofte-monnaie de
son sac.
Est-ce ton frire est all6 ir
l'6tranger?
Elle est venue avec nous.
lls sont partis ir six heures.
Mes cousines sont aniv6es hier.
Did your brother go abroad?
She came with us.
They left at six o'clock.
My cousins arrived yesterday.
(The cousins are female.)
Pronoun avotl Past participle Meaning
je suts tomb6. (mosculine)
tomb6e (feminine)
I fell/l have fallen
tU es tomb,6 (mosculine)
tomb6e (feminine)
you fell/you have fallen
il est tomb6 he/it fell,
he/it has fallen
elle est tomb6e she/it fell, she/it has fallen
on est tomb6 (singulo)
tomb6s (mosculine plurol)
tomb6es (feminine plurol)
one fell/one has fallen,
we fell/we have fallen
nous sommes tomb6s (mosculine)
tomb6es (feminine)
we fell/we have fallen
vous tes tomb6 (mosculine singular)
tomb6e (feminine singulor)
tombr6s (masculine plurol)
tomb6es (feminine plurol)
you fell/you have fallen
ils sont tomb6s they fell/they have fallen
elles sont tombes they fell/they have fallen
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
116 Venes
Grammar Ertra!
When a verb takes avoir, the past participle usually stays in the masculine singular form,
as shown in the table for donner, and does not change for the feminine or plural forms.
ll a fini sa dissertation. He's finished his essay.
Elles ont fini leur dissertation. They've finished their essay.
In one particular case, however, the past participle of verbs with avoir does change in
the feminine and plural forms. ln the sentences above, dissertation is the direct object
of the verb finir. When the direct obiect comes AFTER the verb, as it does in the
examples above, then the past participle doesn't change. lf the direct object comes
BEFORE the verb, however, the past participle has to change to agree with that direct
object.
la dissertation qu'il a finig hier the essay that he finished yesterday
le dissertation qu'slles ont finie hier the essay that they finished yesterday
Since object pronouns usually come BEFORE the verb, the past participle changes to
agree with the pronoun.
ll a bu son th6?
- Oui, il Ia bU. Did he drink his tea?
-
Yes, he's drunk it.
ll a bu sa limonade? - Oui, il Ia bue. Did he drink his lemonade?
-
Yes, he's
drunk it.
rtp
Remember that with verbs taking tre, it is the subiect of the verb that sggls v!
tells you what ending to add to the past participle. Compare this with the rule
for verbs taking avoir that have a direct objec! in their case, it is the direct
obiect coming before the verb that tells you what ending to add to
the past participle.
Venes 117
ll
The perfect tense of reflexive verbs
D Here is the perfect tense of the reflexive verb se laver (meaning to wash
(oneself), to have a wosh, to get washed) in full. Remember that all reflexive
verbs take tre, and so the past participle of reflexive verbs usually agrees
with the sublect of the sentence.
Subject
plonoun
Reflexive
plonoun
Present tense
of 6tre
Past participle Meaning
ie
me suls 1av6 (masculine)
lav6e (feminine)
I washed myself
tu t es lav6 (masculine)
lav6e (feminine)
you washed
yourself
il s' est lav6 he washed himself
one washed oneself
elle s est lav6e she washed herself
on s' est lav6 (singulor)
lav6s
(masculine plural)
lav6es
(feminine plurol)
one washed oneself
we washed
ourselves
nous nous sommes lav6s (masculine)
lav6es (feminine)
we washed
ourselves
vous vous Gtes lav6
(masculine singula)
lav6e
(feminine singulo)
Iav6s
(mosculine plural)
lav6es
(feminine plural)
you washed
yourself (singular)
you washed
yourselves (p/urot)
ils 5e sont lav6s they washed
themselves
elles se sont lav6es they washed
themselves
rrp
When on means we, the past participle can agree with the subject
of the sentence, but it is optional.
On s'est lav6es l'une aprls We washed ourselves one after
f'autre. the other. (feminine)
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
118 Venes
Orammar Extra!
The past participle of reflexive verbs DOES NOT change if the direct object (la jambe in
the example below) FOLLOWS the verb.
Elle s'cs!_siassr6 la jambe. She's broken her leg.
tr
lrregular verbs in the perfect tense
) Some past participles are irregular. There aren't too many, so try to learn
them.
avoir (meaning to have)
devoir (meaning to hove to, must)
dire (meaning to soy, to tell)
tre (meaning to be)
faire (meaning to do, to moke)
mettre (meaning to put)
pouvoir (meaning to be
qble
to, con)
prendre (meaning to take)
ravoir (meaning to know)
tenir (meaning to hold)
venir (meaning to come)
voir (meaning to see)
vouloir (meaning to want)
) if pleut becomes il a plq (it roined).
) il faut becomes
\a
fallu (it was necessary).
+eu
-+
d0
+
dit
r
6t6
+
fait
+
mis
-PU
-+ pris
+su
+
tenu
)
venu
+vu
-+ voulu
Venes 119
Grammar Extra!
The pluperfect tense
What is the pluperfect tense?
The pluperfect is a verb tense which describes something that had happened or had
been true at a point in the past, for example, I U1lgptten to finish my homework.
1
tl Using the pluoerfect tense
> You can often recognize a pluperfect tense in English by a form like I hod arrived,
vou'd fallen.
Elle avait essav6 des douzaines She had tried on dozens of
iumpers.
de pulls.
Nous avions d6ii commenc6 i We'd already started eating when
manger quand il est aniv6, he arrived.
J'ctals-arivcc la premiire. I had arrived first.
Mes parents s'6taient couch6s t6t. My parents had gone to bed early.
l4
Forming the
pluperfect
tense
> Like the perfect tense, the pluperfect tense in French has two parts to it:
. the imperfect tense of the verb avoir (meaning to have) or tre (meaning to be)
. the past participle
D lf a verb takes avoir in the perfect tense, then it will take avoir in the pluperfect too.
lf a verb takes Gtre in the perfect then it will take 6tre in the pluperfect too.
r)
For more informotion on the Impertect tense ond the Pertect tense, see pages 92 and
111.
lq
Verbs taking avoir
D Here are the pluperfect tense forms of donner (meaning to give) in full.
Pronoun avotr Past participle Meaning
I avais donn6 I had oiven
tu avats donn6 vou had qiven
il
elle
on
avait donn he/she/itlone had given
nouS avtonS donn6 we had given
vouS avtez donn you had given
ils
elles
avaient donn6 they had given
The pluperfect tense of -ir verbs like finir (meaning to finish) is formed in the same
way, except for the past participle: j'avais fini, tu avais fini and so on.
The pluperfect tense of -re verbs like attendre (meaning to woit) is formed in the
same way, except for the past participle:
i'avais
attendu, tu avais attendu and so on.
y'
rheperrect
\e
o"r.r,ol".l,l!tLtiat happened and were
.
completed in the past. lt is not used for things that happened
past participle changes in the feminine and plural.
regularly or in descriptions.
y'
The per:fect tense is formed with the present tense of avoir or
tre and a past participle.
y'
Most verbs take avoir in the perfect tense. All reflexive verbs and
a small group of verbs referring to movement or change take
tre.
y
ii" prut participle ends in -6 for -er verbs, in -l for -ir verbs, and
in -u for -re verbs.
/ VrfrtiuurU, tfrut iuLe avoir, the past participle does not usually
change. With verbs that take tre, including reflexive verbs, the
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
120 Venes
l4 I Verbs takinq 6tre
) Here are the pluperfect tense forms of tomber (meaning to fall) in full. When a verb
takes tre in the pluperfect tense, the past participle alWays agrees with the sublect
of the verb; that is, the endings change in the feminine and plural forms.
Ptonoun 6tre Past participle Meaning
I
6tais tomb6 (mosculine)
tomb6e (feminine)
I had fallen
tu 6tais tomb6 (mosculine)
tomb6e (feminine)
you had fallen
il 6tait tomb6 he/it had fallen
elle 6tait tomb6e she/it had fallen
on 6tait tomb,6 (singulor)
tomb6s (m ascu li n e pl u ro [)
tomb6es (feminine pluroD
one had fallen
we had fallen
nouS 6tions tomb6s (mosculine)
tomb6es (feminine)
we had fallen
vous
I
,6tiez tomb6 (mo scu I i n e si n g u I o r)
tomb6e (f e m i n i n e si ng u I a r)
tombds (masculine plurol)
tomb6es (feminine plurol)
you had fallen
ils i / 6taient tomb6s thev had fallen
ell6s 6taient tomb6es they had fallen
The pluperfect tense of -ir verbs like partir (meaning to leove, fo go) is formed in the
same way, except for the past participle: j'6tais parti(e), tu 6tais parti(e) and so on.
The pluperfect tense of -re verbs like descendre (meaning to come down, to go down,
to get offl is formed in the same way, except for the past participle: j'6tais
descendu(e), tu
'6tais
descendu(e) and so on.
E
Reflexive verbs in the pluperfect tense
D Reflexive verbs in the pluperfect tense are formed in the same way as in the perfect
tense, but with the imperfect tense of the verb 6tre (see poge 97).
+ For more informotion on the Pertect tense of reflexive verbs, see page 117.
ld
lrregular verbs in the
pluperfect
tense
D lrregularpastparticiplesarethesameasfortheperfecttense(seepogellS).
VeRes 121
ut1
rq
When on means we, the past participle can agree with the subject of the
sentence, but it is optional.
On 6tait tomb6es. We had fallen. (feminine)
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
122 Vrnes
The passive
What is the passive?
The passive is a form of the verb that is used when the subject of the verb
is the person or thing that is affected by the action, for example, / wos
given, we were told, it had been mqde.
tr
Using the passive
}ln a normal, or octive sentence, the'subject'of the verb is the person or
thing that carries out the action described by the verb. The'object'of the
verb is the person or thing that the verb'happens'to.
Ryan (subject) hit (active verb) me (object).
l In English, as in French, you can turn an active sentence round to make a
passive sentence.
| (subject) was hit (possive verb) by Ryan (ogent).
l Very often, however, you cannot identify who is carrying out the action
indicated by the verb.
I was hit in the face.
The trees will be chopped down.
l've been chosen to represent the school.
Tt/p
There is a very important difference between French and English
in sentences containing an indirect object. In English we can quite
easily turn a normal (active) sentence with an indirect object into a
passive sentence.
Active
Someone (subject) gave (active verb) me (indirect object) a book
(direct object).
Passive
| (subiect) was given (possive verb) a book (direct object).
In French, an indirect object can NEVER become the subject of a
passive verb.
Q for more informotion on Direct and lndirect objects, see poges
47 ond 49.
.r Forming the Passive
Venes 123
> ln English we use the verb fo bewith the past participle (wos hit, was given)
to form the passive. In French the passive is formed in exactly the same
way, using Ctre and the past participle. The past participle agrees with the
subject of the passive verb; that is, the endings change in the feminine and
olural forms.
Elle est encourag6e par ses
parents.
She is encouraged by her parents.
Vous 6tes tous bien
pay6s. You are all well paid. ('you' refers to
more than one Person
here)
Les portes ont 6t6 ferm6es. The doors have been closed.
t
l, For more information on the Past participle, see poge 111.
D Here is the present tense of the -er verb aimer (meaning to like, to love) in
its passive form.
Pronoun Present tense
of 6tre
Past participle Meaning
le
suis aim6 (mosculine)
aim6e (feminine)
lam loved
tu e5 aim6 (mosculine)
aim6e (feminine)
fou
are loved
il est afme ;a he/it is
fved
elle est armee she/it is'fovedt
on est aim6 (singulor)
aim6s (m o s c u I i n e p I u ra l)
aim6es (femin in e plu ra[)
one is l9v$d
we are loved
nous sommeS aim6s (mosculine)
aim6es (feminine)
we are loved
i
vouS Ctes aim6 (m o scu I i n e si n g u I a r)
aim6e (f e m ln i n e si n g u I a r)
aim6s (m o scu I i n e p I u ro l)
aim6es (feminine plural)
yoiu are loved
I
ils sont aim6s they are loved
elles sont aim6es they are loved
The passive of -ir verbs is formed in the same way, except that the past
participle is different. For example, elle est remplie (meaning it is fulD.
The passive of -re verbs is formed in the same way, except that the past
participfe is different. For example, il est d6fendu (meaning it is forbidden).
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
124 Vrnes
Grammar Extra!
When on means u/e, the past participle can agree with the subject of the sentence, but
it is optional.
On est aim6s de tout le monde. We're loved by everyone. (mosculine)
) You can form other tenses of the passive by changing the tense of the verb
tre.
lmperfect: j'6tais aim6(e) | was loved
Future: tu seras aim6(e) you will be loved
Perfect: il a 6t6 aim6 he has been loved
+ For more information on the lmpertect, future and pertect tenses, see pages
92,98and111.
} lrregular past participles are the same as for the perfect tense (see page ll
E_l
Avoiding the passive
D Passives are not as common in French as in English. There are two main
ways that French speakers express the same idea.
o by using the pronoun on (meaning someone or they) with a normal,
active verb
On leur a envoy6 une lettre. They were sent a letter. (literally:
Someone sent them a letter.)
On m'a dit que tu ne venais I was told that you weren't coming.
pas. (literally They told me you weren't
coming.)
+ For more information on Pronouns, see poge 42.
o by using a reflexive verb
Les melons se vendent 2 euros Melons are sold for 2 euros each.
la pidce.
r0
For more informotion on Reflexive verbs, see page 88.
Venas 125
Grammar Extra!
The present participle
What is a present participle?
i1]
Using the present pafticiple
> Present participles are not as common in French as in English, because they are not
used to form tenses. The main uses of the present participle in French are:
o as a verb, on its own, corresponding to the English -ingform. lt DOES NOT agree
wlth the sublect of the verb when it is used in this way.
lls m'ont suivi, criant mon nom. They followed me, shouting my
name.
o as a verb, after the preposition en. The present participle DOES NOT agree with
the subiect of the verb when it is used in this way. The subject of the two parts of
the sentence is always the same. en can be translated in a number of different
ways.
En attendant sa s(Eur, Richard
s'est endormi,
Appelle-nous en arivant
chez toi.
En aoouvant sur ce bouton, on By pressing this button, you can
peut imprimer ses documents. print your documents.
ll s'est bless6 en essavant de He hurt himself trying to rescue a cat.
sauver un chat.
+ For more informotion on the preposition en, see poge 158.
o as an adjective, like in English. As with all adjectives in French, the ending DOES
change in the feminine and plural forms.
Habitant prds de Paris,
ie
vais
assez souvent en ville,
le soleil couchant
l'ann6e suivante
Ces enfrants sont 6nervants.
des chaises plia$cs
Living close to Paris, I go into town
quite often.
While waiting for hls sister, Richard fell
asleep.
Call us when you get home.
the setting sun
the following year
Those children are annoying.
folding chairs
Key
y'
tnepresent tense of ,r'" prrliJJit'iirr.a by using the present
reflexive verb or the pronoun on.
; i*:::**:k*:*: :x;'"::",':
"'"
The present participle is a verb form ending in -ing which is used in English to
form verb tenses, and which may be used as an adiective and a noun, for example,
Whot are you doing?; the setting sun; Swimming is eosy!
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
Ttp
The French present participle is NEVER used to translate English verb forms
fike / wos walking, we are leaving.
Q For more information on the lmpertect tense ond the Present tense, see
pages 92 and 1 1 1.
126 Venes
English verbs describing movement that are followed by an adverb such as out or
down, or a preposition such as dcross or up are often translated by a verb + en +
present participle.
ll est sorti en courant. He ran out. (literolly: He came out
running.)
J'ai_lraVerSe la rue en boitant. I limped across the street. (literally:
I crossed the street limping.)
e
Forming the present participle
) To form the present participle of regular -er, -ir and -re verbs, you use the nous form
of the present tense and replace the -ons ending with -ant.
nous form of present tense Take off -ons Add -ant
donnons donn- donnant
langons lang- langant
mangeons mange- mangeant
finissons finiss- finissant
partons
Part-
partant
attendons attend- attendant
descendons descend- descendant
LqJ
lrregular verbs
) Three verbs have an irregular present participle:
avoir (meaning to hove) + ayant
6tre (meaning to be) +
6tant
savoir (meaning to know) + sachant
VeRes 127
lmpersonal verbs
What is an impersonal verb?
An impersonal verb is one that does not refer to a real person or thing
,rnd where the subject is represented by it, tor example, lt's going tp rain;
It's ten o'clock,
D lmpersonal verbs are only used with il (meaning if) and in the infinitive.
They are called impersonal verbs because il does not really refer to
{
real
person, animal or thing, just like itand there iryEnglish in the examples
ll y a quelqu'un a la porte.
ll est deux heures.
ll faut partir.
ll manoue cent euros.
ll reste du pain.
ll vaut mieux ne rien dire.
There's somebody at the door.
It's hrrlo o'clock.
l'vs/\Vs'vs efc. got to go.
100 euros are missing.
There's some bread left.
It would be better to say nothing.
addition to their normal meanings, for example, ifvok, trf and
lnfinitive Expression Meaning
avoir + noun il
v
a
r.,l
there isJslngulor) |
tn"nu u(":<iuroD
I
Ctre + time il est it isi
faire + noun il fait jour
il fait nuit
,it's
daylight
'it's
dark
"
\,
falloir + noun il faut we/you etc. need
it takes \
falloir + infinitive il faut we/you efc. have to
manquer il manque there is ... missing (singular)
there are ... missing (p/urol)
paraitre il parait que it appears that
it seems that
rester + noun il reste there is ... lelt(singular)
there are ...lett
@lurol)
sembler il semble que it appears that
it seems that
valoir mieux + infinitive il vaut mieux it would be better to
y' present
participtes are never ffl f;:R tenses in French, but they can
"
iil:lii{il:;,ff:::J:ilTi"T1T
ll* ,n"y asree w,h ,he
"
fiI|
j["[:;'"T?i,.n'"n
the nous rorm or the present tense and
::15,..,."t
the -ons ending with -ant. The exceptions are avoiri tre and
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
128 Venes
l Several impersonal verbs relate to the weather.
lnfinitive Expression Meaning
faire + adjective il fait beau
il fait mauvais
the weathert lovely
the weather's bad
faire + noun il fait du vent
il fait du soleil
it's windy
it's sunny
geler il gEle it's freezing
nerger il neige it's snowing
pleuvoir il pleut
it's rainino
Grammar E><tra!
There is another group of useful expressions that start with an impersonal il. These are
followed by a form of the verb called the subiunctive.
il faut que
ll faut que je
oarte.
il est n6cessaire que
l've got to go.
ll est n6cessaire qu'on le fasse, We have to do it
il est possible que
VeRss 129
Grammar Extra!
The subjunctive
What is the subjunctive?
The subiunctive is a verb form that is used in certain circumstances to express
some sort of feeling, or to show there is doubt about whether something will
happen or whether something is true. lt is only used occasionally in modern
English, for example, lf I were you, I wouldn't bother.; So be it.
l!
Using the subiunctive
L In French the subjunctive is used after certain verbs and coniunctions when two parts
of a sentence have different subjects.
l'm afraid he won't come back.
(The subject of the first part of the sentence is'l'; the subject of the second port of the
sentence is'he'.)
D Sometimes, in a sentence like We want her to be happy, you use the infinitive of the
verb in English (fo be). This is NOT possible in French when there is a different
subject in the tvvo parts of the sentence (we and her).You have to use a subiunctive
for the second verb.
Nous voulons Ctre heureux. We want to be happy.
(No change of subject, so you con just use an infinitive
-
dtre
-
in French.)
Nous voulons qu'elle soit heureuse. We want her to be happy.
(Subject chonges from nous to ellg so you hove to use a subjunctive
-
soif
-
in French')
) You can only use the infinitive instead of the subiunctive in French with impersonal
verbs.
ll est possible qu'il vienne.
il est dommage que
ll est dommage que tu ne
I'gPs pas vu,
He might come.
It's a shame you didn't see him.
O For more information on the Subjunctive, see page | 29.
ll faut que tu viennes ir l'heure.
(using subjunctive)
You have to come on time.
ll vaut mieux que tu restes chez toi.
(using subjunctive)
It's better that you stay at home.
ll faut venir ir l'heure.
(using infinitive)
ll vaut mieux rester chez toi.
(using infinitive)
l4
Coming across the subiunctive
) The subjunctive has several tenses but you are only likely to come across the present
subjunctive occasionally in your reading.
D You may see a subjunctive after certain verbs that you use when you are:
o wishing something: vouloir que and d6sirer que (meaning to wish thot, to wont),
aimer que (meaning to like thot), aimer mieux que and pr6f6rer que (meaning
to prefer thot)
o fearing something: avoir peur que (meaning to be ofroid thot)
o giving your opinion: croire que (meaning to think that)
(
n
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
130 Vrnss
o saying howyou feel: regretter que (meaning to be sorry fhof), tre content que
(meaning to be pleased thot), tre surpris que (meaning to be surprised that) and
so on
Je suis content que vous les
aimiez.
l'm pleased you like them.
J'ai peur qu'il ne revienne pas. l'm afraid he won't come back.
L You may see a subjunctive after certain verbal expressions starting with il, such as il
faut que (meaning it is necessary thot) and il vaut mieux que (meaningj it is better
that).
ll faut que je vous oarle. I need to speak to you.
.)
For a list of some expressions requiring the subjunctive, see page I 28.
tr
Forminq the present subiunctive of -er verbs
L To form the stem of the present subjunctive you take the infinitive and chop off -er,
just as for the present tense. Then you add the correct ending, depending on
whether you are referring to
ie,
tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles.
D For -er verbs the endings are the same as for the ordinary present tense, apart from
the nous and vous forms, which have an extra i, as in the imperfect tense.
Pronoun Ending Add to stem,
e.g. donn-
Meanings
je
0')
-e
le
donne I give
tu -e5 tu donnc! you grve
il
elle
on
-e il donng
elle donne
on donng
he/she/itlone gives
nou5 -tons nous donn!g!s we qve
vous lez vous donnlgz you gve
ils
elles
-ent ils donnent
elles donnea!
they give
Venes 131
4I Forming the
present
subiunctive of -ir verbs
D To form the stem of the present subiunctive you take the infinitive and chop off -ir,
just as for the present tense. Then you add the correct ending, depending on
whether you are referring to to je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles.
Pronoun Ending Add to stem, e.g. fin- Meanings
ie
(') -tsse je finisse I finish
tu -isses tu finisses you finish
il
elle
on
-tsse il finisse
elle finisse
on finillc
he/she/it/one finishes
nous -tsstonS nous finissions we finish
vous -issiez vous finlEligz vou finish
ils
elles
Jrsent ils finissent
elles finissent
they finish
lsl
Forming the
present
subiunctive of -re verbs
D To form the stem of the present subiunctive you take the infinitive and chop off -re,
just as for the present tense. Then you add the correct ending, depending on
whether you are referring to je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils or elles.
Pronoun Ending Add to stem,
e.g. aftend-
Meanings
ie
(i') -e
i'attends
lwait
tu -es tu attendes you wait
il
elle
on
-e il attende
elle attende
on attendc
he/she/it/one waits
nous -tons nous attendions we wait
vous -iez vous attendlg! vou wait
ils
elles
-ent ils attendent
elles aftendcqt
they wait
f i/p
je changes to j' in front of a word starting with a vowel, most words
starting with h, and the French word y.
ie
changes to
i'
in front of a word starting with a vowel, most words
starting with h, and the French word y.
ie
changes to j' in front of a word starting with a vowel, most
words starting with h, and the French word y.
For further explanation of grammatical termg please see pages viii-xii.
Verb Meaning ie
(i'l ttl illelle/on nous vous ils/elles
aller to oo allle ailles aille allions alliez aillent
avoir to hove ate aies ait ayons ayez aient
devoir to hove
to, must
doive doives doive devions deviez doivent
dire to soyl
to tell
dise dises dise dlsions disiez disent
tre to be 50r5 sots soit soyons soyez soient
faire to do,
to moke
fasse fasses fasse fassions fassiez fassent
pouvoir to be oble
to, con
pur5se puisses purs5e puissions puissiez puissent
prendre
(apprend
and so on
to toke
I
prenne
I
prennes
I
prenne
I
re and comprendre also behave like this
-
j'ag
prenions
rprenne, tu
preniez
I
prennent
rpPrennes
savotr to know sache saches sache sachions sachiez sa<hent
ventr to come vtenne vtennes vtenne ventons ventez viennent
vouloir to want to veuille veullles veuille voulions voullez veuillent
132 Vrnes
E
lrregular verbs in the subjunctive
) Some important verbs have irregular subiunctive forms.
VeRss 133
Verbs followed by an infinitive
1l Linking two verbs together
> Many verbs in French can be followed by another verb in the infinitive. The
infinitive is the form of the verb that is found in the dictionary, such as
donner (meaning to give), finir (meanin g to finish) and attendre (meaning
to wqit).
> There are three main ways that verbs can be linked together:
. with no linking word
Vous voulez aftendre?
. with the preposition i
J'apprends d nager.
. with the preposition de
Essayez de venir.
t
) For more information on Prepositions ofter odjectives, and on Prepositions
ofter verbs, see pages 1 83
qnd
1 78.
2) Verbs followed by an infinitive with no preposition
D A number of verbs and groups of verbs can be followed by an infinitive
with no preposition. The following important group of verbs are all very
irregular, but they crop up so frequently that they are worth learning in full:
o devoir (to have to, must, to be due to)
Would you like to wait?
l'm learning to swim.
Try to come.
You must be tired.
She has to leave.
The new shopping centre is due to
open in May.
I can help you, if you like.
May I come and see you on
Saturday?
Can you drive?
I know how to make omelettes.
Elise wants to stay one more day.
My car won't start.
Tu dois 6tre fatigu6e.
Elle doit oartir.
Le nouveau centre commercial
doit ouvrir en mai.
o pouvoir (can, moy)
Je pcux t'aideI, si tu veux.
Puls-ie venir vous voir samedi?
savoir (fo know how to, con)
Tu sais conduire?
Je sais faire les omelettes.
vouloir (to wont)
Elise veut rester un
iour
de plus.
Ma voiture ne veut pas
d6marer.
Voulez-vous boire quelque chose? Would you like something to drink?
Je voudrais acheter un
ordinateur.
y'
Attercertain verbs you have ,5""tJ:'ltj""ctive in French when there is a
different subject in the two clauses. These verbs mostly relate to wishing,
fearing, and saying what you think, what you feel and that you are
,.n.:qi:..1 subjunctive ii also found aftei certain verbal expressions that
start with ll.
r'
1ne
stem of the present tense subiunctive is the same as the stem used for
-
the ordinary present tense.
y'
tne present tense subiunctive endings for -er and -re verbs are:
-e, -es, -e, -ions, -iez and -ent.
y'
fhe present tense subjunctive endings for -ir verbs are:
-isse, -isses, -lsse, -issions, -issiez and -issent.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
l'd like to buy a computer.
134 Venes
} faffoir (meaning to be necessary) and valoir mieux (meaning to be better)
are only used in the infinitive and with il.
ll faut orendre une d6cision. We/you efc. have to make a dec
ll vaut mieux t6l6ohoner avant. lt's better to ring first.
D For more information on lmpersonal verbs, see page 127.
l The following common verbs can also be followed by an infinitive without
preposition:
adorer
aimer
aimer mieux
d6sirer
d6tester
envoyer
esp6rer
faire
quelque chose)
laisser to let
pr6f6rer to prefer
sembler to seem
J'espite te voir la semaine
prochaine.
I hope to see you next week.
Ne me fuis pas rire! Don't make me laugh!
J'ai_faltfCparer mes chaussures. l've had my shoes mended.
Je pr6fdre manger d la cantine. I prefer to eat in the canteen.
) Some of these verbs combine with infinitives to make set phrases with a
special meaning.
aller chercher quelque chose
laisser tomber quelque chose
vouloir dire quelque chose
Va chercher ton papa!
Paul a laiss6 tomber le vase.
Ou'est-ce que ga veut dire?
ll nous a vus arriver. He saw us arrive.
On entend chanter les oiseaux. You can hear the birds singing.
For further explanation of grammatical tems, please see pages viii-xii.
Vrnss 135
> Verbs that relate to movement of some kind and do not have a direct
obiect, such as aller (meanin g to go) and venir (meaning to come), can be
followed by an infinitive
Je vais voir Nicolas ce soir.
Viens voir!
3] Verbs followed bv d + infinitive
L There are some common verbs that can be followed by ir and an infinitive.
s'amuser ir faire quelque chose to have fun doing something
apprendre ir faire quelque chose to learn to do something
ommencer ir faire quelque chose to begin to do something
continuer i faire quelque chose to go on doing something
s'habituer i faire quelque chose to get used to doing something
to love
to like, to love
to prefer
to want
to hate
to send
to hope
to make, to have something done (fhat is, faire faire
to go and get something
to drop something
to mean something
Go and get your dad!
Paul dropped the vase.
What does that mean?
>> Some verbs can be followed by a person's name or by a noun relating to a
person, and then by ir and an infinitive. Sometimes you need to put i in
front of the person too.
J'apprends i skier.
ll a commenc6 d pleuvoir.
aider quelqu'un i faire quelque
chose
apprendre i quelqu'un ir faire
quelque chose
l'm going to see Nicolas tonight.
Come and see!
l'm learning to ski.
It began to rain.
to help someone do something
to teach someone to do
something
to stop doing something
to start doing something
to go on doing something
to decide to do something
to hurry to do something
to try to do something
to apologize for doing something
to finish doing something
to forget to do something
to suggest doing something
to refuse to do something
to suggest doing something
} Verbs that relate to seeing or hearing, such asvoir (meaning to see),
regarder (meaning to watch, to look at),6couter (meaning to listen fo) and
entendre (meaning to heor) can be followed by an infinitive.
inviter quelqu'un ir faire quelque to invite someone to do
chose something
tr
Verbs followed by de + infinitive
L There are some common verbs that can be followed by de and an infinitive'
arreter de faire quelque chose,
s'arrter de faire quelque chose
commencer de faire quelque chose
continuer de faire quelque chose
d6cider de faire quelque chose
se d6p6cher de faire quelque chose
essayer de faire quelque chose
s'excuser dlavoir
fait quelque chose
finir de faire quelque chose
oublier de faire quelque chose
proposer de faire quelque chose
refuser de faire quelque chose
sugg6rer de faire quelque chose
136 Venes
J'ai-derd6_dc lui 6crire. I decided to write to her.
Je leur ai sugg6r6 de partir de I suggested that they set off early.
bonne heure,
L The following verbs meaning asking or telling are also followed by de and
an infinitive. Sometimes you need to put ir in front of the person you are
asking or telling.
commander i quelqu'un de faire to order someone to do
quelque chose something
demander i quelqu'un de faire to ask someone to do something
quelque chose
dire ir quelqu'un de faire quelque to tell someone to do something
chose
Venes 137
Other uses of the infinitive
> The infinitive can be used in many other ways:
. after certain adjectives
content de happy to
prt i ready to
ll est touiours pttOti-re[drc He's always ready to help.
service.
o after certain prepositions
Pour aller d la gare? How do you get to the station?
ll est parti sans dire au revoir. He left without saying goodbye.
o after certain set phrases involving a verb plus a noun
avoir envie de faire quelque chose to feel like doing something
avoir besoin de faire quelque chose to need to do something
avoir peur de faire quelque chose to be frightened of doing
something
J'ai besoin de changer de l'argent. I need to change some money.
o in instructions that are aimed at the general public
-
for example, on
signs or in cookery books
Aiouter le sel et le poivre, et Add the salt and pepper, and mix
empcher quelqu'un de faire
quelque chose
remercier quelqu'un de faire
quelque chose
to prevent someone from doing
something
to thank someone for doing
something
Grammar Extra!
lf it is important to emphasize that something is going on at a particular time, you can
use the phrase tre en train de faire quelque chose.
ll est en train de travailler. Est-ce que vous He's working. Can you call back later?
pouvez rappeler plus tard?
lf you want to say you have just done something, you can use the phrase venir de faire
quelque chose. In English you use the PAST tense, but in French you use the
pRESENT
tense.
Elisabeth vient de partir. Aisabeth has just left.
as the subject or object of a sentence, when the infinitive corresponds to
the -ing form in English used as a noun
Fumer n'est pas bon pour la Smoking isn't good for your health.
sant6.
J'adore lire. I love reading.
Ttp
You can use the verb faire with an infinitive to refer to something
you are having done by someone else.
bien m6langer.
Conserver au frais.
Je dois faire r6oarer ma
voiture.
well.
Keep refrigerated.
I have to get my car
repaired.
(
{
rf
f
(
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
tr
Using negatives
F ln Engfish we use words like not, no, nothing and neverto show a negative.
l'm not very pleased.
Dan never ranq me.
Nothing ever happens here!
There's no milk left.
) Nof is often combined with certain English verbs
-
for example, can!
won't, didn't, hasn't.
He isn't iokino.
She didn't sav.
L In French, if you want to make something negative, you generally use a pair
of words, for example, ne ... pas (meaning not). The verb goes in the
middle.
Nrcnrves 139
> In English, drd is often used to make a statement negative.
I went to his party.
*
| didn't go to his party.
We saw David at the weekend.
+
We didn't see David at the weekend.
fl
Note that the French verb faire is NEVER used in this way.
> non plus is the equivalent of English neither in phrases like me neither,
neither do / and so on.
'Je n'aime pas les 'l don't like hamburgers.'- 'Me
hamburgers.'-'Moi non
plus.'
neither.'
ll n'y va pas et moi non plus. He isn't going and neither am l.
) The French word ne is missed out when negatives are used without a verb
to answer a question.
'Oui a t6l6phon67'- 'Personne.' 'Who rang?'-'Nobody.'
'Qu'est-ce que tu fais cet 'What are you doing this
aprds-midi?'
-
'Bign.' afternoon?'
-
'Nothing.'
Ttp
In everyday conversation French native speakers often miss out the
word ne. Be careful about doing this yourself in formal situations.
Je peux pas venir ce soir. I can't come tonight.
ll me l'a pas dit. He didn't tell me.
Grammar Extra!
Sometimes you will find two of these negative expressions combined.
lls ne font jamais rien d'int6ressant. They never do anything interesting.
ne ... pas
ne ... rien
ne ... personne
ne ... jamais
ne ... plus
Je ng fume oas.
Ne changez rien.
Je ne vois personne.
Elle nlanive iamais
d I'heure.
ll ng travaille plus ici.
not
nothing, not ... anything
nobody, no one, not... anybody, not ... anyone
never, not .., ever
no longer, no more, not... any longer, not... any more
Je ne connais plus personne
i Nice.
I don't know anyone in Nice any
more. I don't smoke.
Don't change anything.
I can't see anybody.
She never arrives on time.
He's no longer working here.
El
Word order with negatives
D Negative expressions in French 'sandwich' the verb in the present tense and
in other tenses that consist of
lust
one word. ne goes before the verb and
the other half of the exoression comes after the verb.
ll ne boit
iamais
d'alcool.
ll ne pleuvait pas.
He never drinks alcohol.
It wasn't raining.
A negative question or statement is one which contains a word such as
not, never or nothing and is used to say that something is not happening,
is not true or is absent.
For further explanation of grammatical tenns, please see pages viii-xii.
140 Necnrvrs
) In the perfect tense and other tenses that consist of two or more words
such as the pluperfect there are two possibilities:
. ne ... pas, ne ... rien, ne ... plus and ne ... jamais follow the pattern:
ne (n') + avoir or tre + pas + past participle
Elle n'a pAS fait ses devoirs. She hasn't done her homework.
Je n'ai rien dit. I didn't say anything.
Piene nlest pas encore aniv6. Pierre isn't here yet.
o ne ... personne follows the pattern:
ne (n') + avoir or tre + past participle + personne
Je n'ai vu personne. I didn't see anybody.
+ For more informqtion on the Perfect tense, see poge 111.
) A negative sentence may also contain a pronoun such as te, le, lui and so
on that is the direct or indirect oblect of the verb, or a reflexive pronoun. lf
so, ne comes before the pronoun.
Je ne t'entends pas. I can't hear you.
Ne lui parle pas! Don't speak to him/her!
Tu ng te rappelles pas de lui? Don't you remember him?
ll ne se ldve
iamais
avant midi. He never gets up before midday.
+ For more informotion on Direct ond Indirect object pronouns and on
Reflexive pronount see pqges 47, 49 snd 89.
) When a verb is in the infinitive, ne ... pas, ne ... rien, ne ... plus and ne ...
jamais come together before the infinitive.
Necnrves 141
3
I
non and pas
> non (meaning no) is the usual negative answer to a question. lt can also
correspond to nof in English.
'Tu veux nous accompagner?'- 'Do you want to come with us?'-
'Non, merci.'
Tir viens ou non?
J'espdre que
!!g_lt.
'No thanks.'
Are you coming or not?
I hope not.
pas is generally used when a distinction is being made, or for emphasis.
It, too, often corresponds to not in English.
'Oui veut m'aider?'-'Pas moi!' 'Who wants to help me?'
-
'Not
me!'
'Est-il de retour?'
-'Pas
encore.' 'ls he back?'
-
'Not yet.'
'Tu as froid?'-'Pas du tout.' 'Are you cold?'
- 'Not at all.'
Pas question! No way!
ll essayait de ne oas rire.
J'ai peur de ne
pas
r6ussir.
He was trying not to laugh.
l'm afraid of not succeeding.
After these negative expressions, un, une and des (the indefinite
/
arttgl$ and du, de la, de l' and des (the partlttye_arttelO change to
de.
4 for more informotion on the tndefinite article and the Portitive
orticle, see pages 1 9 and 22.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
OUESTIONS
How to ask a question in French
tl-l The basic rules
) There are four ways of asking questions in French:
o by making your voice go up at the end of the sentence
o by using the phrase est-ce que
o by changing round the order of words in a sentence
o by using a question word
tr
Asking a question by making
llour
voice go up
} lf you are expecting the answer yes or no, there is a very straightforward
way of asking a question. You can keep word order just as it would be in a
normal sentence (subject then verb), but turn it into a question by making
your voice go up at the end of the sentence. 5o to turn the sentence Vous
aimez la France (meaning You like France) into a question, all you need to
do is to add a question mark and make your voice go up at the end.
Vous (sublect) aimez (verb) la Do you like France?
France?
Oursnorus 18
E-j
Asking a question by using est-ce que
) The phrase est-ce que is used to ask a question. Word order stays just the
same as it would in an ordinary sentence. Est-ce que comes before the
subject and the verb comes after the subject. So to turn the sentence Tu
connais Marie (meaning You know Morie) into a question, all you need to
do is to add est-ce que.
Est-ce oue tu (subject) connais Do you know Marie?
(verb)MarieT
Est-ce que vous allez en ville? Are you going into town?
Est'ce
que
ta s@ur est vraiment ls your sister really happy?
heureuse?
tr
Asking a question bv changing word order
) In ordinary sentences, the verb comes AFTER its subject. In this type of
question, the verb is put BEFORE the subject. This change to normal word
order is called inversion. You can do this when the subject is a pronoun
such as vous or il. When you change the word order (or
invc$ in this way,
you add a hyphen (-) between the verb and the pronoun.
Vous (subiect) aimez (verb)
la France.
Aimez (verblvous (subject)
la France?
ll6crit bien.
Ecrit-ilbien?
On part tout de suite.
Part-on tout de suite?
+ For more informotion on Pronouns,
Ag-tu vu mon sac?
Est-elle rest6e longtemps?
You like France.
Do you like France?
He writes well.
Does he write well?
We're leaving right away.
Are we leaving right away?
see poge 42.
On part tout de suite.
On part tout de suite?
C'est vrai.
C'est vrai?
Tes parents sont en vacances.
Tes parents sont en vacances?
We're leaving right away.
Are we leaving right away?
That's that true.
ls that true?
Your parents on holiday.
Are your parents on holiday?
Ttp
This is quite a formal way of asking a question.
In the perfect tense and other tenses that consist of two or more words
such as the pluperfect the part of the verb that comes from avoir or Gtre is
the one that goes before the pronoun.
Have you seen my bag?
Did she stay long?
What is a question?
A question is a sentence which is used to ask someone about something
and which normally has the verb in front of the subject. A question word
such as why, where, who, which or how is used to ask a question.
For furthel explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
+ For more information on the Perfect tense, see page 111.
144 0uesroru$
l When the verb ends in a vowel in the illglle form, -t- is inserted before the
pronoun to make the words easier to say.
Does he like dogs?
Does she have enough money?
Ttp
Unlike English there are two ways in French of answering yes to a
question or statement. oui is the word you use to reply to an
ordinary question.
'Tu l'as fait?'-'Oui.'
,
'Have you done it?'
-
'yes.,
'Elle est belle, n'est-ce pas?'- 'She's beautiful, isn't she?'
'Oui.'
-'Yes.'
si is the word you use to reply to a question or statement that
contains a negative expression like ne ... pas.
'Tu ne l'as pas fait?'-'Si.'
'Elle n'est pas tris belle.'-
'Mais si!'
'Haven't you done it?'
-
'Yes
(l have).'
'She isn't very beautiful.'
-
'Yes, she is!'
Grammar Extra!
You can also form a question in this way with a noun or a person's name. lf you do this,
the noun or name comes firsf then you add an extra pronoun after the verb and link
them with a hyphen.
Jean-Piene (subject) est(verb)-il ls
Jean-Pierre there?
(pronoun) li?
La piCce dure-t-elle longtempsT Does the play last long?
In less formal French, the pronoun may come before the verb, and the noun or name
may come at the end of the sentence.
ll est li, Jean-Piere?
Elle dure longtemps, la pilce?
tr
Asking a question by using a question word
} A question word is a word like when or how that is used to ask for
information. The most common French question words are listed on pages
146-150.
l You can use a question word with one of the methods described above:
. you can make your voice go up at the end of the sentence. lf you do
this, the question word goes at the END of the sentence.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii,
Oussrolrts 145
you can use est-ce que. lf you do this, the question word goes at the
START of the sentence.
you can change word order so that the verb comes before the subject.
lf you do this, the question word goes at the START of the sentence.
Vous arrivez quand?
Ouand est-ce que vous arrivez? When do you arrive?
Ouand anivez-vous?
Tu prends quel
train?
Ouel train est-ce que tu prends? What train are you getting?
Ouel train prends-tu?
lls vont ou?
Oi est-ce qu'ils vont?
Oi vont-ils?
Where are they going?
+ For more information on Negatives, see poge | 38.
Aime-t-il les chiens?
Atelle assez d'argent?
ls Jean-Pierre there?
Does the play last long?
146 Oueslorus
O,uestion words
tr
Common question words
) Listed below are some very common question words. que, quel, qui, quol
and lequel, are explained on pages 147-150.
o combien + verb? how much?, how many?
combien de + noun? how much?, how many?
Combien co0te cet ordinateur? How much does this computer
C'est combien, ce pantalon? How much are these trousers?
Tu en veux combien? Deux? How many do you want? Two?
Combien de personnes vas-tu How many people are you going to
Oursnorus 147
2I qui?. que? and quoi?
> In questions, qui, que and quoi are all pronouns. Which of them you
choose depends on:
o whether you are referring to people or to things
o whether you are referring to the subject or object of the verb (the
subject is the person or thing that is carrying out the action described
by the verb; the object is the person or thing that'receives'the action)
o whether the word you use will come after a preposition such as i, de
or en
t
) For more informqtion on Pronouns ond Prepositions, see poges 42 and 62'
> qui? and que? have longer forms, as shown in the table below. There is a
difference in word order between the longer and shorter forms'
> qui? is used for talking about people, and means who? or whom? in English.
You can use whom? in formal English to refer to the object of verb, though
most people use who). qui? gan be used after a preposition.
Who?
Whom?
Referring to
people
Meaning Examples Meaning
Subiect qui?
qui est-ce
qui?
who? Qui vient?
Qui est-ce
qui vient?
Who's coming?
Object qui?
qui est-ce
que?
who?
whom?
Qui
vois-tu?
Qui
est-ce
que tu vois?
Who/Whom
can you see?
After
prepositions
qui?
qui est-ce
que?
who?
whom?
De qui est-ce
qu'il parle?
Pour qui est ce
livre?
A qui avez-vous
6crit?
Who's he
talking about?
Who's this
book for?
Who did you write
to?, To whom did
you write?
rw
que changes to qu' before a vowel, most words beginning with
h, and the French word y.
inviter?
o comment?
Gomment va-t-elle?
Comment tu t'appelles?
oi?
Ori allez-vous?
D'or) viens-tu?
pourquoi?
Pourquoi est-ce qu'il ne vient
pas avec nous?
quand?
Quand est-ce gue tu pars en
vacances?
Depuis quand est-ce que vous
le connaissez?
invite?
how?
How is she?
What's your name?
where?
Where are you going?
Where are you from?
why?
Why isn't he coming with us?
when?
When are you going on holiday?
How long have you known him?
pardon is also used to ask someone to repeat something, and is thd".
same as Pardon? in English. comment and quoi can mean the same
thing, but are informal, and are the same as Whot? in English.
rtp
Be careful not to mix up oir, which means where, and ou (without
an accent), which means or.
For further explanation of grammatical torms, please see pages viii-xii.
t)
For more informqtion on que ond qui, see page 62.
ih',
148 Ouesrnrus
} i qui is the usual way of saying whose in questions.
A qui est ce sac? Whose is this bag?
+ For more information on using d to show possession, see page 165.
L que? and quoi? are used for talking about things, and mean what? in
English. que? cannot be used after a preposition; you have to use quoi?
instead.
What? Referring to
things
Meaning Examples Meaning
Subject qu'est-ce qui? what? Qu'est-ce
qui se
passe?
Qu'est-ce
qui
t'inquiEte?
What's
happening?
Whatt worrying
you?
Object qu'est-ce que? what? Qu'est-ce
que
vous faites?
Que faites-vous?
What are you
doing?
After
prepositions
quoi? what? A quoi penses-
tu?
De quoi parlez-
vous?
What are you
thinking about?
What are you
talking about?
tr
quel?, quelle?. quels? and quelles?
quel? (meaning who?, which? or what) can be used with a noun (as an
adiective) or can replace a noun (as a pronoun). Compare this with que?
(and its longer forms) and quoi?, which also mean whot?, but are NEVER
used with nouns.
+ For more information on Adjectives and Pronouns, see poges 25 ond 42.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
Ouesrolvs 149
quel, quelle, quels and quelles are all forms of the same word. The form
that you choose depends on whether you are referring to something that
is masculine or feminine, singular or plural.
Ouel est ton chanteur pt6t6r6?
Ouel vin recommandez-vous?
Ouelle est ta couleur pr6f6r6e?
Ouelle heure est-il?
Ouels sont tes chanteurs
pr6f6r6s?
Vous jouez
de quels
instruments?
Ouelles sont tes couleurs
pr6f6r6es?
Ouelles chaussures te plaisent
le plus?
Who's your favourite singer?
Which wine do you recommend?
What's your favourite colour?
What time is it?
Who are your favourite singers?
What instruments do you play?
What are your favourite colours?
Which shoes do you like best?
t
) For more information on how quel in used in exclomotions, see page 21 .
{{
lequel?. laquelle?. lesquels? and lesquelles?
D In questions lequel, laquelle, lesquels and lesquelles (meaning which
one/ones?) are all forms of the same pronoun, and are used to replace
nouns. The form that you choose depends on whether you are referring to
something that is masculine or feminine, singular or plural.
Masculine Feminine Meaning
Singular lequel? laquelle? which?
which one?
Plural lesquels? lesquelles? which?
which ones?
'J'ai choisi un livre.'-'Lequel?'
Laouelle de ces valises est d
Bruno?
'l've chosen a book.'-'Which one?'
Which of these cases is Bruno's?
Masculine Feminine Meaning
Singular quel? quelle? who?
what?
which?
Plural quels? quelles? who?
what?
which?
Ttp
It is possible to finish an English sentence with a preposition such
as about or of, even though some people think this is not good
grammar,
Who did you write to?
Whqt ore you talking about?
It is NEVER possible to end a French sentence with a preposition.
150 Oursrorus
'Tu te souviens de mes amis?' 'Do you remember my friends?'-
-'Lcs_Sce!S?'
tWhich
ones?'
Lesouelles de vos seurs sont Which of your sisters are married?
mari6es?
+ For more informotion on lequel, see poge 63.
tr
n'est-ce pas?
and non?
} English-speakers often use an expression like isn't it?, don't they?, weren't
we? or will you? tagged on to the end of a sentence to turn it into a
question. French uses n'est-ce pas? instead. This useful little phrase never
changes, so is very easy to use. You use it in questions when you expect
person you are talking to to agree with you.
ll fait chaud, n'est-ce pas? lt's warm, isn't it?
Tu parles frangais, n'est-ce
pas?
You speak French, don'tyou?
Vous n'oublierez pas, n'est-ce You won't forget, will you?
pas?
) lt is very common to use non (meaning no) in the same way in spoken
French. hein? means the same as eh? in English, and is only used in very
informal conversations.
Ouesnorus 151
Grammar Extra!
All the questions in the previous section are the actual words that someone uses when
they are asking a question, and so they all end with a question mark. These are called
diree! questions. When you are telling someone else about a question that is being
lrked, you use an indirect question. Indirect questions never end with a question mark,
rrrd they are always introduced by a verb such as to ask, to tell, to wonder, to know and
ro on.
He asked me what the time was. (His actual question was What is the timeT)
Tell me which way to go.
frour
actual question was Which way do I go)
Word order in indirect questions is generally the same as in English:
question word + subject verb.
Dites-moi quel (question word)
autobus (subject)va (verb) ila
gafe.
ll m'a demand6 combien
d'argent j'avais.
Je me demande s'il viendra
ou pas.
Tell me which bus goes to the
station.
He asked me how much money
I had.
I wonder if he'll come or not.
ll fait chaud, non?
ll fait chaud, hein?
It's warm, isn't it?
It's warm, eh?
When the subiect of the question is a noun and NOT a pronoun like
ie
or il, the sublect
,rnd verb that come after the question word are often swapped round.
Je me demande oi (question I wonder where my keys are.
word) sont (verb) mes cl6s (subject).
Demande-lui qui est venu. Ask him who came.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
ADVERBS
How adverbs are used
) ln general, adverbs are used together with:
o verbs (act quickly. speak strongely. smile cheerfully)
o adjectives (rc!fu ill,
q
lot better, deeply sorry)
. other adverbs (resWfart, bo quickly, ysrywell)
l Adverbs can also relate to the whole sentence; they often tell you what the
speaker is thinking or feeling.
Fortunately,
Jan
had already left.
Actually, I don't think l'll come.
How adverbs are formed
tr
The basic rules
) Adverbs in French NEVER change their form, no matter what they refer to.
Aovenes 153
Masculine adjective Feminine adjective Adverb Meaning
heureux heureuse heureusement fortunately
doux douce doucement gently, slowly
seul seule seulement only
The adverb ending -ment is added to the masculine not the feminine form
of the adjective if the masculine ends in -6, -i or -u.
Masculine adjective Feminine adjective Adverb Meaning
d6sesp6r d6sesp6r6e d6sesp6r6ment desperately
vral vrate vraiment truly
absolu absolue absolument absolutely
) lf the adjective ends in -ant, the adverb ends in -amment. lf the adjective
ends in -ent, the adverb ends in -emment. The first vowel in the -emment
and -amment endings is pronounced in the same way in both
-
like the o
in the English word caf.
courant +
couramment (fluently)
r6cent
*
r6cemment (recently)
@
Note that an exception to this rule is the adverb lentement
(meaning slowly), which comes from the adjective lent (meaning
slow).
A
lrregular adverbs
) There are a number of common irregular adverbs.
Adjective Meaning Adverb Meaning
bon good bien well
gentil nice, kind gentiment nicely, kindly
mauvars bad mal badly
meilleur better, best mieux better
petit small peu little
pire worse
Pis
worse
@
t,tote that there is one exception to this rule. The word tout changes
in certain phrases, for example, tout seul (meaning oll alone).
ll est aniv6 tout seul, He arrived on his own.
Elle est souvent toute seule. She's often on her own.
) Many English adverbs end in Jy, which is added to the end of the adiectivc
(quick
-
quickly, sad
-
sodlt/;, frequent
-
frequentQ. In French, many
adverbs end in -ment. This is usually added to the end of the feminine
singular form of the adjective.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
ll est tris beau.
Elles sont tris belles.
J'y vais souvent.
Nous y allons souvent.
He's very handsome.
They're very beautiful.
I often go there.
We often go there.
Elle travaille bien.
G'est un emploi trds mal pay6.
l{
Adjectives used as adverbs
> Certain adlectives are used as adverbs,
o bon good
sentir bon to smell nice
She works well.
It's a very badly paid job.
What is an adverb?
An adverb is a word usually used with verbs, adjectives or other adverbs
that gives more information about when, how, where, or in what
circumstances something happens, for example, quickly, hoppily, now.
mostly in set phrases:
154 Aovenes
cher expensive
co0ter cher to be expensive
payer cher to pay a lot
droit straight
aller tout droit to go straight on
dur hard
travailler dur to work hard
fort loud
parler plus fort to speak up
mauvais bad
sentir mauvais to smell
tr
Adverbs made up of more than one word
) Adverbs can be made up of several words instead of iust one. Here are
50me common ones:
bien sOr of course
c'est-ir-dire that is
d'abord first
d'habitude usually
de temps en temps from time to time
en g6n6ral usually
en retard late
tout de suite straight away
AoveRes 155
Comparatives and superlatives of adverbs
.t I
Comparative adverbs
, What is a comparative adverb?
r
A comparative adverb is one which, in English, has -er on the end of it or
i more or /ess in front of it for example, eorlier, loter, soonert moreless
i
frequently
> Adverbs can be used to make comparisons in French, just as they can in
English. The comparative (more often, faster) of adverbs is formed using the
same phrases as for adjectives.
o plus ... (que) more ... (than)
Tu marches pluS vite que moi. You walk faster than me.
Elle chante plus fort gue les She's singing louder than the others.
autres.
o moins ... (que) less ... (than)
Parle moins vite!
Nous nous voyons moins
souvent qu'avant.
o aussi ... que as... as
Je parle frangais aussi bien oue I can speak French as well as you!
toi!
Viens aussi vite que possible. Come as quickly as possible.
t)
For more information on Comparative odjectives, see poge 34.
ld
Superlative adverbs
What is a superlative adverb?
A superlative adverb is one which, in English, has -esf on the end of it or
most or leostin front of it, for example, soonest, fostest, mostlleast
frequently.
L The superlative of adverbs (the most, the fastest) is formed using the same
phrases as for adjectives, except that le NEVER changes to la or les in the
feminine and plural with adverbs as it does with adjectives.
o le plus ... (que) the most ... (that)
Marianne parle le plus vite. Marianne speaks fastest.
o le moins ... (que) the least... (tha$
G'est Gordon qui a mang6 le moins. Cordon ate the least.
t)
For more information on Superlotive odjectives, see page 34.
Don't speak so fast! (literally Speak
less fast!)
We see each other less often than
before.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
156 Aovenes
tr
Adverbs with iregular comparatives and superlatives
) Some of the most common adverbs have irregular comparative and
superlative forms.
C'est lui qui danse le mieux. He dances best.
Some common adverbs
D Here are some common adverbs that do not end in -ment:
alors then, so, at that time
apris afterwards
aprEs-demain the day after tomorrow
aujourd'hui todaY
Aovenes 157
avant-hier the day before yesterday
beaucoup a lot, much
bientOt soon
cependant however
assez
aussi
dedans
dehors
d6ia
demain
depuis
derriEre
devant
encore
enfin
ta
li-bas
loin
enough, quite
also, too, as
inside
outside
already, before
tomorrow
since
behind
in front
still, even, again
at last
about
yesterday
here
never, ever
ensemble together
ensuite then
environ
hier
ici
jamais
rw
jamais can sometimes be used without ne to mean never or ever.
'Est-ce que tu vas souvent au 'Do you
9o
to the cinema a
cinema?'-'Non, ian0atg.'
lot?'
-
'No, never.'
As-tu
iemels
revu ton pdre? Did you ever see your father
again?
Q for more information on Negatives, see poge 1j8.
there, here
over there
far, far off, a long time ago
Adverb Meaning Comparative Meaning Superlative Meaning
beaucoup a lot plus more le plus (the) most
bien well mieux better le mieux (the) best
mal badly pis
plus mal
worse le pis
le plus mal
(the) worst
Peu
little moins less le moins (the) least
For further explanation of grammatical tems, please see pages viii-xii.
158 AoveRss
AoveRes 159
D Some of the adverbs listed on pages 157 and 158 can be followed by de
and used in front of a noun to talk about quantities or numbers of things or
people:
. assez de enough
Nous n'avons pas assez de We don't have enough time.
temps.
o beaucoup de a lot of
Elle fait beaucoup de fautes. She makes a lot of mistakes.
o combien de how much, how many
Gombien de personnes as-tu How many people have you invited?
invit6es?
o troP de too much, too many
J'ai mang6 trop de fromage. l've eaten too much cheese.
D Several of the adverbs listed on pages
"157
and 158 can also be used as
prepositions: apr6s, avant, devant derriEre and depuis.
+ For more informotion on Prepositions, see page 162.
) The question words combien (meaning how much, how mony), comment
(meaning how), pourquoi (meaning why) and quand (meaning when) are
described on page 146.
) pas, plus and jamais are used in negative word pairs.
+ For more informqtion on Negotives, see poge 138.
longtemps
maintenant
mme
moins
oir
parfois
partout
peu
a long time
now, nowadays
even
less
where
sometimes
everywhere
not much, not very
peut-tre
plus
presque
puis
quelquefois
si
soudain
souvent
surtout
tard
t6t
toujours
tout
tris
trop
vite
perhaps
more
nearly
then
sometimes
50
suddenly
often
especially, above all
late
early
always, still
all, very
very
too much, too
quick, fast soon
T{,p
vite and rapide can both mean fost or quick. Remember, though,
that vite is an adverb and rapide is an adiective.
une voiture rapide a fast car
ll roule trop vite. He drives too fast.
Ttp
Be careful not to confuse peu, which means not much or not very,
with un peu, which means o little or
q
bit.
ll voyage peu. He doesn't travel much.
Elle est un peu timide. She's a bit shy.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
160 Aovrnas
Word order with adverbs
tr
Adverbs with verbs
) In English, adverbs can come in different places in a sentence.
l'm never coming back.
See you soon!
Suddenlv the
phone
rano.
l'd reallv like to come.
D In French, the rules are more fixed. When an adverb goes with a verb that
consists of just one word, such as a verb in the present tense or the
imperfect tense, it generally goes AFTER that verb.
ll neige touiours en janvier. lt always snows in
January.
Je pensais souvent d toi. I often used to think about you.
) When an adverb goes with a verb that consists of more than one word,
such as a verb in the pcrfeeftense, it generally comes BETWEEN the part of
the verb that comes from avoir or tre and the past participle.
Aovenes 161
> Some adverbs FOLLOW the past participle of verbs that consist of more
than one word. This rule covers most adverbs that tell you how or where
something is done, and a few adverbs that tell you about time.
aujourd'hui today
demain tomorrow
hier yesterday
loin far, far off, a long time ago
longtemps a long time
partout everywhere
quelquefois sometimes
t6t earlv
tard late
vite quick, fast soon
+ For more information on the Pertect tense, see poge
'l
11.
l The rule above covers most adverbs that tell you about quantity or time
(apart from a few listed later), and some very common ones telling you
how something is done.
beaucoup a lot, much
bien well
bientdt soon
d6ie already, before
encore still, even, again
enfin at last
,4
Adverbs with adiectives and other adverbs
l When an adverb goes with an adjective, it generally comes
iust
BEFORE that
adjective.
lls ont une tris belle maison. They have a very nice house.
une femme bien habill6e a well-dressed woman
) When an adverb goes with another adverb, it generally comes just BEFORE
that adverb.
ll a trop mang6.
lls sont d6idr patis.
He's eaten too much.
They've already gone.
On les a vus partout.
Elle est revenue hier.
C'est troo tard.
Fatima travaille beaucoup
pluS vite.
We saw them everywhere.
She came back yesterday.
It's too late.
Fatima works much faster.
mal
mieux
badly
better
peu not much, not very
rarement rarely
souvent often
toujours always, still
trop too much, too
vraiment really
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
PREPOSITIONS
Using prepositions
} Prepositions are used in front of nouns and pronouns (such as me, him, the
mqn and so on), and show the relationship between the noun or pronoun
and the rest of the sentence. Some prepositions can be used before verb
forms ending in -ing in English.
I showed my ticket to the inspector.
Come with me.
This brush is really good for cleaning shoes.
+ For more informotion on Nouns ond Pronouns, see pqges 1 and 42.
) Prepositions are also used after certain adjectives and verbs and link them
to the rest of the sentence.
Je suis trds contente de te voir. l'm very happy to see you.
Tu aimes
jouer
au tennis? Do you like playing tennis?
) In English it is possible to finish a sentence with a preposition such as for,
obout or on, even though some people think this is not good grammar.
You can NEVER end a French sentence with a preposition.
Le caf6 au laiL c'est pour qui? Who's the white coffee for?
Qe
quoi parlez-vous? What are you talking about?
PReposmorus 163
i, de and en
Eit
D Be careful not to confuse the preposition ir with the illelle/on form of the
verb avoir: il a (meaning he hos) and so on.
rw
When ir is followed by le, the two words become au. Similarly,
when i is followed by les, the two words become aux.
il for more informotion on Articles, see page
@
Note that ir la maison can also mean to the house.
! i can mean ot.
Les melons se vendent i 2
euros pidce.
Nous roulions i 100 km i
l'heure.
J'ai lanc6 une pierre d Chantal.
Je suis d la maison.
Je rentre d la maison.
L i can mean rn.
Nous habitons d la campagne.
Mon pdre est d Londres.
Restez au lit.
Jean est entr6, un livre i la
main.
Melons are selling at 2 euros each.
We were driving at 100 km an hour
I threw a stone at Chantal.
l'm at home.
l'm going back to the house or
back home.
We live in the country.
My father is in London.
Stay in bed.
Jean
came in with a book in his
hand.
Ttp
ir is used to mean in with the names of towns and cities, and au
(singulor) or aux (plurot) with the names of countries that are
masculine in French.
J'habite au Mexique. I live in Mexico.
Elle est aux Etats-Unis. She's in the States.
i can mean to.
Je vais au cin6ma ce soir.
Donne le ballon d ton frdre.
l'm going to the cinema tonight.
Give the ball to your brother.
What is a preposition?
A preposition is a word such as at, for, with, into or from, which is
usually followed by a noun, pronoun or, in English, a word ending in -ing.
Prepositions show how people and things relate to the rest of the
sentence, for example, She's at home.; a tool for cutting grass; it's from
David.
rtp
The French preposition is not always the direct equivalent of the
preposition that is used in English. lt is often difficult to give just one
English equivalent for French prepositions, as the way they are used
varies so much between the two languages.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
T'P
i is used to mean to with the names of towns and cities, and au
(singulor) or aux (plurol) with the names of countries that are
masculine in French.
Je vais assez souvent d Paris. I go to Paris quite often.
ll va aux Etats-Unis la semaine He's going to the States
prochaine. next week.
164 Pneposmorus
} ir is also used with de to mean from ... to ...
le trajet de Londres d Pads the journey from London to Paris
La banque est ouverte de 9 The bank is open from 9 to 12.
heures i midi.
Je suis en vacances du 21 juin l'm on holiday from 21
June !o
auSjuillet. 5July.
L i can mean on.
ll y a deux beaux tableaux au There are two beautiful paintings
mur. on the wall.
Le bureau se trouve au premier The office is on the first floor.
6tage.
Ou'est-ce qu'il y a ir la t6l6 ce What's on W tonight?
soir?
@
Note that ir and sur can both mean on in English. sur usually means
on the top of something. sur la t6l means on top of the W set, buL
i fa t6f6 means broadcqst on TV. Both can be translated as on the TV
in English. sur le mur means on top of the wall, but au mur means
hanging on the woll.
) ir is often used to describe:
o what someone looks like or is wearing
la femme au chapeau vert the woman with the green hat
Ttp
Apart from i v6fo and i cheval (meaning on horseback), the
prepositions en and par are used with most other means of
transport.
D ir can also show what something is used for.
Pneposmorus 165
[J
ruote that une tasse i caf6 means a coffee cup, but une tasse de cafd
means o cup of coffee. In the same way, un verre i vin means o vvine
g/oss but un verre de vin means o gloss of wine.
> ir is used with times, centuries and the names of festivals.
. how you travel
Onyvaipied?
ll est venu i v6lo.
Shall we walk?
He came on his bike.
l've got a headache.
My legs ache.
l've got a sore throat.
une boite aux lettres
une machine d laver
une tasse d caf6
d trois heures
au vingtiime siBcle
i No6l
d Piques
a letter box
a washing machine
a coffee cup
at three o'clock
in the twentieth century
at Christmas
at Easter
ir is used to talk about distances and rates.
La maison est d 6 kilomdtres The house is 6 kilometres from here.
d'ici.
G'est dr deux minutes de chez lt's two minutes from my place.
moi.
!
s.
un gargon aux yeux bleus
how something is done
fait i la main
laver d la machine
what a type of food is made of
une tarte aux poires
un sandwich au jambon
a boy with blue eyes
hand-made
to machine-wash
a pear tart
a ham sandwich
C'est d qui de nettoy\la salle Vflhose.turh'is it to clean the
de bains? bathroom?
lf you want to say where something hurts, you use i.
J'ai mal d la t6te.
J'ai mal aux
jambes.
J'ai mal i la gorge.
Je suis pay6 i l'heure.
\
ows who owns sornq:th\r
Ce cahier est i Pau[
C'est d toi?
J
l'rh,Raid by the hour.
ours?
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
166 Pneposrrorus
) ir is used with certain adjectives.
Son 6criture est difficile dr lire. His/Her writing is difficult to read.
Je suis pr6t dr tout. l'm ready for anything.
+ For more information about Prepositions sfter adiectives, see page 183.
) i is used with certain verbs.
s'int6resser i quelque chose to be interested in something
penser d quelque chose to think about something
+ For more information obout Prepositions after verbs, see page 178.
D Finally, some common ways of saying goodbye contain i.
A bient6t!
A demain!
A samedi!
A tout i l'heure!
lTt de
l de is used as part of the partitive article, whibh is usually the equivalent of
some or ony in English.
+ For more information on the Psrtitive orticle, see page 22.
Ttp
When de is followed by le, the two words become du. Similarly,
when de is followed by les, the two words become des.
4 for more information on Articles, see poge 12.
de can mean from.
Je viens d'Edimbourg.
une lettre de Rachid
Je la vois de temps en temps.
PRrposmorus 167
D de is also used with ir to mean from ... to ...
le trajet de Londres d Pads the journey from London to Paris
La banque est ouverte de 9 The bank is open from 9 to I 2.
heures i midi.
Je suis en vacances du 21
juin l'm on holiday from 21
lune
to
auSjuillet. SJuly.
) de often shows who or what something belongs to.
D de can indicate what something contains, when it usually corresponds to
of in English.
un amide la famille
les fen6tres de la maison
la voiture de Marie-Piene
une boite g[allumeftes
deux bouteilles de vin
une tasse de caf6
une robe de coton
une porte de bois
a friend of the family
the windows of the house
Marie-Pierre's car
a box of matches
two bottles of wine
a cup of coffee
a cotton dress
a wooden door
See you soon!
See you tomorrow!
See you Saturday!
See you later!
l'm from Edinburgh.
a letter from Rachid
I see her from time to time.
@
Note that une tasse de caf6 means a cup of coffee butune tasse ir
caf6 means a coffee cup. ln the same way, un verre i vin means o
wine glass but un verre de vin means o gloss of wine.
) de can describe what material something is made of.
rw
en can also be used to say what something is made of, and is
used when it is important to stress the material.
un bracelet en or a gold bracelet
41.,
You can use de to say what something is used for.
un sac de couchage a sleeping bag
un terrain de foot a football pitch
un an6t de bus a bus stop
de is found after superlatives (the most..., the biggest, the least... and so on).
la plus belle ville du monde the most beautiful city in the world
le film le moins int6ressant
du festival
the least interesting film in the
festival
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
t)
For more informotion on Superlotive odjectives, see page 34.
168 Pnrposrlorus
L de is used in phrases to talk about quantities.
Elle fait beaucoup de fautes. She makes a lot of mistakes.
Combien de personnes as'tu How many people have you invi
invit6es?
) de is used with certain adlectives.
Je suis trds surpris de te voir. l'm very surprised to see you.
ll est triste de partir. He's sad to be leaving.
t)
For more informqtion on Prepositions ofter adjectives, see page 183.
Grammar hctra!
lf you want to use an adiective after quelque chose, rien, quelqu'un and personne,
you link the words with de.
quelqu'un g['important
quelque chose d'int6ressant
rien d'amusant
to depend on something
to talk about something
Pneposmorus 169
D en is used to talk about years and months, and to say how long something
will take, when it is the equivalentof in/within:
en 1923
en
janvier
Je le ferai en trois
iours.
in 1923
in
lanuary
l'll do it in three days.
Gmmmar Extra!
en and dans can both be used in French to talk about a length of time, but the
meaning is very different.
Je le ferai dans trois jours.
Je le ferai en trois iours.
l'll do it in three days.
l'll do it in three days.
) de is found after certain verbs.
d6pendre de quelque chose
parler de quelque chose
+ For more informqtion on Prepositions ofter verbs, see page 178.
tren
@
Note that en is never followed by an article such as le, du or des.
) en is used to talk about a place. lt can be the equivalent of the English to
or in.
Je vais en ville. l'm going to town.
ll a un appartement en ville, He has a flat in town.
Nous allons en France cet 6t6. We're going to France this summer.
Nous habitons en France. We live in France.
rrp
en is used with the names of countries that are feminine in French.
'
'
Use ir with the names of towns and cities, and au or aux with
masculine countries.
Though both can be translated in the same way, the first sentence means that you'll do
it in three days, time; the second means that it will take three days for you to do it.
) en is used with the names of the seasons, except for spring'
en 6t6
in summer
en automne in autumn
en hiver in winter
BUT: au printemPs in sPring
D en is used for most means of transport.
Je suis venu en voiture' I came by car.
G'est plus rapide en train' lt's quicker by train.
ll est all6 en ltalie en avion. He flew to ltaly.
Ttp
The prepositions i and par are also used with means of transport.
Use en to say what language something is in.
une lettre 6crite en'espagnol a letter written in Spanish
Dis-le en anglais. Say it in English.
> en can be used to say what something is made of when you particularly
want to stress the material.
un bracelet en or
un manteau en cuir
someone important
something interesting
nothing funny
a bracelet made of gold, a gold
bracelet
a coat made of leather, a leather
coat
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii'
170 Pneposmorus
) en often describes the situation or state that something or someone is in.
Pneposmorus 171
Eome other common
Prepositions
{f
t tote that some of these words are also adverbs, for example, avant,
depuis.
r
I For more information on the Adverbs, see poge 152.
> The following prepositions are also frequently used in French:
o
lpp|5 after
) en is found before present participles. the form of the verb that ends in
-ing in English and -ant in French.
Je fais mes devoirs en I do my homework while watching
regardant la t616. TV.
ll m'a vu en passant devant la He saw me as he came past the
porte. door.
r)
For more informotion on the Present participle, see poge 125,
[J
Note that where English uses a verb in the perfect tense following
ofter, French uses the infinitive avoir or 6tre and a past participle'
Nous viendrons aprds avoir fait We,|l come after we,ve done the
Je suis en vacances.
La voiture est en panne.
Tu es toujours en retard!
l'm on holiday.
The car's broken down.
You're always late!
aprds le d6ieuner
aprds son d6part
la troisiBme maison apris la
mairie
Aprds vous!
after lunch
after he had left
the third house after the town hall
After you!
dishes.
He arrived before you.
Turn left before the
Post
office.
before eating.
with my father
She's at Pierre's house.
Shet going to Pierre's house,
l'm staying at home this wecletttl
l'm going home.
They live near my house.
la vaisselle.
o
3y6n1 before
ll est arriv6 avant toi.
Toumez d gauche avant la
poste.
@
Note that where English uses a verb ending in -ing alter before,
French uses de followed by the infinitive.
Jepr6firefinirmesdevoirsIprefertofinishmyhomework
avant de manger.
o
avec with
avec mon pdre
unechambreavecsa||edebainaroomwithitsownbathroom
Ouvre-la avec un couteau'
Open it with a knife'
.
chez
Elle est chez Pierre.
Elle va chez Pierre.
Je reste chez moi ce weekend'
Je vais rentrer chez moi.
lls habitent pris de chez moi.
For further explanataon of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
T'P
chez is also used with the name of jobs or professions to indicate
a shop or place of business.
Je vais chez le m6decin. l'm going to the doctor's.
l
I
l
i
l
172 Pneposmorus
contre against
Ne mets pas ton v6lo contre
le mur.
dans in, into
ll est dans sa chambre.
Nous passons une semaine
dans les Alpes.
dans deux mois
ll est entr6 dans mon bureau.
Don't put your bike against the wall
He's in his bedroom.
We're spending a week in the Alps.
in two months'time
He came into my office.
derriEre behind
derridre la porte
devant in front of
ll est assis devant moi.
entre ... et between ... and
ll est assis entre son pire et
son oncle.
Le bureau est ferm6 entre 13
et 14 heures.
jusque as far as, until
Je te raccompagne
iusque
chez toi.
Jusqu'ot vas-tu?
Jusqu'ici nous n'avons pas eu
de probldmes.
Je reste
iusqu'i
la fin du mois.
Pneposmorus 173
behind the door
He's sitting in front of me.
He's sitting between his father and
his uncle.
The office is closed between 1 and
2 p.m.
l'll go with you as far as your house.
How far are you going?
Up to now we've had no problems.
l'm staying until the end of the
month.
Grammar Extra!
dans and en can both be used in French to talk about a length of time, but the
meaning is very different.
Je le ferai dans trois
iours.
Je le ferai en trois jours.
l'll do it in three days.
l'll do it in three davs.
Though both can be translated in the same way, the first sentence means that you'll do
it in three days' time; the second means that it will take three days for you to do it.
o depuis since, for
Elle habite Paris depuis 1998. She's been living in Paris since
'1
998
Elle habite Paris depuis cinq She's been living in Paris for five
ans. years.
@
Note that French uses the present tense with depuis to talk about
actions that started in the past and are still going on.
ll est en France depuis le mois He's been in France since
de septembre. September. (ond he is still there)
lf you are saying how long something has NOT happened for, you use
the perfect tense with depuis.
Nous ne I'avqng pas vu deouis We haven't seen him for
un mois. a month.
Q For more informotion on the Present tense
qnd
the Pertect tense, see
pogesTl and111.
For further explanation of grammatical te]ms, please see pages viii-xii.
. par by, with, per
deux par deux
Par le train
par
la poste
par
email
Son nom commence oar un H.
Prenez trois cachets oar
iour.
Le voyage co0te quatre cents
euros Dar personne.
Nous nous voyons une fois oar
mois.
ll est tomb6 par terre.
ll y a beaucoup de touristes
par ici.
two by two
by train
by post
by email
His name begins with H.
Take three tablets per day.
The trip costs four hundred euros
per person.
We see each other once a month.
He fell down.
There are a lot of tourists around
here.
jusque changes to jusqu' before a word beginning with a vowel,
most words starting with h, and the French word y.
174 PReposmorus
rtp
The prepositions i and en are also used with means of transport.
Pneposmorus 175
sans without
Elle est venue sans son frdre'
un caf6 sans sucre
un pull sans manches
() Note that sans can also be used before infinitives in French. In English a
-
verb form ending in -ing is used after without.
Elle est partie sans dire au revoir. She left without saying goodbye.
.
sauf except
Tout le monde vient sauf lui. Everyone's coming except him'
o
pendant during, for
Qa
s'est pass6 pendant l'616.
ll n'a pas pu travailler pendant
plusieurs mois.
It happened during the summer.
He couldn't work for several
months.
.
sous under
sous la table
sous terre
o
SUr On
Pose-le sur le bureau.
Ton sac est sur la table.
She came without her brother.
a coffee without sugar
a sleeveless sweater
under the table
underground
Put it down on the desk.
Your bag is on the table.
He was going towards the station.
I go home at about 5 o'clock.
Ttp
French uses the perfect tense with pendant to talk about actions
in the past that are completed.
Nous avons habit6
pendant
dix We lived in Scotland for ten
ans en Ecosse.
years. (but don't any more)
You can also miss out pendant.
Nous avons habit6 dix ans en We lived in Scotland for ten
Ecosse. years.
pendant is also used to talk about something that will happen in the
future.
Je serai i NewYork pendant l'll be in New York for a month.
un mois.
Q for more information on the Pertect tense, see page 111
pour for (who or what something is for, and where something or someone is
going)
C'est un cadeau pour toi. lt's a present for you.
Nous voudrions une chambre We'd like a room for two nights.
oour deux nuits.
le train pour Bordeaux the train for Bordeaux
Note that pour can also be used with infinitives, when it has the
meaning of in order to.
Elle tt6l6phone pour savoir i She's ringing to find out what time
quelle heure on arrivera. we'll get there.
Pour aller dr Nice, s'il vous plait? Which way is it to Nice, please?
Vous verrez l,hapitat sur votre You'll see the hospital on your left.
gauche.
un livre sur la politique a book on politics
Note that i and sur can both mean on in English. sur usually means
on the top of something. sur la t6l6 means on top of the TV set, bul
i fa t6l6 means broadcost on TV. Both can be translated as on the TV
in English. sur le mur means on top of the wall, but au mur means
hanging on the wall.
m
E
.
vers towards (a place), at about
ll allait vers la gare.
Je rentre chez moi vers cinq
heures.
Ttp
With numbers and measurements sur can also mean in, out of
and by.
une personne sur six
one person in ten
J'ai eu quatorze sur vingt en I got 14 out of 20 in maths'
maths.
La pidce fait quatre mitres sur The room measures four metres
deux.
bY two'
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
*
176 Pnepognorus
} voici (meaning this is, here rs) and voilir (meaning there is, that rs) are two
very useful prepositions that French speakers often use to point things out.
Voici mon frire et voild ma This is my brother and that's my
PReposmoNs 177
consisting of more than one word
Prepositions can also be made up of several words instead of
iust
one.
au bord de at the edge of, at the side of
au bout de after
i cause de
because of
au-dessous de below
au-dessus de above
i
au fond de
at the bottom of, at the end of
au milieu de in the middle of
Au bout d'un moment, il s'est
After a while, he fell asleep'
endormi.
s(Eur.
Voici ton sac.
Le voici!
Tiens!Voild Paul.
un autre.
Les voildr!
sister.
Here's your bag.
Here he/it is!
Look! There's Paul.
another one.
There they are!
Tu as perdu ton stylo? En voilir Have you lost your pen? Here's
Nous ne pouvons
Pas
sortir
i-eeuse-dg
mauvais temps.
J'ai gar6 la voiture au bord de
la route.
Mon porte-monnaie est au fond
dg mon sac.
Place le vase au milieu de la
table.
We can't go out because of the bad
weather.
I parked the car bY the side of the
road.
My purse is at the bottom of mY
bag.
Put the vase in the middle of the
table.
For further explanation of grammatical toms, please sce pages vlii-xli.
178 Pneposlrrols
Prepositions after verbs
) some French verbs can be followed by an infinitive (the fo form of the verb)
and linked to it by either de or i, or no preposition at all. This is also true ol
verbs and their obiects: the person or thing that the verb
,happens,to.
S For more informotion on Verbs followed by an infinitive, see page l
j3.
Ttp
The preposition that is used in French is not always the same as the
one that is used in English. Whenever you learn a new verb, try to
learn which preposition can be used after it too.
l rhe lists in this section concentrate on those French verbs that involve a
different construction from the one that is used in English.
tr
Verbs that are followed by i + obiect
l i is often the equivalent of the English word to when it is used with an
indirect object after verbs like send, give and soy.
dire quelque chose ir quelqu'un to say something to someone
donner quelque chose ir quelqu'un to give something to someone
6crire quelque chose i quelqu'un to write something to someone
envoyer quelque chose ir quelqu'un to send something to someone
montrer quelque chose i quelqu'un to show something to someone
+ For more informotion on lndirect objects, see page 49.
Pneposnprus 179
|> Here are some verbs taking i in French that have a different construction in
[nglish.
croire i quelque chose
r'lnt6resser ir quelqu'un/quelque
chose
fouer
ir quelque chose
ob6ir i quelqu'un
penser ir quelqu'un/quelque chose
r6pondre ir quelqu'un
t6l6phoner i quelqu'un
to believe in something
to be interested in someone/
something
to play something (sports, gomes)
to obey someone
to think about someone/something
to answer someone
to phone someone
rtp
When you are using jouer to talk about sports and games, you
use i. When you are using jouer to talk about musical instruments,
you use de.
jouer au tennis
jouer aux 6checs
jouer de la guitare
jouer du piano
to play tennis
to play chess
to play the guitar
to play the piano
D plaire followed by i is a common way of saying you like something.
plaire i quelqu'un to please someone (literollY)
Ton cadeau me plait beaucoup' I like your present a lot.
Ce film plait beaucoup aux This film is very popular with young
jeunes. people.
Grammar E><tra!
manquer ir works quite differently frorn its English equivalent, to miss. The English obiect
lr the French subjec! and the English subiect is the French oblect.
manquer i quelqu'un to be missed by someone (literolly)
Tu (subject) me (object) manques. | (subject) miss you (obiect).
Mon pays (subject) me (obiect)
manque beaucoup.
| (subject) miss my country
@biect)
very
much.
D There are also some verbs where you can put a direct obiect before ir. The
verb demander is the most common.
demander quelque chose ir quelqu'un
t
) For more informotion on Direct obiects,
to ask someone something, to ask
someone for something
see page 47.
with this type of verb. In English, you can say either to give something
to someone or to give someone something; lo show something to
someone or to show someone somethinq.
You can NEVER miss out i in French in the way that you can
sometimes miss out fo in English.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii
180 PReposmorus
@
ruote that demander in French does NOT mean fo demond.lt means
to osk something or to ask for something. lf you want to say demand
in French, use exiger.
Nous avons demand6 notre We asked a taxi driver the wav.
chemin d un chauffeur de taxi.
J'exige des excuses! | demand an apology!
A
Verbs that are followed by de + object
) Here are some verbs taking de in French that have a different construction
in English.
changer de quelque chose to change something (one's shoes and so on)
d6pendre de quelqu'un
/
to depend on someone/something
quelque chose
s'excuser de quelque chose to apologize for something
jouer de quelque chose to play something
parler de quelque chose to talk about something
se servir de quelque chose to use something
se souvenir de quelqu'un/ to remember someone/something
quelque chose
rw
When you are using jouer to talk about sports and games, you
use i. When you are using jouer to talk about musical instruments,
you use de.
jouer
au tennis
jouer
aux 6checs
jouer
de la guitare
jouer du piano
L Some common phrases using avoir also contain de.
avoir besoin de quelque chose to need something
avoir envie de quelque chose to want something
avoir peur de quelque chose to be afraid of something
) There are also some verbs where you can put a direct object before de.
remercier is the most common.
remercier quelqu'un de quelque chose to thank someone for something
+ For more informotion on Direct objects, see poge 47.
For further explanation of grammatical terms. please see pages viii-xii.
Pneposmorus 181
Grammar Ertra!
lhe verb se tromper de quelque chose is often the equivalent of to get the wrong ...
Je me suis tromp6 de num6ro. I got the wrong number.
Je me suis tromp6 de maison. I got the wrong house.
ll I
Verbs taking a direct obiect in French but not in English
D In English there are a few verbs that are followed by for, on, in, to or ot
which, in French, are not followed by a preposition such as a or de. Here
are the most common:
attendre quelqu'un/quelque chose to wait for sb/sth
chercher quelqu'un/quelque chose to look for sb/sth
demander quelqu'un/quelque chose to ask for sb/sth
6couter quelqu'un/quelque chose to listen to sb/sth
esp6rer quelque chose to hope for sth
payer quelque chose to
PaY
for sth
regarder quelqu'un/quelque chose to look at sb/sth
@
ruote that attendre does NOT mean to ottend in English. lt means to
wqit for. lf you want to say that you attend something, use assister
i quelque chose.
Je t'attends devant la gare. l'll wait for you in front of the
station.
Vous altez assister au concert? Are you going to attend the
concert?
D habiter can be used with or without a preposition:
o habiter is mostly used without a preposition when you are talking about
living in a house, a flat and so on
Nous habitons un petit We live in a small flat in town'
appartement en ville.
use habiter with ir when you are talking about a town or city, and au
(singutor) or aux (plurot) with the names of countries that are masculine
in French
Nous habitons i Liverpool. We live in Liverpool.
Nous habitons aux Etats-Unis. We live in the United States.
use habiter with en when you are talking about feminine countries
Nous habitons en Espagne. We live in Spain'
to play tennis
to play chess
to play the guitar
to play the piano
Key points
y' French prepositions after verbs are often not the ones that are
used in English. French verbs often have a different construction
from English verbs.
y' French verbs are usually linked to their obfects by de, ir or
nothing at all.
U/
You can never miss out i in French in the way that you can miss
out to in English constructions like to give someone something.
182 Pneposmorus
PRepostlotrls 183
Prepositions after adiectives
>
lust
like verbs, some French adiectives can be linked to what follows by
either i or de.
D An adlective followed by de or ir can be followed by a noun, a pronoun or
an infinitive.
D Some adjectives that can be followed by de are used to say how you feel,
that you are certain about something, or that it is necessary or important
to do something. These are the most common:
certain
content
d6sol6
certain
happy
sorry
enchant6
delighted
heureux
haPPY
important
imPortant
malheureux
unhaPPY
n6cessaire
necessary
sfir
sure
triste
sad
Tu es sOr de pouvoir venir?
Enchant6 de faire votre
connaissance.
Are you sure
You
can come?
Delighted to meet
You.
ll est n6cessaire de r6server.
You have to book'
Grammar Etctra!
) Some adjectives, such asfacile (meaning eosy), int6ressanl
(meaning interesting) or
Irnporriut"
(meaning impossible), can be followed by eitherir orde. de tends to be
u"iJ *r,"" you are saying something that is generally true. i tends to be used when
you are saying something about someone or something in particular'
ll est difficile de Prendre
une
d6cision.
ll est difficile d connaitre.
Son accent est difficile d
comprendre.
It's difficult to make a decision.
He's difficult to get to know.
His accent is difficult to understand.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
CONJUNCTIONS
What is a conjunction?
A conjunction is a word such as and, but, or, so, if and becouse, that links
two words or phrases of a similar type, or two parts of a sentence, for
exampfe, Diane and I have been friends for years; I Ieft becouse ! wos bored.
et mais, ou, parce que and si
D et mais, ott parce que and si are the most common conjunctions that you
need to know in French.
o siif
Je me demande si elle ment'
Si
i'6tais
d ta
Place, ie
ne
l'inviterais Pas.
Coru.lurucnorus
185
I wonder if she's lYing.
lf I were you, I wouldn't invite him'
o et and
toi et moi
ll pleut et il fait tris froid.
o mais but
C'est cher mais de trds bonne
qualit6.
@
Note that mais is also commonly found in front of oui and si.
'Tu viens ce soir?'-'Mais oui!' 'Are you coming tonight?,
-
'll n'a pas encore fini?'-
'Mais si!'
a
ouor
Tu pr6fdres le vert ou le bleu? Do you like the green one or the
blue one?
Donne-moi ga
sU ie
me f6che! Cive me that or l,ll get crossl
T'P
Be careful not to confuse ou (meaning or) with of (meaning
where).
. parce que because
Je ne peux pas sortir parce que
j'ai
encore du travail dr faire.
rw
si changes to s'before il or ils.
Sil
ne pleut pas, on mangera lf it doesn't rain' we'll eat
dehors.
outside'
you and me
It's raining and it's very cold.
It's expensive, but very good quality.
'Definitely!'
'Hasn't he finished yet?'-'He
certainly has!'
'fifr,
I can't go out because l've still got
work to do.
For further explanation of grammatical torms, please see pages viii-xii.
L
ili
186 Gol.lurucnolrs
Some other common conjunctions
) Here are some other common French coniunctions:
o
car because
ll faut prendre un bus pour y You need to take a bus to get there
acc6der car il est interdit d y because cars are prohibited.
monter en voiture.
@
Note that car is used in formal language or in writing. The normal
way of saying becouse is parce que.
o
Comme aS
Gomme il pleut, je prends la As it's raining, l'm taking the car.
voiture.
'
donc so
J'ai rat6 le train, donc je
serai I missed the train, so l'll be late.
en retard.
o
lql5qus when
J'allais composer ton num6ro I was about to dial your number
lorsque tu as appel6. when you called.
o
quand when
Je ne sors pas quand il pleut. I don't go out when it rains.
@
t,tote that when quand and lorsque are used to talk about something
that will happen in the future, the French verb has to be in the future
tense even though English uses a verb in the present tense.
Ouand
je
serai riche, j'achdterai When l'm rich, l'll buy a nice house.
une belle maison.
+ For more informotion on the Present tense and the Future tense, see poges
71 and 98.
L French, like English, also has conjunctions which have more than one part.
Here are the most common:
o
ne ... ni ... ni neither ... nor
Je n'1aime ni les lentilles ni
I like neither lentils nor spinach.
les 6pinards.
@
Note that the ne part of this expression goes just
before the verb.
o
ou ... ou, ou bien ... ou bien either ... or
Ou il est malade ou il ment. Either he's sick or he's lying.
Ou bien il m'6vite ou bien il Either het avoiding me or else he
ne me reconnait pas, doesn't recognize me.
The conjunction que
D When que is used to join two parts of a sentence, it means fhof.
ll dit qlLil m'aime.
Elle sait que vous 6tes lit.
Gorrr.lurucnorus 187
He says that he loves me.
She knows that you're here.
D que is also used when you are comparing two things or two people. In this
case, it means os or thon.
lls n'y vont pas aussi souvent
They don't go as often as us'
que nous.
Les melons sont plus chers
que Melons are more expensive than
les bananes.
bananas.
t
) For more informotion on Comparative odjectives, see page 34.
D Some words which give you information about when something happens,
can also be conjunctions if you put que after them. pendant que (meaning
while) is the most common of these.
christian a t6l6phon6
pendant Christian phoned while chantal was
que
Ghantal prenait son bain.
in the bath'
[J
Note that when pendant que (meaning whi!e), quand
(meaning wfien)
- and forsque
(meaning when) are used to talk about something that
will happ-en in the future, the French verb has to be in the future tense
even though English uses a verb in the present tense.
Pendant que
ie
serai en France,
l'll go and visit them while l'm in
j'irai les voir.
France.
t
) For more information on the Present tense and the Future tense, see poges
71 and 98.
Grammar Extra!
tluc can replace another coniunction to avoid having to repeat it.
Ouand tu seras plus grand et When you're older and
You
have
que tu auras une maison i toi,...
a house of your own,
"'
Comme il pleut et que
ie
n'ai
pas de parapluie, ...
As it's raining and I don't have an
umbrella, ...
ln English you could say both He soys he loves me and He says that
he loves me, or She knows you're here and She knows thot you're here.
You can NEVER leave out que in French in the same way.
For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages viii-xii.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
l0
11
't2
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
30
40
50
60
70
71
72
80
81
90
9',l
100
101
300
301
1 000
2000
1,000,000
un (une)
deux
trois
quatre
cinq
six
sept
huit
neuf
dix
onze
douze
treize
quatorze
quinze
seize
dix-sept
dix-huit
dix-neuf
vingt
vingt et un (une)
vingt-deux
trente
quarante
cinquante
soixante
soixante-dix
soixante et onze
soixante-douze
quatre-vingts
quatre-vingt-un (-une)
quatre-vingt-dix
quatre-vingt-onze
cent
cent un (une)
trois cents
trois cent un (une)
mille
deux mille
un mlllion
NUMBERS
premier (1er), premiire (1re)
-r,^\
deuxiEme
(2e or 2Gme; or second(e)
(2no(e)1
troisiEme
(3e or 3eme;
quatriime
1+e
or 4fme)
cinquidme 15e
or 5eme)
sixidme
16e
or 6efe)
septiEme 1Ze
or 7!me)
huitiEme (8e or 8eme1
neuviEme
(9e or 9e.me)
dixiEme
(10e or 101t")
onziEme (11e or 11"T")
douzidme
(12e or 12.et")
treiziEme
(13e or tt"t:)
quatorziEme (14e or l4eme)
quinziEme (15e or l5eme)
seiziime (16e or l6eme)
dix-septiEme
(17e or 17:me)
dix-huitiime
(l8e or l8ele)
dix-neuviEme
(19e or'l9eme)
vingtiime (2Oe or 20em1
.
vingt et unidme
(21e or 2l:me)
vinit-deuxidme
(22e or 22eme)
treitiEme
(3oe or 3oeT")
centiime
(100e or 100eme)
cent uniime
(l0le or 101eme)
milliime (l0O0e or l000eme)
un demi
un tiers
deux tiers
un quart
un cinquiEme
z6ro virgule cinq (0,5)
trois virgule quatre (3,4)
dix pour cent
cent pour cent
NuMeens 189
EXAMPLES
He lives at number ten.
on page nineteen
in chapter seven
He lives on the fifth floor.
He came in third.
scale one to twentY-five thousand
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
1 oth
1 1th
'lzth
1 3th
14th
15th
1 6rh
17th
1 8th
1 9th
2oth
21st
22nd
3oth
't
00th
101st
1 000th
112
113
213
114
1ls
0.5
3.4
10o/o
100o/o
EXEMPLES
ll habite au dix.
d la page dix-neuf
au chapitre sePt
ll habite au cinQuidme
(6tage).
ll est aniv5 troisiime'
6chelle au vingt'cinq millidme
190 Trtae aruo Dere
THEURE
Ouelle heure est-il?
ll est...
une heure
une heure dix
une heure et quart
une heure et demie
deux heures moins vingt
deux heures moins le quart
A quelle heure?
ir minuit
i midi
ir une heure (de l'aprEs-midi)
i huit heures (du soir)
i llhl5 or
onze heures quinze
it 2Oh45 or
vingt heures quarante-cinq
LA DATE
LES JOURS DE LA SEMAINE
lundi
mardi
mercredi
jeudi
vendredi
samedi
dimanche
Ouand?
lundi
le lundi
tous les lundis
mardi dernier
vendredi prochain
samedi en huit
samedi en quinze
THE TIME
What time is it?
It's...
one o'clock
ten past one
quarter past one
half past one
twenty to two
quarter to two
At what time?
at midnight
at midday, at noon
at one o'clock (in the afternoon)
at eight o'clock (in the evening)
at 1 1.15 or eleven fifteen
at 20.45 or twenty forty-five
THE DATE
DAYS OF THE WEEK
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
When?
on Monday
on Mondays
every Monday
last Tuesday
next Friday
a week on Saturday
two week on Saturday
LES MOIS
ianvier
f6vrier
.
mars
avril
mai
juin
juillet
ao0t
septembre
octobre
novembre
d6cembre
Ouand?
en f6vrier
le
'ler
dcembre
le premier d6cembre
en 1998
en mille neuf cent quatre-
vingt-dix-huit
Ouel
jour
sommes-nous?
Nous sommes |e...
lundi 26 f6vrier or
lundi vingt-six f6vrier
dimanche ler octobre or
dimanche premier octobre
Tunenruo Dere 191
MONTHS OF THE YEAR
January
February
March
April
May
lune
July
August
September
October
November
December
When?
in February
on December 1st
on December first
in 1998
in nineteen ninety-eight
What day is it?
It's...
Monday 26 February or
Monday twenty-sixth of
February
Sunday 1st October or
Sunday the first of October
Note that months of the year are NOT written with a capital letter in
French.
Note that days of the week are NOT written with a capital letter in
French.
a
192 Trurnruo Dnre
VOCABULAIRE
Quand?
aujourd'hui
ce matin
cet aprEs-midi
ce soir
Souvent?
tous les jours
tous les deux jours
une fois par semaine
deux fois par semaine
une fois par mois
$a
s'est pass6 quand?
le matin
le soir
hier
hier soir
avant-hier
$a
va se passer quand?
demain
demain matin
aprEs-demain
dans deux jours
dans une semaine
dans quinze jours
le mois prochain
l'an prochain or l'ann6e
prochaine
il y a une semaine a week ago
il y a quinze jours two weeks ago
l'an dernier or l'ann6e derniEre last year
USEFUL VOCABUTARY
When?
today
this morning
this afternoon
this evening
How often?
every day
every other day
once a week
twice a week
once a month
When did it happen?
in the morning
in the evening
yesterday
yesterday evening
the day before yesterday
When is it going to happen?
tomorrow
tomorrow morning
the day after tomorrow
in two days
in a week
in two weeks
next month
next year
ONE word in French.
continuer
tomber
rendre
payer quelque chose
regarder
quelqu'un/quelque
chose
6couter
quelqu'un/quelque
chose
different waYs.
parler gle quelque chose
s0r ele
quelque chose
voler
quelque chose d quelqu'un
croire i quelque chose
to go on
to fall down
to give back
to pay for something
to look at somebodY/something
to listen to somebodY/something
to talk about something
sure of something
to steal something
from someone
to believe in something
)ral problems
can't always translate French into..Enslish, aT, E"gi:l
1:T :::"::,*tto
ii-*ta.
While occasionally
it is possible to do this' often it is nol For
lmmPle:
, o English phrasalverbs
(verbs followed bf
1%"1-"t"'"tl::,:t^:t-"tb)'
for exampfe, to run awoy, to fall down, are often translated by
For more information on Verbs, see pages 69-1 37'
r sentences
which contain a verb and preposition in English, might
NOT contain a preposition in French'
o Similarly, sentences which contain a verb and preposition in
-
ii"nift, tight NOT contain a preposition in English'
ob6ir dr quelqu'un/quelque
to obey somebody/something
chose
changer de quelque chose
to change something
."nqu", de quelque chose
to lack something
o The same French
preposition may be translated into English in
O For more informotion on Prepositions'
see poge 162'
194 Tlps
Trps 195
+
o A word which is singular in English may not be in French.
luggage
his/her hair
o Similarly, a word which is singular in French may not be in
English.
un short
mon pantalon
. a present
ParticiPle
Etant plus timide que moi, Being shyer'than me, she...
elle...
For more informstion on the Present participle, see page 125.
. a nOUn
Le ski me maintient en forme. Skiing keeps me fit.
For more information on Nottns, see page 1.
to be
The verb to beis generally translated by tre.
For more information on Nouns, see page 1.
o In English, you can use 3 to show who or what something
belongs to; in French, you have to use de.
les bagages
ses cheveux
la voiture de mon frdre
la chambre des enfants
ll
part
demain.
Je lisais un roman.
Elle est assise li-bas
ll 6tait couch6 par tere.
J'aime aller au cin6ma
Arr6tez de vous disouter!
Avant de oartir...
shorts
my trousers
my brother! car
the childrenl bedroom
He's leavlng tomorrow.
lwas reading a book.
She's sitting over there.
He was lving on the ground.
I like going to the cinema.
Stop arouinq!
Before leavino...
ll est tard.
Ge n'est pas possible!
Ouel temps fait-il?
ll faat beau.
ll fait mauvais.
ll fait du vent.
Ouel 6ge as-tu?
J'ai quinze ans.
Comment allez-vous?
Je vais trds bien.
It's late.
It's not possible!
to be warm
to be cold
to be hungry
to be thirsty
to be afraid
to be wrong
to be right
What's the weather like?
It! lovely.
It's miserable.
It! windy.
How old are you?
l'm fifteen.
How are you?
ljm-very well.
+ For more information on the preposition de, see page 166.
Specific problems
tr
=ins
L The -ing ending in English is translated in a number of different ways in
French:
o to be ...-ing is translated by a verb consisting of one word.
when you are talking about the physical position of something, se trouver
may be used,
Oir se trouve la gare? Where3 the station?
certain set phrases which describe how you are feeling or a state you are
In, the verb avoir is used.
avoir chaud
avoir froid
avoir faim
avoir soif
I
avoir Peur
avoir tort
avoir raison
when you are describing what the weather is like, use the verb faire.
+ For more information on Verbs, see poges 69-1 37.
@
trtote that when you are talking about somebody's or something,s
physical position, you use a past participle.
+ For more informqtion on the Past participle, see page 111.
D -ing can also be translated by:
r an infinitive
When you are talking about someone's age, use the verb avoir'
When talking about your health, use the verb aller.
+ For more information on lnfinitives, see page 133.
For further explanation of grammatical tems, please see pages viii-xii.
196 Trps
E
it is. it's
) if is and if3 are usually translated by il est or elle est when referring to a
noun.
'Oi est mon parapluie?'-
Where's my umbrella? lt's there, in
'llS! la, dans le coin.' the corner.
Descends la valise si elle n'CEt Bring the case down if it isn't too
pas trop lourde. heavy.
) When you are talking about the time, use il est.
'Ouelle heure est-il?'-'ll est What time !5j? -
lt's half past
sept heures et demie.' seven.
) When you are describing what the weather is like, use the verb faire.
ll fait beau. tt5 lovely.
ll fait mauvais. lt's miserable.
ll fait du vent. ltt windy.
} lf you want to say, for example, it is difficult to do something or it is easy to
do something, use il est.
Trps 197
ff you want to say that you know how to do something, use savoir.
Elle ne sait pas nager. She can't swim.
When con is used with verbs to do with what you can see or hear, you do
use pouvoir in French.
Je ne vois rien.
ll les entendait.
I can't see anything.
He could hear them.
ll est difficile de r6pondre dr
cette question,
l In ALL other phrases and constructions,
C'est moi qui ne I'aime pas.
C'est Charles qui l'a dit.
C'est ici que je les ai achet6s.
C'est parce que la poste est
ferm6e que...
It is difficult to answer this question,
use c'est.
It's me who doesn't like him.
It's Charles who said so.
It's here that I bought them.
It's because the post office is closed
that...
ta
The preposition to is generally translated by it.
Donne le livre d Patrick. Cive the book to Patrick.
For more information on the preposition d, see page 16j.
When you are talking about the time, use moins.
dix heures moins cinq five to ten
dr sept heures moins le quart at a quarter to seven
ff you want to say (in order) to, use pour.
Je I'ai fait pour vous aider' I did it ls help you.
ll va en ville pour acheter un He's going into town to buy a
cadeau.
present.
El
there is, there are
) Both there is and there are are translated by il y a.
ll y a quelqu'un i la porte. There is someone at the door.
ll y a cinq livres sur la table. There are five books on the table.
trt
can. to be able
) lf you want to talk about someone's physical ability to do something, use
pouvoir.
Pouvez-vous faire dix
kilomitres d pied?
Can you walk ten kilometres?
For further explanation of grammatical te]mt please see pages vili-xii.
THE ALPHABET
) The French alphabet is pronounced differently from the way it is pronounced
in English. Use the list below to help you sound out the letters.
MAIN INDEX
't25
39
54
Ava
Brb
C,C
Drd
Er
F,t
G,g
H,h
l,i
t,i
K,k
Ll
M,r
N,h
o,o
Prp
qq
R,r
5,s
It
U,U
Vv
wrw
X,X
Y,y
Z,Z
lql
lbel
lsel
ldel
lel
lefl
kel
taJl
lil
lsil
lkal
lell
leml
lenl
lol
lpel
lkyl
lerl
lesl
ltel
tyl
lvel
[dubleve]
tiksl
Iigrek]
[zed]
(ah) like'a' in 'la'
(bay)
Gay)
(day)
(uh) like'e' in 'le'
(efO
0av)
(ash)
(ee)
0ee)
(ka)
(ell)
(emm)
(enn)
(oh)
(pay)
(ku) like'u' in 'une'
(air)
(ess)
(tay)
(u) like'u' in 'une'
(vay)
(doobla-vay)
(eex)
(ee-grek)
(zed)
!, 6 verbs 79,80,96
82,'163
12,'t9
14, sO, 57, 1 33, 1 35,
163, 167,
't7s,
178, 183
.,. | 164
fe, fa, f' and les 14, 55,
63,163
gt
nouns 16
ru 80. 101,108
verbs
'122
20,23,25
t 25,27,39,44,125
endings 27
27, 29, 34, 35
followed byir/de 183
by infinitive 137
farticiples
used as125
plural 30, 35
23,2s,32,16'l
"126.
152
r word order 160
105
25,27,39, 44,-'125
of articles 13,19
: of past
44,114,116,117
participle
adjectives
pronouns
wrbs 72, 74, 76, 93, 98, 1o5
123,134
41, 61
70, 82, 98, 104, 1'10,
'l'13,
132,'135
22
12,19
32
12, 19, 21, 22, 24
60, I 38
60, 1 38
50, 1 38
79,100,107
159,171
113
12
187
os 34
aux 14, 55, 63,163,164
auxquelles 63
auxquels 63
avant 159
avec 16,'171
avoir 16, 48, 56, 70, 87
'
1'11 ,
113,137,160,163, I 71, 180
avoir: conditional 110
avoir: future tense 103
avoir: imperative 87
avoir: impersonal verbs 127
avoir: past participle 1 1 8
avoir: ptesent tense 82
avoir: pluperfect tense 1'19
avoir:
perfecttense 111, 113, 118
avoir: present
Participle
'126
avoir: subjunctive 132
be 123
beau 20,23,29,32
beaucoup (de) 156,159
bel 29
belle 29
bien 36,153,156
body: parts of
"17,40,165
bon 20,23,32,153
c' see ce
c' see ce
i"
66
iar 186
ce 37,65
ceci 66
cela 66
celle 66
celle-ci 67
celleli 67
celles 66
celles-ci 67
celleslir 67
celui 66
celui-ci 67
celui-Ih 67
ces 37
c sont 2'1,52,65
c'est 21,52,65
Get 37
c'tait 65
cette 37
ceux 66
ceux-ci 67
ceux-lir 67
chacun 51,60
chaque 4'l
chei 32,153
chez 171
-ci 37,67
clothinq 11, 164
cofoursi adiectives 31, 32
combien (de) 146,159
comme 186
comment 146
comparative adiectives 34
comparative adverbs 155
comparisons 34,52
comparisons:
pronouns used in 52
compound nouns 11,33
concrete nouns 16
conditional 105
conditional: irregular verbs 109
conditional: reflexive verbs I 09
coniuqations 69
coniuiations: first 72
coniulations: second 74
coniugations: third 76
confunctions
'129,1U
contre 172
countries 17,163,164,169
court
.,d
dans
dates
32
105
57,169,172
't8,'tg'l
days of the week 5, 1 8, 190
de 15, 20, 35, 56,133,'135'
140, 159, 164, 166, 171,
'r80.
183
de: with fe, fa, I' andles 15,22,
55, 56,63
definitearticfe 12,13,16,35
demander 179
demonstrativeadiectives 37
demonstrativepronouns 65
depuis 159,172
deinier 33
derriire
"159,173
des 15,19,20,22,56,'166
descendre 1"13,114,'l'15,
120,126
describing words see adiectives
desquelles 63
desquels 63
devant 159,173
devenir 1 1 3
devoir
-102,118,132,133
dire 118,132
directobiect 114,116,118,
135,181
direct obiect pronouns 4Z 58. 59
direct questions 151
doino words see verbs
dommage:
il est dommage que 128
186 donc
donner
dont
droit
du
duquel
dur
eoa
each other
6couter
either ... or
elle
72, 85, 93,99,
'106,
112, 119, 126,
'130
64,67
153
15,22,56,'166
63
154
41, 60
91
135
186
43, 44, 51, 66, 69
I for something 105
de 159
163
hdre 76,a5,95,99,106,
112, 113, 119, 126, 131, 18'l
14, 55, 63,163,164
63
34,'t55
41
elfe-mGme 52
effes 43,45,51,69
ef f es-mmes 52
emphasis 52,66
em'phatic pronouns 51
en 17,18, 56, 59,85,'125'
126,"168,172 For further explanation of grammatical tems, please see pages viii-xii.
Mnru lruoex 2O1
200 Mnrru lruoex
en train de 136
endings: adiectives 27
endings: nouns 2, 3, 7, 8,9
endings:verbs 69,72,74,76,
93, 94, 98, 1 05, I I 4
entendre 1 35
entre 173
entrer 1 1 3
-er 34,155
-erverbs 72, 85, 93, 105, 112,
119,123,126,130
-erverbs: spelling changes 78,
79, 80, 81, 95, 99,
't07
esp6rer 81.'134
essayer 80, I01,108
-est 34,155
est-ce que 143,'144
et 33,
'184
tre 48, 65, 70, 7'l , 87, 92,
1't1, 160,'t7'l
atre conditional 110
etre future tense I 03
Ctre imoerfect tense 97
Ctre imoersonal verbs 127
atre
passive 123
Ctre past participle 1 1 8
Ctre Dresent tense 82
etrq pluperfect tense 1'19
etre perfecttense 1 11, 113,
'I1Z,
ll8, I19
etre present participle 126
Ctre subjunctive
eux
eux-mOmes
52
39,54
146
'146
43,5'l
43, 44, 66, 69,127
55,^128
128
102,118,'t28,
129,130
if manque
'128
if parait gue
'128
il pleut 45, 103, 118
il reste
il semble que
il vaut mieux (que)
ilya
lls
't28
128
129
56,128
43,45, 69
lmperative 48.85
imperative: irregular verbs 87
imperative: word order 86
imperfecttense 92,
"119,'l60
imperfect tense:
irregular verbs 97
imperfect tense:
reflexive verbs 96
impersonal verbs 127
in 35,163,168,169
-ing 125,
'137, '162, '171,'175
indefinite adiectives 41
indefinitearticles 12,19
indefinite article:
in negative sentences 20
indefinite article: use of 2'l
indeflnite pronounr 60
indirect object
"122,178
indirect object pronouns 58, 59
indirect questions 1 51
infinitives 48,65,72,74,76,
88,105, r11,129,130,
13't,137,140
infinitives: after adjectives 137
infinitives:
after another verb 98, 1 33
infinitives:
after prepositions
'171,
174, 175
in order to 175
instructions 137
invariable adjectlves 31
inversion 143
invert 143
-irverbs 74,84,85,94,'105,
1
"t
2, 1 1 5, 1 1 9, 1 20,
"1
23,'1 26
irregular comparative and
superlative adjectives 35
irregular comparative and
superlative adverbs
'156
inegular feminine ad,ectives 29
irregular verbs: conditional 1 09
irregular verbs: future tense 102
irregular verbs: imperative 87
irregular verbs:
imperfect tense 97
irregular verbs: passive 124
irregular verbs: perfect tense 1 I 8
irreoular verbs:
pliperfect tense 121
irreoular verbs:
prEsent participles 126
irregular verbs:
present tense 82,84
irregular verbs: subiunctive 1 l,
it 43, 44, 47, 66, 1 ) |
its t9
itself 5t
i'
see lr
iamais
I 5 /
je 43,61,
ieter
79,100,101
jeune 3il
fobs
2l
joli l)
jouer 179,180
fusque
17 |
l' see lq h
la
"13,47
-la 38,67
la leur 5l
la mienne 54
la moins 35
la n6tre 51
fa plus 34
la sienne 54
la tienne 54
la v6tre 54
lancer 78,95,126
languages 5, 17, 169
faqueffe 63, 149
le
'13,47,46
fe leur 54
le meilleur 36
le mien 54
fe mieux 36,156
le moindre 36
le moins 35, 156
le n6tre 54
le pire 36
le pis 156
fe pfus 34,156
le plus mal 156
fe sien 54
le tien 54
fe v6tre 54
leost 35,155
lent 153
lentement 153
lequef 63,'149
fes
'13,47
fes leurs 54
fes miennes 54
les miens 54
les moins 35
fes n6tres 54
fes plus 34
fes siennes 54
les siens 54
fes tiennes 54
fes tiens 54
fes votres 54
fesquelles 63,149
fesquefs 63,"149
/ess 34
letb 85
feur 39,49
feurs 39
lever 80, 101,108
-11 98
long 32
lorsque
'186
see me
39
184
153,156
78,96,126,'t27
128,179
adiectives 25,27,28,
'
29,30
and feminine forms
t
nouns: coJnpounds 1 l, 33
nouns: conirete 16
nouns; endinqs 2, 3, 7, 8, 9
nouns: Enqlis6, used in French 5
nouns: feminine 1,2, 3, 5, 13'
17,19,22,44,45
nouns: masculine 1,2,3, 5,13,
19,22,44,45
nouns: plural ''t,9, 14, 19, 23
nouns: iinqular
1
nous 42,
ql, qg,
5'1,69,85,
89' 9'l
nous-mmes 52
nouveau 29,32
nouvel
29
nouveffe
29
numbers 75,190
obiect 122,147
obiect
pronouns 47,58, 59
obiect bronouns: word order 86
eit 11
of 167,'175
on 43,45,51,69,124
on 164
one 43,69
one onother 91
one's
39
oneself 51,52
orders and instructions 48, 50, 85
orders and instructions:
irregular verbs 87
orders and instructions:
word order 50,57,A6'90
othet
41
ou
184
oir
'146'184
ou... ou 186
ou bien... ou bien 186
oui 144,184
out
39
ours
54
ourselves 5'1,52
par 173
baraftre
127
iarce
que 194
barler-
17
iarticipfes:
past 44, 48, 111
' '
1"14.119,120,123,171
participles:
Present
55, 125,170
'Dartir
84, 113,115, 120' 126
iartitive article 12,22, 56
barts of the body 17, 40,165
Das
l4l
iassive
45,122
bassive: irreqular verbs 124
bastpa*ici-pl"s
44,48,1'11'
114, 119, 120, 123, 171
past
ParticiPles:
'
irreiular verbs 1 1 8
oav6. 80,101, 108
beiet 79,100,107
bendant
(que)
'174,187
ierfecttenie
111,139,143'
' "160"i.74
Derfect tense: irreqular verbs 1 1 8
berfect tense: reflixive verbs 1 1 7
bersonal
pronouns 42
bersonnd
60,168
bersonne de 6'l
ierer
80,101
petlt 20, 23, 32,
'l53
beu 153, 156, 158
bire
36,153
brs
153
bfaire
179
bfeuvoir
103,'128
ifuperfecttense
119,139
pluperfect tense:
'
irr'eoular verbs 12O
Dluperfect tense:
'
reilexive verbs
'l2o
olural 9,11
'plus
34, 155
iossession
67,167
bossessive adiectlveJ 39
bossessive Pronouns
54
possible: il est
Possible
que 1 28
Pour
| /+
bourquoi
146
bouv,iir +8, 1o2, 118,'132, 133
br6f6rer
81
'
134
bremier
32
brendre
118,132
irepositions 47, 51, 67,126,
147.162
prepositions: after adiectives 1 83
prepositions: after verbs
'i,78
preposruons:
'
foilowed bv infinitive 137
present particiPles 55, 125,'17 O
present participles:
'
irreoulir verbs 126
pres6nttense 71,72,74,76,
'
98.160. 186
present tense: inegulai verbs 82
bresent tense: reflexive verbs E9
oresent tense:
'
soellinq chanqes 78
orices aid rate-s I 8, 1 65
prochain 33
irofessions
21
'
172
i:ronouns
42,140
pronouns:
'
reffexive 89,96,'102,1O9
Dronouns: word order 50,86
bronunciation 7, 10, 14, 19, 28'
'
30, 39, 57,78,79,80,85,
100, 107, 144
propre 32
qu' see que
duand 146,186
quantities 22,168
riue 34,62,67,147,187
riuef 21,'148'"149
duefle
'148,
149
duelfes
148,149
tiuelque chose 60, 1 68
dueldue chose de 61
dueldu'un
60,168
dueldu'un de 61
duefs
148,149
ou'est-ce
que i48
riu'est-ce dui
148
ouestionw6rds 65,'144'"146
questions 21,142
duestions: indirect 151
qui 62,67,147
dui est-ce que/qui 148
duoi 146' 147
ripide 159
himself
his
how
how much/many
il
il est
il fait
il faut (que)
49,5'l
52
132
51
52
1,',13, 19, 22,
44,45
32,153,154
47, 49,89
47,51
't7
5
32,36,'153
41, 52
39
118
36,153
54
48,5'l
52
36
34. 1 55
39
113,'114
5,169
34
34,153
113
39
.52
see ne
113
see nouns
every 41
everyone 60,127
everything 61
faire 70,82,103,110, 118,
1 27, 1 2A, 1 32, 1 34, 1 37, 1 38
falloir 103,127,134
feminine adiectives 27, 29, 34,
35
femininenouns'1,'13,17,19,
22,44,45
few: a few 41
finir 74, 85,94,99,106, 113,
119,126,131
fol 29
folle
fort
fou
from
from ... to
29
't54
29
166
1 64, 167
future tense 71, 94,
'174,'186
future tense: irregular verbs I 02
future tense: reflexive verbs 1 02
79,100,107,128
1,2,3
'153
153
5Z
5Z
182
5Z
43, 51, 69
150
39,47,5'l
54
52
47, 5'l
words
vowels 8
32 : adiectives
139
,,. iamais 20,23,138
... iri ... ni 186
...
pas 20,23,138,144
...'personne 60, 138
... blus
1 38
--- iien 61, 1 38
128
21,23,138
de after
word order
il est
r que
20
139
128
186
150
geler
genoer
gentil
gentiment
grand
gros
habiter
haut
he
hein
ner
ners
herself
him
a'!rt-ce
pas
Itlttoyer
llrer
D0 longer
Nmore
''DOne ,t&odY
||On
non plus
nol
flot
Qothlng
notre
muns
nouns: abstract
80,101,108
138
138
138
60, 1 38
60, I 38
140,150
139
39
138
50, 1 38
39
1, 13
't6
202 Mnrru lruoex
re verbs 76, 85, 105, 112, 115,
11 9,'t 20, 1 23,'t 26, 1 31
reffexive pronouns a9, 96, 102,
109
reflexive pronouns: word order
90
reflexive verbs 84,124
reflexive verbs: present tense 89
reflexive verbs: conditional 1 09
reflexive verbs: future tense 1 02
reflexive verbs:
imperfect tense 96
reflexive verbs:
orders and instructions 90
reflexive verbs: perfect tense 1 1 7
reflexive verbs:
pluperfect tnse
ie-q:i iit ;l
regurar verps
r6.1rlerr
relative pronouns
47,49,89
44,102,118
69
71, 98
tenses: imperfect 92
tenses:perfect fi1
tenses: pluperfect 119
tenses: present 71, 72, 74, 76, 98
39
34,187
37, 62, 66, 67
thot one/those ones 67
the
the one
tnetr
theirs
them
't2
66
39
54
47, 51
TO:
ro!'rrit le
i0ri!hei
:{.ii
r'OXr5
Itlt:
ll0il;,-rl
,i !1rrr::::,
i:tul: il r
'ntr,.ir:
5'l
towns and cities 163,164,169
transport 165,169
i:ioi f,tll i
'159
tu 40,43, 69,85
Lin 19
,r*iri 1 ,,
voij: 1,,
vc'ir 102,
'118,
| ;
/0ti
iJif,i:r:.
venlrjr 48,87, 102,118, 1 i.'
lr
rrtu,: 40, 43, 47, 49, 51 , 69, 8"
89,
')
I
1.'
43, 45, 51, 6
'
.1"
i;E:
i6,il il
tense
tenses: future
VERBTABLES
lntroduction
llre Verb Tables in the following section contain 93 tables of French verbs
(rOme regular and some irregular) in alphabetical order. Each table shows you
ttrc follo-wing forms: Present, Perfect, Future, subiunctive, lmperfect,
conditional, lmperative and the Present and Past Participles. For more
Ilf ormation on these tenses, how they are formed, when they are used and so
{)lr, you shoufd look at the section on verbs in the main text on pages 69-137.
lrr order to help you use the verbs shown in Verb Tables correctly, there are also
,r number of eximple phrases at the bottom of each page to show the verb as
rt is used in context.
lrr French there are both regular verbs (their forms follow the normal rules) and
lrregular verbs (their formi do not follow the normal rules). The regular verbs
[r these tables are:
'loriri,irl
(regular ,rf verb, Verb Table 29)
trnrr (regular il verb, Verb Table 39)
,rll ,ij,,ril.;. (regular','i verb, Verb Table 8)
I he irregular verbs are shown in full.
I he Verb Index at the end of this section contains over 2000 verbs, each of
which is cross-referred to one of the verbs given in the Verb Tables. The table
rhows the patterns that the verb listed in the index follows'
I;1:,
than
that
ilCiJt- | i.' '!l'l
trt l Is-irri:tl r::
WC
weatner
!:!'i5 !tiI
1e I
'ici1 i:!e
-3
\e
sdme
:t;ii i:,
r'a:t,loir
1i:Ui
12Q
135
69
8i
62
't13,
128
60,168
61
67
39
41
16,175
90
175
87,102,118,126,'t32,
.t00
school subjects 17
lri 88, 89, 91
seasons 5,18,169
r,ri;rer 90,102,109,117
128
181
39
43, 51, 69
144,184
singular adjectives 25, 27, 30
singular nouns
:tQi
ioi ir4ir+ 52
some 12, 19, 20, 22, 24, 41
somebody 60
someone 45,60
something
.!r'iri
:oIirL
.oili 175
spelling changes in -,:r verbs 78,
79, 80, 81, 95, 99, 107
sports 17
stems 69,72,74,76,93,94,
98,
',l
05
stressed pronouns
see emphatic pronouns
subiect 122,147
themselves 52
there 57,127
these 37, 67
they 43,45, 51, 69
this 37,66,67
this one/these ones 67
those 37,67
time 45,169,172
to
'163,
168
51
52
1't3, 1't5, 120
39
61,152
41,61,'t52
152
61,'t52
weights and measures
what 146,14t"
what (o) ...! )
when 14r
where 14t
which 62, 63, 14')
which one(s) 14')
who 62,11,
whom 62,'14,
whose 64,14t'
why 14t'
with 17
within
'l
{,'t
will 9fi
word order: with adverbs 16(l
word order:
in indirect questions 1 5 I
word order: in negatives I 3(l
woro oroer:
in orders and instructions 8('
woro oroer:
in questions 143,141
word order: with adjectives 3)
word order: with,.:t and,r 5Z 5(r
word order:
with object pronouns 48,50, 511
woro oroer:
with reflexive pronouns 9t)
would 10lJ
r 57, 59, 85
years 169
yes 144
.tt:)).: 1 I
you 43, 46, 47, 51, 69
your 39
yours 54
yourself 51, 52
yourselves 52
subiect pronouns
subiunctive
,l
5.1
60
39
113,114
43
129
jsi i!iit!':rL
. ir,.i" ,. ,.,
:E'
she
rit
;i mf
U[-t li]!.r
us
'/4[i]if
tri{ill
't9
.t58
47, 5'l
128,134
94,98,105
29
,o
29,32
i59
142,144
ye:nir.
102, 1'13, 118, 132,
'135
rcnr i-!
'136
verbs 69
verbs: 1, 2, 3, 6 type 79, 80, 96
verbs: active 122
verbs: conditional
'105
verbs:endings 69,72,74,76,
93, 94, 98, 105,
'114
verbs: followed by i
.l
35
verbs;
followed by an infinitive 133
verbs: followed by rne 1 35
verbs: infinitives 48, 65, 72, 74,
76, 88, 10s, 111,
'129,
130,
't31,137,140
verbs: plural 69
verbs: prepositions after 135,137
verbs: regular
verbs: singular
69
69
verbs: stems 69, 72,74,76,93, subiunctive: irregular verbs 1 32
suggestions i 05
superfativeadjectives 34, 167
superlative adverbs 155
s7, 175
see i:e
39
l'
':t
tigif
vie ll l;
iteLit,
.ri
tf;
voice: in questions
F
aehster (to
buy)
p$?H$ffintIT
r
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vou5
ils/elles
PHRFHCT
I
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
FUTUNE
I
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
IMPERATIVE
achite / achetons / achetez
PRFSEI\IT PARTISIPTE
achetant
VrRg Taelrs Vrne Taeles
achdte
achbtes
achdte
achetons
achetez
achEtent
ai achet6
as achet6
a achet6
avons achet6
avez achet6
ont achet6
achdterai
achbteras
achbtera
achEterons
achdterez
achEteront
flF{fr s Hx\t"T' $ Li ff ,"r ff r{*"fi vffi
i' achbte
tu achdtes
il/elle/on achEte
nous achetions
vous achetiez
ils/elles achEtent
IMPERFiiCT
j'
achetais
tu achetais
illelle/on achetait
nous achetions
vous achetiez
ils/elles achetaient
Sf}lUffilTfSFiiAt"
j'
achdterais
tu achEterais
illelle/on achdterait
nous achdterions
vous achEteriez
ils/elles achdteraient
PAST
p$,$?TE,fri$*l1t-ta
achet6
PRE$EIST
,' acquiers
tu acquiers
illelle/on acquiert
nous acquerons
vous acqu6rez
ils/elles acquidrent
PERFHfr'T
, ar acqurs
tu as acquis
illelle/on a acquis
nous avons acquis
vous avez acquts
ils/elles ont acquis
FUTTJftF
j'
acquerrai
tu acquerras
illelle/on acquerra
nous acquerrons
vous acquerrez
ils/elles acquerront
IMPEffiAFI\1L
acquiers / acqu6rons I acquf.rez
PRESFISI PAffiTifiBPLtr
acquerant
pffi
E$
g&tT
$ ti HJs".!ilucrfi wE
i' acquibre
tu acquiEres
illelle/on acquiEre
nous acqu6rions
vous acquenez
ils/elles acquidrent
tlvttlHRr'HCl'
l' acqu6rais
tu acqu6rais
ilielle/on acqu6rait
nous acquenons
vous acqu6riez
ils/elles acqu6raient
{j[][tDtTtofltAt
I acquerrais
tu acquerrals
illelle/on acquerrait
nous acquerrions
vous acquerriez
ils/elles acquerraient
'r;$c J brJ{r.lTl.t.,1F3 .(:l
acquis
EXANIPLE FfftrASES
I'ai
ochet| des gdteaux d lo pdtisserie. I bought some cakes at the cake shop.
Qu
est-ce que tu lui as ochetd pour son anniversaire? What did you buy him for his
birthdav?
Je
n'achdte jamois de chips. I never buy crisps.
EXA Jtf ,s*i,s'
pFf
ffA i;F s
EIle a acquis Ia nqtionqlitd frangaise en 2003.She acquired French nationality in 2003.
ielj'=11u=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we yeus=you
ils/elles=they
le/j'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
VrRe TnsLes
Vene Tneles
[r.
ilidii$$.ri (to go)
l;'i;Li;i:)i;E'l l
je
vais
tu vas
illelle/on va
nous allons
vous allez
ils/elles vont
ir!tktii:ti;.i,; lr
je
suis all6(e)
tu es all6(e)
illelle/on est all6(e)
nous sommes all6(e)s
vous 6tes all6(e)(s)
ils/elles sont all6(e)s
i;t ! i:tjtt lf;
j,
irai
tu iras
illelle/on ira
nous irons
vous irez
ils/elles iront
i iiij i],r r,i l il'!, C' i],1,r f :
valallonslallez
!:'$:;!i.$ ii,r :ii"
i
[.
"a
ill ;1;,;; ;,r;-lt;
allant
$!tti:$[i\rT :q {"1 ffi "jF.f i\lc ['\rf
I atile
tu ailles
illelle/on aille
nous allions
vous alliez
ils/elles aillent
ifr4FFFlFEfi?
I allars
tu allais
illelle/on allait
nous allions
vous alliez
ils/elles allaient
fr$[\igStTfifsr'JAi-
j'
irais
tu irais
illelle/on irait
nous irions
vous iriez
ils/elles iraient
*o*"n ***u'.rr,u,'o*
all6
I'NE5HftJT
i' aPPelle
tu appelles
il/elle/on appelle
nous appelons
vous appelez
ils/elles appellent
PERr'f r:1:
i'
ai aPPel6
tu as appel6
illelle/on a appel6
nous avons appel6
vous avez appel6
ils/elles ont appel6
FUTt![1ffi;
i'
aPPellerai
tu appelleras
illelle/on appellera
nous appellerons
vous appellerez
ils/elles appelleront
IMPHF{&fl 0\1rf,:
appelle / appelons / aPPelez
PRFSHtr,fi'fi FiA$l1'iil(l$F-t.E
appelant
phEH$ffi
[\['tr $q,!ffi.j[.rr,,ieT'ivff
j'
apPelle
tu appelles
illelle/on appelle
nous appelions
vor.rs appeliez
ils/elles appellent
!hIiCFfifiqF'H{:T
i' appelais
tu appelais
illelle/on appelait
nous appelions
vous appeliez
ils/elles appelaient
c{.}&*m5T$ffi[\td\i..
i' appellerais
tu appellerais
illelle/on appellerait
nous appellerions
vous appelleriez
ils/elles appelleraient
FIA,S']fi
p-,e$4,
? { e !
p
[. [r
appel6
'r,,".
: j ;. I ,:'
Vous ollez
qu
cindmci? Are you going to the cinema?
le
suis o116 a Londres. I went to London.
Est-ce que tu es ddjd attd en Attemagne? Haveyou ever been to Germany?
EXA {Vl
pt
b.
p*rytrdi$jl
:i
Elle s oppel| Ie mddecin. She called the doctor.
t'oi apyitd Richard d Londres. I called Richard in London.
'Comment
tu t'oppelles? What's your name?
fi
See poges 88-91 for information on howtoform the reflexiveverb s'appeler'
ie/l'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous-we vous=you ils/elles=they le/i'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vou$=you ile/elles=thev
-
Vene Tneles
.1r irri'i i, (to
arrive)
i l
;l.:i::i:ri ,l
;:.;r.,t
.
ii. ti:.r,;r :, ir r'i::
t , ,,
, ; tit i
(to
sit down)
l'll '.,:
r:ll
i
je m'assieds/m'assois
tu t'assieds/t'assois
illelle/on s'assied/s'assoit
nous nous asseyons/nous assoyons
vous vous asseyez/vous assoyez
ils/elles s'asseyent/s'assoient
I
r, ..
I
irt:rri
i
ye me suis assis(e)
tu t'es assis(e)
illelle/on s'est assis(e)
nous nous sommes assis(es)
vous vous tes assis(e(s))
ils/elles se sont assis(es)
je m'assi6rai
tu t'assieras
illelle/on s'assi6ra
nous nous assi6rons
vous vous assi6rez
ils/elles s'assi6ront
ti
ll
ti
I
v5nerlgyg
i' arrive
tu arrives
illelle/on arrive
nous arrivons
vous arrivez
ils/elles arrivent
r
'i.::
,li il I
.
i
je
suis arriv6(e)
tu es arriv6(e)
illelle/on estarriv6(e)
nous sommes arriv6(e)s
vous 6tes arriv6(e)(s)
ils/elles sontarriv6(e)s
rr il r i.,;:r:1,,.
j'
arriverai
tu arriveras
illelle/on arrivera
nous arriverons
vous arriverez
ils/elles arriveront
j
'h r:r li
li
i'.rtr il,.;r:'
arrive / arrivons I arrivez
rr..i
l.,a:trii
arrivant
j'
arriverais
tu arriverais
illelle/on arriverait
nous arriverions
vous arriveriez
ils/elles arriveraient
arnve
I
tU
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
,il i irr,l tt,
I
tu
illelle/on
nouS
VOU5
ils/elles
', .. , ir .;it
i
arnve
arrives
arrive
arrivions
arriviez
arrivent
arrivais
arrivais
arrivait
arrivions
arriviez
arrivaient
....,i
Je
tu
illelle/on
nous
vou5
ils/elles
| !i;, ll'ilij
: :
il:i
m'asseye
t'asseyes
s'asseye
nous asseyions
vous asseyiez
s'asseyent
.'ii
je
m'asseyais
tu t'asseyais
illelle/on s'asseyait
nous nous asseyions
vous vous asseyiez
ils/elles s'asseyaient
, ,:i i i
,
..r'i ir:
: ii:i ,!t, i-
je m'assi6rais
tu t'assi6rais
illelle/on s'assi6rait
nous nous assi6rions
vous vous assi6riez
ils/elles s'assi6raient
li,
l'srrive d I'6cole d huit heures. I arrive at school at 8 o'clock.
Le prof n'est pqs encore arriv6.fhe teacher hasn't arrived yet.
Qu'est-ce
qui est orriv6 d Aurdliel What happened to Aur6lie?
Inirr '
assieds-toi / asseyons-nous / asseyez-vous a5sr5
llh{ i.'ij,:,.
'
I
s'asseyant
I
"ri.r::ri:.1
',
: r:i :'r .rr .irl r.i,r :
Assieds-toi, Nicole. Sit down Nicole.
Asseyez-vous, Ies enfants.Sit down children.
le
peux m'sssoir? May I sit down?
Je'me
suis
qssise
sur un chewing-gum! l've sat on some chewing gum!
jelj'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles-thev
jeli,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
VrneTAsLEs
VeRe TneLes
M
m&*mrxdre tto
wait)
PHtrSH!,{T
i' attends
tu attends
il/elle/on attend
nous attendons
vous attendez
ils/elles attendent
FHFIFHfiT
j'
ai attendu
tu as attendu
illelle/on a attendu
nous avons attendu
vous avez attendu
ils/elles ont attendu
I-UTL!NH
i'
attendrai
tu attendras
illelle/on attendra
nous attendrons
vous attendrez
ils/elles attendront
FF{F.$E$$"r', $ L$ ri-}t-r ffi fr rl\f ffi
i'
attende
tu attendes
illelle/on attende
nous attendions
vous attendiez
ils/elles attendent
rMsPHffit-f;s-r
.i' attendais
tu attendais
illelle/on attendait
nous attendions
vous attendiez
ils/elles attendaient
&#rup5T[ffi[\lA[-
i'
attendrais
tu attendrais
illelle/on attendrait
nous attendrions
vous attendriez
ils/elles attendraient
ps.$T
trld\{q{un[PLE
attendu
lir'I ii.:,i.i ii:ii l,i i:iLi f:,i.i i.; iilr:' f i]'Jh':
i' aie
tu aies
il/elle/on ait
nous ayons
vous ayez
ils/elles aient
i ;uq ir' 1,,.;L1::t:{,1 {"
l'
avais
tu avais
illelle/on avait
nous avions
vous aviez
ils/elles avaient
(;tl,.l
llr, [jii"i;]il.L'lilr i.
i'
aurais
tu aurais
iUelle/on aurait
nous aurions
vous auriez
ils/elles auraient
Pltiirilr':ri'iit ii'
I
tu
illelle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
pi:[,tiiil,r;.1"
I
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
Ft_j'! i.iF,,i,,
I
tU
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
ai
as
a
avonS
avez
ont
ai eu
a5 eu
aeu
avons eu
avez eu
ont eu
aurai
auras
aura
aurons
aurez
auront
In4FHi\Ar['qdffi
attends / attendons / attendez
Pffig$Ei\dT
pd\HfieiP[-ffi
attendant
#x4 Jtrgpc"f Ff{0#-{$fi $
Atte nd s- moi ! W ait f or me!
Tu ottends depuis longtempsT Have you been waiting long?
le l'ai sttendu d lo poste. I waited for him at the post office.
'le
m'aftends d ce rju'it soit en retord. I expect he'll be late.
$
see poges 88-91 for informotion on how to form the reflexive verb s'ottendre.
jeli'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous:we v6u5=lou ils/elles=they
F,Y.qt ll,lll" f . i:' ir'fil,,r .,'li lrr .: :,rl
ll a les yeux bleus. He's got blue eyes.
Quel
dge os-tul How old are
You?
ll s eu un accident. He's had an accident'
l'avois
foim. I was hungry.
ll y o beaucoup de monde. There are lots of people'
lffi [ai,!1f!
r-,1,
;i i
l;r',r:r
aielayons/ayez
PRfil'li:i:r,l'ri i,r:r!: ':
):'r
ayant
ii:: i l; . lir'it !:
eu
le/i'=ltu-you
il=he/it etle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vsne TheLes
Vrne TneLes
ts
battre
(to
beat)
PRESENT
je
bats
tu bats
illelle/on bat
nous battons
vous battez
ils/elles battent
PFRFECT
j'
ai battu
tu as battu
illelle/on a battu
nous avons battu
vous avez battu
ils/elles ont battu
FUTURE
je
battrai
tu battras
illelle/on battra
nous battrons
vous battrez
ils/elles battront
IMPERATIVE
bats/battons/battez
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
battant
PRESENT SUBJUI\ICTIVE
je
batte
tu battes
illelle/on batte
nous battions
vous battiez
ils/elles battent
IMPERFECT
je
battais
tu battais
illelle/on battait
nous battions
vous battiez
ils/elles battaient
CONDITIONAL
je
battrais
tu battrais
illelle/on battrait
nous battrions
vous battriez
ils/elles battraient
PAST PARTIEIPLF
battu
PRESET{T
le
bois
tu bois
il/elle/on boit
nous buvons
vous buvez
ils/elles boivent
PERFEfr'$'
i'
ai bu
tu as bu
illelleion a bu
nous avons bu
vous avez bu
ils/elles ont bu
FUTT.'[48
je
boirai
tu boiras
il/elle/on boira
nous boirons
vous boirez
ils/elles boiront
IMPEffiA !VH
bois/buvons lbuvez
PRESEhi'l fld..+?'r lo
jd'ii"Fi
buvant
PRE$EI\I"T' SU BJU [lfi STIVF
je
boive
tu boives
il/elle/on boive
nous buvions
vous buviez
ils/elles boivent
i[vlPHFtFF]CT
ie
buvais
tu buvais
il/elle/on buvait
nous buvions
vous buviez
ils/elles buvaient
coNDIT!01\Al-
ie
boirais
tu boirais
illelle/on boirait
nous boirions
vous boiriez
ils/elles boiraient
FIAST PARTICIPI.E
bu
EXAMPLE PHRA.9FS
On les a bottus deux d un. We beat them 2-1 .
l'oi
le ceur qul bafl My-heart's beating (fast)l
ArrQtez de vous bottre! Stop fighting!
fi
See poges 88-91 for informotion on how to form the reflexive verb se bqttre.
EXA4i{qLE
pf-fffills&,$
Qu'est-ce
que tu veux boire? Whatwould you.like to drink?
Ii ne boit iamqis
d'alcoal. He never drinks alcohol'
l'ai
bu ui litre d'eau. I drank a litre of water.
ieli'=ltu=you
il-he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
ielj,=|tu=youi|=he/ite||e=she/iton=We/onenou$=Wevous=youi|s/e||es=they
Vens Tneles
Vrne TneLes
&'
hmsxfrfiH$"r
(to
noit)
r":tf ,$EhiT
ie bous
tu bous
illelle/on bout
nous bouillons
vous bouillez
ils/elles bouillent
$ERf fiL;{
i' ai bouilli
tu as bouilli
illelle/on a bouilli
nous avons bouilli
vous avez bouilli
ils/elles ont bouilli
t3 r*r
"i-
i .! fli f
je
bouillirai
tu bouilliras
il/elle/on bouillira
nous bouillirons
vous bouillirez
ils/elles bouilliront
FMIP$l$TAT,V;
bous / bouillons / bouillez
i3li{Fj$,iEtl,l?'
c:.{i
*l,.rl["] F\rj,i..:-i'ir,r
r
je
bouille
tu bouilles
il/elle/on bouille
nous bouillions
vous bouilliez
ils/elles bouillent
!n$$]KffiFlHcll"
je
bouillais
tu bouillais
illelle/on bouillait
nous bouillions
vous bouilliez
ils/elles bouillaient
# ft lH $,! ilr
"ii
{3 [\1r\ !'"
je
bouillirais
tu bouillirais
il/elle/on bouillirait
nous bouillirions
vous bouilliriez
ils/elles bouilliraient
prfl|lr;'r:
PF, i:i [ifid
[iL,H
bouilli
Put tlHi[\]T
je commence
tu commences
,l/elle/on commence
nous commentons
vous commencez
ils/elles commencent
PFRt fld"{
i'
ai commenc6
tu as commenc6
illelle/on a commenc6
nous avons commenc6
vous avez commenc6
ils/elles ont commenc6
FUTt!${FJ
je commencerai
tu commenceras
il/elle/on commencera
nous commenceronS
vous commencerez
ils/elles commenceront
lMPFFir:t'r
'
commence / commengons / commencez
PRE$|.;','t
"r'
'
commenqant
f i"i[.]"{:iH[,,,T $t
ji"d,i{"tr
IULiT'gVffi
ie commence
tu commences
il/elle/on commence
nous commencions
vous commenciez
ils/elles commencent
iitr: l)iili'rr;f
Ii:'li
ll'
je commenEais
tu commenqais
illelle/on commengait
nous commencions
vous commenclez
ils/elles commenEaient
. :)i")t,rr !.:'"i'r'r.l-
ie commencerais
tu commencerals
il/elle/on commencerait
nous commencerions
vous commenceriez
ils/elles commenceraient
:
/\i
"
?:r'ti-t | -:[t{
commence
Pffi H$*ir\|T; i14'1iI{T'l&iIPf..ffi
bouillant
A-i
rf,.lf-#pi{"f;
+rltil r l;,: -q;
L'eau bout.The watert boiling.
Tu peux mettre de I'eau d bouillirT Can you boil some water?
Exdfl,f.pii-t: it #i{, i:"i-':,l;
ll a commenc| a pleuvoir.lt started to rain'
tiiiuit io.^rhcent d neuf heures' Lessons start at 9 o'clock'
7i it iiii i"iienc1 de *itri pii, trt exqmens? Have you started revising for the
e*ams?
ie/j'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle-she/it on=we/one nous:we vous=you ils/elles=they ie/i'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vens Tneles
(to
know)
VeRB Tnsles
,:
i.li:.:r.,,1::r:ti ll :.i r
:.il;1"
ilr,
i,!i:
tt I i,'[.
je
connaisse
tu connaisses
illelle/on connaisse
nous connaissions
vous connaissiez
ils/elles connaissent
il
rrr,:.i-:.i
I ti
je
connaissais
tu connaissais
illelle/on connaissait
nous connaissions
vous connaissiez
ils/elles connaissaient
r.li.i rrrll'1.r, I
rt
l:
f".i:
i,l,i r :
je
connaitrais
tu connaitrais
illelle/on connaitrait
nous connaitrions
vous connaitriez
ils/elles connaitraient
il':r;, l','.:' t::rli i:r f :r- li.)r, 'r
i
(to
conclude)
je
conclus
tu conclus
illelle/on conclut
nous concluons
vous concluez
ils/elles concluent
i'
ai conclu
tu as conclu
illelle/on a conclu
nous avons conclu
vous avez conclu
ils/elles ont conclu
.:l'l
je
conclurai
tu concluras
il/elle/on conclura
nous conclurons
vous conclurez
ils/elles concluront
t"'
conclus / concluons / concluez
;.
f
ri;j:iijii,il 1' ri
I
il.t:,.li,iii;ili
je
conclue
tu conclues
illelle/on conclue
nous concluions
vous concluiez
ils/elles concluent
l
'
ft [ ;;r,l;:!'ti :]
je
connais
tu connais
illelle/on connait
nous connaissons
vous connaissez
ils/elles connaissent
Pfrtiiirirl.' r'
i'
ai connu
tu as connu
il/elle/on a connu
nous avons connu
vous avez connu
ils/elles ont connu
FtII iiirrli;:
je
connaitrai
tu connaitras
il/elle/on connaitra
nous connaitrons
vous connaitrez
ils/elles connaitront
lN'lF[ri:;
r:',
]
j'
I ir l
connais / connaissons / connaissez
je
concluais
tu concluais
illelle/on concluait
nous concluions
vous concluiez
ils/elles concluaient
r:..i I
irrr lrij',iif,ir'jill
ii
je
conclurais
tu conclurais
illelle/on conclurait
nous conclurion5
vous concluriez
ils/elles concluraient
r:i(-.: ,
. ,i.trli',r rilt;;!,
,'
conclu
concluant
lls ont conclu un mqrch6. They concluded a deal.
J'en
oi conclu qu'il 6tait porti. I concluded that he had gone.
le
conclurai par ces mots...lwill conclude with these words...
P['{fiir.] ',1 i li
connaissant
f.A','i.!1i1.1,,,r1, ::
r.i,,,.i
r, ,. :,
le
ne connais pqs du tout cette rdgion. I don't know.the area at all'
Vous connaisiez M Amiot? Do you know Mr Amiot?
ll n'a pas connu son grond-pirb' He never.knew his granddad'
tls se iont connus d Rouen. They first met in Rouen'
t
)
see pages 88-91 far information on how to form the reflexive verb se connaitre'
|e4,=|tu=youi|=he/ite||e=she/iton=we/onenous=Wevous=youi|$/e||es=they
iery=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vene TneLes
VrRa Theles
p'
cOflrdre
(to
sew)
PFIf;SENT
ie
couds
tu couds
illelle/on coud
nous cousons
vous cousez
ils/elles cousent
PERFEGT
i' ai cousu
tu as cousu
illelle/on a cousu
nous avons cousu
vous avez cousu
ils/elles ont cousu
FT.'TUHH
ie
coudrai
tu coudras
illelle/on coudra
nous coudrons
vous coudrez
ils/elles coudront
IIMPERATIVE
couds/cousons/cousez
PRHSENT PARTIEIPLH
cousant
PRFS
gtUT
{ruS"ir"'f{cfl vE
je
couse
tu couses
illelle/on couse
nous cousions
vous cousiez
ils/elles cousent
I[UPE$TFfrfiT
je
cousais
tu cousais
illelle/on cousait
nous cousions
vous coustez
ils/elles cousaient
c0ru$tT'!CIru,AL
je
coudrais
tu coudrais
illelle/on coudrait
nous coudrions
vor.rs coudriez
ils/elles coudraient
PAST PAffi"{"H*IPLM
PlqHrinnv"t" $if;"iF-iJ{.!hn6 i"[\t+i
je
coure
ru coures
illelle/on coure
nous courions
vous couriez
ils/elles courent
lilfllrtir Iri!;!]
f. I f
je
courais
tu courais
illelle/on courait
nous courions
vous couriez
ils/elles couraient
C{,} 0\8 [:lE'fl
'hi]
i14,{ fl ."
je
courrais
tu courrais
illelle/on courrait
nous courrions
vous courriez
ils/elles courraient
;*/.\ii;ll Fift tir,iTfl
'd.]!|rr!
.i::
PRESHTU"T
ie
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
PERFF*"d"
I
tu
illelle/on
nous
vou5
ils/elles
FUTI.'Hfi
le
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vouS
ils/elles
courS
courS
court
courons
courez
courent
ai couru
as couru
a couru
avons couru
avez couru
ont couru
courrai
courraS
courra
courrons
courrez
courront
IMPEFtATiVF,
cours/couronslcourez
PR E$ H fd'fi
'
-[,il{ !.1 i'lt"li1 i:t [.ii"
courant
EXAfrIIPLE Pf{RA$gS
Tu sais coudrel Can
you
sew?
Elle o cousu ette-mAme son costume. She made her costume herself.
EXA tl/fp{ $.i,t}FLFri.{1"$i.r.itj
le
ne cours pas tris vite. I can't run very fast.
f.lle est sortie en couront. She ran out.
Ne courez
pas dons le couloir. Don't run in the corridor.
l'oi
couru
jusqu'd
l'6cole, I ran all the way to school'
jelj'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they leii,-ltu-you
il=he/it elle=she/it on-we/one nou$=we
y6u5=lou
ils/ell63=they
Vene TleLrs
V5ne Tlalrs
:,.r
.,'
: .,, (tO fgaf)
,.,i.;, I r
je
crains
tu crains
il/elle/on craint
nous craignons
vous craignez
ils/elles craignent
l. : r:: :' r'
j'
ai craint
tu as craint
il/elle/on a craint
nous avons craint
vous avez craint
ils/elles ont craint
'r t'1,' l:
je
craindrai
tu craindras
iUelle/on craindra
nous craindrons
vous craindrez
ils/elles craindront
._,,,.1i.tr,,
crains / craignons I craignez
,' a,::.,1' 'r.lr 'lr'
,'il
craignant
Tu n'os rien d crsindre. You've got nothing to fear.
le
crains le pire. I fear the worst'
IX4,{li'ri1r.'1'
t] :'i' r'i" :'. i')t.:
\'
tt o cr66 une nouvelle invention. He's created a new invention'
't;;;;;,ra
iit Jinitrtta'iiit tt ,onde entier. This virus is creating difficulties all
over the world.
Leoouvernementcrfueradeuxmilleemploissuppllmentaires'Thegovernmentwill
cieate an extra 2000
lobs.
riii (to create)
le
tu
il/elle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
l':' .
je
tu
illelle/on
nous
vou5
ils/elles
, ..i:'l ,l
i.
je
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
i:it I
i.;i'
c16e
cr6es
cr6e
c16ions
crEiez
crent
c16ais
cr6ais
c16ait
c16ions
c16iez
cr6aient
tl '
;'l-
',.;t
c16erais
cr6erais
c16erait
cr6erions
cr6eriez
cr6eraient
l::i
,e
cratgne
tu craignes
illelle/on craigne
nous craignions
vous craigniez
ils/elles craignent
rir
1r:
''t- i.r I
i:, :'
l
je
craignais
tu craignais
illelle/on craignait
nous craignions
vous craigniez
ils/elles craignaient
,t ir
'lll
'
r,.1 I i; ;,
-:'rr
r:
je
craindrais
tu craindrais
illelle/on craindrait
nous craindrions
vous craindriez
ils/elles craindraient
il,i
!'
craint
t'til:ii !qil
je cr6e
tu cr6es
,1,'r'lle/on cf6e
notrs cr6ons
vous creez
ils/elles cr6ent
I'l ]li
,,,.
j'
ai cr66
tu as cr66
rl/elle/on a cr66
nous avons cr66
vous avez cr6.6
ils/elles ont cr66
ilfIt.!lii:i;il
je cr6erai
tu cr,-aeras
il/elle/on c16era
nous cr6eronS
vous cr6erez
ils/elles cr6eront
IMPpN:t
rr:
itli:fl
cr6e/cr6ons I cr6ez
Pftfil:ii:i;r''i
ai]rir,l:,
I,
rrI
.'u1"1
ilr:'i.i'
cr66
ieli'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one noua=we vou$=you ils/elles=they iefi'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one n6g5=w vous=you ils/elles=they
VeRs Tneles
Vene Tnsles
nr-
.'" I ,",r I (to
shout)
''.;:-.'il
je
crie
tu cries
iUelle/on crie
nous crions
vous criez
ils/elles crient
I'
al crle
tu as cri6
illelle/on a cri6
nous avons cri6
vous avez cri6
ils/elles ont cri6
,.r1:il::i:
fe
crierai
tu crieras
illelle/on criera
nous crierons
vous crierez
ils/elles crieront
,lj. j.,.i' .i
crie/crions/criez
i3i:it:illPr[ii't il,..:ri1il'l{;,}fl Pf" Fl
criant
!rilii[:rit:fi41:' lr]ii.I itl.l: iirrNstii:'li i
,e
crle
tu cries
illelle/on crie
nous cntons
vous cntez
ils/elles crient
lgt4pt'dit[:'iefi''s
je
criais
tu criais
illelle/on criait
nous criions
vous criiez
ils/elles criaient
r.ii Ji'll iJ L i i,: /[,.1.+,irir,
je crlerals
tu crierais
il/elle/on crierait
nous crierions
vous cnenez
ils/elles crieraient
lt{lii'li |,lj!.l,'i l tr'.:liPfl-ifr
cne
>
C$.4,.?i:lail
(to
believe)
fltl 1;[::liU'd'
je
crois
tu crois
tl/elle/on croit
nous croyons
vous
qoyez
ils/elles croient
PI Rt .,..
-
i'
ai cru
tu as cru
il/elle/on a cru
nous avons cru
vous avez cru
ils/elles ont cru
FUT[,i14t::
je
croirai
tu croiras
il/elle/on croira
nous croirons
vous croirez
ils/elles croiront
IMPF:l!'li!'i-lii ir:
crois/croyonslcloyez
PREI',
"
j
croyant
t'i,1i
:it;iiirt',f"i
t illl:i'r
le
crote
tu croies
illelle/on croie
nous croyions
vous croyiez
ils/elles croient
r,ir i' ' i:l
;li:ri.
:
'l
le
croyars
tu croyais
illelle/on croyait
nous croyions
vous croyiez
ils/elles croyaient
ii .::,.'lr l\ l I I i r
'1r 'ii
ir-ll i\ij. 'l'l!
i
je
croirais
tu croirais
il/elle/on croirait
nous croirions
vous croiriez
ils/elles croiraient
i,lrti ljar
f::'ii, i;r
i l i
l rl i:i;l
.
i!
l::r)iii:i,il;ii,ir'',{,,L:' li f ir',i1iil.!jj'x!iii
Ne crie pas comme
Eol
Don't shoutl
Elle
q
cri6 au secours. She cried for help.
" Attention ! ", cri a-t- il.'Watch out! " he shouted.
6Xl,'::;
le
ne te crois pas. I don't believe you.
'l'oi
cru
que
tu n'ollqis
pqs venir. I thought you weren't going to come'
'Elle
croyoit encore ou pi:re Nod/. She still believed in Santa'
je/j'=ltu-you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we v6g5=lou ilslelle$=they le/i'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you il3/elles=they
VeneTeeLEs
VrRs Tnelrs
(to grow)
t, ill,i
je
crois
tu crois
iUelle/on croit
nous croissons
vous croissez
ils/elles croissent
I 1
; r:
j'
ai crO
tu as crO
illelle/on a crO
nous avons crO
vous avez crO
ils/elles ont crO
,ll'
je
croitrai
tu croitras
il/elle/on croitra
nous croitrons
vous croitrez
ils/elles croitront
t
:.
crois / croissons / croissez
ii,:'i.:j.,i
croissant
i',, , l,,ir .l;ii'
i
je
croisse
tu croisses
illelle/on croisse
nous croissions
vous croissiez
ils/elles croissent
I'll f":J'-il [,:.ll',i r
je
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vou5
ils/elles
PEiiFii;t. rr
I
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
FU"n't f flii'l
ie
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vouS
ils/elles
cueille
cueilles
cueille
cueillons
cueillez
cueillent
ai cueilli
as cueilli
a cueilli
avons cueilli
avez cueilli
ont cueilli
cueillerai
cueilleras
cueillera
cueillerons
cueillerez
cueilleront
je
cueille
tu cueilles
illelle/on cueille
nous cueillions
vous cueilliez
ils/elles cueillent
,.r ''
je
cueillais
tu cueillais
il/elle/on cueillait
nous cueillions
vous cueilliez
ils/elles cueillaient
i .' :iril-,r: :l
t;i..iill':i.:-
je
cueillerais
tu cueillerais
il/elle/on cueillerait
nous cueillerions
vous cueilleriez
ils/elles cueilleraient
je
croissais
tu croissais
illelle/on croissait
nous croissions
vous croissiez
ils/elles croissaient
:.')
,,
:,t
je
croitrais
tu croitrais
illelle/on croitrait
nous croitrions
vous croitriez
ils/elles croitraient
Les ventes croissent de 60/0 par an. Sales are growing by 60/o per year.
C'est une plonte qui croit dans les pays chouds. This plant grows in hot countries.
IMFH'rriIt,i i!:i,
cueille / cueillons / cueillez
PRffii'-.r
:if Itr
;,'lii,,l r
',,,,ti
, L ,
cueillant
cueilli
EX,A.ii#'r
i;
,'!i,.,r l-:i,.:,lri i
l,oi
cueilli quelques fraises dons Ie
iardin.l've.
picked a few strawberries in the garden.
'tl
est interdit di cueitlh des fleurs iauvages ditns ta montogne' lt's forbidden to pick
wild flowers in the mountains.
ir'il
crO (N8: crue, crus, crues)
ie/j'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vou$=you ils/elles=they
io/i'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vene Tnelrs
(to go down)
Vene TnBLrs
r: :i.
le
descende
tu descendes
il/elle/on descende
nous descendions
vous descendiez
ils/elles descendent
i,;', : I
je
descendais
tu descendais
illelle/on descendait
nous descendions
vous descendiez
ils/elles descendaient
i
i,
.',1:,
i1.,, i:
:,
. : ,
,'
ie
descendrais
tu descendrais
il/elle/on descendrait
nous descendrions
vous descendriez
ils/elles descendraient
(to
cook)
r' ;.',,;:r.
i
|e
cuis
tu cuis
illelle/on cuit
nous cuisons
vous cuisez
ils/elles cuisent
'r'li' i ,i I.
r':
j'
ai cuit
tu as cuit
illelle/on a cuit
nous avons cuit
vous avez cuit
ils/elles ont cuit
i ',..1 ' r
;,. 1
je
cuirai
tu cuiras
illelle/on cuira
nous cuirons
vous cuirez
ils/elles cuiront
rirr,,lr. .l
:, ri,
l',llr
cuis/cuisons/cuisez
je
cuise
tu cuises
illelle/on cuise
nous cuisions
vous cuisiez
ils/elles cuisent
r;'
i':' l'
je
cuisais
tu cuisais
illelle/on cuisait
nous cuisions
vous cuisiez
ils/elles cuisaient
,
I ;r'
je
cuirais
tu cuirais
illelle/on cuirait
nous cuirions
vous cuiriez
ils/elles cuiraient
descends
descends
descend
descendons
descendez
descendent
suis descendu(e)
es descendu(e)
est descendu(e)
sommes descendu(e)s
6tes descendu(e)(s)
sont descendu(e)s
descendrai
descendras
descendra
descendrons
descendrez
descendront
I'II[:;;ii',.1':1'
je
tu
il/elle/on
nou5
vouS
ils/elles
t'Elt$:[:i,'i
je
tu
iilelle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
Pg-f"{.lii'irl
Je
tu
illelle/on
nou5
vouS
ils/elles
ir
:
ri.
: ir,il
,: I i.:,.,. I : i,: I,:,
cuisant
i.;t..rli'.,;
t,
,' .. .'! '' 'i
le
les oi cuits au beurre. I cooked them in butter.
En g4n6ra[ je cuis les l4gumes d lo vopeur. I usually steam vegetables.
Ce gdteau prend environ une heure d cuire. This cake takes about an hour to bake.
IMFF;t"-ii., i"1,,:r
descends / descendons / descendez descendu
PRff*:ii:if!l i i
descendant
EXy'nfi.'r'rli'i-u:''1r':
i:'r'l
r':r"{1
Descendez Io rue jusqu'ou rond-point. Co down the street to the roundabout.
Reste en bos:
je descendsl Stay downstairs
*
l'm coming down!
Nous sommes descendus d lci stotion Trocoddro. We got off at the Trocad6ro station'
Vous pouvez descendre mo valise, s'i! vous plcitT Can you get my suitcase down,
please?
[J
Note that descendre takes avoir in the perfect tense when it is used with a
direct obiec! see page 1 14.
lelj'=ltu-you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous-we vous=you ils/elles=they
cuit
jeli'=ltu-you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vrne TnsLes
(to
become)
je
deviens
tu deviens
illelle/on devient
nous devenons
vous devenez
ils/elles deviennent
je
suis devenu(e)
tu es devenu(e)
illelle/on est devenu(e)
nous sommes devenu(e)s
vous 6tes devenu(e)(s)
ils/elles sont devenu(e)s
i
je
deviendrai
tu deviendras
illelle/on deviendra
nous deviendrons
vous deviendrez
ils/elles deviendront
i .,
deviens / devenons / devenez
.
devenant
Vrns TaeLes
pJ11,il,i:1,
ri i
Je
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vouS
ils/elles
[)[]:l:ihilt.i,
.
I
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
Fll!'lr'i.Ii . :
je
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vou5
ils/elles
dois
dois
doit
devons
devez
doivent
ai d0
as d0
ad0
avons d0
avez d0
ont d0
devrai
devras
devra
devrons
devrez
devront
(to
have to; to owe)
je
devienne
tu deviennes
illelle/on devienne
nous devenions
vous deveniez
ils/elles deviennent
]',
je
devenais
tu devenais
illelle/on devenait
nous devenions
vous deveniez
ils/elles devenaient
.i
je
deviendrais
tu deviendrais
illelle/on deviendrait
nous deviendrions
vor.rs deviendriez
ils/elles deviendraient
je
doive
tu doives
il/elle/on doive
nous devions
vous deviez
ils/elles doivent
je
devais
tu devais
illelle/on devait
nous devions
vous deviez
ils/elles devaient
,l
,l ; ,' l
je
devrais
tu devrais
illelle/on devrait
nous devrions
vous devriez
ils/elles devraient
devenu
lMPiiri'r,.
,
r''
dois/devonsldevez
d0 (NB: due, dus, dues)
PI"lfirLr
I
devant
[-Xliiir,ri'.r
".
i
,.]':'
Je
dois aller fqire les courses ce mqtin. I have to do the shopping this morning.
A quetle heure est-ce que tu dois paftir? What time do you have to.leave?
ll ;t d0 faire ses devoirs hier soir. He had to do his homework last night'
ll devoit prendre le troin pour aller trovoiller He had to go to work by train.
ll est devenu mddecin. He became a doctor.
Q.o
devient de plus en plus difficile. lt's becoming more and more difficult'
Qu'est-ce
qu'elle est devenueT What has become of her?
jelj'=ltu=you it=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we v6us=lou ils/elles=thev
le/i,=ltu=you
it=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ilsr/elles=they
Vrne Tnslrs
je
dis
tu dis
illelle/on dit
nous disons
vous dites
ils/elles disent
l'
i'
ai dit
tu as dit
illelle/on a dit
nous avons dit
vous avez dit
ils/elles ont dit
l
i.t:l
je
dirai
tu diras
illelle/on dira
nous dirons
vous direz
ils/elles diront
.,,,,i.i
dis/disons/dites
,.,r.t;,,.,i
disant
,
:\'j : '.. .
lil:r.'::t,
i,.,1..,,,
je
dise
tu dises
illelle/on dise
nous disions
vous disiez
ils/elles disent
i,r'.t]I
I
l
je
disais
tu disais
illelle/on disait
nous disions
vous disiez
ils/elles disaient
t,
(to give)
l)llFr{:i:S'li:i
l
le
donne
tu donnes
il/elle/on donne
nous donnons
vous donnez
ils/elles donnent
i'
ai donn6
tu as donn6
illelle/on a donn6
nous avons donn6
vous avez donn6
ils/elles ont donn6
t11 1-1',i!1rl::
ie
donnerai
tu donneras
illelle/on donnera
nous donnerons
vous donnerez
ils/elles donneront
lMPflilli.''
r,
'
,/
donne/donnons/donnez
PRFir'ii:i:i
r
r1;'r
ri '
rii'
.i
donnant
1,...
je
donne
tu donnes
illelle/on donne
nous donnions
vous donniez
ils/elles donnent
,1r, I t l
je
donnais
tu donnais
ilielle/on donnait
nous donnions
vous donniez
ils/elles donnaient
i, 'rl1: .i ,rr'
le
donnerais
tu donnerais
illelle/on donnerait
nous donnerions
vous donneriez
ils/elles donneraient
i::r.
, : I ri :r I
donn6
VrRe TneLts
':
(to
say)
i!lr:i: .r-..
..
je
dirais
tu dirais
illelle/on dirait
nous dirions
vous diriez
ils/elles diraient
dit
Qu'est-ce
qu'elle dit?What is she saying?
"Bonjour!",
q-t-il
dit. "Hello!" he said.
tls m"ont dit que te film 6tqit nuL They told me that the film was rubbish.
Comment ga se dit en anglois? How do you say that in English?
fi
See poges 88-91 for information on how to form the reflexive verb se dire'
ielj,=11.,=you
il-he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
I:.\l{fiirr:,,
1
1"',
:)
:
'
Donne-moi la main. Give me your hand'
tst-ie aue ie t'ai donn| mon adresse? Did I give you my address?
t'apportement donne sur Ia ploce.The flat overlook the square'
le/i'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nou$=we vous=you ils/elles=they
I
I
I vene Trers
Vene
t-
i
:,:,.,
(to
sleep)
L
I
I
I ] i, ;,ni'i:,,ri:l\,j? i:!ir!i:i:rir:ii:i:ii1f'j'
ie dors le
dorme i'
6cris i'
6crive
i" ;;;;
i, dormes
tu 6cris
tu 6crives
]
itl"tt"/on ;il
illelle/on dorme
illelle/on 6crit
il/elle/on 6crive
I nous Jortont
nous dormions
nous 6crivons
nous 6crivions
vous Jorrnur
vous dormiez
vous 6crivez
vous 6criviez
ils/elles Jor1n"nt
ils/elles dorment
ils/elles 6crivent
ils/elles Ecrivent
ii.rl:lil,iiir!!ll:1'l' liiildl'a:iFllfili:l;'i PF['iFlri]i:l'il'
r'ii .r'li: .: .:,
''r
i
i,
ai dormi le
dormais i'
ai 6crit
j'
6crivais
tu as dormi
tu dormais
tu as 6crit
tu 6crivais
illelle/on
"-Oriri
il/eile/on dormait
il/elle/on a 6crit
illelle/on 6crivait
'
nous uuont Jotai
nous dormions
nous avons 6crit
nous 6crivions
vous avez dormi
vous dormiez
vous avez 6crit
vous 6criviez
ils/elles ont dormi
ils/elles dormaient
ils/elles ont 6crit
ils/elles 6crivaient
ii;i",r11"$"i'|ti::
(1.;i!
llll I i,i,li il,:'.I.. Fl-,i'l-D-;, .." .
";"irrrii'rrLr
rf ii'"ili
ri"
je
dormirai ie dormirais i'
6crirai
j'
6crirais
tu dormiras
tu dormirais
tu 6criras
tu 6crirais
illelle/on dormira
illelle/on dormirait
illelle/on 6crira
illdle/on 6crirait
nous dormirons
nous dormirions
nous 6crirons
nous 6cririons
vous dormirez
vous dormiriez
vous 6crirez
vous 6cririez
""' "'l:::.
".,.u..
;;;;;';:^' ils/elles 6criraient
i ils/elles dormiront
ils/elles dormiraient
ils/elles 6criront
I
'llu
I i r'ir''i.i rifts-
dors / dormons / dormez dormi 6cris /
6crivons /
6crivez
lliLi,o::rti,ill.ilr"'j tl:ir,iil'i'!1'[]:ilt'ril [!
PRFr,i:i;r'ir;,,rr' l ,r]r,' , i' l"rrir'rl. i'
dormant
6crivant
i:,,i,riltli +.i: r.t',i'lllir,hiii$
Tu os bien dormi? Did you sleep well?
Nous dormons dans la mme chombre. We sleep in the same bedroom.
A t heures, it dormait d1id. He was already asleep by nine.
E,Yl,:,
Tu as 6crit d to correspondonte rdcemment? Have you written to your penfriend lately?
Elte icrit des romans. She writes novels.
Ciriirt qa s'6crit, "brouillard"?
How do you spell "brouillard"?
fi
see pages 88-91 for informqtion on how to form the reflexive verb s'Ecrire.
jelj'=ltu-you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we voua:you ils/elles=thev le/i,=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vene TneLrs
Vene TnsLrs
(to
move)
l,:' : rl[t::,rir:il,] ii"
j'
6meus
tu 6meus
illelle/on 6meut
nous 6mouvons
vous 6mouvez
ils/elles 6meuvent
j'
ai 6mu
tu as 6mu
illelle/on a 6mu
nous avons 6mu
vous avez 6mu
ils/elles ont 6mu
ir;ir,ii'lr iilt/,::
i'
6mouvrai
tu 6mouvras
illelle/on 6mouvra
nous 6mouvrons
vous 6mouvrez
ils/elles 6mouvront
lilrlritii ii:i:.rii ii':l'llii;:
6meus / 6mouvons / 6mouvez
11' r:i
11fl, i:i i'!i-il i,l iL-r l,;, i i l 11{
r.;
r'i
\i'rit
i'
6meuve
tu 6meuves
illelle/on 6meuve
nous 6mouvions
vous 6mouviez
ils/elles 6meuvent
il,,lli:i:' 1,:
"i:-l:.'t
l"ii
i'
6mouvais
tu 6mouvais
ilielle/on 6mouvait
nous 6mouvions
vous 6mouviez
ils/elles 6mouvaient
i,.i.rrrrr,,l i .ri' :t iri.;,liitil ii_
j'
mouvrais
tu 6mouvrais
illelle/on 6mouvrait
nous 6mouvrions
vous 6mouvriez
ils/elles 6mouvraient
tlril:t',,t
lt;)],.;rr.l I l,r:t:illll_ l:.
6mu
f,8[sH|\dT
i'
entre
tu entres
rl/elle/on entre
nous entronS
vous enlrez
ils/elles entrent
PERFEC T
je
suis entr6(e)
tu es entr6(e)
rl/elle/on estentr6(e)
nous sommes entr6(e)s
vous 6tes entr6(e)(s)
ils/elles sontentr6(e)s
I U TURf:
i'
entrerai
tu entreras
ll/elle/on entrera
nous entrerons
vous entrerez
ils/elles entreront
rMPER,B',f,$\dil;
cntre/entrons/entrez
PRESEruT i?'A.hi. ir it;iqlii-L'j
cntrant
frill:.r'li Fr i\\l i' t, ; 11.
p q"tr
;rX 4 ;i il \l [.:
j'
entre
tu entres
illelle/on entre
nous entrions
votrs entriez
ils/elles entrent
itiiirlit:;ll:11;'l it
:i
i';:.ri'
i'
entrais
tu entrais
il/elle/on entrait
nous entrions
vous entriez
ils/elles entraient
riilfrl il,li i"l1[:rlrii;lrir
j'
entrerais
tu entrerais
illelle/on entrerait
nous entrerions
vous entreriez
ils/elles entreraient
l,i{',lti
it- !.:llioilt'j'[l;lir i]., .
entr6
!',jrLl.::i;,1.,i'rii i : l.rl,iii'i rt t:itj,'lr i:
6mouvant
Ce film nous o 6mu.This film moved us.
Cette histoire m'6meut touiours beaucoup. This story always moves me to tears.
t XAM| t *
s *:
r,.J',,r di;
: :
le
peux entrer? Can I come in?
I ssuie-toi les pieds en entrqnt. \Mpe your feet as you come in.
lls sont tous'entAs dans Ia moison. They all went into the house'
k
ie/i'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ile/elles=thev
lr{,=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nqus=w vous=you ils/elles=they
VEneTAeLrs Vrne Tneles
iu,n
{::}iiilUI'.j,ili\,llri:iii'
(tO
Send
}
i:rlltxriii:iiii$'i'
j'
envoie
tu envoies
illelle/on envoie
nous envoyons
vous envoyez
ils/elles envoient
i)fiiiiifiil.j:ijT
i'
ai envoyd
tu as envoy6
illelle/on a envoy6
nous avons envoy6
vous avez envoy6
ils/elles ont envoy6
ii.;qi1-il1-fi:iiir
i'
enverrai
tu enverras
il/elle/on enverra
nous enverrons
vous enverrez
ils/elles enverront
li\lt1'lilir,irr,i ii :/,
r::
envoie / envoyons I envoyez
rrr1.1t'r,f
ii: iri.
I' ::irI lll:1.'rir.; ii:i i-r: i'l:r,:i
i'
envoie
tu envoies
illelle/on envoie
nous envoyions
vous envoyiez
ils/elles envoient
li:r,lill
r
::r!;rt:rr'1''
I
i'
envoyais
tu envoyais
illelle/on envoyait
nous envoyions
vous envoyiez
ils/elles envoyaient
il. i. rriir,i
lr-l[ | i, -.i',L,li li
i'
enverrais
tu enverrais
illelle/on enverrait
nous enverrions
vous enverriez
ils/elles enverraient
'!rr,'l.r
::
ii:lt
il, ir i,i:;ii.ll..i :r
envoy
PRE$fifl\f1'
i'
espdre
tu esperes
il/elle/on espEre
nous esp6rons
vous esp6rez
ils/elles espdrent
PEHFg(;i'
j'
ai esp6r6
tu as esp6r6
illelle/on a esp6r6
nous avons esp6r6
vous avez esp6r6
ils/elles ont esp6r6
FUTU$qH
i'
esp6rerai
tu esp6reras
illelle/on esp6rera
nous esp6rerons
vous esp6rerez
ils/elles esp6reront
IMPF${,q:["Etrlir
espEre / esp6rons / esp6rez
PRE$Hi$"1, i,,,u,lhi1,j, l{:!
i;,t.,t,
esp6rant
i'i :lilili
tir it l i :ii; ii tr l,':. I i I i'!llf lr
it''i,'
I
l
j'
espdre
tu espdres
illelle/on espbre
nous esp6rions
vous esp6riez
ils/elles espdrent
irii,iiir;ilrl':l i;,l !, .
l'
esp6rais
tu esp6rais
il/elle/on esp6rait
nous esp6rions
vous esp6riez
ils/elles esp6raient
t .iir iiili1..1['i] ii-ll iir.,lrli,
ir
,
i'
esp6rerais
tu esp6rerais
illelle/on esp6rerait
nous esp6rerions
vous esp6reriez
ils/elles esp6reraient
iiriir'r;'r; l il'1lr'
.l r;'ir"ili;r; ;;
esp616
;rr$i
tiri.il []1,'.i
jt'
tr:41 lj:i
envoyant
ii."ii:i.ii'i4iii!j-'l it ijri l i. l,rl
jr:,,,r,
l'ai
envoy| une corte postole d ma fonte. I sent my aunt a postcard.
Envoie-moi un e-moil. Send me an email.
le
t'enverrai ton cadeau par la poste. l'll send you your present by post.
EXAMFT;'{.;ri'
l'espire
que tu vqs bien. I hope you're well.
tl esp4roit pouvoir venir. He was hoping he'd be able to come.
tu penses nlussir tes exomens?
- J'espdre
bien! Do you think you'll pass your exams?
-
| hope so!
h
ie/i'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vou$=you lls/elles=thev
lr4'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vsss=fou ils/elles=they
VeRe TaeLEs
Vrne Tnelrs
(to
be)
le
Suls
tu es
illelle/on est
nous Sommes
vor:s tes
ils/elles sont
j'
ai 6t6
tu as 6t6
iUelle/on a 6t6
nous avons 6t6
vous avez 6t6
ils/elles ont 6t6
je
serai
tu seras
illelle/on sera
nous serons
vous serez
ils/elles seront
sois/soyons I soyez
6tant
le
sots
tu sois
illellelon soit
nous soyon5
vous soyez
ils/elles soient
i'
6tais
tu 6tais
illelle/on 6tait
nous 6tions
vous 6tiez
ils/elles 6taient
je
serais
tu serais
illelle/on serait
nous serions
vous seriez
ils/elles seraient
It{;rl i:
1:1,
ie
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
llr.
r:ii:
I
je
fasse
tu fasses
il/elle/on fasse
nous fassions
vous fassiez
ils/elles fassent
je
faisais
tu faisais
illelle/on faisait
nous faisions
vous faisiez
ils/elles faisaient
lr't
le
ferais
tu ferais
il/elle/on ferait
nous ferions
vous feriez
ils/elles feraient
(to
do; to make)
fais
fais
fait
faisons
faites
font
i
j
l
i'
ai fait
tu as fait
illelle/on a fait
nous avons fait
vous avez fait
ils/elles ont fait
Ft1,l:l"' '
je
ferai
tu feras
illelle/on fera
nous ferons
vous ferez
ils/elles feront
l|Vliti:r:r
',.
,:
fais/faisons/faites
PPfil,,:, r,r i
faisant
fait
6t6
Mon pire est professeur. My father's a teacher.
Quelie
heure est-il7
-
tl est dix heures.
\Nhat time is it?
-
lt's 1 0 o'clock
lls ne sont pos encore
qniv6s.
They haven't arrived yet.
f_:ff,li,iii, .,' t,,'..' )
Qu'est-ce
que tu faisT What are you doin-g?
.
Qu'est-ce Qu'it
a foit? What has he done? or What did he do?
Jiai
fait un gdteau. l've made a cake or I made a cake'
tl s'est fsit iouper les cheveux' He's had his hair cut'
r
i)
See poges 88-91 for informotion on how to form the reflexive verb se faire.
le/i'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vsse=you ils/elles=they
ielj,=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on-we/one nous=we
y6us=you
ils/elles=they
VERS Tasles
Vrne TleLrs
Ei. *lr:li{imli' (to
be necessary}
It) t:i i:r {:i ii:,ili'!'
il faut
l-";,ilii'[,'.i
il a fallu
ir:tl liii,li:iial
il faudra
1i1166r P.n*;1L'|'i xlEii
not used
,'r'lii,hrj,[::Li'! i' i1-1!]i!:; ii;ri:lijii i,,li;
not used
iti iir' Nril; Ll $rt l' .:,.:; t. I hrl, i L[ lti] {.;:rJ fl \i{ l:
it faille
I [i,rd !,i l: l? i;,i l!{":' f
'
it fallait
'a,l'r
j1
i'j i:lr!
-r,,
ii !,} {dpti I -
il faudrait
irr;i\r'.;
i l,t,rri.l
t.tij;!iil".{:
fallu
>
fnn'l:rii
(to finish)
pRH$fii,,,1r..x"
le finis
tu finis
illelle/on finit
nous finissons
vous finissez
ils/elles finissent
,*pg:Sr:)"{.
i'
ai fini
tu as fini
illelle/on a fini
nous avons fini
vous avez fini
ils/elles ont fini
FLrTt"jfi[i
ie
finirai
tu finiras
il/elle/on finira
nous finirons
vous finirez
ils/elles finiront
I Mrli;1
n:i,{.";['ii 1/
li
finis / finissons / finissez
PR}ili ?1[\.T l
]'+l"r'lr'ir':
:'l"ll. u:,r
finissant
ilrtiJ l:.,]j; :, 1 i 1j i.lj
N:l i i.i liri" ir';l ri:i [:
|e
finisse
tu finisses
il/elle/on finisse
nous finissions
vous finissiez
ils/elles finissent
,i i lil ri') li.i FrjIi l;:r"'.' ;
je
finissais
tu finissais
illelle/on finissait
nous finissions
vous finissiez
ils/elles finissaient
(::r!iirili!f,]rl
Tit ) liii'*,i .
le
ltnrralS
tu finirais
illelle/on finirait
nous finirions
vous finiriez
ils/elles finiraient
.:Rri;]i'
[jli1 ]i i'ili-;li
i!.,
a'r
fini
',lri!/l,,ii'i,ii't
li: ldl #rri,{ ai tllr
.;,i
ll fsut se dpdcher!We have to hurry up!
ll me falloit de l'argent. I needed money.
ll faudrs que tu sois ld d 8 heures. You'll have to be there at 8.
ExAlirliatrti,: f?fi[,,llrr l:;]ii',:,:
Finis to soupel Finish
Your
souP!
l'ai
fini! l've finished!
'!e
finirai mes devoirs demain.l'll finish my homework tomorrow'
je/j'=ltu-you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous*you il$/ellos=they jelj'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vene Tnslrs 'i
p
fanEr
(to
ftee)
pffiF$E$\tT
je
tu
il/elle/on
nouS
vouS
ils/elles
PHMFfrC'
I
tu
illelle/on
nou5
vous
ils/elles
FT,!TUffiN
fuis
fuis
fuit
fuyons
fuyez
fuient
ai fui
as fui
a fui
avons fui
avez fui
ont fui
je
fuirai
tu fuiras
il/elle/on fuira
nous fuirons
vous fuirez
ils/elles fuiront
ii\npffimAx-tvE
fuis/fuyons lfuyez
URHSEt\[T
pAmT"lfl
|
pt-E
fuyant
PRESEIV"$' SU ffi J t' $\ICTIVE
je
fuie
tu fuies
illelle/on fuie
nous fuyions
vous fuyiez
ils/elles fuient
IMPERF:ECT'
je
fuyais
tu fuyais
illelle/on fuyait
nous fuyions
vous fuyiez
ils/elles fuyaient
CffiniiDlTl0lUAt
je
fuirais
tu fuirais
iUelle/on fuirait
nous fuirions
vous fuiriez
ils/elles fuiraient
PA$IT PAIBTfldiJIPLE
fui
tr x:Afyi,F*
g pfd,ffil{s&q
lls ont fui leur pays. They fled their country,
Le robinet fuit.The tap is dripping.
je{'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
PRESH['dT
ie
hais
tu hais
illelle/on hait
nous harisons
vous haissez
ils/elles haissent
PERFECT
j'
ai hai
tu as hai
illelleion a hai
nous avons hai
vous avez hai
ils/elles ont hai
FUTTJFl$:
ie
hairai
tu hairas
illelle/on haira
nous hairons
vous hdirez
ils/elles hairont
IMPHffiATIVH
hais / haissons / haissez
PRE$H!\t"I'
pd\FtrTiiCl!f'[.tri]
haissant
xliF,'iffi $jundT $R-J m,{q", ftlil"T'['dffi
le
haisse
tu haisses
il/elle/on
l'ru.':t:
nous hatsstons
vous harssiez
ils/elles harssent
,\L{\r
.i- i
l. l.
/:':,
je
haissais
tu haissais
il/elle/on haissait
noLrs haissions
vous haissiez
ils/elles haissaient
*$ft!flit"'f flS$\t,r{fi-
le
hairais
tu hairais
il/elle/on hairait
nous hairions
vous hairiez
ils/elles haiiaient
F*q$f tr/&lq] fi{l$Pt"hi
hai
ExAdbf P'd.tr PFr,ry,41'$iii $
le
te hoisll hate you!
'Etle
hdissait tout'le monde, She hated everyone.
lls se hdissent. They hate each other.
Q
See poges 88-91 for informotion on how to form the reflexive verb se hqir.
h
ls/i'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nou$=we vous=you ils/olles=they
VrRe TneLes
(to
throw)
(to join)
lrlif
r. ltrr,
je
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
Irl
i ,r, '
i'
i'
ai
ioint
tu as joint
illelle/on a joint
nous avons
joint
vous avez
joint
ils/elles ont
ioint
l:l .'
,i i :r';
,r :
je joindrai
tu joindras
illelle/on joindra
nous joindrons
vous joindrez
ils/elles joindront
lM{Fi::irl
'ir
r'r
joins
/
joignons
/
joignez
Pltii-r::
.
'
joignant
VgRe Tneles
je joigne
tu joignes
illelle/on joigne
nous joignions
vous joigniez
ils/elles joignent
je joignais
tu joignais
illelle/on joignait
nous joignions
vous
loigniez
ils/elles joignaient
,,,i
rr l
je joindrais
tu joindrais
il/elle/on joindrait
nous
ioindrions
vous joindriez
ils/elles
loindraient
je
iette
tu jettes
illelle/on jette
nous jetons
vous jetez
ils/elles jettent
j'
ai jet6
tu as jete
illelle/on a jet6
nous avons
jet6
vous avez
jet6
ilVelles ont jet6
je jetterai
tu jetteras
illelle/on jettera
nous jetterons
vous jetterez
ils/elles jetteront
je jette
tu jettes
illelle/on jette
nous jetions
vous jetiez
ils/elles
lettent
l
le
jetais
tu jetais
illelle/on jetait
nous jetions
vous jetiez
ils/elles jetaient
je jetterais
tu jetterais
illelle/on jetterait
nous jetterions
vous jetteriez
ils/elles jetteraient
joins
joins
joint
joignons
joignez
joignent
jette/jetons/jetez
jetant
jet6
[X;:illr"';'. , '
Oi est-ce qu'on peut te
ioindre
ce week-end? Where can we contact you this weekend?
On a
joini les deux tqbles. We put the two tables together'
Ne jette pas tes vQtements par terre. Don't throw your clothes on the floor.
Elle o jett son chewing-gum par lo fen1tre. She threw her chewing gum out of the
window
lls ne jettent jamqis rien. They never throw anything away.
jelj'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
|e/j,=|tu=youi|=he/ite||e=she/iton=we/onenous=wevous=youi|s/e|les=they
Vene TneLEs
iiilr
l
i
i
tl
i,i.'
[+;rtt*rr
(to
lift)
$.tr}iIli]i^t\.i'r'
je
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
Ftr!'1t$;f:r(:lli
I
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
ii:ilLi ;,'iiJi;Xi..
ldve
ldves
l6ve
levons
levez
ldvent
ai lev6
as lev6
a lev6
avons lev6
avez lev6
ont lev6
je
ldverai
tu ldveras
illelle/on l6vera
nous lEverons
vous ldverez
ils/elles lEveront
li f ui ift H F:ir{i_"tj i',i F
fdve/levons llevez
ij)f1 I-jSi"iti'i rrj:rtrli,; i|i.: Il:i l Fr
levant
!rii ii:,i:i, [: fir] it ) t i; iii . t i..L ir!,l {l:l'llJii;
1e
ldve
tu ldves
ilielle/on lEve
nous levions
vous leviez
ils/elles lbvent
1igiif:irl+;
[;
l::i4i. i: il
ie
levais
tu levais
illelle/on levait
nous levions
vous leviez
ils/elles levaient
ri; i.l:i:,i1,ltIl ili.'il\if:i 1.
ie
liverais
tu ldverais
illelle/on ldverait
nous ldverions
vous ldveriez
ils/elles ldveraient
fii,i:.ll ti
ir;rirlilii ; !i:;;Ii]I.L:
lev6
i,.;...'"jt.!f . t..
: :.: i,.
... .
Li4le b ftte. Lift your head up.
Levez Iq main! Put your hand up!
le
me live tous les jours d sept heures. I get up at 7 every day.
S
See pages 88-91 for informqtion on how to form the reflexive verb se lever.
jelj'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you als/elles=they
le/j,=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one noua=we voua=you ils/elles=they
Vena TneLps
PRESHf;ST
le
lis
tu lis
iUelle/on lit
nous lisons
vous lisez
ils/elles lisent
PERFH{;T
i'
ai lu
tu as lu
illelle/on a lu
nous avons lu
vous avez lu
ils/elles ont lu
FUTLIA{F
ie
lirai
tu liras
illelle/on lira
nous lirons
vous lirez
ils/elles liront
IMPEffiATIVK.
lis/lisons/lisez
ili:i!:ri'iitril.lT [5]
l[','jili!!lri;'rj'i!i ir:
je
lise
tu lises
illelle/on lise
nous lisions
vous lisiez
ils/elles lisent
!lv-tFPiiFir'irl:t]
r
le
lisais
tu lisais
il/elle/on lisait
nous lisions
vous lisiez
ils/elles lisaient
{jtil}l'ri Dl1-!iI{,rr*AL
je
lirais
tu lirais
illelle/on lirait
nous lirions
vous liriez
ils/elles liraient
iit!,&liT l'#.: !:ll"lil;l !' t' i :
lu
PRE$ ffi BX"n- it'd\ffi {'l{il !i' [, [r
lisant
Ex,itr illf
p*4" g pr-dsi,A
$id,r;
Vous ovez lu "Mqdame Bovary"? Have you read "Madame Bovary"?
le Ie liroi dans I'avion. l'll read it on the plane.
Elle lui lisoit une histoire. She was reading him a story.
I
lt
l.
i
l
l
tl
l
li
i
l
]i
ll
i
'i
Vene TneLes
VeRe Tneles
{to
eat)
le
mange
tu manges
iUelle/on mange
nous mangeons
vous mangez
ils/elles mangent
t"
ai mang6
tu as mang6
illelle/on a mang6
nous avons mange
vous avez mange
ils/elles ont mang6
le
mangerai
tu mangeras
iUelle/on mangera
nous man9eronS
vous mangerez
ils/elles mangeront
mange / mangeons / mangez
mangeant
,e
mange
tu manges
illelle/on mange
nous mangions
vous mangiez
ils/elles mangent
,
le
mangeais
tu mangeais
illelle/on mangeait
nous mangions
vous mangiez
ils/elles mangeaient
.
je
mangerais
tu mangerais
il/elle/on mangerait
nous mangerions
vous mangeriez
ils/elles mangeraient
mange
PRESENT
je
maudis
tu maudis
il/elle/on maudit
nous maudissons
vous maudissez
ils/elles maudissent
PERFECT
i'
ai maudit
tu as maudit
il/elle/on a maudit
nous avons maudit
vous avez maudit
ils/elles ont maudit
FUTURE
1e
maudirai
tu maudiras
illelle/on maudira
nous maudirons
vous maudirez
ils/elles maudiront
IMPERATIVE
maudls / maudissons /
maudissez
PRESET{T PARTIEIPTE
maudissant
PRHSE[\I'T' $U ffi .} L.' IVfi T'&Vffi
je
maudisse
tu maudisses
il/elle/on maudisse
nous maudissions
vous maudissiez
ils/elles maudissent
ffvlpHH$-HsT
je
maudissais
tu maudissais
illelle/on maudissait
nous maudissions
vous maudissiez
ils/elles maudissaient
s{}[\xmn'rlst\cA!-
je
maudirais
tu maudirais
iUelle/on maudirait
nous maudirions
vous maudiriez
ils/elles maudiraient
r*A$T FlAffi"flB{T[$][-ffi
maudit
Nous ne mqngeons pos souvent ensemble' We don't often eat together'
Tu ss assez iang6? Haveyou had enough to eat?
Je
mangerai plus tard. l'll eat later on'
EXATfiPLE P'L'ffiASES
lls moudissent leurs ennemis. They curse their enemies'
Ce mqudit stvlo ne marche
pqs/ fhis blasted pen doesn't work!
ie/i,=|tu=youi|=he/itel|e=she/iton_we/onenous=wevous=youi|s/6||es=they
ieli'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle-she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/olles=they
Vene TneLes
Vens TnnLEs
s" fr?'.jff$'f,ttg'#$
(to put)
IitrLi$i&i$',:1T'
ie
mets
tu mets
illelle/on met
nous mettons
vous mettez
ils/elles mettent
ii't:rFi[:F;fl.'f
i'
ai mis
tu as mis
illelle/on a mis
nous avons mis
vous avez mis
ils/elles ont mis
ir,I l"li't..l]*:iii
je
mettrai
tu mettras
ilielle/on mettra
nous mettrons
vous mettrez
ils/elles mettront
i l-htl fri hl ['i i iT-iil/ f:
mets/mettons/mettez
F[:tfi l.]lf.rB\["f tr]!,{\Fi I.dCiF[.t:
mettant
FiljqHSHrl\{T ${"lH.i[-tillff fi $1"V8
je
mette
tu mettes
iUelle/on mette
nous mettions
vous mettiez
ils/elles mettent
!fTSPffimFfl:CT
je
mettais
tu mettais
illelle/on mettait
nous mettions
vous mettiez
ils/elles mettaient
$mi'ti{3[TXSF\jl\*-
je
mettrais
tu mettrais
illelle/on mettrait
nous mettrions
vous mettriez
ils/elles mettraient
tr,*,&$T fll.,f;{ ij] fr *fi !Ft'E
mis
PRE$HT"iT'
je
IU
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
PERd-H#T"
le
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
FUTLIi[.?E
je
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
monte
montes
monte
montons
monrez
montent
suis mont6(e)
es mont6(e)
est mont6(e)
sommes mont6(e)s
tes mont6(e)(s)
sont mont6(e)s
monterai
monteras
montera
monterons
monterez
monteront
,,i,liriirrjtl-l
[::,td'f
"-',Lt"j.".!.q_lr$j{:i
lillbJffi
je
monte
tu montes
illelle/on monte
nous montions
vous montiez
ils/elles montent
it:'i1 it:'l:i t ii;trt:',.,' !
ie
montais
tu montais
il/elle/on montait
nous montions
vous montiez
ils/elles montaient
Itr,.] ii \4 f,i' I :f i# tu{it\t
je
monterais
tu monterais
illelle/on monterait
nous monterions
vous monteriez
ils/elles monteraient
;tAi\I.j
:'
i'jn\r;':,i
li,i]i;li i.lrl
mont6
fi'-{,r4fhf.'f+d",,f F! l,t?.4$s:?1:
Mets ton manteau! Put your coat on!
Oi est-ce que tu os mis les cl6s?
tffhere
have you put the keys?
l'ai
mis Ie livre sur la tqble. I put the book on the table.
Elle s'est mise d pleurer. She started crying.
r) See pages 88-91 for informqtion on how to form the reflexive verb se mettre.
je/j'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one noua-we vous=you ils/elles=they
lMptr$tA\TI\f!:
monte/montons/montez
PRA$ ffi IU"i' F/n rtrilif .lii [r I r:
montant
EXd{ f l4trl #t"ff t?li.':tl] i:il
le
suis mont1e taut en hsut de Io tour. I went all the way up the tov'rer'
'Monte
dans la voiture,
ie
t'emmdne. Cet into the car, l'll take.you tl't"t"'
.
ll s,est tordu lo cheville en montqnt d une 6chelle. He twisted his ankle going up
a ladder.
[7]
Note that monter takes avoir in the perfect tense when it is used with a direct
-
objecq see
Page
114.
ie/j'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vene TneLrs
Vene TaeLes
i,iririi'ri,ji;'lr (tO
bite)
, l:.r :
:.r l:
,,t
i
je
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
!:'',ilit
ii
r:a:-i-
'
'
I
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
mords
mords
mord
mordons
mordez
mordent
ai mordu
as mordu
a mordu
avons mordu
avez mordu
ont mordu
mordrai
mordras
mordra
mordrons
mordrez
mordront
l,riti.'r':
-i '
je
tu
illelle/on
nous
VOUS
ils/elles
mordais
mordais
mordait
mordions
mordiez
mordaient
l'l t [: i-; F.:ft!'f
je
tu
il/elle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
I'ER$-iiHET
I
tu
illelle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
FUTUfllLri
le
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
mouds
mouds
moud
moulons
moulez
moulent
ai moulu
as moulu
a moulu
avons moulu
avez moulu
ont moulu
moudrai
moudras
moudra
moudronS
moudrez
moudront
r''1,::ii", i;: rit i
ie
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
je
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
ri,,,;i:r",1ir.i,1lt
moule
moules
moule
moulions
mouliez
moulent
|,l
moulais
moulais
moulait
moulions
mouliez
moulaient
ii:i :,::i
i,,,
tlltrr;. iil
irt,:il ltt',:.,r,li
je
morde
tu mordes
illelle/on morde
nous mordions
vous mordiez
ils/elles mordent
:liir.lil il:ri,
li!,' il.
!'
r'i-llir:
mords/mordons lmordez
.-,1
rl,t
ir t., ;'it,,i,.ri il
je
mordrais
tu mordrais
illelle/on mordrait
nous mordrions
vous mordriez
ils/elles mordraient
,ii 1,,.,r:
mordu
:il
I
Jli;
ii l
;lirI
je
tu
il/elle/on
nouS
vou5
ils/el les
,t i :- r:r1. . t\.i il
mordant
i;al.
I rl lr',1:i.;lli
ii ;i"iij\lt []ili:i ii',..1il{lll
,,i.
ie
moudrais
tu moudrais
il/elle/on moudrait
nous moudrions
vous moudriez
ils/elles moudraient
, l'rll,riil'' -1
moulu
lMl$38ffiP;fl'ri'F:
mouds/moulons/moulez
PFtESi::Id'i
i';li;i l'ii ii Fi ii:
moulant
.- : i . ::\ | : t:i t :' .l:
il:,il.rri:|
:i
:,'i:'1,;
Le chien m'q mordue. The dog bit me.
ll ne va pos te mordrel He won't bite!
[: xA ft4fry_,L
jair,]ij.il4
iili: !r
J'ai
moulu du caf,6 pour demain motin' l've ground some coffee for tomorrow
morning.
je/i'=ltu-you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we v6u5=lou ils/elles=they ie/i'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one
nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vens Tnelrs
Vene Tneles
&"
$sBqle$ffi8$"
(to
die)
FXifi$!::ttlT
Je
meurs
tu meurs
illelle/on meurt
nous mouronS
vous mourez
ils/elles meurent
F!fill#SdjT
je
suis mort(e)
tu es mort(e)
il/elle/on est mort(e)
nous sommes mort(e)s
vous tes mort(e)(s)
ils/elles sontmort(e)s
XfrL!TqJffiE
je
mourrai
tu mourras
illelle/on mourra
nous mourrons
vous mourrez
ils/elles mourront
trfl,riF3ffi$-id"\'[i\rFi
meurs/mourons lmourez
13 ii".jl Fi$ fi nlT FA iil-fl"$d":t P{. f,
mourant
FF?[:$fiS]T ${"i ffi,i ["i fdCTf
'{i
K
je
meure
tu meures
illelle/on meure
nous mourions
vous mouriez
ils/elles meurent
!IVNPilffiFffCT
je
mourais
tu mourais
illelle/on mourait
nous mourions
vous mouriez
ils/elles mouraient
fi {-l} ii| h..} H Til C} FilA l-
le
mourrals
tu mourrais
illelle/on mourrait
nous mourrions
vous mourriez
ils/elles mourraient
F,j{$.;, F;;{ Ftr I"$iilfi I] U_H
pRF$F[\lT
$tiffiJuNeflvn
je
naisse
tu naisses
illelle/on naisse
nous naissions
vous naissiez
ils/elles naissent
[&fipgttFHcT
je
naissais
tu naissais
illelle/on naissait
nous naissions
vous naissiez
ils/elles naissaient
COI\IDIT!MNAL
je
naitrais
tu naitrais
illelle/on naitrait
nous naitrions
vous naitriez
ils/elles naitraient
PA$T PA${T'ICIPE"Sl
ne
fr ,{'/{ r1,{$A ,* Fd.{q,4,{i*r5
EIle est morte en 1998.She died in 1998.
lls sont morts. They're dead.
On meurt de froid icy' We're freezino to death in here!
PRESEFJT
je
nais
tu nais
il/elle/on nait
nous naissons
vous naissez
ils/elles naissent
PERFECT
je
suis n6(e)
tu es n6(e)
illelle/on est n6(e)
nous sommes n6(e)s
vous tes n6(e)(s)
ils/elles sont n6(e)s
FUTURE
je
naitrai
tu naitras
il/elle/on naitra
nous naitrons
vous naitrez
ils/elles naitront
IMPERATIVE
nais /
naissons /
naissez
PRE$ H [\lT
pAffi-{"fi*0pLH
naissant
EX+\MP|-E
P,t-ffiA$b")
le
suis n6e Ie 1 2 fdvrier' I was born on 12 February'
. ,- . e.- r i^-
'[r-AiAi
i, Delphine naitra en mors' Delphine is going to have a baby in March'
Quand
est-ce que tu es n6?When were you born/
je/j'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous-we vous=you ils/lles=they ie/i'=ltu=you
il=he/it ells=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vene TaeLes
Vene TneLes
i,iu
l''itil)'ffili]l? {,!iii (to
clean)
iir|i i::llili:lrrr-[
je
nettoie
tu nettoies
illelle/on nettoie
nous nettoyons
vous nettoyez
ils/elles nettoient
liiHiiit:Hfl"i
j'
ai nettoy6
tu as nettoy6
illelle/on a nettoy6
nous avons nettoy6
vous avez nettoy6
ils/elles ont nettoy6
!,r( irt.!ii!r:
je
nettoierai
tu nettoieras
illelle/on nettoiera
nous nettoieronS
vous nettoiefez
ils/elles nettoieront
ifrilltieliAiii'iil:
nettoie / nettoyons / nettoyez
f,ftF,..;::i,,i i' ;
t1
i 1? 1,,:ii:! .it:-1
nettoyant
F'tCff 6tri\{T }; Ll ffii"l LtmS"$ {'idfr
je
nettoie
tu nettoies
illelle/on nettoie
nous nettoyions
vous nettoyiez
ils/elles nettoient
IfMFi:,mF$t#]"
je
nettoyais
tu nettoyais
il/elle/on nettoyait
nous nettoyions
vous nettoyiez
ils/elles nettoyaient
c#nqff$TN{JF,pdil"
je
nettoierais
tu nettoierais
il/elle/on nettoierait
nous nettoierions
vous nettoieriez
ils/elles nettoieraient
F-1,1,$"fr
' p,s,
$q"r ii -{: I F} f-" n
nettoy6
PRH$FNi"$'
i'
offre
tu offres
illelle/on offre
nous offrons
vous offrez
ils/elles offrent
PE$TFH{:T'
j'
ai offert
tu as offert
illelle/on a offert
nous avons offert
vous avez offert
ils/elles ont offert
FUTtIF{ffi
j'
offrirai
tu offriras
il/elle/on offrira
nous offrirons
vous offtirez
ils/elles offriront
tMpHFilt!l\l'f:l
offre/offrons loffrez
PHfi $fl f$" il Pi'r\ltl lriif[']'Lr fr
offrant
Piri t:jl.1i:lri,l"I i; ff ll,}.i [ ! i\iii.:'i llf [:
j'
offre
tu offres
illelle/on offre
nous offrions
vous offriez
ils/elles offrent
il$.-thjH*81[lfi"tr
j'
offrais
tu offrais
illelle/on offrait
nous off rions
vous offriez
ils/elles offraient
fi*niF:]tTfi(.?htAt-
i'
offrirais
tu offrirais
illelle/on offrirait
nous offririons
vous offririez
ils/elles offriraient
rj+\li.!-
l,,in1ii !(:ri 'i lr.
offert
r'f ,{rii ilrlif
)'i,
L- .FT'fj?r:ri.i'irt,l-i
Richard o nettoy0 tout I'opportemenf. Richard has cleaned the whole flat.
EIle nettoyait le sol en 1coutant lq rqdio. She was cleaning the floor while listening
to the radio.
le
ne nettoie pqs souvent mes lunettes. I don't clean my glasses very often.
Exd&fp,t F Fi?lt.,rri _,$,j:r s;
on lui s offert un poste de secr^taire. They offered her a secreterial post.
Offre-tui des fleurs. Cive her some flowers.
Viens, je t'offre d bolre. Come on, l'll buy you a drink'
le me suk offert un nouveou stylo. I treated myself to a new pen'
*
see poges 88-91 for infarmotion on how to form the reflexive verb s'offrir'
je/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/ellos=they
jelj'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we
yqus=loU
ils/elles=they
.,:1"
;;{it:.
Vens Tneles :,;*;-,1
PRESENT
le
parais
tu parais
illelle/on parait
nous paraissons
vous paraissez
ils/elles paraissent
PERFECT
i'
ai paru
tu as paru
il/elle/on a paru
nous avons paru
vous avez paru
ils/elles ont paru
FUTURE
je
paraitrai
tu paraitras
illelle/on paraitra
nous paraitrons
vous paraitrez
ils/elles paraitront
IMPERATIVE
parais /
paraissons /
paraissez
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
paraissant
EXAMPLE PHBASES
EIle paraissoit fatiguie. She seemed tired.
Cisdle porait plus jeune que son rige. Cisdle doesn't look her age...
tt pordit qu'il"foit chaud toute I'anni6e /d-bos. Apparently it's hot all year round over
there.
Vrne TleLrs
PRESENT
i' ouvre
tu ouvres
illelle/on
ouvre
nous ouvrons
vous ouvrez
ils/elles ouvrent
PERFECT
- --
j'
ai ouvert
tu as ouvert
iUelle/on a ouvert
nous avons ouvert
vous avez ouvert
ils/elles ont ouvert
FUTURE
i' ouvrirai
tu ouvriras
illelle/on ouvrira
nous ouvrirons
vous ouvrirez
ils/elles ouvriront
IMPERATIVE
ouvre/ouvrons
louvrez
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
ouvrant
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
i' ouvre
tu ouvres
illelle/on ouvre
nous ouvrions
vous ouvriez
ils/elles ouvrent
IMPERFECT
i'
ouvrais
tu ouvrais
illelle/on ouvrait
nous ouvnons
vous ouvriez
ils/elles ouvraient
CONDITIONAL
I OUVrrrars
tu ouvrirais
illelle/on ouvrirait
nous ouvririons
vous
ouvririez
ils/elles ouvriraient
PAST PAHTICIPLE
ouvert
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
je
paraisse
tu paraisses
illelle/on paraisse
nous paraissions
vous paraissiez
ils/elles paraissent
IMPERFECT
je
paraissais
tu paraissais
illelle/on paraissait
nous paraissions
vous paraissiez
ils/elles paraissaient
CONDITIONAL
je
paraitrais
tu paraitrais
illelle/on paraitrait
nous paraitrions
vous paraitriez
ils/elles paraitraient
PAST PARTICIPLE
paru
EXAMPLE PHRASES
Elle a ouvert Iq porfe. She opened the door.
Est-ce que tu pourrois ouvrir la fen1tre? Could you open the window?
le
me suis coupd en ouvront une boite de consbrve. I cut myself openinq a tin.
Lo porte s'est ouverte. The door opened.
fi
See poges 88-91 for informqtion on how to form the reflexive verb s,ouvrin
jeli'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on*we/one nous=we vous=you ils/olles=they
ielj'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vqu5=lou il$/elles=they
VrnsTeeLrs
Vene Tnnles
p-
$.Sffiff'efrfi'
(to go; to leave)
[!f:iF'$f;'tufT"
je
pars
tu pars
illelle/on part
nous partons
vous partez
ils/elles partent
rru$tF$q:T
ie
suis parti(e)
tu es parti(e)
illelle/on estparti(e)
nous sommes parti(e)s
vous tes parti(e)(s)
ils/elles sontparti(e)s
rjLi
"it.rmE:
je
partirai
tu partiras
il/elle/on partira
nous partirons
vous partirez
ils/elles partiront
Iii,{PFrRlriTl'11ii.
pars/partonslpartez
Brg+H n[\q".d- r]Arq-x{.1:E$-}ff
"F:
partant
pffi
n:s ffi nd'T $ c.j r*"t u fiufrT'tvE
ie
parte
tu partes
illelle/on parte
nous partions
vous partiez
ils/elles partent
ItsrtPFffiFffiCT
je
partais
tu partais
illelle/on partait
nous partions
vous partiez
ils/elles partaient
c-$t\t&?[r[0rudit
je
partirais
tu partirais
illelle/on partirait
nous partirions
vous partiriez
ils/elles partiraient
pilgi
t" $.'1.{ ffiifi ff I $3Lffi
Parti
PRESfrPdT
ie
passe
tu passes
illelle/on passe
nous passon5
vous passez
ils/elles passent
PERFE#'il"
l'
ai
Pass6
tu as pass6
illelle/on a pass6
nous avons pa55e
vous avez pass6
ils/elles ont pass6
FUTUffiE
ie
passerai
tu passeras
il/elle/on passera
nous passeronS
vous passerez
ils/elles passeront
lMFtr[tAffli;rF
passe/passons/Passez
PRH$m8\Jii
Iplii
ii.i'l' i;i r:l
ir']i i.
passant
litfilalsfii\i"il-
g;q
i tr',J ! ! f*( ;'Y I v {r
le
passe
tu passes
illelle/on passe
nous passion5
vous passiez
ils/elles passent
llViP'F-rhlF{:C:i
ie
passais
tu passais
illelle/on passait
nous passions
vous passiez
ils/elles passaient
{t;ri-} fr'* [J fr il l.{', [\,l,A lL.
le
passerais
tu passerais
il/elle/on passerait
nous passerions
vous passeriez
ils/elles passeraient
i'+5:ifl ilrr,ti:l i"di.lrti'!. [']
pass6
::
",:lfifir{
!.
I+!
:i
h.t:: [
{',
On port en vacances le 1 5 aoAL We're going on holiday on 1 5 August.
Ne partez pos sans moi! Don't leave without me!
Elle est partie t6t ce matin.She left early this morning.
rx,A nfdFd"a:,F#{lc/4.5 ii: ;i
Les mois ont
possA. Months passed.
. .
ll a ooss soi exqmen en iuin.
He took his exam In
June'
'1r",5;";;;;;;i;;;;;;,;A;A;;
mii
siiaiSs'parents"t'm eoins
to spend the holidavs
'
at mv orandparents' house'
tii es(
p'iiiiei'me
dire boniour. She came by to say hello'
t:ii{{u[e ti posse au MexiQue' The story takes plate in Mexico'
[t
trtote that passer can also take tre in the perfect tense; see page 1 1 4'
Q
See pages 88-91 for information on how to form the reflexive verb se pqsser.
je/j'=ltu-you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
ieli'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vrne TaeLEs Vens TneLes
t,.
i'r : ir!itliiirl-'ti,i'
je
paye
ru payes
illelle/on paye
nous payons
vous payez
ils/elles payent
i'[:iliii:j[:rl,';
',
i' ai pay6
tu as pay6
illelle/on
a pay6
nous avons pay6
vous
avez pay6
ils/elles ont pay6
i:r{.r: i'l.jliji'lf:
Je
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
payerai
payeras
payera
payerons
payerez
payeront
i)i;
i
rl::
l:],
i i I I i ;:; !.,1 i::;. i I
ij
ii.ii tj-Il i.iF
je
paye
tu payes
illelle/on paye
nous payions
vous payiez
ils/elles
payent
iliii.:iili-,:
rl;:iij i: rr':
i
le
payais
tu payais
illelle/on payait
nous payions
vous payiez
ils/elles payaient
i l! )it:tl: tl'it lli rl'r,ir*r.:t
je
payerais
tu payerais
illelle/on payerait
nous payerions
vous payeriez
ils/elles payeraient
.t..,f
., i
:,,
' i. : i i,i' tii:,r[
[::
pay6
F
pmfratc$n'm
(to paint)
PRffi$f;fdT
Je
petns
tu peins
illelle/on peint
nous peignons
vous peignez
ils/elles peignent
PEMFHOT
i'
ai peint
tu as peint
illelle/on a peint
nous avons peint
vous avez peint
ils/elles ont peint
Fi"rT{-lmr
je
peindrai
tu peindras
illelle/on peindra
nous peindrons
vous peindrez
ils/elles peindront
IMFH["rJs,
;
peins
/
peignons /
peignez
PRHSffi f'{} [i14\i:rrll'ti':li
ji|.,ir:
peignant
p[i
f S F: $"{l" { i$ [-f ii?"] iri ff ](.:'ili \'rE
le
peigne
tu peignes
illelle/on peigne
nous peignions
vous peigniez
ils/elles peignent
IrvnPF.FtF']rHS]l'
je
peignais
tu peignais
illelle/on peignait
nous peignions
vous peigniez
ils/elles peignaient
C{J hq n} B"1"!t? [\Jltl-
je
peindrais
tu peindrais
illelle/on peindrait
nous peindrions
vous peindriez
ils/elles peindraient
li+i L,:; .r
r;4,
it:i"!- ! {:i i: it .i:,
Peint
I il.iil ii [1[=l f '\: [':"i:4' iii
PaYe/payonslpayez
F !lfii:i;[-rl!i! ii l"4i [i f iir ;;;.:1r,11:
payanr
,rKll,iiliiri. 5 l: il i,f
.,i.t4
i:irlir:.f
i
Tu l'as pay4 combien? How much did you pay for it?
Mo potronne me paiero demqin. My boss will pay
me tomorrow.
Les 4tudionts poyent moiti( prix. StJdents pay iralf price.
,Y,4
jWP*
*i Pd'dfr'./'! i:,il]i l:i
On o
peint l'entrde en bleu clair. We painted the hall light blue.
Ce tqbleau a 6tt peint en 1913. This picture was painted in 191 3
jeli'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=tnev
ie/i,=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
tll,lllllilillill!ii!l;;i
Vene Tnsles
VeRe TleLEs ri'
t,':
,i,
@
p#trffitrffi (to
lose)
$:rFq[1,$ffi!\f;T
illelle/on
nou5
vous
ils/elles
PffiFTFE#T
I
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
F{.}TUTEE
je
IU
illelle/on
nouS
vou5
ils/elles
perds
perds
perd
perdons
perdez
perdent
ai perdu
as perdu
a perdu
avons perdu
avez perdu
ont perdu
perdrai
perdras
perdra
perdrons
perdrez
perdront
PHF$EilUT ${".I ffiJI,JN'ETIVE
le
perde
tu perdes
il/elle/on perde
nous perdions
vous perdiez
ils/elles perdent
IMIPERFAST
le
perdais
tu perdais
illelle/on perdait
nous perdions
vous perdiez
ils/elles perdaient
c{)ff\tf}tTt&t\tAt"
|e
perdrais
tu perdrais
illelle/on perdrait
nous perdrions
vous perdriez
ils/elles perdraient
PS-{Ii'I' P,A m T'&S}[ Pl-H
perdu
PRESENT
ie
plais
tu plais
il/elle/on plait
nous plaisons
vous plaisez
ils/elles plaisent
PERFECT
i'
ai plu
tu as plu
illelle/on a plu
nous avons plu
vous avez plu
ils/elles ont plu
FUTURE
je
plairai
tu plairas
il/elle/on plaira
nous plairons
vous plairez
ils/elles plairont
IMPTRATE\IH
plais /
plalsons /
plalsez
PRE$EIUT T'AHTIfr[P''g
plaisant
je
IU
PRESHNT SUEJUIUCTIVE
je plaise
tu plaises
il/elle/on plaise
nous plaisions
vous plaisiez
ils/elles plaisent
IMPERFICT
je
plaisais
tu plaisais
illelle/on plaisait
nous plaisions
vous ptatsrez
ils/elles plaisaient
CO[\IDITIONAL
le
plarrars
tu plairais
illelle/on plairait
nous plairions
vous plairiez
ils/elles plairaient
PAST PARTICIPTE
plu
nfritPH$qp\T'nvE
perds/perdons/perdez
r:|f{H,$ E t\9"$-
pA
ffix"t 0l *'x-ffi,
perdant
trxAMf,f-s'dpffffiAsFs
J'ai
perdu mon porte-monnoie dqns le mdtro. I lost my purse on the underground.
L'ltolie o perdu un d zdro. ltaly lost one-nil.
Si tu te perds, appelle-moi. Call me if you get lost.
t')
\ee poges 88-91 for informotion on how to form the reflexive verb se perdre.
EXAMPLE PI{'?ASSS
Le menu ne me
plait pos. I don't like the menu.
Q.o
te ploirait diqtter
'd
lo mer? Would yo,u like to
90
to the seaside?
Qa
t'a plu, Ie film7 Did you like the film?
s'il te ploit please
s'il vous ploit please
ie/j'=11,r=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we v6qs=lou ils/elles=they
jelj,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=shelit on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
I
Vsne Tneles
veReTngles
''
'
PRESENT
il pleut
PERFECT
il a plu
FUTURE
il pleuvra
IMPERATIVE
not used
PRE$ENT PARTICIPLE
pleuvant
IMPERFECT
il pleuvait
CONDITIONAI.
il pleuvrait
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
tr pteuve
PRESENT
ie
peux
tu peux
il/elle/on peut
nous pouvons
vous pouvez
tls/eiles peuvent
PERFECT
j'
ai pu
tu as pu
illelle/on a
pu
nous avons pu
vous avez pu
ils/elles ont
pu
FUTURE
je
pourrai
tu pourras
illelle/on pourra
nous pourrons
vous pourrez
ils/elles pourront
IMPERATIVE
not used
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
pouvant
PRESENT SUB.JUNCTIVE
le
puisse
tu puisses
il/elle/on puisse
nous put55tons
vous puissiez
ils/elles puissent
IMPERFECT
le
pouvats
tu pouvais
illelle/on pouvait
nous pouvtonS
vous pouvtez
ils/elles pouvaient
CONDITIOI\AL
je pourrais
tu pourrais
illelle/on pourrait
nous pourrions
vous pourriez
ils/elles pourraient
PAST PI\NTICIPLE
pu
PAST PARTICIPLE
EXAMPLE PHRASES
ll a plu toute la
journde. lt rained all day long.
ll pleut beaucoup d Glosgow. lt rains a lot in Clasgow.
I'espire
qu'il ne pleuvra pas demqin. I hope it won't be raining tomorrow.
EXAMPLE PHRA$ES
le
peux t'oide4 si tu veux. l can help you if you like.
'J'rii
fait tout ce que j'oi pu. I did all I iould.
le
ne pourroi pis ienir samedi. I won't be able to come on Saturday.
ie/i'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/onB nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
lc/i,=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous-you ils/elles=they
VeRe Tlgles
VrRe Tneles
p. prffifl'Bdre (to
take)
pn$FtilT
je
prends
tu prends
illelle/on prend
nous prenons
vous prenez
ils/elles prennent
PITFEfiT
i'
ai pris
tu as pris
illelle/on a pris
nous avons pns
vous avez pris
ils/elles ont pris
FLJTC-Iffig
je
prendrai
tu prendras
illelle/on prendra
nous prendrons
vous prendrez
ils/elles prendront
NIWPF:ffiAfCVH
prends / prenons /
prenez
pmE$E[sT
rrARTn{}l6:]l-'*
prenant
F'ffi H$fi fdT $ U m"J Uf\{{:"{'NVH
irmH$HtvT $!.j mJ{J l\ig"n{vH
je
protEge
tu protdges
illelle/on protdge
nous prot6gions
vous prot6giez
ils/elles protdgent
ItVNPFftFEfiT
je
prot6geais
tu prot6geais
illelle/on prot6geait
nous prot5gions
vous prot6giez
ils/elles prot6geaient
cffirun!"$'flssiAL
je
prot6gerais
tu prot6gerais
illelle/on prot6gerait
nous prot6gerions
vous prot6geriez
ils/elles prot6geraient
p&s]
[:]AFi ], [{][F]i..il
prot6g6
fi[t/[[:!HRFfi:e"t-
le
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
le
tU
illelle/on
nous
vou5
ils/elles
,e
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vouS
ils/elles
prenne
prennes
prenne
prenions
preniez
prennent
prenars
prenais
prenait
prenions
preniez
prenaient
prendrais
prendrais
prendrait
prendrions
prendriez
prendraient
fif![\i[]fiT$CI[ss,!""
PRESENT
ie
protdge
tu prot6ges
illelle/on protdge
nous prot6geons
vous prot6gez
ils/elles protdgent
PERFECT
i' ai prot6g6
tu as prot6g6
illelle/on a prot6g6.
,
nous avons protege
vous avez prot6g6
ils/elles ont prot6g6
FUTURE
le
prot6gerai
tu prot6geras
il/elle/on prot6gera
nous prot6gerons
vous prot6gerez
ils/elles prot6geront
IMPERATIVE
protdge / prot6geons I
prot6gez
PRESENT PAHTICIPLE
prot6geant
EXAMPLE PF'ffiASSS
ll protige so petite seur o l'6cole. He protects his little sister at school.
Protige ton livre de la pluie. Protect your book from the rain.
I e champ est prot6g6 du vent par la colline. The field is sheltered from the wind
by the hill.
-
EIA$"F
g:hp,
[q'T'fl s n i] [-. E
pris
trft ,4 fvrpd"tr-
pd-rffiAstr$
J'oi
prk plein de photos. I took lots of pictures.
N'oublie pas de prendre ton passeport. Don't forget to take your passport.
ll prendro le troin de 8h20. He'll take the 8.20 train.
Pour qui est-ce qu'il se prendT Who does he think he is?
r) See poges 88-91 for information on how to form the reflexive verb se prendre.
ielj'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=the\ lo/i'=l1u=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/ollos=they
Vene Theles
Vene TneLes
h"
trffitrm\'{d'}b$"
(to
receive)
P${Si"$fifttT'
je
reqois
tu reEois
illelle/on reEoit
nous recevonS
vous recevez
ils/elles reqoivent
PtrFNFFfll'
j'
ai regu
tu as regu
illelle/on a reEu
nous avons retu
vous avez regu
ils/elles ont reEU
r.Lf fltiffifl
je
recevrai
tu recevras
illelle/on recevra
nous recevronS
vous recevrez
ils/elles recevront
I[\IEPHffiA;I"IVF:
reEois / recevons / recevez
pffi
*"s,fi t\tT' elAffi'T'tqh
pL.ffi
recevant
FffiH$trfldT $UEJUNETIVE
le
regoive
tu reEoives
illelle/on regoive
nous recevions
vous receviez
ils/elles regoivent
IMPHRSrfii{:T
je
recevais
tu recevais
illelle/on recevait
nous recevions
vous receviez
ils/elles recevaient
#{.}6rumFTt0zuA["
je
recevrais
tu recevrais
illelle/on recevrait
nous recevrions
vous recevriez
ils/elles recevraient
F..r"l$l F-J{ [;] s-[ ffi | FI-H
PRHSfr[\iT
je
IU
il/elle/on
nous
VOUS
ils/elles
PERFM*T
le
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
FIJTT"IFiH
je
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vouS
ils/elles
je
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
le
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
rentre
rentreS
rentre
rentrions
rentriez
rentrent
prlHlili[\t"fi.
16il-th]JilIF\1il 1.[\itr
rentre
rentreS
rentre
rentrons
rentrez
rentrent
suis rentr6(e)
es rentr6(e)
est rentr6(e)
sommes rentr6(e)s
tes rent16(e)(s)
sont rentr6(e)s
rentrerai
rentreras
rentrera
rentreronS
rentrerez
rentreront
il['{'gfFHffi!i'f]]{; !
le
tu
illelle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
rentrais
rentrais
rentrait
rentrions
rentriez
rentraient
rentrerais
rentrerais
rentrerait
rentrerions
rentreriez
rentreraient
{l,tJ!\!ffff fiQrulAL
!MPffiH"!i;!'iri'l:1
rentre / rentrons / rentrez
Pmm$fi fili't' iir',.Eliiq l' lli ..ili:r'l
rl
rentrant
fr:/r,$'l' Ir,ilifiit $t li [i'il. S,
rentr6
re9u
C-k,S,l/lF1 # f) idfA$trq
Elle o regu une lettre de Chqrlotte. She received a letter from Charlotte.
le
ne regois jamqis de courrier. I never get any mail.
Elle recevrq une r,lponse la semaine prochaine. She'll get an answer next week.
EXeM&tt-t
r.-'1.;.,,"'
.' :
'
Ne rentre pos trop tard. Don't come home too late.
Ils sont rentr4s dons le mogosin. They went into the shop.
A quelte heure est-ce qu'elle est rentrdeT What time did she get in?
le
rentre ddjeuner d midi. I go home for lunch.
tt a ddjd rmtr{ ta voiture dqns Ie garage. He's already brought the car into the garage'
@
ruote that rentrer takes avoir in the perfect tense when it is used with a direct
obiec! see page 1 14.
je/i.=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=w vous=you ils/elles=they
je/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
VeRe Tneles
Vene TneLrs
i.
. ..
,,.q ,
.
(to
answer)
ili-iri5i $ili1("i-
je
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
P*ifif:r,'iril;i'
t
tu
illelle/on
nous
VOUS
ils/elles
16ponds
16ponds
16pond
16pondons
16pondez
16pondent
ai r6pondu
as r6pondu
a repondu
avons r6pondu
avez rEpondu
ont r6pondu
i=t,i"fiiljffiiI
je
repondrai
tu 16pondras
illelle/on 16pondra
nous 16pondrons
vous 16pondrez
ils/elles 16pondront
il flrll [riE i;.t,l il i
ld
[::
r6ponds
/ r6pondons
/ r6pondez
PIf trrii;i1t\ij"4' t:rtri.[i'i''i]i;:ii'rl. lt:r
16pondant
iriiili-r;:i{'rfr'lrl li l;i.i li,j',i. f
,ti6"il:'ii'Ulir,
je
r6ponde
tu 16pondes
illelle/on 16ponde
nous r6pondions
vous 16pondiez
ils/elles 16pondent
i,iii lrrt; iti !:';:.i,'ii
le
16pondais
tu 16pondais
illelle/on 16pondait
nous 16pondions
vous r6pondiez
ils/elles 16pondaient
1'.i,;i1, 1.|:i'I iil.fi i:\j:iirr._
je
16pondrais
tu r6pondrais
illelle/on 16pondrait
nous 16pondrions
vous r6pondriez
ils/elles 16pondraient
l,::.'j, :rrt I
: r'ii ii r'tiilft il-rll,i:.
16pondu
l'ltFSfilnXT
je
r6sous
tu r6sous
il/elle/on 16sout
nous r6solvons
vous r6solvez
ils/elles r6solvent
PERFE$T
i'
ai r6solu
tu as r6solu
illelle/on a r6solu
nous avons r65olu
vous avez r6solu
ils/elles ont r6solu
FUT[.JRH
je
r6soudrai
tu r6soudras
illelle/on r6soudra
nous r6soudrons
vous r6soudrez
ils/elles r6soudront
tMPRFIA'ifiilil:
r6sous / r6solvons / r6solvez
PRA$Eh\!"fi' !",4\lX
p:-It-;1!-1&
r:
r6solvant
F ffi H$ m tq*'f S L! ffi
"!
q.r'
hlCTl"vf E
je
r6solve
tu r6solves
illelle/on r6solve
nous r6solvions
vous r6solviez
ils/elles 16solvent
qlvnF!EffiF&i{':'n"
le
r6solvais
tu r6solvais
illelle/on r6solvait
nous r6solvions
vous r6solviez
ils/elles r6solvaient
*on$Dl'tri]0cil/4i-
je
r6soudrais
tu r6soudrais
il/elle/on 16soudrait
nous r6soudrions
vous r6soudriez
ils/elles 16soudraient
ft4$
"il'
F,ri tt:i i-i{,;i ir}..1. i-:
16solu
.':
.:.{}c.tf':ri,
. i
-,
.1.'"
Lisez le texte et rhpondez aux questions. Read the text and answer the questions.
C'est elle qui o rdpandu ou tdl4phone. She answered the phone.
Qo
ne rhpond pos. There's no reply.
ExAlblfsf
g
F'ffIqE
"5d;*'l
J'ai
r4solu le probldme. l've solved the problem.
La violence ne rlsout rien. Violence doesn't solve anything.
je/j'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we voug=you ils/elles=thev
ielj,=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we
y6u5=lou
ils/elles=they
Ill!l
ll
Vrne TneLes
VeRe TeBLes
Fi:"
f.'tsifi*.}r'
(to
remain)
*-liil[:ij
rtij.$
]'
je
reste
tu restes
il/elle/on reste
nous restons
vous restez
ils/elles restent
p'Ii.lrF],'dT
ie
suis rest6(e)
tu es rest6(e)
illelle/on estrest6(e)
nous sommes rest6(e)s
vous tes rest6(e)(s)
ils/elles sontrest6(e)s
f;i"i"r"t'rjl $ri r:
ie
resterai
tu resteras
illelle/on restera
nous resterons
vous resterez
ils/elles resteront
Ihr$ iitilrjJiii"l 1l'li:
reste/restons/restez
F ii{,Fi i{i [: Td T' $Y\. [1Tl
(,:
l] f.i l1.. il;
restant
Fri hi$'{: f',i'l' $ [ J [.]..i iJ 4\! #"ffi \{f:
ie
reste
tu restes
il/elle/on reste
nous restions
vous restiez
ils/elles restent
$tvH$i$ifnFFfi"fl'
le
restais
tu restais
illelle/on restait
nous restions
vous restiez
ils/elles restaient
{;*&il'}i iil4Jmf,tl
je
resterais
tu resterais
illelle/on resterait
nous resterions
vous resteriez
ils/elles resteraient
ilr,,i;;;; irt'
F:lirtr
ffi tr 3{;qg.3i,-H
rest6
PRESEftJT
je
retourne
tu retournes
il/elle/on retourne
nous retournons
vous retournez
ils/elles retournent
PERFEST
je
suis retourn6(e)
tu es retourn6(e)
il/ellelon est retourn6(e)
nous sommesretourn6(e)s
vous 6tesretourn6(e)(s)
ils/elles sont retourn6(e)s
FUT'UffiE
ye retournerai
tu retourneras
illelle/on retournera
nous retournerons
vous retournerez
ils/elles retourneront
IMPE;trAYTVF
retourne /
retournons /
retournez
PRESI:
nd
T
rjA!'B
! :("'[p[- fi
retournant
pRH$nruT
SL$ *.tl.J tu{e'rtvE
je retourne
tu retournes
il/elle/on retourne
nous retournions
vous retourniez
ils/elles retournent
IMPH}?FECT
le
retournais
tu retournais
illelle/on retournait
nous retournions
vous retourniez
ils/elles retournaient
SffNfiff[{llSA\t-
je
retournerais
tu retournerais
il/elle/on retournerait
nous retournerions
vous retourneriez
ils/elles retourneraient
9.x,4$T' fr &. f+,'f f {:;0 P[. F:
retourn6
.i-.
jrL,"L'l
ft.,#;.:il,fi f
!.f
ii!r:,,A
"$,fi{;i
Cet 6t6, je reste en Ecosse. l'm staying in Scotland this summer.
lls ne sont pas restes tes longtemps. They didn't stay very long.
ll leur restait encore un peu d'argent. They still had some money left.
EXAMFIF
P'dF?,45}::5
Est-ce que tu es retournle d Londres?
.Havg. Yo..Y
been back to London?
l,oimerqis bien retourner en ttqlie un
iour,
l'd like to go back to ltaly one day'
'Elle
s retourn, lo corte pour vdifier. She turned the card over to check.
7ie, ,rtourrr-toil Turn around 2o6!
fl
t tote that retourner takes avoir in the perfect tense when it is used with
-
a direct obiec! see
Page
1 14.
fi
see pages 88-91 for informqtion an how to form the reflexive verb se retourner'
ie/j'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
jeli'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vene Tneles
Vene Tnsles
h
fffiwffiffi$e"
(to
come back)
flHEsr,&tT
le
revlens
tu reviens
illelle/on revient
nous revenonS
vous revenez
ils/elles reviennent
PtrRFHS"fl"
je
suis revenu(e)
tu es revenu(e)
iUelle/on estrevenu(e)
nous sommes revenu(e)s
vous 6tes revenu(e)(s)
ils/elles sont revenu(e)s
[:[,.!TUffiF
je
reviendrai
tu reviendras
illelle/on reviendra
nous reviendrons
vous reviendrez
ils/elles reviendront
$[\{Pfrffi,tli]"'$V#
reviens /
revenons / revenez
PFi[i$f; [\JT Pg\ffiTEClp[-F
revenant
PRESTIUT SI"' B.JU ruETIVE
Je
revlenne
tu reviennes
illelle/on revienne
nous revenions
vous reveniez
ils/elles reviennent
IMPERF&CT
,|e
revenals
tu revenais
illelle/on revenait
nous revenlons
vous reveniez
ils/elles revenaient
*s|\t$!Tfr$&lAl-
,e
revlenoralS
tu reviendrais
illelle/on reviendrait
nous reviendrions
vous reviendriez
ils/elles reviendraient
PAS'T PAffiTICIPLE
PRE$Hhi"T
ie
ris
tu ris
il/elle/on rit
nous rions
vous riez
ils/elles rient
PERFHCT
j'
ai ri
tu as ri
illelle/on a ri
nous avons ri
vous avez ri
ilslelles ont ri
FUTTJHE
je
rirai
tu riras
illelle/on rira
nous rirons
vous rirez
ils/elles riront
IMPEFIJ&{"1{rrfl
ris/rions/riez
PflE$ F.
pJ
t' $3'i\ r'{T"l{i:n ri [. b:
riant
pffi
k"$Er\i"!" ii[-$ m.] L] !\q6'$'trj/Ei
le
rie
tu ries
illelle/on rie
nous riions
vous riiez
ils/elles rient
IM*PHFTfJffiTT
je
riais
tu riais
il/elle/on riait
nous riions
vous riiez
ils/elles riaient
e;*ruffi!3 [ffi!\iAht
je
rirais
tu rirais
il/elle/on rirait
nous ririons
vous ririez
ils/elles riraient
f;),&s'i"
pAF{T'lr}F
rit.)
ri
revenu
F? li i|llPi"F. d?Ftffi/tSIS
Mon chat n'est toujours pqs revenu. My cat still hasn't come back.
Je
reviens dans cinq minutes! l'll be back in five minutesl
Q.o
me revientl lt's coming back to me now!
xAft.,rp*ff fry?tr14s$li
On a bien ri. We had a good laugh.
Ne ris pas, ce n'est pos dr1lel Don't laugh, it's not funny!
C'dtoil
iuste
pour rire' ltwas only for a laugh.
je/i'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
ie/i'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Hllttl
rl
1l
Vene Tnelss
Vens Tneles
b
rffimptrffi
(to
break)
pRESrrdT
je
romps
tu romps
illelle/on rompt
nous romponS
vous rompez
ils/elles rompent
PEHFHCT
j'
ai rompu
tu as rompu
illelle/on a rompu
nous avons rompu
vous avez rompu
ils/elles ont rompu
FUTil'Rf;
je
romprai
tu rompras
illelle/on rompra
nous romprons
vous romprez
ils/elles rompront
[fvfiFNRATIVH
romps/rompons/rompez
Bt{fi sfr $s"fi' PAmrIcIPt".H
rompant
03ffi tr$ERtT ${J mJ U tr\!{:'fl [\if;
je
rompe
ru rompes
iUelle/on rompe
nous rompions
vous rompiez
ils/elles rompent
ll\frFHRF[:ST
le
rompais
tu rompais
illelle/on rompait
nous rompions
vous rompiez
ils/elles rompaient
e#a$r"ixTE0rdA[-
je
romprais
tu romprais
illelle/on romprait
nous romprions
vous rompriez
ils/elles rompraient
F.A$T F],,A &1"t'B CN
p
LE
rompu
PRE$FflJT'
je
sais
tu sais
il/elle/on sait
nous Savons
vous savez
ils/elles savent
PERFFET
i'
ai su
tu a5 su
illelle/on a su
nous avons su
vous avez 5u
ils/elles ont su
FUT["IRE
je
saurai
tu sauras
illelle/on saura
nous SauronS
vous saurez
ils/elles sauront
IMPERAI'{V}:
sache/sachons/sachez
PRE$HI$"]i- f!&:fiTlidIP[.. E
sachant
PME$E'VT SI-IBJUNETIVS
je
sache
tu Saches
illelle/on sache
nous sachions
vous sachiez
ils/elles sachent
IMPERFEET
je
savais
tu savais
illelle/on savait
nous savions
vous saviez
ils/elles savaient
c0ruptTt0lsp"t
je
saurais
tu saurais
iUelle/on saurait
nous saurions
vous sauriez
ils/elles sauraient
tlA$T
pAffi"!]#lpLffi
gffAfr/rPs"fi'r"f{trsstrs
Elle o rompu le silence. She broke the silence.
Paul et
lo
ont rompu. Paul and
Jo
have split up.
E X.A lt/t P !
"
{ i3.1.t \ !}
li
i : li
Tu sois ce que tu vqs faire l'annie prochaineT Do you know what you're doing
next year?
Je
ne sois pas. I don't know.
Ie
ne
'oE
pqs. I oon t Know.
EIIe ne sait pas noger. She can't swim.
Tu savqis que son-pdre 6tait pakistanals? Did you know her father was Pakistani?
jelj'=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous:you ils/elles=they
jelj,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vene TeeLes
Vene Thslrs
PHfTFEfr"i'
I
tu
illelle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
FCJTLJMU
je
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
ai senti
as senti
a senti
avons senti
avez senti
ont senti
sentirai
sentiras
sentira
sentirons
sentirez
sentiront
F
SffiK"ltilf
(to
smell; to feel)
ffruf;$Hl'd"$'
ie
sens
tu sens
illelle/on sent
nous Sentons
vous sentez
ils/elles sentent
PRESEft!T
ie sers
ru Sers
illelle/on sert
nous seryon5
vous servez
ils/elles servent
PERFHCT
i'
ai servi
tu as servi
illelle/on a servi
nous avOnS Servi
vous avez servi
ils/elles ont servi
FUTUHE
je
Servlral
tu serviras
illelle/on servira
nous servirons
vous servirez
ils/elles serviront
IMPERAIF$*F
sers/servons/servez
PR ES H[\lT P,r"{F{["!d;fi Pn""H
servant
EXAMFLE PT{FA$di,
On vous sert? Areyou being served?
Cq sert d
quoi ce bouton? Whal is this button for?
'servez-vois
en vionde. Help yourself to meat.
Q
See poges 88-91 for informotion on how to form the reflexive verb se servir'
$)aHs H nd"r' $["3 B"J u nifi T l\lH
je
sente
tu sentes
illelle/on sente
nous sentions
vous sentiez
ils/elles sentent
I[UPHMFffi$T
je
sentais
tu sentais
illelle/on sentait
nous sentions
vous sentiez
ils/elles sentaient
fi#*$L!gTlffizu,qF".
je
sentirais
tu sentirais
illelle/on sentirait
nous sentirions
vous sentiriez
ils/elles sentiraient
$3.EIf i il',,l"l.$-i"l [${Pl*ffi
senti
PRESEhIT $ U BJUI\ICTIVE
je
serye
tu serves
il/elle/on serye
nous servions
vous serviez
ils/elles servent
tfrdpHmFEcT
le
servats
tu servais
illelle/on servait
nous servions
vous servtez
ils/elles servaient
CONDITIONAL
je
servirais
tu servirais
il/elle/on servirait
nous servirions
vous servifiez
ils/elles serviraient
PAST PARTIEIPLE
servi
IiV?PHffiATIWH
sens/sentons/sentez
F$?HSFIU"T PAftTICIPIF
sentant
H.&A Ji/fr
pd"sj pFdp?,4
si:,$
Qa
sentoit mouvqis. lt smelt bad.
le
n'oi rien renti. ldidn'tfeel a thing.
EIle ne se sent pos bien. She's not feeling well.
S
See pages 88-91 for informqtion on how to form the reflexive verb se sentir.
jelj'=11,r=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we v6g5=lou ils/elles=they ie4'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vens Tneles
Vens TneLes
F
$s,?w'ffilff'
(to go out)
ii),qj[r,1;1[.:]\{tr
le
sors
tu sors
illelle/on sort
nous softons
vous sortez
ils/elles sortent
PiiritHffi*t
Je
TU
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
F!"1-&'l.,tFiE:
ie
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vou5
ils/elles
suis sorti(e)
es sorti(e)
est sorti(e)
sommes sorti(e)s
tes sorti(e)(s)
sont sorti(e)s
sortirai
sortiras
sortira
sortirons
sortirez
sortiront
{:tr h! il} r l{$ ffi $\cc.!. H"
1fil/if)[:ii"tF'r:S"f
Je
tu
illelle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
ie
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
je
IU
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
50rte
sortes
sorte
sortions
sortiez
sortent
sortais
sortais
sortait
sortions
sortiez
sortaient
sortirais
sortirais
sortirait
sortirions
sortiriez
sortiraient
PHE$f;f\{'f
je
IU
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
PHffi[::HOT
I
IU
illelle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
FUTUffif:
je
tu
il/elle/on
nous
VOUS
ils/elles
suffis
suffis
suffit
suffisons
suffisez
suff isent
ai suffi
as suffi
a suffi
avons suffi
avez suffi
ont suffi
suffirai
suffiras
suffira
suffirons
suffirez
suffiront
$]ffi s-.:q
g
{rd",t i$ iJ $*""t L} [\i {xrft \f h;
pil:tH.$
Htht 1- $ i_$ ffi ,.$ rJ rui,tTf vrj
je
suffise
tu suffises
illelle/on suffise
nous suffisions
vous suffisiez
ils/elles suff isent
IP-'NPtrfi{Ftr*"7
je
suffisais
tu suffisais
iUelle/on suffisait
nous suff isions
vous suffisiez
ils/elles suffisaient
il$l\[[)8T1ffi{{i,qp..
je
suffirais
tu suffirais
illelle/on suffirait
nous suff irions
vous suffiriez
ils/elles suffiraient
plh$'fl
$}$,&'ff[*{ r} ["[:
suffi
lP\i"{PfrffiA.f IilP:
sors/sortons/sortez
pFt[$tritl*
r."effiTE#tFtL
sortant
&:Ain"l ii'l,\ffi r l{:}[F"l-ff
sorti
IMP$li?l.1iiVf,:
suffis / suffisons / suffisez
PRfSFiIF\i"{-
p/l[i
lj sii.;llir'.. i::
suffisant
fi ,,r'tr
i.}
fl
,,
f JE_
pi
Fr'{,,r{,4 Sf; $
le
ne suis pas sartie ce week-end. I didn't
90
out this weekend.
Aur'llie sort avec Bruno. Aur6lie is going out with Bruno.
Elle est sortie de l'h6pitolhler: She came out of hospital yesterday.
Je
n'oi pos sorti le chien parce qu'il pleuvoif. I didn't take the dog out for a walk
because it was raining.
[}
Note that sortir takes avoir in the perfect tense when it is used with a direct
objec! see page 1
'14.
ie/j'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/Glles=they
&'Xli *i#f"},{_ff tF,hri"d.$,1j.:j;
Qo
te suffiro, 10 eurosT Will'l 0 euros be enough?
Qa
suffit! That's enough!
il suffisait de me le demqnder. You only had to ask.
je/i,=ltu=you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
VeRe Tneles
PRESENT
le
suls
tu suis
illelle/on suit
nous Sutvons
vous suivez
ils/elles suivent
PERFECT
l
al sulvl
tu as suivi
illelle/on a suivi
nous avons suivi
vous avez Sutvl
ils/elles ont suivi
FUTURE
le
Sulvral
tu suivras
il/elle/on suivra
nous suivrons
vous sutvrez
ils/elles suivront
IMPERATIVE
suis/suivons/suivez
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
suivant
PRESENT
je
me tais
tu te tais
il/elle/on se tait
.
nous nous taisons
vous vous taisez
ils/elles se taisent
PERFECT
je
me suis tu(e)
tu t'es tu(e)
il/elle/on s'est tu(e)
nous nous sommes tu(e)s
vous vous tes tu(e)(s)
ils/elles se sont tu(e)s
FUTURE
ie me tairai
tu te tairas
illelle/on se taira
nous nous tairons
vous vous tairez
ils/elles se tairont
IMPERATIVE
taisez-vous
tais-toi / taisons-nous /
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
;";;;;.
Vene TeeLEs ,':'
le
tu
illelle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
IMPEHFECT
suive
suives
suive
survton5
sutvtez
suivent
suivais
suivais
suivait
SUrVtOnS
SUIVIEZ
suivaient
sulvrars
suivrais
suivrait
sutvnonS
sutvnez
suivraient
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
je
me taise
tu te taises
il/elle/on se taise
nous nous taisions
vous vous taisiez
ils/elles se taisent
IMPERFECT
je
me taisais
tu te taisais
illelle/on se taisait
nous nous taisions
vous vous taisiez
ils/elles se taisaient
CONDITIONAL
ye me tairais
tu te tairais
il/elle/on se tairait
nous nous tairions
vous vous tairiez
ils/elles se tairaient
PAST PARTICIPLE
tu
le
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vouS
ils/elles
je
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
CONDITIONAL
PAST PARTICIPLE
sutvl
EXAMPLE PHRASES
Mon chot me suit partout dqns la maison. My cat follows me everywhere around
the house.
Il a suivi un cours d'qllemond pendant six mois. He did a Cerman course for 6 months.
Elles n'anivent pas d suivre eh maths. They can't keep up in maths.
EXAMPLE PHNASFS
Il s'est tu. He stopped talking.
Taisez-vous! Be quiet!
Sophie, tais-toil Be quiet SoPhie!
io{'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we v6us=you ils/elles=they ie/i,=|tu=youi|=he/ite||e=she/iton=we/onenous=wevous=youils/elles=they
VEne TheLes
VeRe Teeles
w ftemfrn'
(to
hoto) >
tCIrmflner
(to
fall)
PRE$EfU"tr
le
tombe
tu tombes
il/elle/on tombe
nous tombons
vous tombez
ils/elles tombent
PERFEC'fi'
je
suis tomb6(e)
tu es tomb6(e)
illelle/on esttomb6(e)
nous sommes tomb6(e)s
vous 6tes tomb6(e)(s)
ils/elles sont tomb6(e)s
FUT[.'fi
le
tomberai
tu tomberas
il/elle/on tombera
nous tomberons
vous tOmberez
ils/elles tomberont
IMPF{4AffNVfi
tombe/tombons/tombez
PRESE[\!T $3ds{4'11#lpLffi
tombant
pffi
fi $E[\lT $ U H"]U NU0TI\f tr
je
tombe
tu tombes
illelle/on tombe
nous tombions
vous tombiez
ils/elles tombent
I!V!FHRFEfiT
je
tombais
tu tombais
illelle/on tombait
nous tombions
vous tombiez
ils/elles tombaient
*${vmNTlf}NAi-
je
tomberais
tu tomberais
iUelle/on tomberait
nous tomberions
vous tomberiez
ils/elles tomberaient
PA$T
pAR'I"[{:[$']fl-
Hii
tomb6
Pi?t)$H!UT
le
IU
illelle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
PHffiFE$T
r
tu
illelle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
il:U'TUffiC
je
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
tiens
tiens
tient
tenons
tenez
tiennent
ai tenu
as tenu
a tenu
avons tenu
avez tenu
ont tenu
tiendrai
tiendras
tiendra
tiendrons
tiendrez
tiendront
prq
H$ E rsT' $ [J ffi .$ L] ndff Tfi \./Fl
ie
tienne
tu tiennes
illelle/on tienne
nous teniOnS
vous teniez
ils/elles tiennent
tftnpHRr"gcT'
je
tenais
tu tenais
il/elle/on tenait
nous tenions
vous teniez
ils/elles tenaient
GCIq\!mflTtolvA[-
je
tiendrais
tu tiendrais
illelle/on tiendrait
nous tiendrions
vous tiendriez
ils/elles tiendraient
*$$.$"F] flIA $?TIfi r N3 kE
I|\IgPffiffiATfiVffi
tiens/tenons ltenez
pl\H$K[u"n"
$fi ffiTl(:npLF
tenant
tenu
SXS iX,?,Pf.. *i PSf ffi A,$trS
Tiens-moi la moin. Hold mv hand.
EIle tenoit beaucoup d son"chot. She was really attached to her cat'
Tiens, prends mon stylo. Here, have my pen.
Tiens-toi droit!Sit up straight!
fi
See pages 88-91 for informotion on how ta form the reflexive verb se tenir.
jelj'=ltu-you il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nou$:we voua=you ils/elles=they
EXAIV{pd.F
p$"ff,-{,,q,str$
Attention, tu vas tomber! Be careful, you'll fall!
Nicole est tomb4e de chevql. Nicole fell off her horse'
Elle s'est fsit mal en tombant dans l'escalier. she hurt herself falling down the stairs
jeli,=|tu=youil=he/itel|e=she/iton=we/onenou$=Wevous=youils/e||e$=they
..r l:"itri-
,+"";,:$
Vrne Teeles
>
traire
(to
milk)
VeRe Tneles
>
PRESENT
je
trais
tu trais
illelle/on trait
nous trayons
vous trayez
ils/elles traient
PERFECT
i'
ai trait
tu as trait
illelle/on a trait
nous avons trait
vous avez trait
ils/elles ont trait
FUTURE
je
trairai
tu trairas
illelle/on traira
nous trairons
vous trairez
ils/elles trairont
IMPERATIVE
trais/trayons ltrayez
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
trayant
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
je
traie
tu traies
illelle/on traie
nous trayions
vous trayiez
ils/elles traient
IMPERFECT
le
trayais
tu trayais
illelle/on trayait
nous trayions
vous trayiez
ils/elles trayaient
CONDITIONAL
je
trairais
tu trairais
iUelle/on trairait
nous trairions
vous trairiez
ils/elles trairaient
PAST PARTICIPLE
trait
PRESENT
je
vaincs
vaincs
illelle/on vainc
nous vainquons
vous vainquez
ils/elles vainquent
PERFECT
,
ar valncu
tu as vaincu
illelle/on
i.:1Ti,^-,,
il:: :Yuilfl:;"
ils/elles ont vaincu
FUTURE
je
vaincrai
tu vaincras
illelle/on vaincra
nous vaincrons
vous vaincrez
ils/elles
""i^ir""t
IMPERATIVE
vaincs / vainquons /
vainquez
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
vainquant
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
le
vainque
tu vainques
iUelle/on vainque
nous vainquions
vous vatnqutez
ils/elles vainquent
TMPERFECT
le
varnquars
tu vainquais
illelle/on vainquait
:::: :1:::::l'
vous valnqulez
ils/elles vainquaient
CONDITIONAL
le
varncrars
tu vaincrais
illelle/on vaincrait
nous vatncnonS
vous vaincriez
ils/elles vaincraient
PAST PARTICIPLE
vaincu
EXAMPLE PHBASES
A lo ferme, on o appris d troire les vaches. We learnt to milk cows on the farm.
Elle trsit les voches d six heures du motin. She milk the cows at 6 am.
EXAMPLE PI{BASES
L'ormde o 6t6 vaincue. The army was defeated.
Lo France s vaincu la Corde trois buts
q
deux. France beat Korea 3 goals to 2.
ieli'=l
tu=you il=he/it ellb=she/it on=we/one nous=we vou$=you ils/elles=they
ie/i,=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we
y6u3=|ou
ils/elles=they
Vene TneLrs
Vene Taelrs
p,
waloif
(to
be worth)
PRESf;hIT
je
vaux
tu vaux
il/elle/on vaut
nous valons
vous valez
ils/elles valent
PERFECT
j'
ai valu
tu as valu
illelle/on a valu
nous avons valu
vous avez valu
ils/elles ont valu
FUTURg"
je
vaudrai
tu vaudras
illelle/on vaudra
nous vaudrons
vous vaudrez
ils/elles vaudront
IIV?PERATNVE
vaux/valons lvalez
PI4HSHNT FANTfiCIPtffi
valant
PRSSHN}T $ I",' RJU N#TNVE
le
vaille
tu vailles
illelle/on vaille
nous valions
vous valiez
ils/elles vaillent
IIMPERFEET
je
valais
tu valais
illelle/on valait
nous valions
vous valiez
ils/elles valaient
c0rumlTl0niA[-
je
vaudrais
tu vaudrais
illelle/on vaudrait
nous vaudrions
vous vaudriez
ils/elles vaudraient
PIA$T P'$,i{T!fifi?tE
valu
PRE$ENT SU B-IU I\'CTIVE
ie
vende
tu vendes
illelle/on vende
nous vendions
vous vendiez
ils/elles vendent
IMPERFECT
je venoars
tu vendais
illelle/on vendait
nous vendions
vous vendiez
ils/elles vendaient
cor!DtfloNl\L
je
vendrais
tu vendrais
il/elle/on vendrait
nous vendrions
vous vendriez
ils/elles vendraient
PAST PAHTICIPTE
vendu
>
vendF
(to
sell)
PRESEfUT
Je
tu
il/elle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
PERFECT
I
tu
illelle/on
nous
vouS
ils/elles
vends
venos
vend
vendons
venoez
vendent
ai vendu
as vendu
a vendu
avons vendu
avez vendu
ont vendu
FUTURE
je
vendrai
tu vendras
illelle/on vendra
nous vendrons
vous vendrez
ils/elles vendront
IMPERATIVE
vends/vendons/vendez
PRESET\IT' PAffiT f;!PI.H
vendant
EXAMPLE FHtrA$T'S
Qo
vout combien? How much is it worth?
(.o voudroit Io peine d'essoyer. lt would be worth a try.
Il vout mieux ne pas y pensei: lt's best not to think about it.
EXAMPI-E FFffi'llsgs
Il m'u vendu son vdlo pour 50 euros. He sold me his bike for 50 euros'
Est-ce que vous vendez des piles? Do you sell batteries?
EIle voidrait vendre ss voiture. She would like to sell her car.
ieli'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we v6u5=lou ils/elle$=they ie/j,=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vene Tneues
Vens Tasles
@
gfefiXfrffi"
(to
come)
PHF$nihqT
je
viens
tu viens
illelle/on vient
nous venonS
vous venez
ils/elles viennent
Pfd ffi,S E r'j'f $ Uc tiJ [."r zu*T[Vr,
>
w&$;na"
(to
dress)
PRH$$IFiT
je
vts
tu v6ts
illelle/on vOt
nous vtons
vous vtez
ils/elles v6tent
PEffiFfr#'T
j'
ai v6tu
tu as vtu
il/elle/on a vtu
nous avons vtu
vous avez vOtu
ils/elles ont vOtu
FUT["0m8
je
vtirai
tu vtiras
illelle/on vtira
nous v6tirons
vous vtirez
ils/elles vtiront
ilvtF!8trV"\.{ti/F;
v6ts/vtons/vtez
pftfj*ig:i\j'l r{"r{.\$f
ifi[[pt F:
vtant
P$?ffi $tr$$.d' ${."lSJ{.Jfi,{#T{l/fi
je
vte
tu vetes
illelle/on vte
nous v6tions
vous v6tiez
ils/elles vtent
F[WPH}TFK*T
je
v6tais
tu vtais
illelle/on vtait
nous v6tions
vous vtiez
ils/elles vtaient
(":
{:., f d f } }T
q
{:} h} A t
je
vtirais
tu vtirais
illelle/on v6tirait
nous v6tirions
vous v6tiriez
ils/elles vtiraient
F"dh$}' F,ft fi:iT tr$lP[.H
le
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
vienne
viennes
vienne
venions
veniez
viennent
$jlHffirrtrflT
,e
TU
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
g1(_i?'L!ffiH
suis venu(e)
es venu(e)
est venu(e)
sommes venu(e)s
6tes venu(e)(s)
sont venu(e)s
$MiPffiffiFtrCT
je
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
venats
venais
venait
venions
veniez
venaient
viendrais
viendrais
viendrait
viendrions
viendriez
viendraient
fl:$i\trm['ffi0rsA{"
je
viendrai
tu viendras
illelle/on viendra
nous viendrons
vous viendrez
ils/elles viendront
ilf,"'[FF:&:fr"&T$Vlr
viens/venons /venez
F!il{fr $Hfsl'f FhqFi-['F*l PC-H
venant
je
IU
il/elle/on
nous
VOUS
ils/elles
,Pl-l$l; i' l:;jl,iR'1"[r*llB]["ffi
venu
v6tu
ff-;9*4,,14Ph f,: i#j"d&4$Sr$
EIle ne viendro pas cette ann,Ae. She won't be coming this year.
Fatou et Malik viennent du S6ndgol. Fatou and Malik come from Senegal.
Je
viens de manger. l've
just eaten.
EK,4/WpA Fddffi/q$s.f;
It 6tait v\tu d,un pantalon et d'un pull. He was wearing trousers. and a
iumper'
litt fout se lever, se'lover et se votir e'n 1 0 minutes. You have to get up, get washed
and get dressed in 10 minutes.
() see pages 88-91 for informqtion on how to form the reflexive verb se vQtir.
ie/i'-ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they ie/i,=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vens TagLrs
Vpne Tneles
F
vivre
(to
live)
pnFsEtuT
je
vis
tu vis
illelle/on vit
nous vivons
vous vivez
ils/elles vivent
PERFECT
,
ar vecu
tu as v6cu
illelle/on a v6cu
nous avons v6cu
vous avez v6cu
ils/elles ont v6cu
FUTLIRE
le
vlvral
tu vivras
illelle/on vivra
nous vivrons
vous vivrez
ils/elles vivront
IMFERAT[VH
vis/vivons lvivez
PRESETST PART'CIPI-H
vivant
PFIESEh{T' S{"I EJU Nfr TIVH
,e
vlve
tu vives
illelle/on vive
nous vivions
vous vtvtez
ils/elles vivent
tMPEnFd:Cl'
je
vivais
tu vivais
illelle/on vivait
nous vivions
vous viviez
ils/elles vivaient
c0Fdmtfl0NAL
le
vivrais
tu vivrais
illelle/on vivrait
nous vivrions
vous vivriez
ils/elles vivraient
Pld$,"i &:'A*{Tlel PN-E
v6cu
ts
v'ffifir
(to
see)
PF?H$HTST"
je
vois
tu vois
illelle/on voit
nous voyons
vous voyez
ils/elles voient
PtrFgFffiCT'
i'
ai vu
ru as vu
il/elle/on a vu
nous avons vu
vous avez vu
ils/elles ont vu
FL'Tti*nfr
je
verrai
tu verras
illelle/on verra
nous verrons
vous verrez
ils/elles verront
llVfi Pffi F&l''\:I"
j\itF.:
vois/voyons /voYez
PF{ENiL:}ii"t n'll fi'i 1(;lF !.H
voyant
PIft HSHIUT $U EJ IJ IUETIVE
le
voie
tu voies
il/elle/on voie
nous voyions
vous voyiez
ils/elles voient
TfuXPERFSCT
le
voyais
tu voyais
illelle/on voyait
nous voytons
vous voyiez
ils/elles voyaient
fiffNm[Tlsl\!Al-
je
verrais
tu verrais
illelle/on verrait
nous verrions
vous verriez
ils/elles verraient
PA$T PAffiTIEtPLg
EXAMFLE f'F'fr.ASFS
Ma seur vit en Espagne. My sister lives in Spain.
ll o vdcu dix ans d Lyon, He lived in Lyons for 10 years.
Les gorilles vivent surtout dqns Ia fordf. Corillas mostly live in the forest.
F.{:i^wF{ {.
u. .r::...rr i,
venez me voir quand vous serez d Paris. Come and see me when you're in Paris.
le
ne vois rien sans mes lunettes. I can't see anything without
!Y
glasses.
'Est-ce
que tu l'os vu? Did you see him? or Have you seen him?
Est-ce que cette tache se voitT Does that stain show?
r) see pages 88-91 for informotion on how to form the reflexive verb se voir.
ielj,-ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one 6qu5=w vous=you ils/elles=they
ieli'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nous=we vous=you ils/elles=they
Vrne lNoex
Vens TneLrs
b.
qdf'}*.fifi#xq"
(to
want)
i:'Fl F:jSi E|'* T'
Je
veux
tu veux
illelle/on veut
nous voulons
vous voulez
ils/elles veulent
,:,ffi F$fr ru"f $iF,J nJ[j t\jfi i"]idn
je
veuille
tu veuilles
illelle/on veuille
nous voulions
vous vouliez
ils/elles veuillent
lR'XPffiFlFI:ICT
je
voulais
tu voulais
illelle/on voulait
nous voulions
vous vouliez
ils/elles voulaient
{: r,.,} ni ["] il T i # fld s" [-
je
voudrais
tu voudrais
illelle/on voudrait
nous voudrions
vous voudriez
ils/elles voudraient
!ltl:$ ll' ft:l il"l"fl fi $
pF-
H
ff-Bmqnr tm rusm t$te Werh frffi{$sw
The verbs in bold are the model verbs which you will find in the verb tables.
All the other verbs follow one of these patterns, so the number next to each verb
indicates which pattern fits this particular verb. For example,
.aider
(to help)
follows the same pattern as donner (number 29 in the verb tables)'
All the verbs are in alphabetical order. For reflexive verbs like s'asseoir (to sit
down) or se taire (to siop talking),look under asseoir or taire, not under s' or se.
Superior numbers (1,
2
etc) refer you to notes on.page 107. These notes explain
any differences between the verbs and their model.
With the exception of reflexive verbs which always take 6tre, all verbs have the
same auxiliary (6tre or avoir) as their model verb. There are a few exceptions
which are inilicated by a superior number
1
or
2.
An asterisk (*) means that the verb takes avoir when it is used with a direct
object, and 6tre when it isn't.
r) For more information on verbs that take either avoir or tre, see page 114.
ft:nr$q{:;Efr"r
I
tu
illelle/on
nouS
vous
ils/elles
'Fcr
f i.lffif,!
je
tu
illelle/on
nous
vous
ils/elles
ai voulu
a5 voulu
a voulu
avons voulu
avez voulu
ont voulu
voudrai
voudraS
voudra
voudrons
voudrez
voudront
abaisser
abandonner
abattre
ab0tir
abimer
abolir
abonder
abonner
aborder
aboutir
aooyer
ab16ger
abreuver
abriter
abrutir
absenter (s')
absorber
absoudrea
abstenir (s')
abstraire
abuser
accabler
accaparer
acc6der
acc6l6rer
accepter
accompagner
accomplir 39
accorder 29
accoter 29
accoucher 29
accouder (s') 29
accourtr- | /
accoutumer 29
accrocher 29
accroitre6 22
accroupir (s') 39
accueillir 23
accumuler 29
accuser 29
acharner (s') 29
adorer
aoosser
adoucir
adresser
adveni13
aerer
affaiblir
affairer (s')
affaisser (s')
affamer
affermir
afficher
affirmer
affliger
affoler
affranchir
aff16ter
affronter
agacer
agenouiller (s')
agir
agiter
agrandir
ag16er
ahurir
aider
aigrir
aiguiser 29
aimanter 29
aimer 29
aiouter 29
ajuster 29
alarmer 29
alerter 29
alimenter 29
all6cher 35
all6ger 67
all6guer 35
aller 4
allier 20
aflumer 29
alt6rer 35
alterner 29
af unir 39
amaigrir 39
ambitionner 29
am6liorer 29
am6nager 46
amener 44
ameuter 29
amincir 39
amoindrir 39
amollir 39
amonceler 5
$MF fiF{$:8 [\{il
veuille /
veuillons / veuillez
$r,' n Fi fi &: tlil i' F),pl,
"ffi
T[ * fi $] [- ]"n
voulant
voulu
36
29
10
20
29
?q
29
29
)9
39
54
67
29
29
29
29
39
29
90
35
39
29
29
29
39
29
29
46
29
39
35
29
13
29
39
29
39
19
39
29
39
a: x,jn fu,{ia{ ft ,f,i{ ff ll,$ &;$
Elle veut un v6lo pour Nodl.She wants a bike for Christmas.
lls voulaient aller
qu
cindma. They wanted to go to the cinema.
Tu voudrqis une tasse de th6? Would you like a cup of tea?
39
29
29
71
84
86
29
29
29
35
?q
29
29
acheminer
acheter
achever
acqu6rir
actionner
activer
adapter
additionner
adh6rer
adjoindre
admettre
admirer
adopter
29
2
44
3
)q
29
29
29
?<
4)
48
29
29
ie/j'=ltu=you
il=he/it elle=she/it on=we/one nou$=we v6u5=lou ils/elles=they
Vrne lnloex
13 i assembler
20 assener
29 i asseoir (s')
^^i
29 asservlr
29 I assi6ger
39 ; assigner
29
i
assimiler
29 assrster
29
I
associer
1 3 I assombrir
29
:
assommer
29
i
assortir
Jv , assouplr
29 i assouplir
29 assourdir
68 I assujettir
54 i assumer
39
,
assurer
5Z i astiquer
29 j astreindre
29 i atermoyer
20 i attabler (s')
84 I attacher
39 i attaquer
5
1
atteindre
39
i
atteler
29 ; attendre
29 i attendrir
20 I atterrir
66 : attirer
29 I attraper
29 , attribuer
29 augmenter
39
i
autoriser
20
I
avachir (s')
29 avaler
54 i avancer
29), avanlager
29 i aventurer
29 i avertir
29 i aveugler
29
r avilir
29 j aviser
46 aviver
29' avoir
6 , avouer
39
,
bdcler
29 i bafouer
20 i bagarrer (se)
29 1 baignel
39 | bAiller
39 I baiser
29 r baisser
29 coincer
29 I coincider
29 collaborer
29 collectionner
29 coller
35
;
coloniser
6l colorer
35 , colorier
2 combattre
t9 comDter
29 I commander
20 r commemorer
29 I commencer
29 r commettre
29 communier
29 : communiquer
5 . comparaitre
46 comparer
29 compenser
29 complaire
46 compl6ter
29 complimenter
20 compliquer
29 comporter
20 composer
29 comPoster
29 comprendre
29 compromettre
29 compter
39 conceder
29 , concentrer
39 concerner
29 concevoir
29 . concilier
54 conclure
29 concourir
8l concurrencer
31 condamner
90 condenser
29 r condescendrel
29 conduire
2 conf6rer
29 confier
20 confire9
29 confirmer
20
,
confisquer
29 , confondre
29 r conforter
29 cong6dier
29
r
congeler
20 connaitre
z9 conquerir
29 consacrer
13 conseiller
29 I consentir
29
I
consid6rer
29
I
consister
29 consoler
29
'
consolider
29
i
consommer
20 '
conspirer
1 0 constater
29 I consterner
29 constituer
29 construtre
'l3
;
consulter
48 , contacter
20 contaminer
29 contempler
57
,
contenir
29
,
contenter
29 i
conter
63 , contester
35 r continuer
29 contraindre
29 I
contraner
29 ' contraster
29 , contredire
29 I contrefaire
66 I contrevenirl
48
I
contribuer
29
i
contr6ler
35 . convaincre
29 i convenirl
29 I convertir
68 , convier
20 r Convoquer
14 coop6rer
17 ; copier
1 3 i correspondre
29 ', corriger
29 corrompre
25 corroyer
24 cOtoyer
35 coucher
20
I
coudre
81 , couler
29 couper
29 courber
70
,
courir
29 co0ter
20 . couvrir
2 cracher
15 craindre
3 I craquer
29 cr6er
V,ena
luoex
29 . cr6pir 39
78 r creuser 29
35 I crever 44
29 i cribler 29
29
',
crier 20
29 critiquer 29
29 crocheter 2
29 : croire 21
29 ' croiser 29
29 croitre 22
29', crouler 29
24
I
croupir 39
29
I
crucifier 20
29
I
cueillir 23
29 , cuire 24
29 I culbuter 29
84 : cultiver 29
29
I
cumuler 29
29' curer 29
29
t,
daigner 29
29 r damner 29
1 8 danser 29
20 r dater 29
29 , d6barquer 29
28 , d6barrasser 29
37 i
d6battre 10
90 d6baucher 29
29 ; d6biliter 29
29i d6biter 29
87 d6blat6rer 35
90 : d6bloquer 29
19 d6boiter 29
20 d6border 29
29 : d6boucher 29
35 d6bourser 29
20 d6boutonner 29
70 : d6brailler (se) 29
46 d6brancher 29
76 d6brayer 60
54 d6brouiller 29
54 d6buter 29
29 d6caler 29
16' d6canter 29
29 d6caper 29
29 ; d6capoter 29
29 d6c6der' 35
17 , d6celer 2
29
,
d'6.cCl6.rer 35
56 d6centraliser 29
29 I d6cerner 29
18 d6cevoir 68
29
r d6chainer 29
19 d6charger 46
amorcer
amplifier
amputer
amuSer
analyser
an6antlr
angorsser
animer
annexer
annoncer
annoter
annuler
anoblir
anticiper
aparser
apercevoir
apitoyer
aplatir
apparaitre'
appareiller
apparenrer
apparier
appartentr
appauvrlr
appeler
applaudir
appliquer
apponer
appr6cier
apprenore
appreter
apprivoiser
approcher
approfondir
approprier
approuver
appuyer
arc-bouter
argenter
arguer
armer
arpenter
arracner
arranger
arrCter
arriver
arrondir
arroser
asphyxrer
aspirer
assag rr
assainir
assassiner
balader (se)
balafrer
balancer
balayer
balbutier
baliser
bannir
baptiser
baratiner
barbouiller
barioler
barrer
barricader
basculer
baser
batailler
batifoler
bdtir
battre
bavarder
baver
b6cher
becqueter
b6gayer
b6ler
b6n6ficier
b6nir
bercer
berner
beugler
beurrer
biaiser
bichonner
biffer
blaguer
bldmer
blanchir
blaser
blmir
blesser
bloquer
blottir (se)
boire
boiter
bombarder
bondir
bonifier
border
borner
boucher
boucler
bouder
bouffer
bouffir
bouger
bouillir
bouleverser
boulonner
bourdonner
bourrer
bou rsoufler
bousculer
bousiller
boutonner
braconner
brailler
braireT
brancher
brandir
branler
braquer
Draver
bredouiller
breveter
bricoler
brider
briguer
briller
brimer
briser
broder
broncher
brosser
brouiller
Droyer
br0ler
bru nir
buter
cabrer (se)
cacner
cadrer
cajoler
calculer
caler
cdliner
calmer
calomnier
carquer
camper
capituler
capter
captiver
capturer
caract6riser
careS5er
cancaturer
(,1\ef
',i\5ef
(.ltalOgUer
(
.ttapulter
( aUSef
( coer
c eindre
r 6l6brer
t eler
censurer
ce rcler
certifier
cesser
chag riner
chahuter
chamailler
chanceler
cnanger
chanter
chantonner
cnarger
charmer
charrier
chasser
chOtier
chatouiller
chauffer
chausser
chercher
ch6rir
chiffrer
choisir
ch6mer
choquer
cnoyer
chuchoter
circoncire8
circonscri re
circonvenirl
circuler
cirer
ciseler
citer
clarifier
clasSer
classifier
cligner
clignoter
clouer
coder
codifier
cogner
coiffer
29
44
7
39
67
29
)q
29
20
39
29
39
?q
39
39
39
)9
29
29
61
54
29
29
29
61
5
8
39
39
29
29
29
29
29
39
29
13
46
29
39
29
20
29
29
9
29
29
29
29
13
60
2A
29
39
29
29
29
fo
1q
29
29
29
29
29
39
10
29
29
29
42
60
?o
20
39
13
29
29
)a
)o
29
29
29
29
39
29
39
29
29
39
11
lo
29
39
20
29
29
29
39
46
t1
2\)
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
86
29
39
29
29
29
29
5
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
1q
29
54
29
39
29
l9
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
20
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
?o
)q
29
)9
29
29
29
29
29
VEne lNoex
d6chiffrer
d6chiqueter 42
d6chirer
d6cider
d6cimer
d6clamer
d6clarer
d6classer
d6clencher
d6cliner
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
35
d6coder
d6col6rer
d6coller 29
d6commander 29
d6concerter
d6conseiller
d6contracter 29
29
29
d6dire 28
d6dommager 46
dEcorer
d6coudre
d6couler
d6couper
d6courager
d6couvrir
d6cr6ter
d6crier
d6crire
d6crocher
d6croitrelo
d6daigner
d6dicacer
dr6dier
d6douaner
d6doubler
d6duire
d6faire
d6falquer
d6favoriser
d6fendre
d6f6rer
d6ficeler
d6fier
d6figurer
d6filer
d6finir
d6foncer
d6former
d6fraichir
d6gager
d69ainer
d6gauchir
d6gazonner
29
16
29
29
46
56
35
20
31
29
22
29
13
29
29
24
5/
29
29
89
35
20
29
29
39
29
39
46
29
39
29
d6geler
d6g6n6rer
d6gonfler
d69ourdir
d6go0ter
d6grader
d6gringoler
d6griser
d6guerpir
d6guiser
d69uster
d,6jeter
2
35
29
39
29
29
29
29
39
29
29
42
29
29
29
60
35
35
20
29
29
46
29
z
29
29
29
46
44
78
48
29
29
39
29
29
20
39
29
20
29
5
29
13
29
29
42
46
58
59
29
44
29
61 i d6sorienter
89 I dessaisir
29 | dess6cher
39 | desserrer
29 | dessiner
1 3 I destiner
63 I destituer
20 i d6sunir
54 i d6tacher
39 ! d6taillet
29 | d6tecter
29 | d6teindre
d6ooussi6rer 35 | d6teler
20 i d6tendre
d6peindre
d6pendre
d6penser
d6p6rir
d6pister
d6placer
d6plaire
d6plier
d6ployer
d6polir
d6poser
d6pouiller
disposer
disputer
dissocier
dissoudrel2
distendre
distinguer
distordre
distraire
distribuer
diversifier
diviser
divorcer
donner
dormir
doubler
douter
dresser
durcir
durer
6bahir (s')
6battre (s')
6baucher
6blouir
branler
6carteler
6carter
6changer
6chapper
6chauder
6chauffer
6chelonner
6chouer
6clabousser
6claircir
6clairer
6clater
6clipser
6ceurer
6conduire
6conomiser
6corcher
6couler
6couter
6craser
6cr6mer
6crier (s')
t6crire
6crouler (s')
6difier
6diter
6duquer
effacer
effarer
29
39
29
29
29
29
39
29
29
29
6^l
5
89
84
29
29
29
50
29
29
29
24
29
13
29
26
29
91
20
29
29
29
27
29
29
29
35
29
35
29
29
29
2a
46
90
17
29
29
43
57
29
29
29
29
20
71
89
)9
50
86
29
20
29
13
29
30
29
29
29
39
29
39
10
29
39
29
I
29
d6marquer
d6marrer
d6m6ler
d6m6nager
d6mener (se)
d6mentir
d6mettre
d6jouer
d6laisser
d6layer
d6l69uer
d6lib6rer
d6lier
d6lirer
d6livrer
d6loger
demander
d6manteler
demeurerl
l
d6missionner
d6molir
d6monter
dmontrer
d6multiplier
d6munir
dnaturer
d6nier
d6nigrer
d6niveler
d6jeuner
d6nombrer
d6noncer
d6nouer
d6panner
d6paqueter
d6partager
d6partir (se)
d6passer
d6payser
d6pecer
d6p0cher
d6pr6cier
d6prendre
d6primer
d6raciner
d6ranger
d6raper
d6sagr6ger
d6salt6rer
d6samorcer
d6savouer
descendre*
d6semparer
dsirer
d6sister (se)
d6sob6ir
d6soler
67 | devancer
35
|
d6velopper
1 3 I devenir
29 j disioindre
39
|
disparaitre
29
|
dispenser
66 i d6tenir
29 i d6t6riorer
29 I d6terminer
45 I d6tester
29 i d6tordre
d6169ler
d6roger
d6rouler
d6router
35 | d6tourner
46
i
d6traquer
29 !
d6tromper
29 i d6truire
d6saccoutumer 29 | d6valer
d6sapprendre 66
|
d6verser
d6sapprouver 29 d6vdtir
d6sassortir 39 i d6vier
d6savantaqer 46 I deviner
29 i d6visser
25 | d6voiler
29 i devoir
d6sennuyer 54 i d6vorer
d6sensibiliser 29 I d6vouer
d6sentraver 29 | dicter
d6s6ouilibrer 29 | diffdrer
d6serter
dsesp6rer
d6shabiller
d6shabituer
d6sh6riter
d6signer
d6sinfecter
29 I diffuser
35
1
dig6rer
29 i diluer
29 | diminuer
29
i
diner
29 i dire
29
|
diriger
d6sint6grer 35 | disconvenir
d6sint6resser 29 i discourir
d6sintoxiquer 29
i
discriminer
29 | discuter
46
29
29
29
29
29
29
39
29
29
29
29
24
29
29
29
?<
20
3l
29
20
29
1?,
29
d6sorganiser 29 i
disPerser
endommager 46
effaroucher
effectuer
effeuiller
effondrer
efforcer (s')
effrayer
6galer
6garer
egayer
6qorqer
6laborer
6lancer (s')
6largir
6lectrifier
6lever
6liminer
6lire
6loigner
6luder
6manciper
6maner
29
29
29
29
13
60
?9
29
50
46
29
13
39
20
44
29
45
29
29
29
29
embarrasser 29
embaucher
embellir
emboiter
6merger
6mettre
6migrer
emmener
6mouvoir
29
j emprunter
29 i encadrer
encaisser
enchainer
enchanter
encombrer
encourager
encourir
endetter
embourgeoiser (s') 29
emDrasser
emm6nager 46
29
39
29
29
46
48
29
44
32
emparer (s') 29
empOcher
empi6ter
emprrer
emplir
emproyer
empoisonner 29
emporter
emprisonner 29
29
35
29
39
54
29
29
29
)q
29
29
29
29
46
17
29
29 endoctriner
Vrne lNoex
engraisser 29
engueuler 29
enivrer 29
6nerver
enfanter
enfermer
enfiler
enflammer
enfler
enfoncer
enfouir
enfreindre
engager
engloutir
engourdir
enjoliver
enlacer
ennuyer
6noncer
enqu6rir (s')
enqueter
enraciner
enfa9er
enregistrer
enrichir
entraver
entrelacer
endormir (s') 30
enduire 24
endurcir 39
envoler (s') 29
envoyer 34
6pandre 89
6panouir 39
6pargner 29
6parpiller 29
6pater 29
6peler 5
6plucher 29
6ponger 46
6pouser 29
dpouvanter 29
6preindre 61
6prendre (s') 66
6prouver 29
6puiser 29
6quilibrer 29
6quiper 29
6quivaloir 88
esclaffer (s') 29
escorter 29
esp6rer 35
esquisser 29
esquiver 29
essayer 60
essorer 29
essouffler 29
essuyer 54
estimer 29
estroprer zv
6tablir 39
6taler 29
6tayer 60
6teindre 61
6tendre 89
6ternuer 29
6tiqueter 42
6tirer 29
6toffer 29
6tonner 29
6touffer 29
6tourdir 39
6trangler 29
tre 36
6treindre 61
6tudier 20
6vader (s') 29
6valuer 29
6vanouir (s') 39
6vaporer 29
6veiller 29
6venter 29
6vertuer (s') 29
29
29
29
29
29
29
39
61
40
46
39
39
enlever 44
enneiger 46
13
54
13
29
29
46
29
39
enrouler 29
enseigner 29
ensevelir 39
ensuivre (s')3 82
entamer 29
entasser 29
entendre
enterrer 29
enthousiasmer 29
entourer 29
entrainer 29
89
29
13
entremettre (s') 48
entreprendre 66
entrer* 33
entretenir 84
entrevoir 93
6num6rer 35
envahir 39
envelopper 29
envisager 46
Vene lNpex
VeRe lNosx
6viter 29
6voluer 29
6voquer 29
exag6rer 35
exalter 29
examiner 29
exasp6rer 35
exc6der 35
excepter 29
exciter 29
exclamer (s') 29
exclure 14
excommunier 20
excuser 29
ex6crer 35
ex6cuter 29
exempter 29
exhiber 29
exhorter 29
exiger 46
exiler 29
exister 29
exon6rer 35
exp6dier 20
exp6rimenter 29
expirer 29
expliquer 29
exploiter 29
exploser 29
exporter 29
exposer 29
exprimer 29
expulser 29
exterminer 29
extraire 86
exulter 29
fabriquer 29
fdcher 29
faciliter 29
fagonner 29
facturer 29
faillirr3 poge 107
faire 37
falloir 38
falsifier 20
familiariser 29
farcir 39
fasciner 29
fatiguer 29
faucher 29
faufiler 29
fausser 29
favoriser 29
feindre
feinter
f6ler
f6liciter
fendre
ferler
fermenter
fermer
f6ter
feuilleter
fiancer
ficeler
ficher
fier
figer
filer
fileter
financer
finir
fixer
flairer
flamber
fldner
flanquer
flatter
fl6chir
fl6trir
fleurirla
flotter
foisonner
fomenter
foncer
fonctionner
fonder
fondre
forcer
forger
formaliser (se)
former
formuler
fortifier
foudroyer
fouetter
fouiller
fourmiller
fournir
fourrer
fourvoyer
fracasser
franchir
frapper
frayer
freiner
fr6mir
fr6quenter
frirerr
friser
frissonner
froisser
f16ler
froncer
frotter
frustrer
fuir
fumer
fusiller
gAcher
gagner
galoper
9aranur
garoer
garer
garnir
gaspiller
giter
gauchir
gaufrer
gausser (se)
geindre
geler
g6mir
gner
g6n6raliser
g6rer
giboyer
gifler
givrer
gracer
glisser
glorifier
gommer
gonfler
go0ter
gouverner
gracrer
grandir
gratifier
gratter
9raver
gravir
greffer
grler
griffonner
grignoter
griller
grimacer
grimper
grincer
griser
gro9ner
9rommeler
gronoer
grossir
grouiller
grouper
gu6rir
guerroyer
guetter
guider
guinder
habiller
habiter
habituer
hacher
hair
haleter
handicaper
hanter
harceler
harmoniser
hasarder
hiter
nausSer
h6berger
h6b6ter
hennir
h6risser
h6riter
h6siter
heurter
hocher
nonorer
horrifier
nuer
humaniser
humidifier
humilier
hurler
hypnotiser
id6aliser
identifier
ignorer
illuminer
illustrer
imaginer
imiter
immigrer
immiscer (s')
immobiliser
immoler 29
impatienter 29
impliquer 29
implorer 29
importer 29
impressionner 29
?o
29
29
29
29
't4
imprimer
improviser
inaugurer
inciter
incliner
inclurel6
incommoder 29
intituler
intriguer
introduire
inventer
invertir
investir
inviter
invoquer
irriter
isoler
jaillir
laser
jaunir
leter
je0ner
ioindre
louer
jouir
juger
jumeler
JUrer
iustifier
labourer
tacer
l6cher
laisser
lamenter (se)
tancer
languir
larmoyer
taver
l6cher
l6gatiser
l6gif6rer
l6siner
lever
lib6rer
licencier
lier
ligoter
limer
limiter
liqu6fier
liquider
lire
livrer
loger
lorgner
lotir
loucher
louer
rouPer
louvoyer
lubrifier
lutter
macher
machiner
magnifier
maigrir
maintenir
maitriser
majorer
malfaire
malmener
maltraiter
manger
manier
manifester
manigancer
manipuler
manuvrer
manquer
20
29
1A
29
20
39
84
29
29
37
44
29
M
20
29
13
29
29
29
manufacturer 29
manutentionner 29
marcher 29
61
29
29
29
eo
29
29
29
29
42
13
\
29
20
46
29
13
39
29
29
29
29
29
29
39
1q
39
29
)9
29
't3
29
29
70
13
46
29
29
29
20
54
29
29
29
39
29
54
29
39
29
60
29
39
29
81
29
29
29
29
13
29
29
40
29
29
29
29
29
39
29
29
39
29
29
39
)a
29
bl
44
39
29
to
54
)a
29
13
29
20
29
29
29
29
20
39
20
29
29
39
29
29
29
29
29
l3
29
't
3
29
29
29
39
29
29
J>
54
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
4"1
2
29
29
29
29
)q
29
+o
?(
39
29
29
29
29
29
lv
20
29
29
20
20
29
29
29
20
29
29
29
29
29
29
13
29
29
29
29
29
24
29
29
29
46
13
29
20
29
20
29
29
24
29
39
39
)o
29
29
29
39
?a
?q
42
29
43
29
39
46
5
29
20
29
13
29
29
29
13
39
54
29
35
29
35
29
M
35
20
20
29
29
29
20
29
45
29
46
29
39
29
29
29
54
20
29
29
29
29
29
47
Incorporer
incriminer
inculper
indiquer
induire
infecter
infeaster
infirmer
infliger
influencer
informer
ing6nier (s')
inhaler
initier
iniurier 20
innover 29
inoculer 29
inonder 29
inqui6ter 35
inscrire 3I
insensibiliser 29
ins6rer 35
insinuer 29
insister 29
inspecter 29
maner
marquer
marteler
masquer
massacrer
masser
mat6rialiser
maudire
m6langer
mler
menacer
m6nager
mendier
mener
maugr6er 19
m6caniser 29
m6connaitre 15
m6contenter 29
m6dire 28
m6diter 29
m,6faire 37
m6fier (se) 20
40
29
13
46
20
44
Insprrer
installer
instituer
instruire
insulter 29
insurger (s') 46
int6grer 35
intensifier 20
interc6der
interdire
int6resser
interloquer
interroger
interrompre
intervenir
)o
29
29
t1
35
28
29
29
46
76
90
mentionner 29
mentir 78
m6prendre (se) 66
m6priser 29
m6riter 29
mesurer 29
mettre 4A
meubler 29
meugler 29
meuftnr
miauler
mijoter
mimer
miner
minimiser
mobiliser
modeler
mod6rer
moderniser
modifier
moisir
moissonner 29
mollir 39
monnayer 60
monopoliser 29
monter* 49
montrer 29
moquer (se) 29
mordre 50
morfondre (se) 70
mortifier
motiver
moucher
moudre
mouiller
mourir
mouvoirl
T
muer
multiplier
munir
m0rir
murmurer
museler
muter
mutiler
mystifier
nager
naitre
nantir
narrer
navrguer
navrer
n6cessiter
n6gliger
n69ocier
neiger
nettoyer
nier
niveler
noircir
nommer
normaliser
39
29
29
29
29
29
29
1
29
20
39
20
29
fo
51
29
52
29
20
39
39
29
5
29
29
20
46
53
39
29
29
29
29
46
20
46
54
20
5
39
29
29
lF|n
l
l
l
Vene lNoex
Vene h{oex
noter
nouer
nourrir
noyer
^
nuirel6
numeroter
ob6ir
obiecter
obliger
oblit6rer
obscurcir
obs6der
observer
obstiner (s')
obtenir
occuper
octroyer
offenser
offrir
omettre
op6rer
opposer
opprimer
oroonner
organiser
orner
orthographier
osciller
oser
6ter
oublier
outrager
ouvrir
oxyder
pacifier
p6lir
parper
palpiter
panser
parachever
parachuter
paraitre
pararyser
parcourir
pardonner
parer
parfondre
parfumer
parier
parler
parquer
partager
participer
partir
parvenir
passer*
passionner
patienter
p6tir
pauser
paver
pavoiser
payer
pcher
p6cher
peigner
peindre
peler
pencher
penqre
p6n6trer
penser
percer
percevorr
perdre
perfectionner
perforer
p6rir
permettre
pers6cuter
pers6v6rer
persister
persuaoer
pervertir
peser
p6trifier
p6trir
peuprer
photographier
picoter
pi6ger
pi6tiner
pincer
placer
plaider
plaindre
plaire
plaisanter
planifier
plaquer
pleurer
pleuvoir
plier
plonger
polir
polluer
pomper
ponctuer
pondre
poruer
poser
poss6der
posler
pouoroyef
pourfendre
pourrir
poursuivre
POUtt..r,o
pouvorr'-
pratiquer
p16c6der
prOcher
p16ciser
pr6dire
pr6f6rer
pr6juger
p16lever
p16m6diter
29
29
39
54
24
29
39
29
46
35
39
29
29
84
29
54
29
55
48
35
29
29
29
29
29
20
29
29
29
20
46
56
29
20
39
29
29
)9
44
29
57
29
17
29
29
70
29
20
29
29
46
29
58
90
59
29
29
39
29
29
29
60
29
35
29
6"1
44
29
89
35
29
13
68
62
29
29
39
48
29
35
29
29
1q
44
20
39
29
20
29
57
29
13
13
29
18
63
to
20
29
29
64
20
46
39
29
29
29
70
29
29
?<
29
54
89
39
82
29
65
29
?<
29
29
28
J5
46
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29
66
29
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29
29
78
29
Rq
29
88
90
93
20
29
20
35
29
19
29
29
+z
46
44
48
JZ
13
29
31
67
39
29
2
29
29
29
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29
29
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29
29
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39
29
29
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29
29
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13
29
20
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29
15
a/
39
20
16
17
56
19
20
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20
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z+
29
5)
?o
?(
+b
28
29
29
?o
24
37
29
39
35
70
29
20
20
29
29
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29
39
35
29
29
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29
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39
42
43
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29
13
44
20
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za
20
20
29
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20
48
44
49
29
50
29
51
IJ
39
54
29
29
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39
29
30
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29
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29
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29
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29
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57
29
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78
62
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29
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20
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29
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78
80
72
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29
29
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29
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29
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29
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88
29
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74
29
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29
92
93
29
29
29
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29
29
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29
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39
39
29
35
56
29
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39
39
29
20
29
37
29
29
29
77
20
29
29
29
protester
prouver
provenir
publier
punrr
purifier
qualifier
quereller
questionner 29
quCter
quitter 29
rabattre 1 0
raccommoder 29
raccompagner 29
raccorder 29
16aliser
rebattre
rebondir
rebuter
receler
recenSer
recevoir
16chapper
16chauffer
rechercher
16citer
16clamer
16colter
recommanoer
recommencer
16compenser
16concilier
reconduire
16conforter
reconnaitre
reconquCrir
reconstruire
reconvertir
recopier
recouore
recourir
recouvrir
r,6c16er
16crier (se)
16crire
rectifier
recueillir
recuire
reculer
16cup6rer
recycler
redescendre
r6diger
redire
redoubler
redouter
redresser
r6duire
refaire
r6f6rer
refermer
r6fl6chir
refl6ter
refondre
r6former
refroidir
r6fugier (se)
refuser
r6futer
regagner
regaillardir
regarder
r6g6n6rer
169ir
16gler
169ner
regretter
fegrouper
16habiliter
16habituer
renausser
16imprimer
16int6grer
relaillir
rejoindre
rr5jouir
relicher
retancer
rel69uer
relever
relier
relire
reluire23
remanier
remarier
remarquer
rembourser
rem6dier
remercier
remettre
remmener
remonter*
remontrer
remordre
remorquer
remoudre
rempracer
remplir
remployer
remponer
remuer
renaitre24
rench6rir
rencontrer
rendormir
rendre
renfermer
renfler
renforcer
renifler
renommer
renoncer
renouer
renouveler
16nover
renseigner
rentrer*
renverser
renvoyer
16organiser
16pandre
reparaitre
rdparer
repartir
16partir
repeindre
repenore
repentir (se)
reperdre
rdpondre
repousser
reprendre
rep16senter
reproduire
16pudier
requrir
r6server
16sider
r6signer
r6silier
16sister
16sonner
16soudre
respirer
resplendir
ressaisir
ressembler
ressemeler
ressenUr
ressortir
rester
restreindre
r6sulter
r6sumer
resurgir
r6tablir
retaper
retarder
retenir
reUrer
retomber
retourner*
retrancher
retransmettre
r6t16cir
retrousSer
rerouver
16unir
16ussir
revaloir
r6veiller
r6v6ler
revendiquer
revenore
revenir
rever
16v6rer
revtir
r6viser
revivre
revotr
r6volter
rhabiller
ridiculiser
rigoler
rire
risquer
rivaliser
rogner
rompre
ronfler
ronger
r6tir
rougrr
29
29
90
20
39
20
20
29
29
29
pr6parer
prescrrre
p16senter
p16server
p16sider
pressentir
p16sumer
pr6tendre
prter
i prendre
raccourctr
raccrocner
racheter
racler
racoter
raconter
raffermir
raffiner
rafler
rafraichir
ragaillardir
raidir
railler
ratsonner
rajeunir
raiouter
rajuster
ralentir
rallier
rallonger
rallumer
ramasSer
ramener
ramollir
ranrmer
rappeler
rapponer
rappfocner
raser
rassembler
rass616ner
rasSurer
rater
rationaliser
rattraper
ravir
ravitailler
r6agir
29
29
39
44
39
29
I r'".-'
pr6valoilu
i
prevenrr
j
Pr6voir2r
I
pner
tl
I
priver
i
rourer
privil6gier
proc6der
procramer
proc16er
produire
profiter
progresser
proronger
promener
pfomettre
. 2?
promouvorr--
prononcer
proposer
proscrire
prott6ger
29
29
29
29
35
29
29
29
29
39
29
39
rousp6ter
rouvrtr
rutner
Saccager
saisir
salir
Satuer
sanctifier
sangloter
satisfaire
sauter
sauvegarder
sauver
savoir
scier
scinder
scintiller
s6cher
Secouer
i
renler
Vene lNoex
VrRe lNoex
secourir
s6duire
sembler
Semer
sentir
s6parer
Serref
sertir
servir
s6vir
sevrer
si6ger
siffler
signaler
signer
signifier
simplifier
simuler
soigner
sombrer
sommeiller
songer
50nner
sortir*
souffrir
souhaiter
souiller
soulager
soulever
souligner
soumettre
soupgonner
soupeser
sourire
souscrire
sous-entenclre
souStrarre
soutenir
souvenir (se)
sp6cialiser
sp6cifier
standardiser
stationner
st6riliser
stimuler
stup6fier
subir
submerger
subsister
substituer
subvenirl
succ6der
sucer
suer
suffire
sugg6rer
suivre
supplier
supposer
surcharger
surenchErir
surfaire
surgerer
surqir
-1
surmonter'
surpaS5er
surprenore
surveiller
survenir
survtvre
susciter
suspendre
tacher
tacher
tailler
taire (se)
taper
tater
taxer
teindre
teinter
t6l6phoner
t6l6viser
t6moigner
tendre
tenir
tenter
terminer
ternir
terrassef
terrifier
t6ter
ti6dir
timbrer
tirer
tol6rer
tomber
tondre
tonner
tordre
torpiller
tortiller
torturer
toucher
tourmenter
tourner
tournoyer
tousser
tracaSser
tracer
traduire
trahir
trainer
traire
traiter
transcrire
transf6rer
transformer
transmettre
transparaitre
transprrer
transplanter
transporter
traquer
travailler
traversef
tr6bucher
trembler
tremper
tricher
tricoter
trier
triompher
tripoter
tromper
troquer
trotter
troubler
trouer
trouver
truffer
truquer
tuer
tutoyer
ulc6rer
unifier
unir
urbaniser
user
usiner
utiliser
vacciner
vaincre
valoir
vanter
varier
v6g6ter
veiller
vendanger
vendre
venger
venir
verdir
verooyer
v6rifier
vernir
verrouiller
verser
vtir
VCXCT
vibrer
vider
vieillir
violer
virer
viser
visiter
visser
vitrifier
vitup6rer
vivifier
vivre
vocif6rer
voiler
voir
voter
vomir
voter
vouer
vouloir
vouvoyer
voyager
vrombir
vulgariser
z6brer
z6zayer
ztgzaguer
17
24
29
44
78
29
29
39
79
39
44
o/
29
29
29
20
20
29
29
29
29
46
29
80
55
29
29
46
44
29
48
29
44
75
3l
89
86
84
84
29
20
29
29
29
29
20
39
46
29
29
90
35
13
29
81
35
82
20
29
46
39
37
2
39
49
59
66
29
90
92
29
89
29
29
29
83
29
29
29
61
29
29
29
29
89
a4
29
29
39
29
20
35
39
29
29
35
85
70
29
50
29
29
29
29
29
29
54
29
29
13
24
39
29
86
29
31
35
29
48
57
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
20
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
54
35
20
39
29
29
29
29
29
87
88
29
20
29
46
89
46
90
39
54
20
39
29
29
9^l
29
29
29
39
29
29
29
29
29
20
35
20
92
35
29
93
l9
39
29
29
94
54
46
39
29
35
60
29
Notes
t)
Auxiliary=avoir.
2)
Auxiliary
=
tre.
3)
Only infinitive and 3rd persons of each tense used.
4)
Past participle: absous, absoute.
s)
Conjugated with either avoir or etre.
6)
No circumflex on: j'accrois, tu accrois, and accru.
z)
Hardly used except in the infinitive and the 3'd persons of the present,
future and conditional.
8)
Past participle: circoncis.
e)
Past participle: confit.
10)
No circumflex on: je d6crois, tu d6crois, and d6cru.
11)
When demeurer means to live, the auxiliary is avoir; when it means
to remain, the auxiliary is tre.
12)
Past participle: dissous, dissoute.
13)
Present participle: faillant; past participle: failli; future: je faillirai, etc;
conditional:
je faillirais, efc. NB:
f'ai
failli tomber
=
| nearly fell.
14)
When fleurir means to prosper, the present participle is florissant,
and the imperfect is florissait.
1s)
Past participle: frit; used mainly in the present tense singular and in
compound tenses.
16)
Past participle: inclus.
17)
Past participle: m0, rnue, mus, mues.
18)
Past participle: nui.
tr)
In questions, je peux can be replaced by
ie
puis:
Puis-je vous aider? May I help you?
20)
Subjunctive:
je pr6vale, efc.
21
)
Future:
je pr6voirai, etc; conditional:
je prvoirais, etc.
22)
Used only in the infinitive, present and past participles, and compound
renses.
2r)
Past participle: relui.
24)
No past participle, no compound tenses.
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