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INTRODUO INTRODUCTION

Em primeiro lugar, ... / Antes de tudo, ... /


Para ome!ar, ... / Para in"io de
on#ersa, ...
First of all, ... / In the first place, ... / To
begin with, ...
RE$ER%NCIA RE$ERENCE
Com rela!&o a ... / No 'ue di( respeito
a ... / No 'ue tange a ...
Regarding ... / With regard to ... /
Concerning ... / Considering ...
INTRODUO OPORTUNA DE NO)O
A**UNTO
C+AN,E O$ *U-.ECT
A prop/sito, 0 / Por 1alar nisso, 0
By the way, / Speaing of that, /
Incidentally
CO2ENT3RIO DE RE$ORO REIN$ORCE2ENT CO22ENT
Por sinal, ... / Ali4s, ... / Inlusi#e ... !s a "atter of fact ... / In fact ...
Pelo ontr4rio, 0 / Na #erdade, 0 #n the contrary / !ct$ally
CON$OR2IDADE A,REE2ENT
De aordo om ... / Con1orme ... / *egundo
...
!ccording to ... / In accordance with ...
%N$A*E E2P+A*I*
Prinipalmente ... / *o5retudo ... /
Espeialmente ... / Ainda mais ...
%specially ... / &ainly ... / In partic$lar
... / &ore i"portant ...
CAU*A E 2OTI)O CAU*E
Por'ue ... / Por ausa de 0 / Uma #e( 'ue
0 / .4 'ue 0 / )isto 'ue ... / Pois 0
Beca$se / Since
Em 1un!&o de 0 / Em ra(&o de ... / Por
moti#os de ... / Em #irtude de ... / De#ido a
0
!s a res$lt of ... / '$e to
DECORR%NCIA RE*U6T, CON*E7UENCE
6e#ando isto em onsidera!&o, 0 / Por
este moti#o, ... / Por esta ra(&o, 0 / Por
isso 0
With this in "ind, / For this reason
/ That(s why
Desta 1orma, ... / Assim sendo 8sendo
assim9, ... / Nesse sentido, ...
This way ... / In doing so ...
De maneira 81orma9 8modo9 'ue 0 / Como
onse'u:nia, ...
So that / !s a res$lt,
Diante do e;posto, 0 / $rente a ... In face of / In )iew of
CONC6U*O 6<,ICA IN$ERENCE, CONC6U*ION
Portanto, 0 / Ent&o ... Therefore, / So,
PROP<*ITO PURPO*E
Com o o5=eti#o de ... / A 1im de ... / Para
'ue ... / Para ...
In order to ... / In order that / So that
... / In an effort to ...
DE2ARCADORE* DE PER>ODO*
ENTRE O PRE*ENTE E O $UTURO
PRO.ECTIN, T+E PRE*ENT INTO
T+E $UTURE
A partir de agora ... / De agora em diante ...
/ Da'ui para a 1rente ...
Fro" now on ...
DE2ARCADORE* DE PER>ODO*
PA**ADO*
*CANNIN, T+E PA*T INTO T+E
PRE*ENT
At? agora ... / At? @o=e ... / At? o
momento ...
So far ... / *p till now ...
Ainda ... Still ... / ... not ... yet.
INDICADORE* DE PER>ODO*
PRE*ENTE*
INDICATIN, PERIOD* IN T+E
PRE*ENT
Por en'uanto ... For the ti"e being ... / ... for so"e ti"e.
*I2U6TANEIDADE *I2U6TANEITA
Nesse meio tempo, ... / En'uanto isso, ... In the "eanti"e, ... / &eanwhile, ...
En'uanto 8durante o tempo em 'ue9 ... While +d$ring the ti"e, ...
INDICADORE* DE
CIRCUN*TANCIA6IDADE
DE$ININ, CIRCU2*TANCE*
Em meio a ... In the "idst of ...
,ENERA6IBAO E RE,U6ARIDADE ,ENERA6IBIN,
Em geral, 0 In general,
)ia de regra, 0 !s a r$le,
E)ENTO* COINCIDENTE* COINCIDENTA6 E)ENT*
*empre 'ue 0 Whene)er
PROPORCIONA6IDADE E2 RE6AO
AO TE2PO
TI2E RE6ATION*+IP
C medida 'ue 8o tempo passa,9 0 / Com o
passar 8deorrer9 do tempo, 0
!s +ti"e goes by,,
INDICADORE* DE DE*TINAT3RIO ADDRE**IN,
A 'uem interessar possa / Para sua
in1orma!&o, ...
To who" it "ay concern / For yo$r
infor"ation, ...
EN$RA7UECEDORE* DEAEENER*
7ue eu sai5a, 0 / Pelo 'ue eu sei, 0 /
Pelo 'ue me onsta, 0
!s far as I now, / !s far as I can
tell, / To "y nowledge / To the
best of "y nowledge,
*e n&o me engano, 0 / *e eu n&o esti#er
enganado 0 / *e n&o me 1al@a a mem/ria,
0
If I(" not wrong, / If I re"e"ber
well
Na min@a opini&o, 0 In "y opinion, / In "y )iew
EFC6U*O EFC6U*ION
No 'ue se re1ere a mim, 0 / No 'ue
depender de mim, 0 / 7uanto a mim, 0 /
De min@a parte, 0
!s far as I(" concerned, / !s for "e,

PO*ICIONA2ENTO PO*ITION DE$INER*


Do ponto de #ista de 0 / Do 8so59 meu
ponto de #ista 0 / Partindo do pressuposto
8de9 'ue 0
Fro" the standpoint of / Fro" "y
standpoint / Fro" "y point of )iew
/ Based on the ass$"ption that
CERTEBA A**URANCE
*em dG#ida / Certamente / Com erte(a /
E#identemente 0
#f co$rse / For s$re / 'efinitely /
Certainly / Witho$t a do$bt
E7UI)A6%NCIA, PARA6E6I*2O E7UI)A6ENCE, PARA66E6 IDEA*
Da mesma 1orma 'ue 0 / Assim omo
0 / Tal omo 0
In the sa"e way that / By the sa"e
toen / -iewise
CONDIO CONDITION
*e 0 / Desde 'ue 0 / En'uanto 0 /
Contanto 'ue 0
If / !s long as / #n condition that
/ .ro)ided +that,
CONTRA*TE CONTRA*T
En'uanto 'ue 0 / Ao passo 'ue 0 / .4 0 While / Whereas / By contrast
2as 0 / Entretanto, 0 / No entanto, 0 /
Toda#ia, 0 / Por?m, 0 / Contudo, 0
B$t / /owe)er, / , tho$gh.
2esmo assim, 0 / Ainda assim, 0 %)en so / 0e)ertheless, / Still,
Apesar de 8disso9 0 / N&o o5stante 0
In spite of / 'espite /
0otwithstanding
Em5ora 0 / Ainda 'ue 0 / E isso 'ue 0 !ltho$gh / %)en tho$gh
2esmo 'ue 0 %)en if
8Por um lado, ...9 Por outro lado, 0 / Em
ompensa!&o, 0
+#n +the, one hand, ..., #n the other
hand, / Con)ersely
Ao ontr4rio de 0 *nlie
REITERANDO, DETA6+ANDO REITERATIN,, ,I)IN, DETAI6*
Em outras pala#ras, 0 / O 'ue eu 'uero
di(er 0 / 7uer di(er, 0 / Ou se=a, 0
In other words, / What I(" trying to
say / I "ean / That is, / i.e.,
EFE2P6I$ICANDO PRO)IDIN, EFA2P6E
Por e;emplo, 0 For e1a"ple, / For instance,
0 tais omo 0 s$ch as
*INA6IBAO DE 6IN,UA,E2
2ETA$<RICA
INDICATIN, 2ETAP+ORICA6
6AN,UA,E
0 por assim di(er 0 / 0 omo 'ue 0
so to spea / if yo$ will / if yo$
lie / lie
A6TERNHNCIA A6TERNATION
Por sua #e(, 0 / Por seu turno 0 In his/her/its t$rn,
6I2ITAO DE AP6ICA-I6IDADE APP6ICA-I6ITA 6I2ITATION
Em Gltimo aso, 0 !s a last resort,
Na pior das @ip/teses, 0 / *e aonteer o
pior, 0
If worse co"es to worst +If worst
co"es to worst, / !t worst / In a
worst2case scenario
Na mel@or das @ip/teses, 0 !t best
Pelo 8ao9 menos 0 / No m"nimo 0 / Nem
'ue se=a 8para9 0
!t +the, least / If nothing else / To
say the least
Para n&o di(er 0 / Isso se n&o 1or 0 If not
ACRI*CI2O ADDITION
N&o apenas 0, mas 8tam5?m9 0 / N&o s/
0 omo 8tam5?m9 0 / Tanto 0 omo 0
0ot only , b$t +also,
Al?m disso, 0 / Ainda por ima, 0 /
Al?m do mais 0 / A1ora 8isso9, 0
Besides +that,, / In addition to +that,,
/ #n top of that, / &oreo)er /
!part fro" +that,, / !side fro"
+that,,
EFCEO EFCEPTION
A n&o ser por 8isso9, 0 / Com e;e!&o de
0 / A1ora 8isso9 0 / 0 sen&o 0
!part fro" +that,, / #therwise /
#ther than that, / %1cept for /
!side fro" +that,,
A n&o ser 'ue 0 / A menos 'ue 0 *nless
*U-*TITUIO *U-*TITUTION
Em #e( de 0 / Em lugar de 0 / Ao in#?s
de 0
Instead of / In place of
De pre1er:nia 0 Rather +than,
CON*E7U%NCIA DA NOJ
OCORR%NCIA DE U2A CONDIO
CON*E7UENCE O$
NON$U6$I662ENT
*en&o 0 / Caso ontr4rio, 0 / Do
ontr4rio, 0 / *o5 pena de 0
#therwise / #r else / If not
DE*CON*IDERANDO DI*2I**A6
De 'ual'uer modo 81orma9 8maneira9, 0 /
*e=a omo 1or, 0 / *e=a 'ual 1or o moti#o,
0
!nyway, / In any case, / Whate)er
the case "ay be,
RE6E2-RANA RE2INDER
A1inal 0 / A1inal de ontas, 0 !fter all
$INA6IBAO, RE*U2O C6O*URE, *U22ARA
$inalmente, 0 / Por 1im, 0 Finally, / !t last,
6e#ando tudo isso em onsidera!&o, 0 /
Em resumo, 0
!ll things considered, / In s$""ary,

INTRODUCTION AND REFERENCE


on t@e ot@er @and
regarding
speaKing o1
to 5egin Lit@
to start Lit@
Lit@ regard to
as re1erred to
8at9 1irst
5M t@e LaM
@anging t@e su5=et
onerning
onsidering
1irst o1 all
in re1erene to
in t@e 1irst plae
initiallM
AGREEMENT
in aordane Lit@
in agreement
in on1ormitM
aording to
as per
COMPARISON
in omparison 8Lit@9
in t@e same LaM
similarlM
omparing
liKeLise
CONTRAST
onsidering t@at
on#erselM
despite
e#en so
e#en t@oug@
1or all t@at
1or 8mM, @is, ...9 part
gi#en t@at
@oLe#er
in ontrast
in 8t@e9 1ae o1
in 8t@e9 lig@t o1
in spite o1 8t@at9
meanL@ile
ne#ert@eless
nonet@eless
notLit@standing
on t@e ot@er @and
still
t@en again
t@oug@
unliKe
L@ereas
L@ile
Met
a1ter 8all9
alternati#elM
alt@oug@
as opposed to
at t@e same time
5ut
5M ontrast
5M t@e same toKen
EMPHASIS
e#en more
in anM e#ent
indeed
in partiular
least o1 all
let alone
mainlM
more important8lM9
most important8lM9
most o1 all
naturallM
partiularlM
positi#elM
primarilM
prinipallM
spei1iallM
t@e 5asi ause
t@e @ie1 1ator
t@e KeM point
un'uestiona5lM
#alua5le to note
Lit@out a dou5t
a5o#e all
a KeM 1eature
a ma=or onern
de1initelM
espeiallM 8not9
espeiallM signi1iant
ADDITION
5ot@ ... and
eit@er ... or
e'uallM important
1urt@er
1urt@ermore
in addition 8to9
indeed
=ointlM
last 5ut not least
liKeLise
moreo#er
neit@er ... nor
ne;t
not onlM ... 5ut also
not to mention
not to speaK o1
on top o1 t@at
or
plus
similarlM
toget@er Lit@
L@atNs more
again
also
and 8t@en9
as Lell as
at t@e same time
5esides
ADDING A REMARK
in 1at
on t@e ontrarM
t@e trut@ is
as a matter o1 1at
inidentallM
EXPLANATION OF CAUSE
in #ieL o1
noL t@at
on aount o1
sine
t@at is 5eause
as
as a result o1
5eause 8o19
due to
1or
in order t@at
RESULT
1or t@is reason
1or L@i@ reason
@ene
in s@ort
so mu@ 8so9 t@at
so t@at
su@ ... t@at
t@at is L@M
t@en
t@ere5M
t@ere1ore
t@us
aordinglM
as a onse'uene
as a result
onse'uentlM
PURPOSE
in return 1or
so as to
so t@at
to
to t@e purpose o1
to t@is end
Lit@ t@is in mind
Lit@ t@is purpose
in an e11ort to
in order t@at
in order to
TIME RELATIONSHIP
noLadaMs
presentlM
s@ortlM 8a1ter9
simultaneouslM
sine
so 1ar
soon
temporarilM
t@en
t@erea1ter
t@roug@out
t@ereupon
until
up until noL
L@ile
Met at t@e same time
a1ter a L@ile
a1terLard8s9
as time goes 5M
at last
at present
at t@is point
urrentlM
1rom noL on
immediatelM
in t@e meantime
latelM
later
meanL@ile
noL
ORDERING
seond
seondlM
t@ird
1olloLing
ne;t
t@en
later
a1ter t@at
last
1inallM
1irst
1irstlM
1irst o1 all
in t@e 1irst plae
CIRCUMSTANCES
in mM opinion
in terms o1
in t@e midst o1
on t@e part o1
as a last resort
as a rule
1rom t@e standpoint o1
ADDRESSING INFORMATION
1or Mour in1ormation
to L@om it maM onern
ESTABLISHING A LIMIT
as 1ar as INm onerned
as 1ar as I understand
as Lell as I KnoL
1or t@e time 5eing
so 1ar
as 1ar as I an remem5er
as 1ar as I an tell
as 1ar as I KnoL
CONDITION
i1 not
in ase o1
in ase 8t@at9
in t@e e#ent o1
in t@e e#ent 8t@at9
on ondition t@at
onlM i1
or 8else9
ot@erLise
pro#ided 8t@at9
pro#iding 8t@at9
L@et@er or not
as long as
e#en i1
i1
DISMISSAL
anMLaM
at anM rate
in anM ase
L@ate#er t@e ase maM 5e
EXCEPTION / EXCLUSION
apart 1rom 8t@at9
aside 1rom
e;ept 1or
not ... Met
ot@er t@an t@at
unless
EXAMPLE
inluding
in partiular
in t@is ase
in t@is manner
namelM
su@ as
taKe t@e ase o1
t@at is
t@e 1olloLing e;ample
to illustrate
1or e;ample
1or instane
in anot@er ase
SUBSTITUTION / PREFERENCE
in plae o1
instead o1
rat@er 8t@an9
in e;@ange 1or
REITERATION / REFORMULATION
as I @a#e said
I mean
in ot@er Lords
more simplM
or rat@er
t@at is
to put it anot@er LaM
CONCLUSION
so
t@ere1ore
1or t@is reason
GENERALIZING
5M and large
essentiallM
1or t@e most part
generallM
generallM speaKing
in general
on t@e L@ole
o#erall
all in all
as a rule
5asiallM
INTERMEDIATING
in doing so
t@is LaM
t@roug@ 8L@i@9
5M
5M means o1
CONCESSION
at t@e same time
granted t@at
I admit
it maM appear t@at
naturallM
o1 ourse
a1ter all
alt@oug@ it is true t@at
alt@oug@ t@is maM 5e true
EVIDENCE
indeed
itNs no Londer
naturallM
o5#iouslM
o1 ourse
Lit@out 'uestion
as Mou 8anMone9 an see
ertainlM
e#identlM
needless to saM Lit@out a dou5t
CONCLUSION / SUMMARY
in s@ort
in summarM
last8lM9
on t@e L@ole
o#erall
t@ere1ore
to onlude
to summari(e
to sum up
a1ter all
all in all
all t@ings onsidered
as Le @a#e seen
at last
1inallM
in 5rie1
in onlusion