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PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING

THE ELEMENTS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING (ETL)


1. The Teachers-serve as the prime mover of the educational wheel
2. The learnersare the key participants in the learning process.
3. The learning environment-provides essential features and ingredients that could make headway in guiding the
processes and methodologies needed for a smooth linkage among the three.

LEARNER-is an embodied spirit. He is a union of a sentient body and rational soul.
His body experiences sensations and feels, pleasure and pain
His soul is the principle of spiritual acts, the source of intellectual abstraction, self-reflection and free volition
Body and soul exist in mutual dependence (Kelly, 1965)

THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUIPMENT OF LEARNER
1. Cognitive
2. Appetitive faculties

COGNITIVE FACULTIES INCLUDE
1. Five Senses-by his senses, the learner is able to see, hear, feel, taste, and smell whatever is to be learned.
2. Instinct-nature, character and natural feeling.
3. Imagination- by the power of imagination, the learner is able to form representation of materials objects which
are not actually present to the senses.
4. Memory -By his power of memory he is able to retain, recall, recognize past mental acts.
5. Intellect-s/he can form concepts, ideas, makes judgment and reason out.

APPETIVE FACULTIES INCLUDE- They differ however in the degree to which they are utilized and expressed on account
of learners abilities.
1. Feelings and emotions - By his feelings and emotions, s/he experiences the pleasantness or unpleasantness, the
satisfactoriness or unsatisfactoriness, the pain and the joy of an object or an activity
2. Rational will- By his will the learner wills what his/her intellect presents as good and desirable.

LEARNERS DIFFERS IN (FIVE DISTINGUISHING ELEMENTS)
1. Ability - It determines their capacity to understand and assimilate information for their own use and application
As learners they differ in the way they observe and interpret happenings in their surroundings.
2. Aptitude Refers to the students innate talent or gift. It indicates a natural capacity to learn certain skills
3. Interests Learners vary in activities that are undertaken to a strong appeal or attraction.
Lessons that give the learners chance to express their deep feelings for objects or action will be more
meaningful and easily absorbed.
4. Family and Cultural Background Beneficial relationships of learners with their mentors and with one another
affirm the king of bond they enjoy at home, cooperation, coupled with a willingness to share, is
instilled and is carried over to all association they join.
5. Attitudes Students have a unique way of thinking and reacting. It refers to an individuals perspective and
disposition. Some positives attitudes are:
Curiosity endlessly questioning until they get the right information
Responsibility students pursue assigned task to completion despite personal constraints
Creativity students with creative minds are capable of generating own ideas of doing things. Being
imaginative they can think of new ways of arriving at solutions to their problems.
Persistence students sustain interest in a learning activity not mindful of the extra time and effort being
mmmmmmmspent. They pursue the task to completion and never give up when confronted with
problems.

GARDNERS MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY (HOWARD GARDNER)
When you hear the word intelligence, the concept of IQ testing may immediately come to mind. Intelligence is often
defined as our intellectual potential; something we are born with, something that can be measured and a capacity that
is difficult to change. In recent years, however, other views of intelligence have emerged. One such conception is the
theory of multiple intelligences proposed by Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner.

This theory suggests that traditional psychometric views of intelligence are too limited. Gardner first outlined his theory
in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, where he suggested that all people have different
kinds of "intelligences."1 Gardner proposed that there are eight intelligences, and has suggested the possible addition of
a ninth known as "existentialist intelligence"

1. Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence (Word Smart)
Sensitivity to speaking, writing , listening and reading
Sounds, meaning, structures and styles of language
Ability to speak and write effectively
Examples: (Speak) Teacher, Religious Leader, Politician (Write) Poet, Journalist, Novelist, Copywriter
and Editor
People who are strong in linguistic-verbal intelligence are able to use words well, both when writing and
speaking. These individuals are typically very good at writing stories, memorizing information and
reading.
Characteristics: Good at remembering written and spoken information, Enjoys reading and writing,
Good at debating or giving persuasive speeches, Able to explain things well and Often uses humor when
telling stories

2. Logical or Mathematical Intelligence (Number/Reasoning Smart)
Sensitivity to finding patterns, making calculations, forming and testing hypothesis, using the scientific
method, deductive and inductive reasoning
Patterns, numbers and numerical data, causes and effects, objective and quantitative reasoning
Ability to work effectively with numbers and reason effectively
Examples: (Numbers) Accountant, Statistician, Economist (Reasoning) Engineer, Scientists and Computer
programmer
People who are strong in logical-mathematical intelligence are good at reasoning, recognizing patterns
and logically analyze problems. These individuals tend to think conceptually about numbers,
relationships and patterns.
Characteristics: Excellent problem-solving skills, Enjoys thinking about abstract ideas, Likes conducting
scientific experiments, Good and solving complex computations

3. Spatial Intelligence (Picture Smart)
Sensitivity to representing ideas visually ,creating mental images, noticing visual details, drawing, and
sketching
Colors, shapes, visual, puzzles, symmetry, lines and images
Ability to create visually and visualize accurately
Examples: (Visually) Artist, Photographer, Engineer and decorator (Visualize) Tour Guide, Scout and
Ranger
People who are strong in visual-spatial intelligence are good a visualizing things. These individuals are
often good with directions as well as maps, charts, videos and pictures.
Characteristics: Enjoys reading and writing, Good at putting puzzles together, Good at interpreting
pictures, graphs and charts, Enjoys drawing, painting and the visual arts, Recognizes patterns easily,
Potential Career Choices

4. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence ( Body Smart)
Sensitivity to activities requiring strength, speed, flexibility, hand-eye coordination and balance.
Touch, movement, physical self and athleticism
Use the hands to fix or create and use the body expressively
Example: (Create) Mechanic, Surgeon, Carpenter, Sculptor, Mason (Body) Dancer, Athlete and Actor
Those who have high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are said to be good at body movement, performing
actions and physical control. People who are strong in this area tend to have excellent hand-eye
coordination and dexterity.
Characteristics: Good at dancing and sports, Enjoy creating things with their hands, Excellent physical
coordination and Tends to remember by doing, rather than hearing or seeing

5. Musical Intelligence (Music Smart)
Sensitivity to listening, singing and playing an instrument
Tone, beat, tempo, melody pitch and sound
Ability to create music and analyse music
Examples: (Create Music) Song writer, composer and Conductor (Analyze Music) Music Critic
People who have strong musical intelligence are good and thinking in patterns, rhythms and sounds.
They have a strong appreciation for music and are often good at musical composition and performance.
Characteristics: Enjoy singing and playing musical instruments, Recognizes musical patterns and tones
easily, Good at remembering songs and melodies and Rich understanding of musical structure, rhythm
and notes

6. Interpersonal Intelligence (People Smart)
Sensitivity to noticing and responding to other peoples feelings and personalities.
Body Language, moods, voice and feelings
Ability to work with people and help people identify and overcome problems
Examples: (Work with people) Administrator, Manager , Consultant and Teacher (Help people) Therapist
and Psychologist
Those who have strong interpersonal intelligence are good understanding and interacting with other
people. These individuals are skilled at assessing the emotions, motivations, desires and intentions of
those around them.
Characteristics: Good at communicating verbally, Skilled nonverbal communicators, See situations from
different perspectives, Create positive relationships with others and Good at resolving conflict in groups

7. Intrapersonal Intelligence (Self Smart)
Sensitivity to settings goals, assessing personal abilities and liabilities, monitoring ones own thinking.
Ones own strengths, weaknesses, goals and desires
Ability to meditate, reflect, exhibit, self-discipline, maintain composure, and get the most out of oneself
Examples: Philosopher, Scientist, Theorist and Writer
Individuals who are strong in intrapersonal intelligence are good at being aware of their own emotional
states, feelings and motivations. They tend to enjoy self-reflection and analysis, including day-dreaming,
exploring relationships with others and assessing their personal strengths.
Characteristics: Good at analyzing their strengths and weaknesses, Enjoys analyzing theories and ideas,
Excellent self-awareness, Clearly understands the basis for their own motivations and feelings

8. Naturalist Intelligence (Nature Smart)
Sensitivity to identifying and classifying living things and natural objects
Natural objects, plants, animals, naturally occurring patterns and ecological issues
Ability to analyse ecological and natural situations and data learn in living things and work natural
Examples: (Analyze) Ecologists and Rangers ( Living) Zoologists, Botanist, Vetenerarian
Naturalistic is the most recent addition to Gardners theory 5 and has been met with more resistance
than his original seven intelligences. According to Gardner, individuals who are high in this type of
intelligence are more in tune with nature and are often interested in nurturing, exploring the
environment and learning about other species. These individuals are said to be highly aware of even
subtle changes to their environments.
Charateristics: Interested in subjects such as botany, biology and zoology, Good at categorizing and
cataloging information easily, May enjoy camping, gardening, hiking and exploring the outdoors, Doesnt
enjoy learning unfamiliar topics that have no connection to nature



LEARNERS DIFFERS IN (LEARNING STYLES)

1. Sensing Thinking or Mastery
Learner prefers to learn by: Seeing tangible results, Practicing what he has Learned Following directions
one step at a time
Being active rather than passive
Knowing exactly what is expected of her.
Learns best from- Drill, Demonstration, Practice and Hands-on experience
Likes: Doing things that have immediate practical use, Being acknowledge, Praise for prompt and
complete work and Immediate feedback
Dislikes: Activities that focus on feelings Open-ended activities, Activities that require imagination
Sensitivity to acts, details, physical actions and steps
Inclination to remembering, describing, manipulating and ordering
Ability to organize, report, build and plan and carry out projects
Efficient, results-oriented, preferring actions to words and involvement to theory. They like to complete
their work in an organized and efficient manner. They tend to be neat, well-organized, and precise in
their work. They need to be kept busy and require immediate feedback. They need to be active. They
prefer step-by-step directions when assigned a task and become impatient if the instructions become
long and involved. They want to know exactly what is expected of them. They need clearly structured
environments that focus on factual mastery of skills and an opportunity to apply them to something
practical or to demonstrate proficiency. They prefer right or wrong questions to open-ended or
interpretive ones.

2. Intuitive Thinking or Understanding
Prefers to learn by: Studying about ideas and how things are related, Planning and carrying out a
project, Arguing and debating a point based on logical analysis, Problem solving that requires collecting ,
organizing ,and evaluating.
Learns best from: Lectures, Reading and Logical discussions and debate
Likes: Time to plan, Working independently and Working with ideas
Dislikes: Routine, Memorization, Concern for details and Rigid rules
Sensitivity to gaps/flaws, questions, patterns and ideas
Inclination for analyzing, testing/proving, examining and connecting
Ability to argue, research, develop theories and explain
They tend to be challenged intellectually and to think things through for themselves. They are curious
about ideas, like theory and complex problems. They approach learning in a logical, organized,
systematic fashion, bringing organization and structure to people and things. They take time to plan,
organize ideas, and determine necessary resources before beginning to work on an assignment. They
prefer to work independently or with other thinking types and require little feedback until their work is
completed. They do not like being pressed for time. When they are working on something of interest,
time is meaningless. They have great patience and persistence. They attack problems by breaking them
down into their component parts. They like to reason things out and to look for logical relationships.
They are constantly asking "why?" They are avid readers, and they have a facility for language and
express their ideas in detail. They are concerned about being correct and strive for perfection.

3. Intuitive-Feeling or Self expressive
Prefers to: Being creative and using his imagination, Planning ad organizing, Working on a number,
Searching for alternative solutions and Discussing real problems
Learns best from: Creative and artistic activities, Open-ended discussions, Activities that enlighten or
enhance myths and human achievement
Likes: Contemplation, Being able to learn through discovery, Opportunity to plan, Recognition to
personal insights and discoveries
Dislikes: Too much attention to detail, Facts . Memorization, role learning and Task with predetermined
correct answers
Sensitivity to hunches, images, possibilities and inspiration
Inclination for predicting/speculating, imagining, generating ideas and developing insights
Ability to develop original solutions, thinks metaphorically, articulate ideas and express and create
They are the ones who dare to dream, are committed to their values, are open to alternatives, and are
constantly searching for new an unusual ways to express themselves. They approach learning eager to
explore ideas, generate new solutions to problems, and discuss moral dilemmas. Their interests are
varied and unpredictable, but they prefer activities which allow them to use their imaginations and do
things in unique ways. They do not like routine or rote assignments and prefer questions which are
open-ended, such as, "What would happen if...?" They are highly motivated by their own interests.
Things of interest will be done inventively well. When working on a project that interests them, time is
meaningless. They are independent and do not fear being different. They are sensitive to beauty and
symmetry and will comment on the aesthetic characteristics of things. They prefer not to follow step-by-
step procedures but rather move where their intuitions take them. They prefer to find their own
solutions rather than being told what to do or how to do it. They often take circuitous routes to solving
problems and may not be able to explain how they arrived at the answer. They are flexible in thought
and action. They are not likely to be disturbed by changes in routine, and they are comfortable working
with a minimum of directions.

4. Sensing Feeling or Interpersonal
Learner-Prefers to study about things that directly affects about peoples lives.
Receiving personal attention: Being part of a team activities that help her learn out herself and how she
feels about things.
Learns best from : Group experience, Loving attention, Personal expression and Role Playing
Likes: Receiving personal attention and encouragement, Opportunities to be helpful in class, Personal
feedbacks and Sharing personal experiences
Dislikes: Long period of working alone silently, Emphasis on factual detail, Highly competitive games and
Detailed and demanding routine
Sensitivity to feelings, people, gut reactions and experiences
Inclination for supporting, personalizing, expressing emotions and learning from experience
Ability to build trust and rapport, empathize, respond and teach
They are sensitive to people's feelings - their own and others'. They prefer to learn about things that
directly affect people's lives rather than impersonal facts or theories. They take a personal approach to
learning. They work best when emotionally involved in what they are being asked to learn. They tend to
be spontaneous and often act on impulse, in terms of what "feels right." They are interested in people
and like to listen to and talk about people and their feelings. They like to be helpful to others and need
to be recognized for their efforts. They enjoy personal attention. They need to feel relaxed, comfortable,
and to enjoy themselves when they learn. They like to think out loud, to work with other students, to
share their ideas, and to get the reactions of their friends. They prefer cooperation to competition, and
they need reassurance or praise that lets them know they are doing well. They are greatly influenced by
the likes and dislikes of others.