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Acknowledgement

Above all, I would bow my head in sincere gratitude and sense of pleasure in front of the
Almighty, for helping me achieve all that I could.
I am highly indebted to SMLs staff for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for
providing necessary information regarding the project & also for their support in completing the
projects.
These projects would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many
individuals and organizations. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.
I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my Industry Guide, Mr. Abhishek Puri,
Technology Department, SML-ISUZU Ltd. and my Institutes teachers for their able guidance
and useful suggestions, which helped me in completing the project work, in time.
I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my beloved parents for their blessings and constant
support during the project. My friends/classmates have been very helpful and cooperative and I
would like to take this opportunity to extend my thanks to each one of them.

Aggyapal Singh


2

Summary
Various Departments of Bus Body Plant
1) Personnel Department
2) Research and Development
3) Quality Engineering Department
4) Technology Department
5) Accounts Department
6) Purchase Department
7) Maintenance Department
My Department
I was appointed a trainee in Technology Department, under the guidance of Mr. Balbir Singh
(Head of Department, Technology) and Mr. Abhishek Puri (Senior-Engineer). The Department is
further divided into three sub-departments
Industrial Engineering
Production Engineering
Tool Design
The Main Purpose of Technology department is to assist the Production Line in any Kind of
problem Being Faced by it; the other departments ask Technology Department For any kind of
Fabrication to be done for assisting the line, which may be Gauges for Production line, Material
handling Racks for assembly line etc.
During my training period, i was initially asked to study the Zhong-tong models structure, shell
and assembly line, which later on let me work on two projects related to shell line and assembly
line, one each.
On Shell line of ZT model, my project was to develop gauges meant for marking the cut-outs for
diesel tank, sedimentary tank, air-cleaner and spare wheel flaps. This was my project as an
individual.
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On assembly line, I worked as a trainee with a team from Technology department, including
Mr.Abhishek Puri, my industry coordinator. Its purpose was to consume the wastages of
Aluminium Chequered Sheet & upholstery and take steps to optimize the raw material/waste
consumption on Assembly line.
Introduction
Company History
History of the SML ISUZU LIMITED (Light Commercial Vehicle) dates back to as in 1975
when the first efforts were initiated by the Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation
Limited (PSIDC) to obtain a letter of intent from the Government of India. The Govt. of India
was interested in installing the unit and issuing the license for an LCV in order to save the fuel
consumption in the economy. Therefore Govt. decided to installed indo-Jap LCV units in 3 states
Punjab, U.P. & M.P.
Started as Swaraj Vehicles limited in 1983.
Mazda came up with Technical assistance renamed as Swaraj Mazda Limited in
1984.
Started commercial operations, indigenously developed buses and trucks. Worked for
defense.
Was Declared a sick company in 1994, developed 4WD trucks in 1996, came out of loss
in 1998
Started growing profits, crossed 50K vehicles in 2001, developed CNG vehicles for
NCR.
Crossed 86000 vehicles in 2005, applied Bharat-III norms on Diesel CNG too.
Crossed 1 lakh and joined hands with ISUZU in 2006
Started Expansion of plant, Developed LT-134 buses for ISUZU
Came up with Luxury class vehicles in 2008
SUMITOMO corporation took over 53.5 % companys share
Renamed as SML-ISUZU Limited in 2011

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Share holding pattern
Sumitomo Corporation, JAPAN 54.96 %
Isuzu 4 %
MFNB 9.1 %
FIIs 2.67 %
Public 25.22 %

Chart 1 (PIE) Share Holding Pattern

Companys products
From bus body plant (BBP), we get the following products:
Four wheel drive Ambulance (SML)
Cardiac-ICU Ambulance (SML)
CNG School bus (SML)
Executive bus (SML)
NQR bus (ISUZU)
LT 134 Luxury bus (ISUZU)
Zhong-Tong School bus (SML)
Semi low floor AC CNG bus (SML)
Standard Ambulance (SML)
Standard bus (SML)
5

Organizational Setup Flowchart














Flow Chart 1 Organizational Setup
Managing Director
Executive Director
Vice-President
Associate
Vice-President
General Manager
Deputy General
Manager
Chief-Manager Senior-Manager
Manager
Assistant
manager
Senior
Engineer
Engineer
Junior
Engineer
Assistant
Engineer
6

Project 1
Developing Gauges
As a trainee in Technology Department of Bus-Body plant, I worked on a project of
developing cut-out marking gauges for Zhong-Tong school bus model. Its a Chinese design.
The project was assigned to the Technology Dept. by Production dept.
Normal Process of marking
The time taken to mark the cut-outs for air cleaner, spare wheel, diesel and sedimentary
tank flaps took 5 minutes on an average to mark each cut-out.
Number of workers required 2.
Dimensioning done by workers using standard measuring tape and marker.
Problem faced
Time taken to mark the cut-outs was varying from worker to worker, affecting the shell
line.
Human error intervened every time the marking is done as the worker depends on his
skill of marking.
Total work hours required for marking and correction were more than expected.
Target
To develop marking gauges for Air-cleaner, spare wheel, diesel and sedimentary tank flap cut-
outs. The gauges are meant to mark shapes which later can be cut out by using Plasma cutter
from sheet metal sides of the bus, before it proceeds into the paint shop. The gauges were
developed for four different flaps, namely:
Air cleaner flap (LHS)
Spare wheel flap (LHS)
Diesel tank flap (RHS)
Sedimentary flap (RHS)
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The gauges were to be developed considering following four criterions:
Gauge should be as per required dimensions ( It should mark the cut-outs as per the
dimensions given in drawing provided by R&D department )
Poke-yoke (As per this criteria, the gauges should be fabricated in such a way that
they cannot be mistakenly used in each others place i.e. one gauge should fix on its
own place and not anywhere else).
Gauge should be handy and easy to use and no-extra labor should be required and
should consume very less time of the worker.
Gauge should be of sufficient durability, could be used for long time without any
problem and without any defects.
Results
Assuming 4 shells of ZT model being produced daily.
Each bus has a total of 4 cut-outs, so for 4 bus shells there are a total of 16(4*4) cut-outs.
Earlier, it took a total of 16*5= 80 minutes for marking the cut-outs.
Using the gauges, it took a total of 16*2= 32 minutes for marking the cut-outs.
Conclusion
A total of 80-32=52 minutes saved for 2 workers per day i.e. 52*2=104 workman minutes saved
in a day.
The gauges after fabrication are tested by Quality Dept. of BBP (Bus-Body Plant) on the basis of
above mentioned criterions and then after that are handed over to Production Dept. for use on
structure line.
The Drawing mentioning the required dimensions is provided by the Research and development
(R & D) department of BBP. It is as shown on the next page.

8


Drawing 1
9

For developing a marking gauge, 2 things were to be developed
Design was to be such that it can hold the gauge on to the surface of bus firmly.
Design was to be made such that it can hold a rectangular sheet of metal of sufficient
dimension, from which the cut out can be cut.
When the cut-out was cut from the rectangular sheet, placing the gauge on to surface of bus,
using the holding mechanism, marking can be done.
Following picture show the sedimentary and diesel tank flap gauges -

Picture 1 & 2








U-shaped cup of 100
mm. height, meant to
hold the vertical tube of
40 mm. width, its main
purpose is to restrict
horizontal movement of
the gauge and thus the
horizontal dimensions
can be finalized as per
vertical pillar of the
shell, whose dimensions
are constrained as per
design.
These Horizontal
bends, are meant
to restrict the
vertical movement
of the gauge,
these settle on
horizontal side
beams of the shell
and thus vertical
dimensions can be
marked as per the
side beams, which
are constrained as
per shell design.
These rectangular
sheets are meant to
be used as marking
region for flaps, we
can cut rectangular
sheet of the same
dimension as of the
flap, then keeping the
gauge on surface of
bus, marking the
inside boundary of left
out rectangle will give
us the flap marking on
surface.
10

Below picture shows the SPARE WHEEL FLAP cut-out marking gauge and its usage

Picture 3







Picture 4. This is how it holds on to a vertical pillar with fixed constraints restricting the
movement of gauge in horizontal direction, the bend is caused by using a hydraulic press.
The shown rectangular
shape is the one whose
inside boundary when
drawn on the flat panel
of ZT bus using a
marker, gives us the
exact dimensions of
spare wheel cut-out.
The shown two bends on left and right are
meant to restrict the movement of gauge
in vertical and horizontal dimensions
respectively. They hold on to such physical
structures whose dimensions are already
constrained as per shell design, there
actual way of working is as shown in
following pics.
11


Picture 5. In a similar fashion as above, it holds on to the lowest horizontal railing and restricts
the vertical movement of the gauge, the horizontal railing is constrained as per design.

Picture 6. After restricting the movement of gauge, the inside boundary of rectangular cut-out is
marked in order to get the dimensions of spare wheel flap.
12

AIR CLEANER flap is cut in a similar way, a gauge using bends to restrict its horizontal and
vertical movement and a rectangular cut-out of the same dimension is used as shown.

Picture 7



Picture 8. As is shown in the above pic, the gauge holds on to the bus body firmly and the worker
can mark the flap using a marker.
This bend holds on to
a vertical pillar of
body, which in turn
has fixed constraints
and thus restricts the
horizontal movement
of the gauge.
The rectangular cut-
out, whose internal
boundary is used to
mark the AIR CLEANER
flap on ZT bus Flat
sheet panel
The bend which holds on to a horizontal railing of ZT bus,
which has its movement constrained thus further restricting
the movement of gauge in vertical direction.
13


Picture 9.This is how it looks when the gauge hangs from the bus surface.

Picture 10. Diesel and sedimentary tank gauges with marking regions on rectangular sheet. The
marking region is cut out using nibbling machine.
Vertical
constraint,
holding
purpose
Horizontal
constraint,
holding
purpose
Rectangular
sheet, which
will be used
for marking
purpose
14


Picture 11. Cut-out region, which is to be used for marking.
Before proceeding any further, all the dimensions are re-checked in order to confirm there is no
error present due to the fabrication defects. If the gauge is as per dimensions, it is checked for its
strength and that will it continue to provide correct dimensions with time.
For providing extra strength, we re-enforce the GI sheets with rectangular cross-section tubes
and paste the tubes on GI sheets using Sikaflex sealant.
For using a Sikaflex sealant to join two metal surface
Firstly, the surfaces are smoothened up using grinder.
Oiliness of the surface is cleaned up.
Primer is applied on the surface of both materials in order to protect the surface from
rust.
After this, a layer of Sikaflex is applied between the layers of metals and left for
settling for a day.

15


Picture 12. Sealant applied on colored primer to join GI metal.
After the sealant settles down, the gauges are painted orange as per companys rules.

Picture 13.self inspection.
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Final testing of the gauge

Picture 14 & 15. Inspectors inspection.
After the quality department approves of the gauge, it is handed over to production department
for use on shell production line.
The Other Project I was assigned at Zhong-Tong Line was to study the Line Vise Processes on
Assembly line. Its been detailed on from Next page.

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Processes on assembly line of Zhong-tong School bus
After completion of 1
st
project, the assembly line of ZT model was studied, which later on gives
us our 2
nd
project, but 1
st
we discuss the assembly line.
Station 1

Flowchart 2. Station 1 Processes of assembly line.
Docking
Moving out the bus body from paint shop and carefully placing it over chassis coming from
Chassis plant of SML-ISUZU Limited. Moving the bus to Zhong-Tong assembly line, the bus is
driven very slowly as till now the body is not attached to the chassis but simply placed on it.
Welding body with chassis
There are multiple welding joints for joining bus body with chassis.
The two long beams of chassis extending from front to back of bus are crossed over by
horizontal beams in perpendicular direction.
Docking
Station 1
Paste floor tape on
the shell floor
members
Place cut to size
plywoods on floor
adjust & minimize
gaps,screw it
Seal the gaps by
sealant application
.Grind the floor
area
Spray adhesive on
floor & paste the
carpet
Inspect the above
activities
If found defects,
repeat the requisite
process
Station 2
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The buss body is joined to the chassis by welding at 18 points (2 across each cross tube,
making it a total of 9 tubes).
The buss shell contains rectangular tubes which fit directly over these 9 tubes. These
rectangular tubes are of cross-section 40*40.
Firstly, tap welding is done using MIG welding just to ensure proper fitting of the shell on
chassis, starting from back. For proper fitting, U-shaped cross-section lengths are inserted
vertically between chassis and buss vertical shell tubes to fill in the gap.
After proper fitting is achieved, the welding joints are re-welded properly and completely
using MIG welding.
The two beams of chassis are also welded to the body at the rear end.
The front of chassis is welded to the body at 3 joints.

Picture 16 & 17. Joints before welding , following pics will show the joints after welding

Picture 18 & 19. Welding of body with Right and left beam of chassis, as seen from front of
body.

19


Picture 20. The above piece of rectangular tube measures 20*20*100 (mm.) and joins cabin with
chassis.

Picture 21. Welding of beam and bodys vertical pillars.
The control parameters in welding are :
Current 90A to 120A
Voltage 20V to 24V
Wire size 0.8 mm
Gap between welding joints should not exceed 1.5 mm
Apply anti-corrosive primer on welded joints
These paramaters vary as per material to be welded and also the style of welder too.
The GI part used to fill in the
gap between body and chassis
Bus body
Chassis
20

Joining FES area of body with chassis (drivers cabin)
It is done by welding 10 rectangular hollow tubes of following dimensions :
1. 40X20X108
2. 40X20X108
3. 40X20X115
4. 40X40X242
5. 40X40X242
6. 40X40X240
7. 40X20X108
8. 40X20X90
9. 40X20X85
10. 40X20X85
The cross-sections remain fixed but the length varies as per each buss own tolerance region,
these tubes are cut on the basis of measurements a worker takes by measuring tape.

Picture 22,23,24. Welding of drivers cabin with chassis
Welding FES (Front Engine Space) panels :
After the welding of body and chassis, GI(Galvanised Iron) sheet panels of FES are welded using
MIG(Metal Inert Gas) welding, the different thickness and different shaped panels are generated
21

from GI sheets, which are cut using Hydraulic or mechanical presses, Knibbling machines and
Plasma cutting. The welding spots are then grounded to smoothness.


Picture 25 to 30. GI sheet panels of drivers cabin
Flooring (Fixing Floor panels) :
Plywood panels (12 mm) are fixed on shell tube floor using self tapping screws. It is followed by
grinding of screw tops in order to smoothen up the floor surface, so that when Flooring carpet is
fixed to it the protrusions dont interrupt.
22


Picture 31 & 32. The wooden floor (Ply fixed to shell).
Floor Matting
After the covering of sides and roof, the floor ply sheets are covered with resin mat (pale grey)
using fevicol resin adhesive, the adhesive is applied to both the mat and floor using an air-
pressure spray gun, which spreads a minute layer of adhesive on both the materials. The mats are
pulled forcefully on to the ply so that while they settle on the floor, there are no wrinkles. After
the mats are applied, the floor looks like as shown.

Picture 33. Mat covering on floor.
23

Station 2

Flowchart 3. Station 2 Processes on assembly line.
Wiring
Wiring of body is done in roof, the wiring is for the 3 lights and 3 speekers in the roof, 2 turning
indicators on rear side and 2 turning indicators in front and wiring to controlling console. The
wiring is passed through hollow tubes of roof as shown in picture.

Picture 34 & 35. Wiring through shell.
Station 1
Station 2
Route electrical
wiring inside the
shell & fit outer
lights
Fit Roof Ply & front
dome
Fit Side LH & Side RH
plywood
Fit floor aluminium
Sections & curtain
railing
Inspect The above
activitie
If found defects,
repeat the requisite
process
Station 3
24


Picture 36. The above picture shows the three Light Speaker Electric Points in the bus.
Roof
The space between the shells tubes of roof are filled with Polystyrene sheets, its helps by
following ways:
Polystyrene is much light in weight as compared to conventional space-filing material.
Its sheets can be easily cut and used to fill the roof.
Polystyrene as a non-conductor doesnt transfer solar heat into the bus and thus maintaining
passengers comfort.
It makes no unpleasant sound or noise while the bus moves.

Picture 37. Polystyrene sheets used for filling the roof.
25

After this, the inside of the bus body is covered with GI sheets one side of which is beige colored
plastic, the beige side is kept in Visible region and the other side is pasted to roof using screws,
and also it is used to cover the inside left and right hand of bus.The roof above the drivers cabin
is covered with a plastic structure, fixed to shell using self-tapping screws as shown.

Picture 38. Drivers Dome
The partition of these GI sheets is covered and supported by Rubber cum plastic beading which
is screwed to roof as shown in 1.

Picture 39. Beading used to cover roof sheet partitions.
26

The shell from inside, below the region of windows is covered with the same PVC covered GI
sheet with which the roof is covered as shown below. The region with red circle is actually the
GI sheet screwed to shell side. After screwing the boundary, extra strength is given by applying
aluminium rivets by riveting cum punch machine

Picture 40 & 41. Side panels of GI sheets riveted to shell.
Station 3

Flowchart 4. Station 3 processes on assembly line.
Station 2
Station 3
Fit Window frames
Fit driver Door,
dickey rubber
beadings, outer
locks
Fit inner lights,
sunvisor assy
Fit hatracks
Inpect all above
activities
If found defects,
repeat the requisite
process
Station 4
27

Installing Glass
The windows are locked to body by screwing them into verticle columns of bus body. Then
additional strength and sealing of assembly is done by applying Sikaflex Black-165 sealant
from outside the bus into the boundaries as shown in pic. Sealant takes one day to settle.

Picture 42. Sikaflex black sealant
These passengers windows are of 3 different sizes, supplied as per requirement by wendor, fitted
with tough temperlite glass. The height is same but width is 0.9, 1 and 1.2 mtrs.

Picture 43 & 44. Window frames with 0.9 and 1 mtr. Width.

28


Picture 45. Window frame of 1.2 mtr. Width.
4 other type of glass are to be fitted apart from front and rear wind shield, which are fitted using
Sikaflex sealant a layer of which is supplied on both inside and outside bus body as shown
below.The sealant should be left for a day atleast to properly settle. These are as shown.

Picture 46. 1 & 2 type of glass.

Picture 47& 48. 3 & 4 types of glass.
29

Followed by these windows is the fixing of rear and front wind shields with Sikaflex Sealant, 2
layers of which are applied on inside and outside. These are left to settle for one or more day.
The process of applying sealant is as discussed below.
Before applying sealant, the nearby region or surface of bus body is covered with covering tapes
as shown in figure, it is done in order to protect the bus bodys paint and the paint to spread over
areas where it shouldnt be.

Picture 49. Sikaflex applying technique.
Lighting
The roof is fitted with lighting and speakers with screws, the electric points needed for it have
already been shown, the space provided in roof for these fixings makes it easy to screw them to
the GI sheet. The final look is as shown.

Picture 50. Roof lighting and Speaker System.
Covering of bus surface
by tapes, the central
black line shows the
sikaflex sealant.
30

Interiors
After the covering of sides, roof and floor, the outlines of sheets are covered with beadings
which may be of rubber, plastic or even aluminum, some places where such beading is done are
as shown below:



Picture 51 to 56. The different beadings used to improve interiors look and give strength.
31



Picture 57 to 60. The different beadings and coverings applied into the bus as interiors

Picture 61. Aluminium beading covering the rear axle hump.
32

The dickey is provided with rubber beadin from inside on boundaries as shown in picture, it
keeps the dickey less noisy as well as acts as a water proof seal.

Picture 62 & 63. Dickey before and after beading.

Picture 64 & 65. Inside rear view mirror and shade providing sheet is installed near drivers seat.

Picture 66. The driver door is provided with the plastic covering of door and lock system and a
handle to open and close it.
33


Picture 67 & 68. The drivers door is installed with a chrome handle and steel foot rest for his
conenience.



Picture 69,70,71. The dickey is installed with the wiring of rear lighting and Pneumatic openers.

Break lights
Tail lights
Hydraulic
dickey openers
Dickey lock
Number
plate
light
34

Station 4

Flowchart 5. Station 4 Processes on assembly line.
The gear lever is now covered with a cover, providing it a good look as well as easy to hold and
use shape. It looks as shown

Picture 72. Gear knob and gear lever covering
Station 3
Station 4
Fit front windshield,
rear windshield,
battery cover
Fit transmission
cover,engine hood
cover, roof hatch, RVM
front grill/bumper
Fit Dashboard, do
electrical connections
Fit Accessories like
spare tyre, P door
brush etc.
Inpect all above
activities
If found defects, repeat
the requisite process
Station 5
35

Dashboard installation
The dashboard which is made by Fiber re-enforced plastic (FRP) in bus body plant only, it is
firstly covered with black resin, the ready dashboard is fixed in FES region by screwing it to the
shell, the final setting looks like as shown in picture.

Picture 73. Dashboard and wooden instrument cluster installation.
Behind drivers seat, battery casing along with a fire extinguisher is also setup, the pillar is used
to give support to both the roof and drivers seat, the front axle is just below the pillar floor.

Picture 74. Battery setup and fire extinguisher.
Battery setup
36

Front bumper
The front bumper is installed after the wiring for the console is done, it is screwed to the bodys
shell by nuts and bolts.

Picture 75 & 76. Front bumper and grill.
Side rear view mirrors are installed on both sides -

Picture 77,78,79. Side rear view mirrors installation mechanism and mirror.
Wipers installation
Before the dashboard is installed, wipers system is to be installed, a geared motor is mounted on
a steel plate, standing vertically on body shell, and the lever system which drives the wipers is as
shown in the following picture.
Front grill installed
separately
37


Picture 80. Wiper driving geared motor

Picture 81 & 82. The flat plate on which wiper motor is mounted.

Picture 83. Quick return mechanism of wiper.
Lever driving
left side
wiper of bus
Lever that drives
right wiper of bus
Quick return
mechanism
38


Picture 84. After the driving mechanism for the wipers is installed, the wiper blades are fixed
onto it from outside.
Station 5

Flowchart 6. Station 5 Processes on assembly line.
After the covering of sides, floor and roof and interiors done, the seats are installed onto the
floor, using screws, the seating arrangement can be minutely modified as per customers
requirement, before fixing the seats, proper marking is done on the floor for drilling screw holes
Station 4
Station 5
Fit All Seats Fit grab handles
PDI
PDI ELECTRICAL
Inpect all above
activities
If found defects,
repeat the
requisite process
Shower testing
region
39

as well to take care of the pitch of seating, that is, the distance between two adjacent seats from
front to back is to remain constant. Conductor side seats are as shown below.


Picture 85.86.87. The side railing on which the seat is supported and floor supoort of seat.

Picture 88. Passengers seating area.
It is a 49 seater bus, but it can be changed upto some extent as per customer.
40

For roof there are two accessories, handle baar railing and cargo keeping rack, they are screwed
to roof as shown in following pics.

Picture 89 & 90. Handle baar railing and cargo rack (I & II)
Stairs support
A railing is provided near the stairs of bus in order to support the body while entering or leaving
the bus. It looks as shown in following pic.

Picture 91. Stairs support railing.
41

Drivers cabin accessories
Seat belts for both conductor and drivers seat.

Picture 92. Seat belt lock.
Grab handles for sitting in conductors and drivers seat. These are screwed on front pillars of
bus shell as shown in pic.

Picture 93 & 94. Grab handles in drivers cabin.
42

Emergency glass breaking hammer, provided near the rear wind shield of the bus. It is fixed in a
case which is screwed down to the body.

Picture 95 & 96. Emergency glass break hammer.

Picture 97. Light in the stair case region. Keeps it easy to climb the stairs at night, the controll is
at drivers console.

Picture 98. To provide extra safety for students sitting on windows side, railings are provided are
as per customers requirement.
43


Picture 99. Emergeny stop button, which notifies the driver if a passenger standing near the door
wants to stop the bus. Its is installed just above the passenger door.

Picture 100. First-aid box and supporting piller behind drivers seat, it is mandatory assistance to
be fixed in every bus.
Pillars for Supporting the roof
As per customers requirement, company provides the school bus with roof supporting pillars for
extra safety, they are screwed between roof and floor on one side of the central path way, as
shown in picture.
44


Picture 101. The 2 pillers supporting the roof in central pathway.
Mudflaps
Rubber mudflaps are installed for each tyre in order to manage the mud or water flying off from
the tyres. They are fixed on to shell by screws.

Picture 102. Mudflaps.

45

Passengers door
The door is installed in the rigion with some accessories, its a folding door, which provides
more space for the students to enter with there school bags not getting tucked in hooks or
something sharp.


Picture 103,104,105. Passenger door and For locking the door when closed.
Side - markers and indicators
Now that the inside of the bus is complete, the outside of the bus is worked upon.Marking for
elctric side markers and turning side indicators is done by simple measuring tape and markers as
per design as shown.
These two plastic
structure engage
into themselves
when the door is
closed, reducing the
vibrations and noise
due to moving bus
46



Picture 106 to 110. Marking of side-marker and indicator respectively.
After the marking is done, the drilling for screws is done and then side markers and turning
indicators are installed. The space for indicator as shown in above right pic is cut by plasma
cutter.

Picture 111 & 112. Side markers and turning indicators.

Side markers Turning indicator
47


Picture 113. The emergency door is installed with the break glass to open handle, the sealing
of it is done with Sikaflex sealant.
Reflective tape
As per customers requirement bus is provided with reflective or Cat eye tapes, marking the
boundaries of the bus.

Picture 114. Golden reflective tape, silver may also be used.
School bus Sticker
As per customers demand, the ZT model is pasted with symbols (sticker) which highlight the
bus as a school bus, the spot to paste the sticker is also as per the customer.
48


Picture 115 & 116. School Bus sticker.
After completing the assembly lines process, the bus is sent to Shower teasting area for washing
and quality inspection.
Project 2
Waste consumption Project
It was a team project, the team was headed by Mr. K K Sharma (Production Dept.)
Target
To consume the wastages of Aluminium Chequered Sheet & upholstery and take steps to
optimize the raw material/waste consumption on Assembly line.
Problem Statement
CASE-1: Aluminium Chequred Sheet wastage accumulation on line for the period Apr
2010 To Feb 2012 results in Rs 30060/- of scrap piled up.
CASE-2: 50 mtrs. of waste inter paneling upholstery costing Rs.13200/- piled up due to
left out length from rolls ( LZ0257571) used for LT-C model .
CASE-3: 92mtrs of Upholstry ( LZ1157510) piled up in small cut length sizes costing
Rs.11132 /-during various cut to size application in Executive model

49

Mission
To consume the waste generation of Rs.30060 and steps to be taken to control scrap
generation by value engineering.
To consume the left out inter paneling upholstery length wastes
(LZ0257571) LT(C) model costing - Rs. 13200/-
(LZ1157510) Executive model costing - Rs 10120/-
Planning
Making of CFTs.
Identification of wastages in Aluminium & Upholstery
Brainstorming meeting.
Action for reclamation, value engineering & communization/interchanging.
Cross Functional Team
Team leader Mr. K K Sharma (Production Dept.)
Senior-Engineers Mr. Abhishek Puri (Technology Dept.)
Mr. Vaneet Verma (Production Dept.)
Assemblers Mr. Shiv Kumar (Production Dept.)
Mr. Pawan Kumar (Production Dept.)
Trainee Aggyapal Singh (Technology Dept. UIET, PU)
Prabhjot Singh (Technology Dept. DIET, PTU)

50

Cost of Wastes

Chart 2. Wastages cost on assembly line.
Case -1 Aluminium Chequered Sheet (Part no. - LZ0269271)
Present Situation

Picture 117. The aluminum sheet being left waste.
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
Al Chequerd Sheet Interpanelling Upholstery Roof Upholstry
I
n

R
u
p
e
e
s

Wastages Cost (Rs.)
Series1
Present (WASTE)-860 x 810
mm sheet , Total 180 kg
51

Suggested Proposal action
It is proposed to use the left out waste sheets by adjusting sizes at places instead of
cutting new sheets for the same size.
Methodology Adopted: Value Engineering
Proposed Sheet Cut-outs

Drawing 2. Waste usage figure.
Savings
Rs. 30060 (Cost of Piled Scrap) + Rs. 540 Per bus (Adjusting Waste)

Used
here
Used here
with minor
adjustments
52

Case 2 Cloth upholstery (Part no. - LZ0257571)
Present Situation

Picture 118.
Suggested Proposal Action

Picture 119. The pic showing the usage of cut piece of cloth instead of 1 piece.
Savings
All Cloth wastage consumed in 05 No.s LT-C model buses
Cost Savings : Rs.13200/-(Scrap Cost ) 5 x Rs.170 (Al section cost) = Rs.12350/-
Single Piece Cloth used
all along the side of
the bus
Cut Piece used
with Aluminum
section covering
53

Case 3. Cloth Upholstery (Part no. LZ1157510)
Present Situation

Picture 120.
Suggested Proposal Action

Picture 121. The waste upholstery used as contrast.
Roof cloth is used
in colour contrast
with side cloth,
Waste
accumulation of
small cut size
lengths
Roof Cloth
interchanged
with side & pillar
cloth for
maintaining
contrast, Roof
cloth wastage
consumed
54

Savings
Cost Saving of Rs 11132/- by consuming the whole waste cloth in Executive model
Total Savings
AL Chequered Sheet Rs. 30,060
Cloth Upholstry (LZ0257571) Rs. 12350
Cloth Upholstry (LZ1157515) Rs. 11132
Total Savings Rs. 53542