Você está na página 1de 205

CkIMINAL LAW

8Ak kLVILWLk




lACuL1? AuvlSL8 A11?. 8CnALu CPuA
ACAuLMlCS PLAu lL88L MA81ln 8L?LS
Su8!LC1 PLAuS !uLlAnnL AL8L81C
ulAnnA WlLWA?CC
kA8Ln uLLA C8uZ
!ASMlnL 8LClS








A1LNLC CLN1kAL 8Ak CLkA1ICNS 2012
ACADLMICS CCMMI11LL

Academ|cs nead: lerre MarLln 8eyes,
Understudy: Clarlesse !aml Marl Chan

kLVILW CCMMI11LL
nead: ?la Clorla Marle aras, Understudy: ken koga, Members:
CaLherlne uela 8osa, Lrlc Lavadla, Le lrls Lucldo, earl Charlsse
8ausLlsLa, Mlna 8eyes

CkIMINAL LAW CCMMI11LL

neads: !ullanne AlberLo, ulanna Wllwayco,
karen uela Cruz, !asmlne 8egls,
Understudy: Mary Crace Arboladura, 8eglna Comez,
1onl Lou Sevllla, aLrlcla SLa. Marla,
Vo|unteers: Angel 8ascara, Carlo llano, LlLo aolo MarLln













CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 3 of 76



CkIMINAL LAW 8CCk I

1ab|e of Contents

I. kLVISLD LNAL CCDL
=================================
1CICS UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US
A. 8CCk I ............................................... 6
1. Iundamenta| r| nc| p| es.... .......................... . .......6
a. Def| n| t| on of Cr| m| na| Law...... ............................ . 6
| . D| fference between Ma| a | n Se and Ma| a roh| b| ta............... . .6
b. Scope of App| | cat| on and Character| st| cs of Cr| m| na| Law....... ........6
| . Genera| | ty.. . .......................................7
| | . 1err| tor| a| | ty... ..................................... 7
| | | . rospect| v| ty.. ..................................... . 8
c. Const| tut| ona| L| m| tat| ons of the ower of Congress to enact ena| Laws | n the
8| | | of k| ghts........................................... . 8
| . Lqua| rotect| on.. . .. . .................................8
| | . Due rocess.. ......................................8
| | | . Non-| mpos| t| on of Crue| and Unusua| un| shment or Lxcess| ve I| nes....8
(a) Act roh| b| t| ng the I mpos| t| on of Death ena| ty | n the h| | | pp| nes.. ..8
| v. 8| | | of Atta| nder..................................... 8
v. Lx post facto | aw............... ......................8
2. Ie| on| es.............................................. . 9
a. C| ass| f| cat| on of Ie| on| es................... ............... . 10
b. L| ements of Cr| m| na| L| ab| | | ty................... ............11
c. I mposs| b| e Cr| mes........................... ........... . 13
d. Stages of Lxecut| on.............. ....................... . 14
e. Consp| racy and roposa| ........... ....................... . 17
f. Mu| t| p| e Cffenders.......... . ............................ 19
| . kec| d| v| sm....................... .................. 19
| | . nab| tua| | ty (ke| terac| on) ......................... . ...... 19
| | | . uas| -kec| d| v| sm...................................20
| v. nab| tua| De| | nquency................................. 20
g. Comp| ex Cr| mes vs. Spec| a| Comp| ex Cr| mes........... . .......... . .20
3. C| rcumstances wh| ch Affect Cr| m| na| L| ab| | | ty........... .......... . ..23
a. Iust| fy| ng C| rcumstances..... .............................23
| . Ant| -V| o| ence Aga| nst Women and 1he| r Ch| | dren Act of 2004..... ....2S
(a) 8attered woman syndrome.. .......................... 2S
b. Lxempt| ng C| rcumstances.... . .............................27
| . Iuven| | e Iust| ce and We| fare Act of 2006, Ch| | d and outh We| fare Code..28


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 4 of 76


(a) Def| n| t| on of ch| | d | n conf| | ct w| th the | aw.................. 28
(b) M| n| mum age of cr| m| na| respons| b| | | ty...... .............. 28
(c) Determ| nat| on of age............. ..................28
(d) Lxempt| on from cr| m| na| | | ab| | | ty................. ....... 28
c. M| t| gat| ng C| rcumstances................... ............... 31
d. Aggravat| ng C| rcumstances.......... ...................... .3S
| . Gener| c......................... . .................3S
| | . ua| | fy| ng........................................ 36
(a) Decree Cod| fy| ng the Laws on I | | ega| ]Un| awfu| ossess| on, Manufacture,
Dea| | ng | n, Acqu| s| t| on or D| spos| t| on, of I| rearms, Ammun| t| on or
Lxp| os| ves as an aggravat| ng c| rcumstance.................. 48
(b) 1he Comprehens| ve Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002.......... .... 48
| . As a qua| | fy| ng aggravat| ng c| rcumstance.............. . 48
| | . I mmun| ty from prosecut| on and pun| shment, coverage...... 48
| | | . M| nor offenders.... ..........................49
| v. App| | cat| on]Non-app| | cat| on of kC prov| s| ons........... 49
e. A| ternat| ve C| rcumstances........ ......................... . 49
f. Abso| utory Cause......................................S1
4. ersons Cr| m| na| | y L| ab| e]Degree of art| c| pat| on.. ..................S1
a. Decree ena| | z| ng Cbstruct| on of Apprehens| on and rosecut| on of Cr| m| na|
Cffenders.......................................... S7
| . un| shab| e Acts..................... . ................ S7
| | . Compare w| th Art| c| e 20................ . ...............S7
S. ena| t| es............................................. S8
a. Genera| r| nc| p| es............. . ......................... S8
| . Act roh| b| t| ng the I mpos| t| on of Death ena| ty | n the h| | | pp| nes... . ... 60
b. urposes.. . ......................................... . 60
c. C| ass| f| cat| on........... . .............................. 60
d. Durat| on and Lffect....................... . .............. 61
e. App| | cat| on...................... . .................... 63
| . I ndeterm| nate Sentence Law................... .......... . 64
| | . 1hree-Io| d ku| e....................................67
| | | . Subs| d| ary I mpr| sonment........ . ......................67
f. Lxecut| on and Serv| ce.................. .................. 67
| . robat| on Law.............. ........................ . 67
(a) Def| n| t| on of 1erms........... ..................... . 67
(b) urpose.................. . ..................... 67
(c) Grant of probat| on, manner and cond| t| ons. . ................67
(d) Cr| ter| a of p| ac| ng an offender on probat| on.. ............... . 68
(e) D| squa| | f| ed offenders...... ......................... 68
(f) er| od of probat| on.... ............................68
(g) Arrest of probat| oner..... .......................... . 68
(h) 1erm| nat| on of probat| on, except| on............ . .........68
| . 1he Comprehens| ve Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002............68


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S of 76


| | . Iuven| | e Iust| ce and We| fare Act of 2006, Ch| | d and outh We| fare
Code.............................................. .. . 69
(a) Def| n| t| on of ch| | d | n conf| | ct w| th the | aw............. . . 69
(b)Lxempt| on from cr| m| na| | | ab| | | ty....... . ....... ...... . 69
(c) Iuven| | e [ ust| ce and we| fare system...... ...... ....... 69
g. D| st| ngu| shed from revent| ve I mpr| sonment....... ........ .......69
6. Mod| f| cat| on and Lxt| nct| on of Cr| m| na| L| ab| | | ty..... ................ . 70
a. rescr| pt| on of Cr| mes................................... . 71
b. rescr| pt| on of ena| t| es............. ..................... . 73
c. ardon by Cffended arty................ . .................73
d. ardon by the Ch| ef Lxecut| ve..................... .......... 73
e. Amnesty..................... ....................... . 73



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 6 of 76


CkIMINAL LAW 8CCk I

1. IUNDAMLN1AL kINCILLS
======================================
1CIC UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US:
1. Iundamenta| r|nc|p|es
a. Def|n|t|on of Cr|m|na| Law
|. D|fference between Ma|a |n Se and
Ma|a roh|b|ta
b. Scope of App||cat|on and Character|st|cs
of Cr|m|na| Law
|. Genera||ty
||. 1err|tor|a||ty
|||. rospect|v|ty
c. Const|tut|ona| L|m|tat|ons of the ower of
Congress to enact ena| Laws |n the 8||| of
k|ghts
|. Lqua| rotect|on
||. Due rocess
|||. Non-|mpos|t|on of Crue| and
Unusua| un|shment or Lxcess|ve I|nes
(a) Act roh|b|t|ng the Impos|t|on
of Death ena|ty |n the h|||pp|nes
|v. 8||| of Atta|nder
v. Lx post facto |aw
======================================

1. IUNDAMLN1AL kINCILLS

a. DLIINI1ICN CI CkIMINAL LAW

CkIMINAL LAW ls LhaL branch of munlclpal law whlch
deflnes crlmes, LreaLs of Lhelr naLure and provldes for
Lhelr punlshmenL.

|. DLIINI1ICN CI 1LkMS
1. CkIML - Lhe commlsslon or omlsslon by a person
havlng capaclLy, of any acL, whlch ls elLher prohlblLed
or compelled by law and Lhe commlsslon or omlsslon
of whlch ls punlshable by a proceedlng broughL ln Lhe
name of Lhe governmenL whose law has been
vlolaLed.
2. ILLCN - a crlme punlshed under Lhe 8C
3. CIILNSL - a crlme punlshed under a speclal law
4. MISDLMLANCk - a mlnor lnfracLlon of law


II. SCUkCLS CI nILIINL CkIMINAL LAW
1. 8evlsed enal Code
2. Speclal enal Laws
3. enal resldenLlal uecrees lssued durlng MarLlal Law

III. 1nLCkILS IN CkIMINAL LAW
1. C|ass|ca| or Iur|st|c 1heory - 1he basls of crlmlnal
llablllLy ls human free wlll. 1he purpose of Lhe penalLy
ls reLrlbuLlon ln vlew of Lhe volunLarlness of Lhe acL or
omlsslon of Lhe offender. 1he emphasls ls on Lhe
offense and noL on Lhe offender.

2. os|t|v|st or kea||st 1heory - Man ls lnherenLly good
buL Lhe offender ls soclally slck. 1he basls ls Lhe sum
of soclal and economlc phenomena whlch condlLlons
man Lo do wrong ln splLe of or conLrary Lo hls vollLlon.
1he purpose of Lhe penalLy ls reformaLlon and Lhe
emphasls ls on Lhe offender and noL Lhe offense

IV. LLGAL MAxIMS
1. Nu//um crimen nu//e poeno sine /eqe - Lhere ls no
crlme when Lhere ls no law LhaL deflnes and
punlshes lL
2. 4ctus no focit reum, nisi mens sit reo - Lhe acL
cannoL be crlmlnal unless Lhe mlnd ls crlmlnal
3. 4ctus me invite foctus non est meus octus - an acL
done by me agalnsL my wlll ls noL my acL
4. uoctrine of Pro keo - Whenever a penal law ls Lo
be consLrued or applled and Lhe law admlLs of Lwo
lnLerpreLaLlons - one lenlenL Lo Lhe offender and
one sLrlcL Lo Lhe offender - LhaL lnLerpreLaLlon
whlch ls lenlenL or favorable Lo Lhe offender wlll be
adopLed.

V. CCNS1kUC1ICN CI LNAL LAWS
1. Llberally consLrued ln favor of offender
a. 1he offender musL clearly fall wlLhln Lhe
Lerms of Lhe law.
b. An acL ls crlmlnal only when made so by
Lhe sLaLuLe.
2. ln cases of confllcL wlLh offlclal LranslaLlon, orlglnal
Spanlsh LexL ls conLrolllng.
3. no lnLerpreLaLlon by analogy.







CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 7 of 76


8. SCCL AND ALI CA1I CN AND
CnAkAC1LkI S1I CS CI nI LI I NL CkI MI NAL
LAW

I. GLNLkALI1
1he law ls blndlng upon all persons who reslde or so[ourn
ln Lhe hlllpplnes, lrrespecLlve of age, sex, color, creed, or
personal clrcumsLances.

LxCL1ICNS:
1. 1reaty St|pu|at|ons
a. Lxample: 8-uS vlslLlng lorces Accord
2. Laws on referent|a| App||cat|on
a. Lxample: 8.A. 7S
under 8.A. 7S, persons who are exempL from arresL and
lmprlsonmenL and whose properLles are exempL from
dlsLralnL, selzure and aLLachmenL are Lhe followlng:
Ambassadors
ubllc mlnlsLers
uomesLlc servanLs of ambassadors and
publlc mlnlsLers
unless Lhe person ls a clLlzen or lnhablLanL of Lhe
hlllpplnes and Lhe wrlL or process lssued agalnsL hlm ls
founded upon a debL conLracLed before he enLered upon
such servlce or Lhe domesLlc servanL ls noL reglsLered wlLh
Lhe ueparLmenL of lorelgn Affalrs.

3. r|nc|p|es of ub||c Internat|ona| Law
a. Lxamples: soverelgns or head of sLaLes,
ambassadors, mlnlsLers plenlpoLenLlary and
mlnlsLers-resldenL, charges d'affalrs and
aLLaches.
b. Consuls, vlce-consuls and oLher commerclal
represenLaLlves of a forelgn naLlon cannoL
clalm Lhe prlvlleges and lmmunlLles
accorded Lo ambassadors and mlnlsLers.

II. 1LkkI1CkIALI1
1he law ls appllcable Lo all crlmes commlLLed wlLhln Lhe
llmlLs of Lhe hlllpplne LerrlLory, whlch lncludes lLs
aLmosphere, lnLerlor waLers and marlLlme zone.

LxCL1ICN: ArLlcle 2, 8C. [SCICN]
1. Shou|d comm|t an offense wh||e on a h|||pp|ne Sh|p
or a|rsh|p

kLUISI1LS:
a. 1he hlllpplne shlp or alrshlp musL be duly
reglsLered under Lhe hlllpplne laws.
b. 1he shlp or alrshlp musL noL be wlLhln Lhe
LerrlLorlal [urlsdlcLlon of anoLher counLry,
oLherwlse Lhe laws of LhaL counLry wlll apply as a
rule.

ICkLIGN MLkCnAN1 VLSSLLS
IkLNCn kULL LNGLISn kULL
GLNLkAL kULL
Crlmes commlLLed aboard a
forelgn vessel wlLhln Lhe
LerrlLorlal waLers of a counLry
are nC1 Lrlable ln Lhe courLs
of such counLry.
Crlmes commlLLed aboard a
forelgn vessel wlLhln Lhe
LerrlLorlal waLers of a
counLry are Lrlable ln Lhe
courLs of such counLry.
LxCL1ICN
Crlme affecLs Lhe peace and
securlLy of Lhe LerrlLory, or
endangers Lhe safeLy of Lhe
sLaLe.
When Lhe crlme merely
affecLs Lhlngs wlLhln Lhe
vessel or refers Lo Lhe
lnLernal managemenL
Lhereof.

ICkLIGN WAkSnIS - 1he naLlonallLy of such warshlp
deLermlnes Lhe appllcable penal laws Lo crlmes commlLLed
Lhereln, as Lhey are consldered Lo be an exLenslon of Lhe
LerrlLory of Lhe counLry Lo whlch Lhey belong.

2. Shou|d forge or Counterfe|t any co|n or currency
note of the h|||pp|ne Is|ands or ob||gat|ons and
secur|t|es |ssued by the Government of the
h|||pp|ne Is|ands

3. Shou|d be ||ab|e for acts connected w|th the
Introduct|on |nto these |s|ands of the ob||gat|ons
and secur|t|es ment|oned |n the pres|d|ng number

1he raLlonale for Lhe excepLlons provlded ln pars. (2) and
(3) ls Lo malnLaln and preserve Lhe flnanclal credlL sLablllLy
of Lhe sLaLe. lL should be noLed, however, LhaL Lhose who
lnLroduced Lhe counLerfelL lLems are crlmlnally llable even
lf Lhey were noL Lhe ones who counLerfelLed Lhe sald
lLems. Conversely, Lhose who counLerfelLed Lhe sald lLems
are crlmlnally llable even lf Lhey dld noL lnLroduce Lhe
counLerfelL lLems lnLo Lhe hlllpplnes.

4. Wh||e be|ng pub||c Cff|cers or emp|oyees, shou|d
comm|t an offense |n the exerc|se of the|r funct|ons

1he offense commlLLed by a publlc offlcer abroad musL
refer Lo Lhe dlscharge of one's funcLlons. 1he excepLlon
does noL apply Lo publlc offlcers of Lhe hlllpplne
governmenL who en[oy dlplomaLlc lmmunlLy because ln
such a case Lhe prlnclples of publlc lnLernaLlonal law wlll
govern.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 8 of 76



A crlme commlLLed wlLhln Lhe grounds of a hlllpplne
embassy on forelgn soll shall be sub[ecL Lo hlllpplne penal
laws, alLhough lL may or may noL have been commlLLed by
a publlc offlcer ln relaLlon Lo one's offlclal duLles. Lmbassy
grounds are consldered as exLenslons of Lhe soverelgnLy of
Lhe counLry occupylng Lhem.

Lxamp|e of cr|mes |nc|uded:
(a) ulrecL brlbery
(b) lndlrecL brlbery
(c) Cuallfled brlbery
(d) CorrupLlon
(e) lrauds agalnsL Lhe publlc Lreasury
(f) ossesslon of prohlblLed lnLeresL
(g) MalversaLlon of publlc funds or properLy
(h) lallure of accounLable offlcer Lo render accounLs
(l) lallure Lo render accounLs before leavlng Lhe counLry
([) lllegal use of publlc funds or properLy
(k) lallure Lo make dellvery of publlc funds or properLy
(l) lalslflcaLlon by a publlc offlcer or employee commlLLed
wlLh abuse of offlclal poslLlon

S. Shou|d comm|t any of the cr|mes aga|nst Nat|ona|
secur|ty and the |aw of nat|ons, def|ned |n 1|t|e Cne
of 8ook 1wo of th|s Code

1he raLlonale for Lhe excepLlon ls Lo safeguard Lhe
exlsLence of Lhe sLaLe. Powever, when rebelllon, coup
d'eLaL and sedlLlon are commlLLed abroad, Lhe hlllpplne
courLs wlll noL have [urlsdlcLlon because Lhese are crlmes
agalnsL publlc order. neverLheless, Lerrorlsm under 8.A.
9372 ls now a crlme agalnsL naLlonal securlLy and Lhe law
of naLlons.

LxCL1ICN 1C 1nL LxCL1ICN: enal laws are noL
appllcable wlLhln or wlLhouL hlllpplne LerrlLory lf so
provlded ln LreaLles and laws of preferenLlal appllcaLlon.

III. kCSLC1IVI1

1he law does noL have any reLroacLlve effecL, excepL lf lL
favors Lhe offender unless he ls a hablLual dellnquenL or
Lhe law oLherwlse provldes.

LxCL1ICN:
1. Iavorab|e to the offender

LxCL1ICNS 1C 1nL LxCL1ICN:
1. 1he offender |s a hab|tua| de||nquent
2. 1he |aw otherw|se prov|des

Lffect of kepea| of ena| Laws
1. lf Lhe repeal makes Lhe penalLy llqbtet ln Lhe new
law, Lhe new law shall be applled
2. lf Lhe new law lmposes a beovlet penalLy, Lhe law
ln force aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
offense shall be applled
3. lf Lhe new law totolly tepeols Lhe exlsLlng law so
LhaL Lhe acL whlch was penallzed under Lhe old law
ls no longer punlshable, Lhe crlme ls oblltetoteJ

C. CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LIMI1A1ICNS CN 1nL CWLk
CI CCNGkLSS 1C LNAC1 LNAL LAWS IN 1nL 8ILL
CI kIGn1S

I. LUAL kC1LC1ICN

1he law musL be general ln appllcaLlon (ArL. lll, Sec. 1,
1987 ConsLlLuLlon)

II. DUL kCCLSS

no person shall be held Lo answer for a crlmlnal offense
wlLhouL due process of law (ArL. lll, Sec. 14[1], 1987
ConsLlLuLlon)

III. NCN-IMCSI1ICN CI CkULL AND UNUSUAL
UNISnMLN1 Ck LxCLSSIVL IINLS

Lxcesslve flnes shall noL be lmposed, nor cruel, degradlng
or lnhuman punlshmenL lnfllcLed (ArL. lll, Sec. 19[1], 1987
ConsLlLuLlon)

NC1L: CurrenLly, Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy has
been prohlblLed pursuanL Lo 8epubllc AcL no. 9346.

IV. 8ILL CI A11AINDLk

A blll of aLLalnder ls a leglslaLlve acL whlch lnfllcLs
punlshmenL wlLhouL Lrlal. lLs essence ls Lhe subsLlLuLlon of
a leglslaLlve acL for a [udlclal deLermlnaLlon of gullL. eop|e
v. Ierrer, [48 SCkA 382, 39S]

V. Lx CS1 IAC1C LAW
An ex post focto law ls one whlch:
Makes crlmlnal an acL done before Lhe
passage of Lhe law and whlch was lnnocenL
when done, and punlshes such an acL,
AggravaLes a crlme, or makes lL greaLer Lhan lL
was, when commlLLed,


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 9 of 76


Changes Lhe punlshmenL and lnfllcLs a greaLer
punlshmenL Lhan Lhe law annexed Lo Lhe
crlme when commlLLed,
AlLers Lhe legal rules of evldence, and
auLhorlzed convlcLlon upon less or dlfferenL
LesLlmony Lhan Lhe law requlred aL Lhe Llme of
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense,
Assumes Lo regulaLe clvll rlghLs and remedles
only, ln effecL lmposes penalLy or deprlvaLlon
of a rlghL for someLhlng whlch when done was
lawful, and
ueprlves a person accused of a crlme some
lawful proLecLlon Lo whlch he has become
enLlLled (e.g. proLecLlon of a former convlcLlon
or acqulLLal, proclamaLlon of amnesLy)

VI. WAIVLk CI 1nL kIGn1S CI 1nL ACCUSLD

1he consLlLuLlonal rlghLs of Lhe accused cannoL be walved
excepL ln wrlLlng and ln Lhe presence of counsel (ArL. lll,
Sec. 12[1], 1987 ConsLlLuLlon)

NC1L: A rlghL whlch may be walved ls Lhe rlghL of Lhe
accused Lo confronLaLlon and cross-examlnaLlon. A rlghL
whlch may noL be walved ls Lhe rlghL of Lhe accused Lo be
lnformed of Lhe naLure and cause of Lhe accusaLlon. 1he
reason ls LhaL Lhose rlghLs whlch may be walved are
personal, whlle Lhose rlghLs whlch may noL be walved
lnvolve publlc lnLeresL whlch may be affecLed.

LND CI DISCUSSICN CN 1CIC
1. IUNDAMLN1AL kINCILLS

======================================
2. ILLCNILS
=================================
1CIC UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US:

2. Ie|on|es
a. C|ass|f|cat|on of Ie|on|es
b. L|ements of Cr|m|na| L|ab|||ty
c. Imposs|b|e Cr|mes
d. Stages of Lxecut|on
e. Consp|racy and roposa|
f. Mu|t|p|e Cffenders
|. kec|d|v|sm
||. nab|tua||ty (ke|terac|on)
|||. uas|-kec|d|v|sm
|v. nab|tua| De||nquency
g. Comp|ex Cr|mes vs. Spec|a| Comp|ex
Cr|mes
=================================

2. ILLCNILS

Art. 3. Def|n|t|ons. Acts and om|ss|ons pun|shab|e
by |aw are fe|on|es (de||tos).

Ie|on|es are comm|tted not on|y be means of dece|t
(do|o) but a|so by means of fau|t (cu|pa).

1here |s dece|t when the act |s performed w|th
de||berate |ntent and there |s fau|t when the wrongfu|
act resu|ts from |mprudence, neg||gence, |ack of
fores|ght, or |ack of sk|||.

ILLCNILS are acLs and omlsslons punlshable by Lhe
8evlsed enal Code.

A. LLLMLN1S CI ILLCNILS

|. 1here must be an act or om|ss|on

AC1 means any bodlly movemenL Lendlng Lo produce
some effecL ln Lhe exLernal world. lL musL be aL leasL an
overL acL of LhaL felony, LhaL ls, an exLernal acL whlch has
dlrecL connecLlon wlLh Lhe felony lnLended Lo be
commlLLed.

CMISSICN means lnacLlon, Lhe fallure Lo perform a
poslLlve duLy whlch one ls bound Lo do. 1here musL be a
law requlred Lhe dolng or performance of an acL.

||. 1he act or om|ss|on must be pun|shab|e by the kC

lL ls based on Lhe maxlm, oollom ctlmeo, oollo poeoo sloe
leqe," LhaL ls, Lhere ls no crlme when Lhere ls no law
punlshlng lL.

|||. 1he act |s performed or the om|ss|on |ncurred by
means of do/o or cu/po

volunLarlness ls an elemenL because (a) ArL. 3 ln referrlng
Lo Jolo sLaLes LhaL Lhe acL ls performed wlLh dellberaLe
lnLenL" whlch lmplles LhaL Lhe acL ls volunLary or freely
commlLLed, and (b) ArL. 36S ln referrlng Lo reckless
lmprudence expressly sLaLes LhaL lL ls conslsLs ln
volunLary buL wlLhouL mallce" dolng or falllng Lo do an acL.



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 10 of 76


A crlmlnal acL ls presumed volunLary. ln Lhe absence of
lndublLable explanaLlon, Lhe acL musL be declared
volunLary and punlshable.

DCLC CuLA
lnvolves mallce or
dellberaLe lnLenL
8esulLs from negllgence,
lmprudence, lack of
foreslghL or lack of sklll
lnLenLlonal lnLenL ls replaced by faulL


8. CLASSIIICA1ICN CI ILLCNILS

|. Intent|ona| Ie|on|es

ln |ntent|ona| fe|on|es, Lhe acL or omlsslon of Lhe offender
ls mollcloos. 1he acL ls performed wlLh dellberaLe lnLenL.
1he offender, ln performlng Lhe acL or ln lncurrlng Lhe
omlsslon, bos tbe loteotloo to coose oo lojoty Lo anoLher.

kLUISI1LS:
1. Ireedom
When a person acLs wlLhouL freedom, he ls no
longer a human belng, buL a Lool.
A person who acLs under Lhe compulslon of an
lrreslsLlble force ls exempL from crlmlnal llablllLy.
A person who acLs under Lhe lmpulse of an
unconLrollable fear of an equal or greaLer ln[ury
ls exempL from crlmlnal llablllLy.

2. Inte|||gence
lL ls Lhe moral capaclLy Lo deLermlne whaL ls
rlghL from whaL ls wrong and Lo reallze Lhe
consequences of one's acLs.
WlLhouL Lhe power of lnLelllgence necessary Lo
deLermlne Lhe morallLy of human acLs, Lo
dlsLlngulsh a llclL from an llllclL acL, no crlme can
exlsL, because Lhe lnLenL has no lnLelllgence, Lhe
law exempLs hlm from crlmlnal llablllLy.
lacLors LhaL negaLe lnLelllgence: mlnorlLy,
lnsanlLy, lmbeclllLy

3. Intent
lL ls presumed from Lhe commlsslon of an
unlawful acL. lL ls negaLed by mlsLake of facLs.
lnLenL presupposes Lhe exerclse of freedom and
Lhe use of lnLelllgence.
lf Lhere ls no lnLenL Lhere ls no felony commlLLed
by Jolo buL a felony may sLlll exlsL lf colpo ls
presenL.
lnLenL ls a menLal sLaLe, Lhe exlsLence of whlch ls
shown by Lhe over acLs of a person.
When Lhe accused ls charged wlLh lnLenLlonal
felony, absence of crlmlnal lnLenL ls a defense.

GLNLkAL IN1LN1 SLCIIIC IN1LN1
An lnLenLlon Lo do a wrong An lnLenLlon Lo commlL a
deflnlLe acL
resumed Lo exlsL from Lhe
mere dolng of a wrongful
acL
LxlsLence of Lhe lnLenL ls
noL presumed
1he burden of provlng Lhe
absence of lnLenL ls upon
Lhe accused
1he burden of provlng Lhe
exlsLence of Lhe lnLenL ls
upon Lhe prosecuLlon, as
such lnLenL ls an elemenL of
Lhe offense

IN1LN1 MC1IVL
1he purpose Lo use a
parLlcular means Lo effecL
such a resulL
1he reason whlch lmpels
one Lo commlL an acL for a
deflnlLe resulL
An elemenL of a crlme noL an elemenL of a crlme

MC1IVL, when re|evant:
1. 1he ldenLlLy of a person accused of havlng commlLLed
a crlme ls ln dlspuLe
2. ln ascerLalnlng Lhe LruLh beLween anLagonlsLlc
Lheorles or verslons of Lhe kllllng
3. 1he ldenLlflcaLlon of Lhe accused proceeds from
unrellable source and LesLlmony ls lnconcluslve and
noL free from doubL
4. 1here are no eyewlLnesses Lo Lhe crlme, and where
susplclon ls llkely Lo fall upon a number of persons
S. 1he evldence ls merely clrcumsLanLlal

MIS1AkL CI IAC1
lgnorance or mlsLake of facL relleves Lhe accused from
crlmlnal llablllLy. MlsLake of facL ls a mlsapprehenslon of
facL on Lhe parL of Lhe person who caused ln[ury Lo
anoLher. Pe ls noL crlmlnally llable, because he dld noL acL
wlLh crlmlnal lnLenL.

kLUISI1LS CI MIS1AkL CI IAC1:
1. 1he acL done would have been lawful had Lhe facLs
been as Lhe accused belleved Lhem Lo be.
2. 1he lnLenLlon of Lhe accused ln performlng Lhe acL
should be lawful.
3. 1he mlsLake musL be wlLhouL faulL or carelessness on
Lhe parL of Lhe accused.





CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 11 of 76


Un|ted States v. Ah Chong, [1S h||. 488]

1here ls an lnnocenL mlsLake of facL wlLhouL any faulL or
carelessness on Lhe parL of Lhe accused, because, havlng
no Llme or opporLunlLy Lo make any furLher lnqulry, and
belng pressed by clrcumsLances Lo acL lmmedlaLely, Lhe
accused had no alLernaLlve buL Lo Lake Lhe facLs as Lhey
Lhen appeared Lo hlm, and such facLs [usLlfled hls acL of
kllllng Lhe deceased.

eop|e v. Can|s, [74 h||. 2S7]

1he accused found no clrcumsLances whaLever whlch
would press Lhem Lo lmmedlaLe acLlon. 1he person ln Lhe
room belng Lhen asleep, Lhe accused had ample Llme and
opporLunlLy Lo ascerLaln hls ldenLlLy wlLhouL hazard Lo
Lhemselves, and could effecL a bloodless arresL lf any
reasonable efforL Lo LhaL end had been made, as Lhe
vlcLlm was unarmed.

||. Cu|pab|e Ie|on|es

ln cu|pab|e fe|on|es, Lhe acL or omlsslon of Lhe offender ls
oot mollcloos. 1he ln[ury caused by Lhe offender Lo
anoLher person ls unlnLenLlonal, lL belng slmply Lhe
lncldenL of anoLher acL performed wltboot mollce."

kLUISI1LS:
1. Ireedom
2. Inte|||gence
3. Imprudence, neg||gence, or |ack of fores|ght or |ack
of sk|||
Imprudence lndlcaLes a Jeflcleocy of octloo. lL
usually lnvolves lack of sklll. xomp/e: a person
falls Lo Lake Lhe necessary precauLlon Lo avold
ln[ury Lo person or damage Lo properLy.
Neg||gence lndlcaLes a Jeflcleocy of petceptloo.
lL usually lnvolves lack of foreslghL. xomp/e: a
person falls Lo pay proper aLLenLlon and Lo use
dlllgence ln foreseelng Lhe ln[ury or damage
lmpendlng Lo be caused.

|||. 1hose pun|shed by spec|a| |aws

1he Lhlrd class of crlmes, are Lhose deflned and penallzed
by speclal laws whlch lnclude crlmes punlshed by
munlclpal or clLy ordlnances. When Lhe crlme ls punlshed
by a speclal law, as a rule, lnLenL Lo commlL Lhe crlme ls
noL necessary. lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe offender has Lhe
lnLenL Lo petpettote Lhe acL prohlblLed by Lhe speclal law,
LhaL ls, lL ls enough LhaL Lhe prohlblLed acL ls done freely
and consclously.

When Lhe dolng of an acL ls prohlblLed by a speclal law, lL
ls consldered LhaL Lhe acL ls ln[urlous Lo publlc welfare and
Lhe dolng of Lhe prohlblLed acL ls Lhe crlme lLself.

MALA IN SL MALA kCnI8I1A
Wrongful from Lhelr naLure Wrongful merely because
prohlblLed by sLaLe
So serlous ln Lhelr effecLs
on socleLy
vlolaLlons of mere rules of
convenlence
lnLenL governs Crlmlnal lnLenL ls noL
necessary where Lhe acLs
are prohlblLed for reasons
of publlc pollcy
Cood falLh ls a valld
defense, unless Lhe crlme ls
Lhe resulL of culpa
Cood falLh ls noL a defense
1he degree of
accompllshmenL of Lhe
crlme ls Laken lnLo accounL
ln punlshlng Lhe offender
1he acL glves rlse Lo a crlme
only when consummaLed
MlLlgaLlng and aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances are Laken
lnLo accounL
MlLlgaLlng and aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances are generally
noL Laken lnLo accounL
enalLy ls deLermlned on
Lhe basls of Lhe degree of
parLlclpaLlon of Lhe
offender
enalLy on Lhe offenders
are Lhe same
1here are 3 sLages of
execuLlon: aLLempLed,
frusLraLed, consummaLed
1here are no sLages of
execuLlon
enalLles may be dlvlded
lnLo degrees and perlods
1here ls no dlvlslon of
penalLles


C. CkIMINAL LIA8ILI1

Art. 4. Cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty. Cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty sha|| be
|ncurred:

1. 8y any person comm|tt|ng a fe|ony (de||to) a|though
the wrongfu| act done be d|fferent from that wh|ch he
|ntended.

Cne who commlLs an lnLenLlonal felony ls responslble for
all Lhe consequences whlch may naLurally and loglcally
resulL Lherefrom, wheLher foreseen or lnLended or noL.

1he raLlonale of Lhe rule ls Lhe maxlm, el poe cooso Je lo
cooso es cooso Jel mol coosoJo" (he who ls Lhe cause of
Lhe cause ls Lhe cause of Lhe evll caused).


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 12 of 76



now cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty |s |ncurred:
1. 8y commlLLlng a felony even lf Lhe wrong produced
as a consequence Lhereof ls noL lnLended by Lhe
offender
2. lmposslble crlmes

|. LLLMLN1S
(|) An |ntent|ona| fe|ony has been comm|tted

No fe|ony |s comm|tted:
1. When Lhe acL or omlsslon ls noL punlshable by Lhe
8C, or
2. When Lhe acL ls covered by any of Lhe [usLlfylng
clrcumsLances enumeraLed ln ArL. 11.

1he acL or omlsslon should noL be punlshed by a speclal
law, because Lhe offender vlolaLlng a speclal law may noL
have Lhe lnLenL Lo do an ln[ury Lo anoLher. ln such case,
Lhe wrongful acL done could noL be dlfferenL, as Lhe
offender dld noL lnLend Lo do any oLher ln[ury.

lf a man creaLes ln anoLher person's mlnd an lmmedlaLe
sense of danger, whlch causes such person Lo Lry Lo
escape, and ln so dolng, Lhe laLLer ln[ures hlmself, Lhe man
who creaLes such a sLaLe of mlnd ls responslble for Lhe
resulLlng ln[urles. eop|e v. age, [77 SCkA 348, 3SS]
c|t|ng eop|e v. 1o||ng,[ G.k. No. L-27097, Ian. 17, 197S,
62 SCkA 17, 33]

(||) 1he wrong done to the aggr|eved party be
the d|rect, natura| and |og|ca| consequence
of the fe|ony comm|tted by the offender

A person ls crlmlnally responslble for acLs commlLLed by
hlm ln vlolaLlng of Lhe law and for oll tbe oototol and
loqlcol consequences resulLlng Lherefrom. u.5. v. 5otolto,
j1 lbll. J57, J60]

1. kCxIMA1L CAUSL

kCxIMA1L CAUSL ls LhaL cause, whlch, ln naLural and
conLlnuous sequence, unbroken by any efflclenL
lnLervenlng cause, produces Lhe ln[ury, and wlLhouL whlch
Lhe resulL would noL have occurred. 8atac|an v. Med|na,
[102 h||. 181, 186 quot|ng 38 Am. Iur. 69S] lL ls LhaL
acLlng flrsL and produclng Lhe ln[ury, elLher lmmedlaLely,
or by seLLlng oLher evenLs ln moLlon, all consLlLuLlng a
naLural and conLlnuous chaln of evenLs, each havlng a
close causal connecLlon wlLh lLs lmmedlaLe predecessor.

1here musL be a relaLlon of cause and effecL," Lhe cause
belng Lhe felonlous acL of Lhe offended, Lhe effecL belng
Lhe resulLlng ln[urles and/or deaLh of Lhe vlcLlm.

NA1UkAL refers Lo an occurrence ln Lhe ordlnary curse of
human llfe or evenLs, whlle LCGICAL means LhaL Lhere ls a
raLlonal connecLlon beLween Lhe acL of Lhe accused and
Lhe resulLlng ln[ury or damage.

1he fe|ony comm|tted |s not the prox|mate cause of the
resu|t|ng |n[ury when:
(a) 1here ls an acLlve force LhaL lnLervened beLween Lhe
felony commlLLed and Lhe resulLlng ln[ury, and Lhe
acLlve force ls a dlsLlncL acL or facL absoluLely forelgn
from Lhe felonlous acL of Lhe accused, or
(b) 1he resulLlng ln[ury ls due Lo Lhe lnLenLlonal acL of Lhe
vlcLlm.

When death |s presumed to be the natura| consequence
of phys|ca| |n[ur|es |nf||cted:
(a) 1he vlcLlm aL Lhe Llme of Lhe physlcal ln[urles were
lnfllcLed was ln normal healLh
(b) ueaLh may be expecLed from Lhe physlcal ln[urles
lnfllcLed
(c) ueaLh ensued wlLhln a reasonable Llme

2. LIILC1IVL IN1LkVLNING CAUSL

An LIILC1IVL IN1LkVLNING CAUSL lnLerrupLs Lhe naLural
flow of evenLs leadlng Lo one's deaLh. lL may relleve Lhe
offender from llablllLy.

Not eff|c|ent |nterven|ng causes:
Weak or dlseased physlcal condlLlon of Lhe
vlcLlm
nervousness or LemperamenL of Lhe vlcLlm
Causes whlch are lnherenL ln Lhe vlcLlm
neglecL of Lhe vlcLlm or Lhlrd person
Lrroneous or unsklllful medlcal or surglcal
LreaLmenL

||. S|tuat|ons where a person comm|tt|ng a
fe|ony |s st||| cr|m|na||y ||ab|e
a. rror in personoe: mlsLake ln Lhe ldenLlLy of Lhe
vlcLlm
b. 4berrotio ictus: mlsLake ln Lhe blow
c. Proeter intentionem: Lhe ln[urlous resulL ls
greaLer Lhan LhaL lnLended





CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 13 of 76


D. IMCSSI8LL CkIMLS

Art. 4. Cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty. Cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty sha|| be
|ncurred:

2. 8y any person perform|ng an act wh|ch wou|d be an
offense aga|nst persons or property, were |t not for the
|nherent |mposs|b|||ty of |ts accomp||shment or an
account of the emp|oyment of |nadequate or |neffectua|
means.

NC1L: 1he commlsslon of an lmposslble crlme ls lndlcaLlve
of crlmlnal propenslLy or crlmlnal Lendency on Lhe parL of
Lhe acLor. Such a person ls a poLenLlal crlmlnal.

|. kLUISI1LS
1. 1he act performed wou|d be an offense aga|nst
persons or property

ln commlLLlng an lmposslble crlme, Lhe offender loteoJs Lo
commlL a felony agalnsL petsoos or a felony agalnsL
ptopetty, and Lhe acL performed would have been an
offense agalnsL persons or properLy.

lf Lhe acL performed would be an offense oLher Lhan a
felony agalnsL persons or agalnsL properLy, Lhere ls no
lmposslble crlme.

Ie|on|es aga|nst persons:
1. arrlclde
2. Murder
3. Pomlclde
4. lnfanLlclde
S. AborLlon
6. uuel
7. hyslcal ln[urles
8. 8ape

Ie|on|es aga|nst property:
1. 8obbery
2. 8rlgandage
3. 1hefL
4. usurpaLlon
S. Culpable lnsolvency
6. Swlndllng and oLher decelLs
7. ChaLLel morLgage
8. Arson and oLher crlmes lnvolvlng desLrucLlon
9. Mallclous mlschlef

2. 1he act was done w|th ev|| |ntent

lL musL be shown LhaL Lhe acLor performed Lhe acL wlLh
evll lnLenL, LhaL ls, he musL have Lhe lnLenL Lo do an ln[ury
Lo anoLher.

3. Its accomp||shment |s |nherent|y |mposs|b|e or that
the means emp|oyed |s e|ther |nadequate or
|neffectua|

ln lmposslble crlme, Lhe acL performed by Lhe offender
cannoL produce an offense agalnsL persons or properLy,
because: (1) Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense ls lnherenLly
lmposslble of accompllshmenL, or (2) Lhe means ls elLher
(a) lnadequaLe or (b) lneffecLual.
4. 1he act performed shou|d not const|tute a v|o|at|on
of another prov|s|on of the kev|sed ena| Code

||. INADLUA1L AND INLIILC1UAL MLANS
Inherent |mposs|b|||ty of |ts accomp||shment
(a) 1he acL lnLended by Lhe offender ls by lLs naLure one
of lmposslble accompllshmenL.
(b) 1here musL elLher be: (1) legal lmposslblllLy, or (2)
physlcal lmposslblllLy.
(c) LLGAL IMCSSI8ILI1 - Lhe lnLended acLs, even lf
compleLed would noL amounL Lo a crlme
(d) nSICAL IMCSSI8ILI1 - exLraneous clrcumsLances
unknown Lo Lhe acLor or beyond hls conLrol prevenL
Lhe consummaLlon of Lhe lnLended crlme

Lmp|oyment of |nadequate means
o Means ls lnsufflclenL

Lmp|oyment of |neffectua| means
o Means employed dld noL produce Lhe resulL
expecLed

|||. UkCSL

1he purpose of Lhe law ln punlshlng lmposslble crlme ls Lo
suppress crlmlnal propenslLy or crlmlnal Lendencles.
Cb[ecLlvely, Lhe offender has noL commlLLed a felony, buL
sub[ecLlvely, he ls a crlmlnal.

Art. S. Duty of the court |n connect|on w|th acts wh|ch
shou|d be repressed but wh|ch are not covered by the
|aw, and |n cases of excess|ve pena|t|es. - Whenever a
court has know|edge of any act wh|ch |t may deem
proper to repress and wh|ch |s not pun|shab|e by |aw, |t
sha|| render the proper dec|s|on and sha|| report to the
Ch|ef Lxecut|ve, through the Department of Iust|ce, the
reasons wh|ch |nduce the court to be||eve that sa|d act
shou|d be made the sub[ect of pena| |eg|s|at|on.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 14 of 76



In the same way the court sha|| subm|t to the Ch|ef
Lxecut|ve, through the Department of Iust|ce, such
statement as may be deemed proper, w|thout
suspend|ng the execut|on of the sentence, when a str|ct
enforcement of the prov|s|ons of th|s Code wou|d resu|t
|n the |mpos|t|on of a c|ear|y excess|ve pena|ty, tak|ng
|nto cons|derat|on the degree of ma||ce and the |n[ury
caused by the offense.


L. S1AGLS CI LxLCU1ICN

Art. 6. Consummated, frustrated, and attempted
fe|on|es. Consummated fe|on|es as we|| as those
wh|ch are frustrated and attempted, are pun|shab|e.

A fe|ony |s consummated when a|| the e|ements
necessary for |ts execut|on and accomp||shment are
present, and |t |s frustrated when the offender
performs a|| the acts of execut|on wh|ch wou|d
produce the fe|ony as a consequence but wh|ch,
neverthe|ess, do not produce |t by reason of causes
|ndependent of the w||| of the perpetrator.

1here |s an attempt when the offender commences
the comm|ss|on of a fe|ony d|rect|y or over acts, and
does not perform a|| the acts of execut|on wh|ch
shou|d produce the fe|ony by reason of some cause or
acc|dent other than th|s own spontaneous des|stance.

A felony ls CCNSUMMA1LD when all Lhe elemenLs
necessary for lLs execuLlon and accompllshmenL are
presenL.

lL ls IkUS1kA1LD when Lhe offender performs all Lhe
acLs of execuLlon whlch would produce Lhe felony as a
consequence buL whlch, neverLheless, do noL produce
lL by reason of causes lndependenL of Lhe wlll of Lhe
perpeLraLor.

1here ls an A11LM1 when Lhe offender commences
Lhe commlsslon of a felony dlrecLly by overL acLs, and
does noL perform all Lhe acLs of execuLlon whlch should
produce Lhe felony by reason of some cause or accldenL
oLher Lhan hls own sponLaneous deslsLance.

|. DLVLLCMLN1 CI A CkIML
1. IN1LkNAL AC1S, such as mere ldeas ln Lhe mlnd of
a person, are noL punlshable even lf, had Lhey
been carrled ouL, Lhey would consLlLuLe a crlme.
2. Lx1LkNAL AC1S cover (a) preparaLory acLs, and (b)
acLs of execuLlon.
reparatory acts - ordlnarlly Lhey are noL
punlshable, buL preparaLory acLs whlch are
consldered ln Lhemselves, by law, as
lndependenL crlmes are punlshable.
Acts of execut|on - punlshable under Lhe
8evlsed enal Code
a. Sub[ect|ve phase - pottloo of tbe octs
coostltotloq Lhe crlme, sLarLlng from Lhe
polnL where Lhe offender beqlos Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme Lo LhaL polnL
where he has sLlll conLrol over hls octs,
lncludlng Lhelr naLural course.
b. Cb[ect|ve phase - Lhe resulL of Lhe acLs of
execuLlon, LhaL ls, Lhe accompllshmenL of
Lhe crlme.
lf Lhe sub[ecLlve and ob[ecLlve
phases are presenL, Lhere ls a
consummaLed felony.
1he sponLaneous deslsLance of Lhe
accused ls exculpaLory only (a) lf
made durlng Lhe aLLempLed sLage,
and (b) provlded LhaL Lhe acLs
already commlLLed do noL consLlLuLe
any offense.

||. CCNSUMMA1LD ILLCN

A felony ls consummated when all Lhe elemenLs
necessary for lLs execuLlon and accompllshmenL are
presenL.

All Lhe elemenLs of Lhe felony for whlch Lhe accused ls
prosecuLed most be pteseot ln order Lo hold hlm llable
Lherefor ln lLs consummaLed sLage.

When a felony has Lwo or more elemenLs and one of
Lhem ls noL proved by Lhe prosecuLlon durlng Lhe Lrlal,
elLher:
1he felony ls noL shown Lo have been
consummaLed, or
1he felony ls noL shown Lo have been
commlLLed, or
AnoLher felony ls shown Lo have been
commlLLed.

|||. IkUS1kA1LD ILLCN

A felony ls frustrated when Lhe offender performs all
Lhe acLs of execuLlon whlch would produce Lhe felony


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 1S of 76


as a consequence buL whlch, neverLheless, do noL
produce lL by reason of causes lndependenL of Lhe wlll
of Lhe perpeLraLor.

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1he offender petfotms oll tbe octs of execotloo,
noLhlng more ls lefL Lo be done by Lhe
offender, because he has performed Lhe lost
oct necessary Lo produce Lhe crlme.

2. All Lhe acLs performed woolJ ptoJoce tbe felooy os
o coosepoeoce,
All tbe octs of execotloo performed by Lhe
offender coolJ bove ptoJoceJ tbe felooy as a
consequence.
1he bellef of Lhe accused need noL be
consldered. WhaL should be consldered ls
wheLher all Lhe acLs of execuLlon performed
by Lhe offender would produce Lhe felony as
a consequence."

3. 8uL Lhe felooy ls oot ptoJoceJ,
1he acLs performed by Lhe offender do noL
produce Lhe felony, because lf Lhe felony ls
produced lL would be consummaLed.

4. 8y reason of causes loJepeoJeot of tbe wlll of tbe
petpettotot.

1here are crlmes whlch do noL admlL of a frusLraLed
sLage. 8y Lhe deflnlLlon of a frusLraLed felony, Lhe
offender cannoL posslbly perform all Lhe acLs of
execuLlon Lo brlng Lhe deslred resulL wlLhouL
consummaLlng Lhe offense.

CkIMLS WnICn DC NC1 nAVL A IkUS1kA1LD S1AGL
(a) 8ape, because Lhe gravamen of Lhe offense ls
carnal knowledge, so no maLLer how sllghL Lhe
peneLraLlon, Lhe felony ls consummaLed.
(b) lndlrecL brlbery, because Lhe offense ls commlLLed
by accepLlng glfLs offered Lo Lhe publlc offlcer by
reason of hls offlce.
(c) CorrupLlon of publlc offlcers, slnce Lhe crlme
requlres Lhe concurrence of Lhe wlll of boLh
parLles.
(d) AdulLery, because Lhe essence of Lhe crlme ls
sexual congress.
(e) hyslcal ln[ury slnce lLs deLermlnaLlon wheLher
sllghL, less serlous, or serlous can only be made
once lL ls consummaLed.
(f) 1hefL, slnce unlawful Laklng lmmedlaLely
consummaLes Lhe offense and Lhe dlsposlLlon of
Lhe Lhlng ls noL an elemenL.


|v. A11LM1LD ILLCN

1here ls an attempt when Lhe offender commences Lhe
commlsslon of a felony dlrecLly by overL acLs, and does
noL perform all Lhe acLs of execuLlon whlch should
produce Lhe felony by reason of some cause or accldenL
oLher Lhan hls own sponLaneous deslsLance.

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1he offender commeoces Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
felony dlrecLly by overL acLs,
kLUISI1LS:
o 1here be extetool octs,
o Such exLernal acLs have dlrecL connecLlon
wlLh Lhe crlme loteoJeJ to be commltteJ.

2. Pe Joes oot petfotm all Lhe acLs of execuLlon
whlch sboolJ ptoJoce Lhe felony,
lf Lhe offender has performed all Lhe acLs of
execuLlon - noLhlng more ls lefL Lo be done -
Lhe sLage of execuLlon ls LhaL of a frusLraLed
felony, lf Lhe felony ls noL produced, or
consummaLed, lf Lhe felony ls produced

3. 1he offender's acL ls oot stoppeJ by bls owo
spootooeoos Jeslstooce,
8aLlonale: lL ls a sorL of reward granLed by law
Lo Lhose who, havlng one fooL on Lhe verge of
crlme, heed Lhe call of Lhelr consclence and
reLurn Lo Lhe paLh of rlghLeousness.

4. 1he ooo-petfotmooce of oll octs of execotloo was
due Lo coose or occlJeot oLher Lhan hls
sponLaneous deslsLance.

CVLk1 AC1S
An CVLk1 AC1 ls some pbyslcol octlvlty or JeeJ,
lndlcaLlng Lhe lnLenLlon Lo commlL a parLlcular
crlme, more Lhan a mere plannlng or preparaLlon,
whlch lf carrled Lo lLs compleLe LermlnaLlon
followlng lLs naLural course, wlLhouL belng
frusLraLed by exLernal obsLacles nor by Lhe
volunLary deslsLance of Lhe perpeLraLor, wlll
loqlcolly and oecessotlly rlpen lnLo a concreLe
offense.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 16 of 76


1here are felonles where, because of Lhelr naLure
or Lhe manner of commlLLlng Lhem, Lhe overL acLs
are noL performed wlLh bodlly movemenL or by
physlcal acLlvlLy.


INDL1LkMINA1L CIILNSL
Cne where Lhe purpose of Lhe offender ln
performlng an acL ls noL cerLaln. lLs naLure ln
relaLlon Lo lLs ob[ecLlve ls amblguous.
1he lnLenLlon of Lhe accused musL be ascerLalned
from Lhe facLs and, Lherefore, lL ls necessary LhaL
Lhe mlnd be able Lo dlrecLly lnfer from Lhem Lhe
lnLenLlon of Lhe perpeLraLor Lo cause a parLlcular
ln[ury.
AcLs suscepLlble of double lnLerpreLaLlon musL noL
and cannoL furnlsh grounds by Lhemselves for
aLLempLed crlme. eop|e v. Lamahang, [61 h||.
707]

DLSIS1ANCL
lL ls an absoluLory cause whlch negaLes crlmlnal
llablllLy because Lhe law encourages a person Lo
deslsL from commlLLlng a crlme.
1he deslsLance should be made before all Lhe acLs
of execuLlon are performed.
1he deslsLance whlch exempLs from crlmlnal
llablllLy has reference Lo Lhe crlme lnLended Lo be
commlLLed, and has no reference Lo Lhe crlme
acLually commlLLed by Lhe offender before hls
deslsLance.

LLGAL DLSIS1ANCL IAC1UAL DLSIS1ANCL
DLIINI1ICN
ueslsLance referred Lo ln
law whlch would obvlaLe
crlmlnal llablllLy unless Lhe
over or preparaLory acL
already commlLLed ln
Lhemselves consLlLuLe a
felony oLher Lhan whaL
Lhe acLor lnLended.
AcLual deslsLance of Lhe
acLor, Lhe acLor ls sLlll
llable for Lhe aLLempL.
1IML Ck LkICD LMLCLD
ueslsLance made Jotloq
Lhe aLLempLed sLage.
ueslsLance made oftet Lhe
aLLempLed sLage of Lhe
crlme

v. IAC1CkS DL1LkMINING 1nL S1AGL CI LxLCU1ICN
1. naLure of Lhe offense
2. LlemenLs consLlLuLlng Lhe felony
3. Manner of commlLLlng Lhe same

v|. MANNLk CI CCMMI11ING 1nL CkIML
1. Iorma| cr|mes: consummaLed ls one lnsLanL, no
aLLempL
As a rule, Lhere can be no aLLempL aL a formal
crlme, because beLween Lhe LhoughL and Lhe
deed Lhere ls no chaln of acLs LhaL can be
severed ln any llnk.

2. Cr|mes consummated by mere attempt or
proposa| or by overt act
L.g. fllghL Lo enemy's counLry (ArL. 121),
CorrupLlon of mlnors (ArL. 340)

3. Ie|ony by om|ss|on
1here can be no aLLempLed sLage when Lhe
felony ls by omlssloo, because ln Lhls klnd of
felony Lhe offender does noL execuLe acLs. Pe
omlLs Lo perform an acL whlch Lhe law
requlres hlm Lo do.

4. Cr|mes requ|r|ng the |ntervent|on of two persons
to comm|t them are consummated by mere
agreement
ln Lhe crlme of corrupLlon of publlc offlcer, Lhe
same are consummaLed by mere agreemenL.
1he offer made by one of Lhe parLles Lo Lhe
oLher consLlLuLes aLLempLed felony, lf Lhe
offer ls re[ecLed.

S. Mater|a| cr|mes: Lhere are Lhree sLages of
execuLlon

v||. IkUS1kA1LD VS. A11LM1LD VS. IMCSSI8LL
CkIML

A11LM1LD
IkUS1kA1LD
IMCSSI8LL CkIML
Lvll lnLenL of Lhe offender ls noL accompllshed
Lvll lnLenL of Lhe offender
ls posslble of
accompllshmenL
Lvll lnLenL of Lhe
offender cannoL be
accompllshed
WhaL prevenLed lLs
accompllshmenL ls Lhe
lnLervenLlon of cerLaln
cause or accldenL ln whlch
Lhe offender had no parL
lnherenLly lmposslble of
accompllshmenL or
means employed by Lhe
offender ls lnadequaLe or
lneffecLual

I. LIGn1 ILLCNILS

Art. 7. When ||ght fe|on|es are pun|shab|e. L|ght
fe|on|es are pun|shab|e when they have been


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 17 of 76


consummated, w|th the except|on of those comm|tted
aga|nst persons or property.

LIGn1 ILLCNILS are Lhose lnfracLlons of law for Lhe
commlsslon of whlch Lhe penalLy of ottesto meoot or a
flne noL exceedlng 200 pesos or boLh, ls provlded.

LlghL felonles are punlshable ooly when Lhey have been
consummaLed. 1hey produce such llghL, such
lnslgnlflcanL moral and maLerlal ln[urles LhaL publlc
consclence ls saLlsfled wlLh provldlng a llghL penalLy for
Lhelr consummaLlon.

LxCL1ICN: LlghL felonles commlLLed agalnsL petsoos
or ptopetty, are punlshable even lf ottempteJ or
ftosttoteJ.
8aLlonale: 1he commlsslon of felonles agalnsL
petsoos or ptopetty presupposes ln Lhe offender
motol Jeptovlty.

G. CCNSIkAC AND kCCSAL.

Art. 6. Consp|racy and proposa| to comm|t fe|ony.
Consp|racy and proposa| to comm|t fe|ony are
pun|shab|e on|y |n the cases |n wh|ch the |aw spec|a||y
prov|des a pena|ty therefor.

A consp|racy ex|sts when two or more persons come
to an agreement concern|ng the comm|ss|on of a
fe|ony and dec|de to comm|t |t.

1here |s proposa| when the person who has dec|ded to
comm|t a fe|ony proposes |ts execut|on to some other
person or persons.

Consplracy and proposal Lo commlL a crlme are only
ptepotototy octs, and Lhe law regards Lhem as loooceot
or aL leasL petmlsslble excepL ln rare and excepLlonal
cases.

ln crlmes agalnsL Lhe extetool and lotetool securlLy of
Lhe SLaLe, lf Lhe culprlL succeeds ln hls crlmlnal
enLerprlse, he would obLaln Lhe power and Lherefore
lmpunlLy for Lhe crlme commlLLed.

CCNSIkAC
LxlsLs when Lwo or more persons come Lo an
agreemenL concernlng Lhe commlsslon of a felony
and declde Lo commlL lL


kLUISI1LS:
1. 1wo or more persons came Lo an agreemenL
AgreemenL presupposes meeLlng of Lhe mlnds
of Lwo or more persons.
2. 1he agreemenL perLalns Lo Lhe commlsslon of a
felony
lL musL be an agreemenL Lo acL, Lo effecL, Lo
brlng abouL whaL has already been concelved
and deLermlned.
3. 1he execuLlon of Lhe felony was declded upon
1here musL be parLlclpaLlon wlLh a crlmlnal
resoluLlon because slmple knowledge Lhereof
by a person may only make hlm llable as an
accompllce.

GLNLkAL kULL: Consplracy and proposal Lo commlL
felony are noL punlshable.

LxCL1ICN: 1hey are punlshable only ln Lhe cases ln
whlch Lhe law speclally provldes a penalLy Lherefor.

LxAMLLS CI 1nL LxCL1ICN:
(a) 1reason
(b) 8ebelllon
(c) lnsurrecLlon
(d) Coup d' eLaL
(e) SedlLlon
(f) Monopolles and comblnaLlons ln resLralnL of Lrade
(g) Lsplonage
(h) Plghway robbery
(l) lllegal assoclaLlon
([) SelecLed acLs commlLLed under Lhe Comprehenslve
uangerous urugs AcL
(k) Arson
(l) 1errorlsm under Lhe Puman SecurlLy AcL


ILLCN MANNLk CI INCUkkING
CkIMINAL LIA8ILI1
ConsplraLors should noL
acLually commlL Lreason,
rebelllon, eLc., lL belng
sufflclenL LhaL Lwo or
more persons agree and
declde Lo commlL lL
lf Lhe consplraLors commlL
Lreason, Lhey wlll be held
llable for Lreason, and Lhe
consplracy whlch Lhey had
before commlLLlng
Lreason ls only a manner
of lncurrlng crlmlnal
llablllLy, noL LreaLed as a
separaLe offense
lelony relaLes Lo a crlme
acLually commlLLed
Consplracy ls noL LreaLed
as a separaLe offense buL
used Lo deLermlne Lhe


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 18 of 76


llablllLy of Lhe offenders
1he acL of one ls Lhe acL of
all

GLNLkAL kULL: When consplracy ls esLabllshed, all
who parLlclpaLed Lhereln, lrrespecLlve of Lhe quanLlLy
or quallLy of hls parLlclpaLlon ls llable equally, wheLher
consplracy ls pre-planned or lnsLanLaneous.

LxCL1ICN: unless one or some of Lhe consplraLors
commlLLed some oLher crlme whlch ls noL parL of Lhe
lnLended crlme.

LxCL1ICN 1C 1nL LxCL1ICN: When Lhe acL
consLlLuLes a slngle lndlvlslble offense."

DCC1kINL CI IMLILD CCNSIkAC
When Lhe defendanLs by Lhelr acLs almed aL Lhe
same ob[ecL, one performlng one parL and Lhe
oLher performlng anoLher parL so as Lo compleLe
lL, wlLh a vlew Lo Lhe aLLalnmenL of Lhe same
ob[ecL and Lhelr acLs, Lhough apparenLly
lndependenL, were ln facL coocetteJ and
coopetotlve, lndlcaLlng closeoess of personal
assoclaLlon, concerLed acLlon and coocotteoce of
senLlmenLs, Lhe courL wlll be [usLlfled ln concludlng
LhaL sald defendanLs were engaged ln a consplracy.
eop|e v. Geron|mo, [S3 SCkA 246, 2S4]
SponLaneous agreemenL
AcLlve cooperaLlon by all offenders
ConLrlbuLlng by poslLlve acLs Lo Lhe reallzaLlon of a
common crlmlnal lnLenL
resence durlng Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme by a
band and lendlng moral supporL LhereLo

kCCSAL 1C CCMMI1 A ILLCN
When Lhe person who has declded Lo commlL a
felony proposes lLs execuLlon Lo some oLher
person or persons.
1he law does noL requlred LhaL Lhe proposal by
accepLed by Lhe person Lo whom Lhe proposal ls
made.

kLUISI1LS:
1. A person bos JeclJeJ to commlt o felooy, and
2. Pe ptoposes lts execotloo Lo some oLher person or
persons.

1here |s no cr|m|na| proposa| when
1. 1he person who proposes ls noL deLermlned Lo
commlL Lhe felony
2. 1here ls no declded, concreLe and formal proposal
3. lL ls noL Lhe execuLlon of Lhe felony LhaL ls
proposed

n. CLASSIIICA1ICN CI ILLCNILS (accord|ng to
grav|ty)

Art. 9. Grave fe|on|es, |ess grave fe|on|es, and ||ght
fe|on|es. Grave fe|on|es are those to wh|ch the |aw
attaches the cap|ta| pun|shment or pena|t|es wh|ch |n
any of the|r per|ods are aff||ct|ve, |n accordance w|th
Art|c|e 2S of the Code.

Less grave fe|on|es are those wh|ch the |aw pun|shes
w|th pena|t|es wh|ch |n the|r max|mum per|od are
correct|ona|, |n accordance w|th the above-ment|oned
art|c|e.

L|ght fe|on|es are those |nfract|on of |aw for the
comm|ss|on of wh|ch the pena|ty |f orresto menor or a
f|ne not exceed|ng 200 pesos, or both, |s prov|ded.

Importance of c|ass|f|cat|on
1o deLermlne wheLher Lhese felonles can be
complexed or noL
1o deLermlne Lhe prescrlpLlon of Lhe crlme and Lhe
prescrlpLlon of Lhe penalLy

GkAVL ILLCNILS
keclosloo petpetoo, teclosloo tempotol, petpetool
or tempototy obsolote Jlspoollflcotloo, petpetool
or tempototy speclol Jlspoollflcotloo, ptlsloo moyot

LLSS GAVL ILLCNILS
ltlsloo cotteccloool, ottesto moyot, sospesosloo,
Jestletto

I. CIILNSLS NC1 SU8ILC1 1C 1nL kCVISICNS CI
1nL kLVISLD LNAL CCDL.

Art. 10. Cffenses not sub[ect to the prov|s|ons of th|s
Code. Cffenses wh|ch are or |n the future may be
pun|shab|e under spec|a| |aws are not sub[ect to the
prov|s|ons of th|s Code. 1h|s Code sha|| be
supp|ementary to such |aws, un|ess the |atter shou|d
spec|a||y prov|de the contrary.

GLNLkAL kULL: 1he provlslons of Lhe 8C are
supplemenLary Lo speclal laws.

LxCL1ICNS:
1. Where Lhe speclal law provldes oLherwlse


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 19 of 76


2. When Lhe provlslons of Lhe 8C are lmposslble Lo
apply, elLher by express provlslon or by necessary
lmpllcaLlon

rov|s|ons of kC app||cab|e to Spec|a| Laws:
ArL. 16 arLlclpaLlon of Accompllces
ArL. 22 8eLroacLlvlLy of enal laws lf favorable Lo
Lhe accused
ArL. 4S ConflscaLlon of lnsLrumenLs used ln Lhe
crlme

When Lhe speclol low oJopts tbe peooltles lmposeJ lo
tbe klc, Lhe provlslons of Lhe 8C on lmposlLlon of
penalLles based on sLages of execuLlon, degree of
parLlclpaLlon and aLLendance of mlLlgaLlng and
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance may be applled by necessary
lmpllcaLlon.


I. MUL1ILL CIILNDLkS

Iour Iorms of kepet|t|on:
1. 8ecldlvlsm (ArL. 19, par. 9)
2. 8elLeraclon or hablLuallLy (ArL. 14, par. 10)
3. MulLl-recldlvlsm or hablLual dellnquency (ArL. 62,
par. S)
4. Cuasl-recldlvlsm (ArL. 160)

|. kLCIDIVISM
A kLCIDIVIS1 ls one who, aL Lhe Llme of hls Lrlal for one
crlme, shall have been prevlously convlcLed by flnal
[udgmenL of anoLher crlme embraced ln Lhe same LlLle
of Lhe 8C. Peop/e v. Loqorto, [19 5ck4 11, 19]

kLUISI1LS:
1. 1he offender ls on Lrlal for an offense,
2. Pe was ptevloosly coovlcteJ by flool joJqmeot of
anoLher crlme,
3. 8oLh Lhe flrsL and Lhe second offenses are
embtoceJ ln Lhe same tltle of tbe coJe,
4. 1he offender ls convlcLed of Lhe new offense.

"At the t|me of h|s tr|a| for one cr|me"
WhaL ls conLrolllng ls Lhe tlme of ttlol, noL Lhe Llme of
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme. lL ls noL requlred aL Lhe
Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, Lhe accused
should have been prevlously convlcLed by flnal
[udgmenL of anoLher crlme."

lL ls meanL Lo lnclude everyLhlng LhaL ls done ln Lhe
course of Lhe Lrlal, from arralgnmenL unLll afLer
senLence ls announced by Lhe [udge ln open courL.

lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe succeedlng offense be
commlLLed oftet tbe commlssloo of Lhe precedlng
offense provlded LhaL Lhe Llme of hls Lrlal for Lhe
second offense, Lhe accused had already been
convlcLed of Lhe flrsL offense.

8ecldlvlsm musL be Lake lnLo accounL no maLLer how
many years have lnLervened beLween Lhe flrsL and
second felonles.

ardon does noL prevenL a former convlcLlon from
belng consldered as an aggravaLlng clrcumsLance, buL
amnesLy exLlngulshes Lhe penalLy and lLs effecLs.

||. nA8I1UALI1 (kLI1LkACICN)

kLUISI1LS:
1. 1he accused ls on Lrlal for an offense,
2. Pe prevlously setveJ seoteoce for anoLher offense
Lo whlch Lhe law aLLaches an epool or qteotet
peoolty, or for 2 or mote crlmes Lo whlch lL
aLLaches llqbtet penalLy Lhan LhaL for Lhe new
offense, and
When Lhe penalLy provlded by law for Lhe
ptevloos offeose ls epool Lo LhaL for Lhe new
offense, or
When Lhe penalLy provlded by law for Lhe
prevlous offense ls qteotet, or
When Lhe accused setveJ ot leost 2 seoteoces,
even lf Lhe penalLles provlded by law for Lhe
crlmes are llghLer.
3. Pe ls convlcLed of Lhe new offense.

kLI1LkACICN kLCIDIVISM
lL ls necessary LhaL Lhe
offender shall have setveJ
oot hls senLence for Lhe
flrsL offense
lL ls enough LhaL a flool
joJqmeot has been
rendered ln Lhe flrsL
offense
1he prevlous and
subsequenL offenses most
oot be embraced ln Lhe
same LlLle of Lhe Code
8equlres LhaL Lhe offenses
be lncluded ln Lhe same
LlLle of Lhe Code
noL always an aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance
Always Laken lnLo
conslderaLlon ln flxlng Lhe
penalLy Lo be lmposed
upon Lhe accused



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 20 of 76


|||. UASI-kLCIDIVISM
Any person who shall commlL a felony afLer havlng
been convlcLed by flnal [udgmenL, before beglnnlng Lo
serve such senLence, or whlle servlng Lhe same, shall be
punlshed by Lhe maxlmum perlod of Lhe penalLy
prescrlbed by law for Lhe new felony.

|v. nA8I1UAL DLLINULNC
A person, wlLhln Lhe perlod of 10 years from Lhe daLe of
hls lasL release or lasL convlcLlon of Lhe crlme of serlous
or less serlous physlcal ln[urles, robbery, LhefL, esLafa or
falslflcaLlon, ls found gullLy of any of sald crlmes a Lhlrd
Llme or ofLener. ln hablLual dellnquency, Lhe offender ls
elLher a recldlvlsL or one who has been prevlously
punlshed for Lwo or more offenses. Pe shall suffer an
addlLlonal penalLy for belng a hablLual dellnquenL.

kLUISI1LS:
1. 1he offender had been convlcLed of any of Lhe
crlmes of serlous or less serlous physlcal ln[urles,
robbery, LhefL, esLafa or falslflcaLlon,
2. AfLer LhaL convlcLlon or afLer servlng hls senLence,
he agaln commltteJ, and, wlLhln 10 years from hls
release or flrsL convlcLlon, he was agaln convlcLed
of any of Lhe sald crlmes for Lhe secooJ tlme,
3. AfLer hls convlcLlon of, or afLer servlce senLence
for, Lhe second offense, he agaln commltteJ, and,
wlLhln 10 years from hls lasL release or lasL
convlcLlon, he was agalnsL coovlcteJ of any sald
offenses, Lhe tbltJ tlme or ofteoet.

nA8I1UAL DLLINULNC kLCIDIVISM
As to cr|mes comm|tted
1he crlmes are speclfleJ lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe
accused on Lhe daLe of hls
Lrlal, shall have been
prevlously convlcLed by
flnal [udgmenL of anoLher
crlme embraced ln Lhe
same LlLle of Lhe Code
As to the per|od of t|me the cr|mes are comm|tted
1he offender found gullLy
of any of Lhe crlmes
speclfled wlLhln 10 yeots
from hls lasL release or
lasL convlcLlon
No petloJ of tlme
beLween Lhe former
convlcLlon and Lhe lasL
convlcLlon ls flxed by law
As to the number of cr|mes comm|tted
1he accused musL be
found gullLy Lhe Lhlrd Llme
or ofLener of any of Lhe
crlmes speclfled
1he second convlcLlon for
an offeose embraced ln
Lhe same LlLle of Lhe Code
ls sufflclenL
As to the|r effects
lf Lhere ls hablLual
dellnquency, an addlLlonal
penalLy ls also lmposed
lf noL offseL by a
mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances,
serves Lo lncrease Lhe
penalLy only Lo Lhe
maxlmum

kLCIDIVISM VS. nA8I1UALI1 VS. MUL1I-kLCIDIVISM
VS. UASI-kLCIDIVISM
kLCIDVISM Cenerlc
AggravaLlng
ClrcumsLance
Where a person, on
separaLe occaslons ls
convlcLed of 2
offenses embraced ln
Lhe same LlLle ln Lhe
8evlsed enal Code.
kLI1LkACICN
Ck
nA8I1UALI1
Cenerlc
AggravaLlng
ClrcumsLance
Where Lhe offender
has been prevlously
punlshed for an
offense Lo whlch Lhe
law aLLaches an equal
or greaLer penalLy or
for Lwo comes Lo
whlch lL aLLaches a
llghLer penalLy.
MUL1I-
kLCIDIVISM
Ck nA8I1UAL
DLLINULNC
LxLraordlnary
AggravaLlng
ClrcumsLance
Where a person
wlLhln a perlod of 10
years from Lhe daLe
of hls release or lasL
convlcLlon of Lhe
crlmes of serlous or
less serlous physlcal
ln[urles, robbery,
LhefL, esLafa or
falslflcaLlon, ls found
gullLy of Lhe sald
crlmes a Lhlrd Llme or
ofLener.
UASI-
kLCIDIVISM
Speclal
AggravaLlng
ClrcumsLance
Where a person
commlLs felony
before beglnnlng Lo
serve or whlle servlng
senLence on a
prevlous convlcLlon
for a felony.

k. CCMLLx CkIMLS VS. SLCIAL CCMLLx CkIMLS
LUkALI1 CI CkIMLS conslsLs ln Lhe soccesslve
execuLlon, by Lhe same loJlvlJool, of Jlffeteot ctlmlool
octs, upon any of whlch oo coovlctloo has yeL been
declared.
kea| or mater|a| p|ura||ty - ulfferenL crlmes ln law,
as well as ln Lhe consclence of Lhe offender, Lhe


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 21 of 76


offender shall be punlshed for each and every
offense LhaL he commlLLed
Iorma| or |dea| p|ura||ty - Cnly one crlmlnal
llablllLy
o When Lhe offender commlLs any of Lhe
complex ctlmes ln ArLlcle 48.
o When Lhe low speclflcally flxes a slngle
penalLy for Lwo or more offenses commlLLed
(Speclal Complex Crlmes).
o When Lhe offender commlLs cootloooos
ctlmes.

Art. 48. ena|ty for comp|ex cr|mes. When a s|ng|e
act const|tutes two or more grave or |ess grave
fe|on|es, or when an offense |s a necessary means for
comm|tt|ng the other, the pena|ty for the most ser|ous
cr|me sha|| be |mposed, the same to be app||ed |n |ts
max|mum per|od.

ArLlcle 48 requlres Lhe commlsslon of aL leasL 2 crlmes.
8uL Lhe 2 or more qtove ot less qtove felonles musL be
Lhe resulL of a sloqle acL, or an offense musL be a
oecessoty meoos fot commlttloq Lhe oLher.

AlLhough 2 or more crlmes are acLually commlLLed,
Lhey consLlLuLe only ooe crlme ln Lhe eyes of Lhe law as
well as ln Lhe consclence of Lhe offender.

1he offender has only ooe ctlmlool loteot. Pence, Lhere
ls only one penalLy lmposed for Lhe commlsslon of a
complex crlme.

ArLlcle 48 could have had no oLher purpose Lhan Lo
prescrlbe a penalLy lower Lhan Lhe aggregaLe of Lhe
penalLles for each offense, lf lmposed separaLely. When
Lwo or more crlmes are Lhe resulL of a slngle acL, Lhe
offender ls deemed less perverse Lhan when he
commlLs sald crlmes Lhrough separaLe and dlsLlncL acLs.
eop|e v. nernandez,[99 h||. S1S, S42-S43]

ArLlcle 48 applles only Lo cases where Lhe Code does
noL provlde a deflnlLe speclflc penalLy for a complex
crlme.

1he penalLy for complex crlme ls Lhe penalLy for Lhe
mosL serlous crlme, Lhe same Lo be applled ln lLs
maxlmum perlod. lf dlfferenL crlmes resulLlng from one
slngle acL are punlshed wlLh Lhe same penalLy, Lhe
penalLy for any one of Lhem shall be lmposed, Lhe same
Lo be applled ln Lhe maxlmum perlod. When Lwo
felonles consLlLuLlng a complex crlmes are punlshable
by lmprlsonmenL and flne, respecLlvely, only Lhe
penalLy of lmprlsonmenL should be lmposed.

When a complex crlme ls charged and one offense ls
noL proven, Lhe accused can be convlcLed of Lhe oLher.

kINDS CI CCMLLx CkIMLS:
1. CCMCUND CkIML: When a slngle acL consLlLuLes
2 or more grave or less grave felonles.

kLUISI1LS:
Cnly a sloqle oct ls performed by Lhe offender,
1he slngle acL produces:
o 1wo or more grave felonles, or
o Cne or more grave and one or more less grave
felonles, or
o 1wo or more less grave felonles.

LlghL felonles produced by Lhe same acL should be
LreaLed and punlshed as separaLe offenses or may be
absorbed by Lhe gave felony.

2. CCMLLx CkIML kCLk: When an offense ls a
necessary means for commlLLlng Lhe oLher.

kLUISI1LS:
1. AL leasL Lwo offenses are commlLLed,
2. Cne or some of Lhe offenses musL be necessary Lo
commlL Lhe oLher,
a. necessary means ls noL equlvalenL Lo
lndlspensable means.
3. 8oLh or all of Lhe offenses musL be punlshed under
Lhe some stotote.

When ln Lhe deflnlLlon of a felony one offense ls a
means Lo commlL Lhe oLher, Lhere ls no complex crlme.

When one of Lhe offenses was commlLLed for Lhe
purpose of cooceolloq Lhe commlsslon of Lhe oLher,
Lhere ls oo complex ctlme.

When there |s no comp|ex cr|me:
(a) ln case of cootloooos ctlmes
(b) When one offense ls commlLLed Lo cooceol Lhe
oLher
(c) When Lhe oLher crlme ls an loJlspeosoble parL or
an elemeot of Lhe oLher offenses
(d) Where one of Lhe offenses ls penallzed by a speclol
low
(e) When Lhe provlslon provldes for a Lwo-Llered
penalLy, e.g. usurpaLlon of properLy (ArL. 312),


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 22 of 76


mallclous procuremenL of a search warranL (ArL.
129), brlbery (ArL. 210, par. 1), malLreaLmenL of
prlsoners (ArL. 23S)


Instances where Art|c|e 48 |s not app||cab|e:
(a) When Lhe crlmes sub[ecL of Lhe case have common
elemenLs,
(b) When Lhe crlmes lnvolved are sub[ecL Lo Lhe rule
of absorpLlon of one crlme by Lhe oLher,
(c) Where Lhe Lwo offenses resulLlng from a slngle acL
are speclflcally punlshed as a slngle crlme, such as
less serlous physlcal ln[urles wlLh serlous slander of
deed, slnce Lhls ls punlshed under ArL. 264, par. 2,
as Lhe slngle crlme of less serlous physlcal ln[urles
wlLh lgnomlny,
(d) ln speclal complex crlmes or composlLe crlmes.

SLCIAL CCMLLx CkIMLS are Lhose whlch are LreaLed
as slngle lndlvlslble offenses alLhough comprlslng more
Lhan one speclflc crlme and wlLh speclflc penalLy.

LxAMLLS:
(a) 8ape wlLh homlclde
Pomlclde musL always be consummaLed,
oLherwlse, Lhey are separaLe offenses. 1he
rape may elLher be consummaLed or
aLLempLed.
(b) kldnapplng wlLh homlclde
(c) kldnapplng wlLh rape
ulfferenL from abducLlon wlLh rape, whereln
Lhere ls lewd deslgn
(d) 8obbery wlLh homlclde
AddlLlonal homlclde noL aggravaLlng
(e) 8obbery wlLh rape
AddlLlonal rape noL aggravaLlng
(f) 8obbery wlLh arson
(g) Arson wlLh homlclde

Cr|mes |nvo|ved cannot be |ega||y comp|exed:
(a) Mallclous obLenLlon or abuslve servlce of search
warranL (ArL. 129) wlLh per[ury,
(b) 8rlbery (ArL. 210) wlLh lnfldellLy ln Lhe cusLody or
prlsoners,
(c) MalLreaLmenL of prlsoners (ArL. 23S) wlLh serlous
physlcal ln[urles,
(d) usurpaLlon of real rlghLs (ArL. 312) wlLh serlous
physlcal ln[urles, and
(e) AbandonmenL of persons ln danger (ArL. 27S) and
crlmes agalnsL mlnors (ArL. 276-278) wlLh anoLher
felon
CkDINAk CCMLLx
CkIML
SLCIAL CCMLLx CkIML
Ck CCMCSI1L CkIML
As to 1he|r Concept
lL ls made up of Lwo or
more crlmes belng
punlshed ln dlsLlncL
provlslons of Lhe 8evlsed
enal Code buL alleged ln
one lnformaLlon elLher
because Lhey were
broughL abouL by a slngle
felonles acL or because
one offense ls a necessary
means for commlLLlng Lhe
oLher offense or offenses.
lL ls made up of Lwo or
more crlmes whlch are
consldered only as
componenLs of a slngle
lndlvlslble offense belng
punlshed ln one provlslon
of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code.
As to ena|ty
enalLy for Lhe mosL
serlous crlme shall be
lmposed and ln lLs
maxlmum perlod.
lL ls Lhe penalLy
speclflcally provlded for
Lhe speclal complex crlme
LhaL shall be applled
accordlng Lo Lhe rules on
lmposlLlon of Lhe penalLy.

A CCN1INUCUS (CCN1INULD Ck CCN1INUING) CkIML
ls a slngle crlme, conslsLlng of a serlous of acLs buL all
arlslng from one crlmlnal resoluLlon. AlLhough Lhere ls a
serlous of acLs, Lhere ls only one crlme commlLLed.

kLUISI1LS:
1. MulLlpllclLy of acLs,
2. unlLy of crlmlnal purpose or lnLenL, and
3. unlLy of crlmlnal offense vlolaLed.

A conLlnued crlme ls noL a complex crlme, because Lhe
offender ln conLlnued or conLlnuous crlme does noL
perform a slngle acL, buL a serlous of acLs, and one
offense ls noL a necessary means for commlLLlng Lhe
oLher.

kLAL Ck MA1LkIAL
LUkALI1
CCN1INULD CkIML
1here ls a serles of acLs
performed by Lhe
offender
1here ls a serlous of acLs
performed by Lhe
offender
Lach acL performed by
Lhe offender consLlLuLes a
separaLe crlme, because
each acL ls generaLed by a
crlmlnal lmpulse
1he dlfferenL acLs
consLlLuLe only one crlme
because all of Lhe acLs
performed arlse from one
crlmlnal resoluLlon
LND CI DISCUSSICN CN 1CIC
2. ILLCNILS


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 23 of 76



=============================================
3. CI kCUMS1ANCLS WnI Cn
AIILC1 CkI MI NAL LI A8I LI 1
=============================================
1CIC UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US:

3. C|rcumstances wh|ch Affect Cr|m|na| L|ab|||ty
a. Iust|fy|ng C|rcumstances
|. Ant|-V|o|ence Aga|nst Women and
1he|r Ch||dren Act of 2004
(a) 8attered woman syndrome
b. Lxempt|ng C|rcumstances
|. Iuven||e Iust|ce and We|fare Act of
2006, Ch||d and outh We|fare Code
(e) Def|n|t|on of ch||d |n conf||ct
w|th the |aw
(f) M|n|mum age of cr|m|na|
respons|b|||ty
(g) Determ|nat|on of age
(h) Lxempt|on from cr|m|na|
||ab|||ty
c. M|t|gat|ng C|rcumstances
d. Aggravat|ng C|rcumstances
|. Gener|c
||. ua||fy|ng
(c) Decree Cod|fy|ng the Laws on
I||ega|]Un|awfu| ossess|on,
Manufacture, Dea||ng |n,
Acqu|s|t|on or D|spos|t|on, of
I|rearms, Ammun|t|on of
Lxp|os|ves as an aggravat|ng
c|rcumstance
(d) 1he Comprehens|ve Dangerous
Drugs Act of 2002
|. As a qua||fy|ng
aggravat|ng
c|rcumstance
||. Immun|ty from
prosecut|on and
pun|shment, coverage
|||. M|nor offenders
|v. App||cat|on]Non-
app||cat|on of kC
prov|s|ons
e. A|ternat|ve C|rcumstances
f. Abso|utory Cause
======================================

3. CIkCUMS1ANCLS WnICn AIILC1 CkIMINAL
LIA8ILI1.

A. DLIINI1ICNS

IMU1A8ILI1 ls Lhe quallLy by whlch an acL may be
ascrlbed Lo a person as lLs auLhor or owner. lL lmplles
LhaL Lhe acL commlLLed has been fteely and cooscloosly
done and may, Lherefore, be puL down Lo Lhe doer as hl
very own.

kLSCNSI8ILI1 ls Lhe obllgaLlon of soffetloq Lhe
coosepoeoces of crlmes. lL ls Lhe obllgaLlon of Laklng
Lhe penal and clvll consequences of Lhe crlme.

GUIL1 ls an elemenL of responslblllLy, for a man cannoL
be made Lo answer for Lhe consequences of a crlme
unless he ls gullLy.

8. IUS1IIING CIkCUMS1ANCLS

I. GLNLkAL CCNCL1S

IUS1IIING CIkCUMS1ANCLS are Lhose where Lhe acL
of a person ls sald Lo be ln accordance wlLh law, so LhaL
such person ls deemed noL Lo have Lransgressed Lhe
law and ls free from boLh crlmlnal and clvll llablllLy.
1here ls no clvll llablllLy, excepL ln par. 4 of ArLlcle 11.

8as|s: 1he law recognlzes Lhe non-exlsLence of a crlme
by expressly sLaLlng.

lL ls lncumbenL upon Lhe accused Lo prove Lhe [usLlfylng
clrcumsLances clalmed by hlm Lo Lhe saLlsfacLlon of Lhe
courL.

II. Ak. 1: SLLI-DLILNSL

k|ghts |nc|uded |n Se|f-Defense:
Self-defense lncludes noL only Lhe defense of Lhe
petsoo or boJy of Lhe one assaulLed buL also LhaL of hls
tlqbts, Lhose rlghLs Lhe en[oymenL of whlch ls proLecLed
by law. Aslde from Lhe rlghL Lo llfe on whlch resLs Lhe
leglLlmaLe defense of our person, we have Lhe rlghL Lo
properLy acqulred by us, and Lhe rlghL Lo honor whlch ls
noL Lhe leasL prlzed of man's paLrlmony." [1 vloJo, 172,
17J, 5
tb
eJltloo]


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 24 of 76


1. uefense of person
2. uefense of rlghLs proLecLed by law
3. uefense of properLy
4. uefense of chasLlLy

keasons why pena| |aw makes se|f-defense |awfu|
lL ls based on LhaL lmpulse of self-preservaLlon
born Lo man and parL of hls naLure as a human
belng.
C|ass|c|st: grounded on Lhe lmposslblllLy on Lhe
parL of Lhe SLaLe Lo avold a presenL un[usL
aggresslon and proLecL a person unlawfully
aLLacked
os|t|v|sts: an exerclse of a rlghL, an acL of soclal
[usLlce done Lo repel Lhe aLLack of an aggresslon

LLLMLN1S:
1. Un|awfu| Aggress|on
lndlspensable requlremenL
AcLual physlcal assaulL or aggresslon or an
lmmedlaLe and lmmlnenL LhreaL ls requlred.
1he defense musL have been made durlng Lhe
exlsLence of aggresslon, oLherwlse, lL ls no
longer [usLlfylng.

2. keasonab|e necess|ty of the means emp|oyed to
prevent or repe| |t
1esL of reasonableness:
(1) naLure and quallLy of Lhe weapon used by
aggressor
(2) hyslcal condlLlon, characLer, slze and oLher
clrcumsLances of aggressor
(3) hyslcal condlLlon, characLer, slze and
clrcumsLances of person defendlng hlmself
(4) lace and occaslon of assaulL

3. Lack of suff|c|ent provocat|on on the part of the
person defend|ng h|mse|f

NC1L: erfecL equallLy beLween Lhe weapons used or
maLerlal commensurablllLy beLween Lhe means of
aLLack and defense by Lhe one defendlng hlmself and
LhaL of Lhe aggressor ls noL requlred. lL ls because Lhe
vlcLlm does noL have sufflclenL opporLunlLy Lo Lhlnk and
calculaLe.

UNLAWIUL AGGkLSSICN
k|nds of Aggress|on
o Lowfu/: fulflllmenL of a duLy or Lhe exerclse of
a rlghL
o un/owfu/
lL ls equlvalenL Lo assaulL or aL leasL LhreaLened
assaulL of an lmmedlaLe and lmmlnenL.
1here musL be an octool pbyslcol assaulL upon a
person, or aL leasL a tbteot Lo lnfllcL real ln[ury.
1he LhreaL musL be offeoslve and posltlvely sLrong,
showlng Lhe wrongful lnLenL Lo cause an ln[ury.
er|| to one's L|fe
o Actua|: Lhe danger musL be presenL, LhaL ls,
octoolly ln exlsLence
o Imm|nent: Lhe danger ls on Lhe polnL of
happenlng. lL ls noL requlred LhaL Lhe aLLack
already beglns, for lL may be Loo laLe.
er|| to one's L|mb
o lncludes perll Lo Lhe safeLy of one's person
from physlcal ln[urles

kL1ALIA1ICN SLLI-DLILNSL
1he aggresslon LhaL was
begun by Lhe ln[ured
parLy olteoJy ceoseJ to
exlst when Lhe accused
aLLacked hlm.
1he aggresslon wos stlll
exlstloq when Lhe
aggressor was ln[ured or
dlsabled by Lhe person
maklng a defense.

NC1LS CN UNLAWIUL AGGkLSSICN
1he aLLack made by Lhe deceased and Lhe kllllng of
Lhe deceased by defendanL should succeed each
oLher wlLhouL appreclable lnLerval of Llme.
lL musL come from Lhe person aLLacked by Lhe
accused.
1here ls no unlawful aggresslon when Lhere was an
agreemenL Lo flghL.
Mere bellef of an lmpendlng aLLack ls noL sufflclenL

now to Determ|ne the Un|awfu| Aggressor:
ln Lhe absence of dlrecL evldence Lo deLermlne who
provoked Lhe confllcL, lL has been held LhaL lL shall be
presumed LhaL, ln Lhe naLure of Lhe order of Lhlngs, Lhe
person who was deeply offended by Lhe lnsulL was Lhe
one who belleved he had a rlghL Lo demand
explanaLlon of Lhe perpeLraLor of LhaL lnsulL, and Lhe
one who sLruck Lhe flrsL blow when he was noL saLlsfled
wlLh Lhe explanaLlon offered. Un|ted States v. Laure|,
[22 h||. 2S2]

kINDS CI SLLI-DLILNSL:
1. Se|f-defense of chast|ty - 1here musL be an
aLLempL Lo rape Lhe vlcLlm
2. Defense of property - MusL be coupled wlLh an
aLLack on Lhe person of Lhe owner, or on one
enLrusLed wlLh such properLy.
ALLack on properLy alone was deemed
sufflclenL Lo comply wlLh elemenL of


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 2S of 76


unlawful aggresslon. (leople v. Notvoez)
3. Se|f-defense |n ||be| - !usLlfled when Lhe llbel ls
almed aL a person's good name.

"Stand ground when |n the r|ght" - 1he law does noL
requlre a person Lo reLreaL when hls assallanL ls rapldly
advanclng upon hlm wlLh a deadly weapon.

keasonab|e necess|ty of the means emp|oyed to
prevent or repe| |t
1he reasonableness of elLher or boLh such
necesslLy depends on Lhe exlsLence of unlawful
aggresslon and upon Lhe naLure and exLenL of Lhe
aggresslon.
necesslLy of Lhe course of acLlon Laken: Lhe
necesslLy of Lhe course of acLlon Laken depends on
Lhe exlsLence of unlawful aggresslon
necesslLy of Lhe means used: Lhe means employed
by Lhe person maklng a defense musL be raLlonally
necessary Lo prevenL or repel an unlawful
aggresslon
ln repelllng or prevenLlng an unlawful aggresslon,
Lhe one defendlng musL alm aL hls assallanL, and
noL lndlscrlmlnaLely flre hls deadly weapon.
1he peace offlcer, ln Lhe performance of hls duLy,
tepteseots tbe low wblcb be most opbolJ. Whlle
Lhe law on self-defense allows a prlvaLe lndlvldual
Lo pteveot or tepel an aggresslon, Lhe duLy of a
peace offlcer tepoltes hlm Lo ovetcome hls
opponenL. A pollce offlcet ls oot tepolteJ to offotJ
o petsoo ottockloq blm, tbe oppottoolty fot a falr
and equal sLruggle.

Iactors to be Cons|dered:
(a) resence of lmmlnenL danger
(b) Lmergency Lo whlch Lhe person defendlng hlmself
has been exposed Lo
(c) naLure and quallLy of Lhe weapon used by Lhe
accused compared Lo Lhe weapon of Lhe aggressor
(d) Slze or physlcal characLer of Lhe aggressor
compared Lo Lhe accused and oLher clrcumsLances
LhaL can be consldered showlng dlsparlLy beLween
aggressor and accused

NC1L: 1he fltst two requlslLes Lhus far explalned are
common Lo self-Jefeose, Jefeose of o telotlve, ooJ
Jefeose of o sttooqet.

Lack of suff|c|ent provocat|on on the part of the
person defend|ng h|mse|f
1he one defendlng hlmself musL noL have glven
cause for Lhe aggresslon by hls oojost cooJoct or
by lnclLlng or provoklng Lhe assallanL.
Cases ln whlch Lhlrd requlslLe consldered presenL:
o no provocaLlon aL all was glven Lo Lhe
aggressor by Lhe person defendlng hlmself
o When, even lf a provocaLlon was glven, lL was
noL sufflclenL
o When, even lf Lhe provocaLlon was sufflclenL,
lL was noL glven by Lhe person defendlng
hlmself
1he exerclse of a rlghL cannoL glve rlse Lo sufflclenL
provocaLlon.
1he provocaLlon musL be sufflclenL, whlch means
LhaL lL should be proporLlonaLe Lo Lhe acL of
aggresslon and adequaLe Lo sLlr Lhe aggressor Lo lLs
commlsslon eop|e v. A|conga, [78 h||. 366]

AN1I-VICLLNCL AGAINS1 WCMLN AND 1nLIk
CnILDkLN AC1 CI 2004 (k.A. 9262)
SecLlon 26 provldes LhaL vlcLlm-survlvors who are
found by Lhe courLs Lo be sufferlng from 8aLLered
Woman Syndrome Jo oot locot ooy ctlmlool ot clvll
lloblllty noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe absence of any of Lhe
elemenLs for [usLlfylng clrcumsLance of self-
defense under Lhe 8C.
8A11LkLD WCMAN SNDkCML refers Lo a
sclenLlflcally deflned paLLern of psychologlcally and
behavloral sympLoms founds ln women llvlng ln
baLLerlng relaLlonshlps as a resulL of cumulaLlve
abuse
CCLL CI VICLLNCL: eop|e v. Genosa, [G.k. No.
139S981, Ianuary 1S, 2004]
o 1enslon bulldlng phase
o AcuLe baLLerlng lncldenL
o 1ranqull, lovlng phase (non-vlolenL
phase)
Character|st|cs of the syndrome
o 1he woman belleves LhaL Lhe vlolence was her
faulL
o She has an lnablllLy Lo place Lhe responslblllLy
for Lhe vlolence elsewhere
o She fears for her llfe and/or her chlldren's llfe
o She has an lrraLlonal bellef LhaL Lhe abuser ls
omnlpresenL and omnlsclenL.
8A11Lk refers Lo any acL of lnfllcLlng physlcal
harm upon Lhe woman or her chlld, resulLlng Lo a
physlcal and psychologlcal or emoLlonal dlsLress






CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 26 of 76



III. Ak. 2: DLILNSL CI kLLA1IVLS

LLLMLN1S:
1. Un|awfu| aggress|on (lndlspensable requlremenL)
unlawful aggresslon need noL exlsL as a
maLLer or facL. lL can be made Lo depend upon
Lhe honesL bellef of Lhe one maklng a defense.
Un|ted States v. Lsmed|a, [17 h||. 260, 264]

2. keasonab|e necess|ty of the means emp|oyed to
prevent or repe| |t

3. In case the provocat|on was g|ven by the person
attacked, the one mak|ng the defense had no part
|n such provocat|on
1he clause, ln case Lhe provocaLlon was glven
by Lhe person aLLacked," used ln sLaLlng Lhe
Lhlrd requlslLe does noL mean LhaL Lhe relaLlve
defended should glve provocaLlon Lo Lhe
aggressor. lL merely sLaLes an evenL whlch
may or may noL Lake place.
1here ls sLlll a leglLlmaLe defense of relaLlve
even lf Lhe relaLlve belng defended has glven
provocaLlon, provlded LhaL Lhe one defendlng
such relaLlve has no parL ln Lhe provocaLlon.

ke|at|ve ent|t|ed to the Defense:
1. Spouse
2. AscendanLs
3. uescendanLs
4. LeglLlmaLe, naLural or adopLed broLhers and
slsLers, or relaLlves by afflnlLy ln Lhe same degrees
S. 8elaLlves by consangulnlLy wlLhln Lhe 4Lh clvll
degree

NC1L: 1he relaLlve defended may be Lhe orlglnal
aggressor. 1o [usLlfy Lhe acL of Lhe relaLlve defendlng,
he musL noL Lake parL ln such provocaLlon.

8as|s: PumanlLarlan senLlmenL and upon Lhe lmpulse of
blood whlch lmpels men Lo rush, on Lhe occaslon of
greaL perlls, Lo Lhe rescue of Lhose close Lo Lhem by Lles
of blood.

IV. Ak. 3: DLILNSL CI S1kANGLk

LLLMLN1S:
1. Un|awfu| aggress|on (lndlspensable requlremenL)
2. keasonab|e necess|ty of the means emp|oyed to
prevent or repe| |t
3. erson defend|ng be not |nduced by revenge,
resentment or other ev|| mot|ve
1he defense of a sLranger musL be acLuaLed by
JlslotetesteJ or qeoetoos motlve.

A S1kANGLk ls any person noL lncluded ln Lhe
enumeraLlon of relaLlves menLloned ln paragraph 2.

8as|s: WhaL one may do ln hls defense, anoLher may do
for hlm.

V. Ak. 4: AVCIDANCL CI GkLA1Lk LVIL Ck INIUk
(S1A1L CI NLCLSSI1)

LLLMLN1S:
1. Lv|| sought to be avo|ded actua||y ex|sts.
2. In[ury feared be greater than that done to avo|d |t
3. No other pract|ca| and |ess harmfu| means of
prevent|ng |t

ln cases falllng wlLhln subdlvlslon 4 of ArLlcle 11, Lhe
persons for whose beneflL Lhe harm has been
prevenLed, shall be clvllly llable ln proporLlon Lo Lhe
beneflL whlch Lhey may have recelved (ArL. 101)

1he necesslLy musL noL be due Lo Lhe negllgence or
vlolaLlon of any law by Lhe acLor.

VI. Ak. S: IULIILLMLN1 CI DU1 Ck LAWIUL
LxLkCISL CI kIGn1 Ck CIIICL

LLLMLN1S:
1. Accused acted |n the performance of duty or |n
the |awfu| exerc|se of a r|ght or off|ce
2. In[ury caused or offense comm|tted |s the
necessary consequence of the due performance
of the duty, or the |awfu| exerc|se of such r|ght or
off|ce

NC1LS:
1he accused musL prove LhaL he was duly
appolnLed Lo Lhe poslLlon clalmed he was
dlscharglng aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
offense.
1he deceased was under Lhe obllgaLlon Lo
surrender, and had no rlghL, afLer evadlng servlce
of hls senLence, Lo commlL assaulL and
dlsobedlence wlLh a weapon ln hls hand, whlch
compelled Lhe pollceman Lo resorL Lo such an
exLreme means, whlch, alLhough lL proved Lo be
faLal, was [usLlfled by Lhe clrcumsLances. eop|e v.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 27 of 76


De||ma, [46 h||. 738]
lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhere by unlawful
aggresslon oqolost tbe petsoo charged wlLh Lhe
proLecLlon of Lhe properLy. lf Lhere ls unlawful
aggresslon agalnsL Lhe person charged wlLh Lhe
proLecLlon of Lhe properLy, Lhen paragraph 1 of
ArL. 11 applles, lL belng a defense of rlghL Lo
properLy.

DCC1kINL CI SLLI-nLL - 1he owner or lawful
possessor of a Lhlng has Lhe rlghL Lo exclude any
person from Lhe en[oymenL and dlsposal Lhereof.
lor Lhls purpose, he may use such force as may be
reasonably necessary Lo repel or prevenL an acLual
or LhreaLened unlawful physlcal lnvaslon or
usurpaLlon of hls properLy.

VII. Ak. 6: C8LDILNCL 1C AN CkDLk ISSULD ICk
SCML LAWIUL UkCSL

LLLMLN1S:
1. An order has been |ssued
2. 1he order has a |awfu| purpose and not patent|y
|||ega|
3. Means used by subord|nate to carry out sa|d
order |s |awfu|

NC1L: 1he superlor offlcer glvlng Lhe order cannoL
lnvoke Lhls [usLlfylng clrcumsLance. Cood falLh ls
maLerlal, as Lhe subordlnaLe ls noL llable for carrylng
ouL an lllegal order lf he ls noL aware of lLs lllegallLy and
he ls noL negllgenL.

GLNLkAL kULL: SubordlnaLe cannoL lnvoke Lhls
clrcumsLance when order ls paLenLly lllegal.

LxCL1ICN: When Lhere ls compulslon of an lrreslsLlble
force, or under lmpulse of unconLrollable fear.

C. LxLM1ING CIkCUMS1ANCLS

Ak1. 12. xemptinq circumstonces (II INDIA)

I. GLNLkAL CCNCL1S

LxLM1ING CIkCUMS1ANCLS are Lhose grounds for
exempLlon from punlshmenL due Lo absence of any
condlLlons ln Lhe agenL of Lhe crlme whlch makes Lhe acL
volunLary or negllgenL.

1echnlcally, one who acLs by vlrLue of any exempLlng
clrcumsLances commlLs a crlme, alLhough by Lhe compleLe
absence of any of Lhe condlLlons whlch consLlLuLe free wlll
or volunLarlness of Lhe acL, no crlmlnal llablllLy arlse.
(Cuevara)
1he complete obseoce of lnLelllgence, freedom of acLlon,
or lnLenL, or absence of negllgence on Lhe parL of Lhe
accused.

1he burden of proof Lo prove Lhe exlsLence of an
exempLlng clrcumsLance lles wlLhln Lhe defense.

IUS1IIING LxLM1ING
WnC]WnA1
IS AIILC1LD
AcL AcLor
NA1UkL CI
AC1
AcL ls consldered
legal
AcL ls wrongful buL
acLor ls noL llable
LxIS1LNCL
CI A CkIML
none ?es, buL slnce
volunLarlness ls
absenL Lhe acLor ls
noL llable
LIA8ILI1 no crlme
no crlmlnal
no crlmlnal
llablllLy
no clvll llablllLy
LxCL1 clvll
llablllLy ln ArL.
11(4) [sLaLe of
necesslLy]
1here ls a crlme
no crlmlnal
no crlmlnal
llablllLy
1here ls clvll
llablllLy LxCL1 as
Lo ArL. 12(4)
[ln[ury by mere
accldenL] and (7)
[lawful cause]

II. Ak. 1: IM8LCILI1 Ck INSANI1

IM8LCILI1 exlsLs when a person, whlle of advanced ln
age has a menLal developmenL comparable Lo LhaL of
chlldren beLween 2 and 7 years old. An lmbeclle ls one
who deprlved compleLely of reason or dlscernmenL and
freedom of Lhe wlll aL Lhe Llme of commlLLlng Lhe
crlme. Pe ls exempt lo oll coses from crlmlnal llablllLy.

INSANI1 exlsLs when Lhere ls compleLe deprlvaLlon of
lnLelllgence or reason or wlLhouL Lhe leasL dlscernmenL
or wlLh LoLal deprlvaLlon of free wlll. 1hls does noL
lnclude mere abnormallLy of Lhe menLal faculLles. 1he
lnsane ls oot so exempt lf lL can be shown LhaL he octeJ
Jotloq o loclJ lotetvol.

lL ls necessary LhaL Lhere be a complete Jeptlvotloo of
lotelllqeoce whlle commlLLlng Lhe acL, LhaL ls, LhaL Lhe
accused be deprlved of reason, LhaL he acLs wltboot tbe
leost Jlscetomeot, or LhaL tbete be o totol Jeptlvotloo
of freedom of Lhe wlll. eop|e v. Iorm|gones, [87 h||.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 28 of 76


6S8, 661]

1he Jefeose musL prove LhaL Lhe accused was lnsane aL
Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, because Lhe
presumpLlon ls always ln favor of sanlLy. eop|e v.
8ascos, [44 h||. 204, 206]

8as|s: CompleLe absence of lnLelllgence, an elemenL of
volunLarlness

1IML WnLN ACCUSLD
SUIILkS INSANI1
LIILC1 CN CkIMINAL
LIA8ILI1
AL Lhe Llme of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe felony
LxempL from crlmlnal
llablllLy
uurlng Lrlal Accused ls crlmlnal
llablllLy, buL Lrlal wlll be
suspended unLll Lhe
menLal capaclLy of Lhe
accused be resLored Lo
afford hlm a falr Lrlal, and
accused ls commlLLed Lo a
hosplLal
AfLer [udgmenL or whlle
servlng senLence
xecotloo of joJqmeot ls
sospeoJeJ, tbe occoseJ ls
commltteJ to o bospltol.
1be petloJ of coofloemeot
lo tbe bospltol ls coooteJ
fot tbe potpose of tbe
ptesctlptloo of tbe
peoolty.

1he ev|dence of |nsan|ty musL tefet to tbe tlme
pteceJloq tbe oct under Lhe prosecuLlon or to tbe vety
momeot of lLs execuLlon.

1ests of Insan|ty:
1. CognlLlon: compleLe deprlvaLlon of lnLelllgence ln
commlLLlng Lhe crlme
2. vollLlon: LoLal deprlvaLlon of freedom of wlll

Scope of the term "Insan|ty":
1. uemenLla praecox: lrreslsLlble homlcldal lmpulse
2. Schlzophrenla: chronlc menLal dlsorder
characLerlzed by lnablllLy Lo dlsLlngulsh beLween
fanLasy and reallLy and ofLen accompanled by
halluclnaLlons and deluslons
3. klepLomanla
4. Lpllepsy: chronlc nervous dlsease characLerlzed by
flLs, occurrlng aL lnLervals, aLLended by concluslve
moLlons of Lhe muscles and loss of consclousness.
S. leeblemlndedness: oot exemptloq
6. edophllla: oot losoolty
7. Amnesla: oot ptoof of meotol cooJltloo of tbe
occoseJ
8. CLher causes of lack of lnLelllgence
a. CommlLLlng a crlme whlle ln a dream eop|e
v. 1aneo, [S8 h||. 2SS]
b. Somnambullsm or sleepwalklng eop|e v.
G|mena,[SS h|| 604]
c. CommlLLlng a crlme whlle sufferlng from
mallgnanL malarla eop|e v. Lacena, [69 h||.
3S0]

III. Ak. 2 AND 3: MINCkI1

8as|s: CompleLe absence of lnLelllgence

under nlne (9) years" should be consLrued nlne years
or less," as may be lnferred from Lhe nexL subsequenL
paragraph whlch does noL LoLally exempL a person
over nlne years of age" lf he acLed wlLh dlscernmenL
(Att. 189, l.u. 60J)

IUVLNILL IUS1ICL AND WLLIAkL AC1 CI 2006 AND
CnILD AND CU1n WLLIAkL CCDL

CnILD IN CCNILIC1 WI1n 1nL LAW refers Lo a chlld
who ls alleged as, accused of, or ad[udged as, havlng
commlLLed an offense under hlllpplne laws.

under Lhe Iuven||e Iust|ce and We|fare Act of 2006,
Lhe followlng are exempt from cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty:
(a) Chlld 1S yeots of oqe ot ooJet aL Lhe Llme
of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense.
Powever, Lhe chlld shall be sub[ecL Lo an
lnLervenLlon program as provlded under
SecLlon 20 of Lhe same law.
(b) Chlld above 1S years old buL below 18
years of age who acLed wlLhouL
dlscernmenL.
lL ls lncumbenL upon Lhe prosecuLlon Lo
prove LhaL a mlnor who ls over 1S buL
under 18 years of age has acLed wlLh
dlscernmenL.

DL1LkMINA1ICN CI AGL
1he chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law shall en[oy Lhe
presumpLlon of mlnorlLy. 1he age of a chlld may be
deLermlned from:
1. Chlld's blrLh cerLlflcaLe
2. 8apLlsmal cerLlflcaLe
3. Any oLher perLlnenL documenLs


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 29 of 76


4. 8ased on lnformaLlon from Lhe chlld
hlmself/herself
S. 1esLlmonles of oLher persons
6. hyslcal appearance of Lhe chlld
7. CLher relevanL evldence

er|ods of Cr|m|na| kespons|b|||ty:
1. AbsoluLe lrresponslblllLy: 1S years and below
(lnfancy)
2. CondlLlonal responslblllLy: beLween 1S and 18
years
WlLhouL dlscernmenL: noL crlmlnally llable
WlLh dlscernmenL: crlmlnally llable
3. lull responslblllLy: 18 or over (adolescence) Lo 70
(maLurlLy)
4. MlLlgaLed responslblllLy: mlLlgaLed responslblllLy,
no lmposlLlon of deaLh penalLy, execuLlon of deaLh
senLence may be suspended and commuLed

DISCLkNMLN1 ls Lhe menLal capaclLy Lo undersLand
Lhe dlfference beLween rlghL and wrong, and such
capaclLy may be known and should be deLermlned by
Laklng lnLo conslderaLlon all Lhe facLs and
clrcumsLances afforded by Lhe records ln each case, Lhe
very appearance, Lhe very aLLlLude, Lhe very
comporLmenL and behavlor of sald mlnor, noL only
before and durlng Lhe commlsslon of Lhe acL, buL also
afLer and even durlng Lhe Lrlal. eop|e v. Doquea, [68
h|| S80, S83]

DISCLkNMLN1 IN1LN1
8elaLes Lo Lhe moral
slgnlflcance LhaL a person
ascrlbes Lo Lhe sald acL
8efers Lo Lhe deslred acL
of Lhe person

ulscernmenL may be shown by: (1) Lhe manner Lhe
crlme was commlLLed, or (2) Lhe conducL of Lhe
offender afLer lLs commlsslon.

lf Lhe chlld acLed wlLh dlscernmenL, Lhe chlld shall
undergo dlverslon programs wlLhouL undergolng courL
proceedlngs sub[ecL Lo Lhe followlng condlLlons:
1. Where Lhe lmposable penalLy ls noL more
Lhan 6 years of lmprlsonmenL, Lhe
unong 8arangay or law enforcemenL
offlcer shall conducL medlaLlon, famlly
conferenclng and conclllaLlon.
2. Where Lhe lmposable penalLy exceeds 6
years lmprlsonmenL, dlverslon measures
may be resorLed Lo only by Lhe courL.
1he prosecuLor shall conducL a prellmlnary
lnvesLlgaLlon and flle an lnformaLlon upon
deLermlnaLlon of probable cause ln Lhe followlng
lnsLances:
1. When Lhe chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law
does noL quallfy for dlverslon.
2. When Lhe chlld, hls/her parenLs or
guardlan does noL agree Lo dlverslon.
3. upon deLermlnaLlon by Lhe prosecuLor
LhaL dlverslon ls noL approprlaLe for Lhe
chlld ln confllcL of Lhe law.

Cnce Lhe chlld who ls under 18 years of age, aL Lhe Llme
of commlsslon of Lhe offense ls found gullLy of Lhe
offense charged, Lhe courL shall deLermlne and
ascerLaln any clvll llablllLy whlch may have resulLed
from Lhe offense commlLLees. Powever, lnsLead of
produclng Lhe [udgmenL of convlcLlon, Lhe courL shall
place Lhe chlld ln confllcL wlLh law under suspended
senLence, wlLhouL need of appllcaLlon and lmpose Lhe
approprlaLe dlsposlLlon measures as provlded ln Lhe
Supreme CourL 8ule on !uvenlle ln ConfllcL wlLh Lhe
Law.

lf Lhe [udgmenL ls an acqulLLal, Lhe declslon shall
lmmedlaLely Lake effecL wlLhouL suspenslon and Lhe
declslon shall be promulgaLed and pronounced.

lf Lhe [udgmenL ls convlcLlon, Lhe promulgaLlon of Lhe
declslon and Lhe senLence shall be suspended by Lhe
courL, Lhe mlnor shall be ordered Lo undergo
lnLervenLlon.
1. lf afLer Lhe lnLervenLlon, Lhere ls reform
on Lhe parL of Lhe mlnor, Lhe mlnor shall
be reLurned Lo Lhe courL Lo dlsmlss Lhe
crlmlnal case and dlsmlss Lhe charges
agalnsL Lhe mlnor
2. lf afLer Lhe lnLervenLlon, Lhere ls no
reform, Lhe mlnor shall be reLurned Lo
Lhe courL for Lhe promulgaLlon of Lhe
declslon agalnsL Lhe mlnor, and Lhen Lhe
courL shall elLher declde on Lhe senLence
or exLend Lhe lnLervenLlon

IV. Ak. 4: ACCIDLN1 WI1nCU1 IAUL1 Ck IN1LN1ICN
CI CAUSING I1

ACCIDLN1 ls an occurrence LhaL happens ouLslde Lhe
sway of our wlll, and alLhough lL comes abouL Lhrough
some acL of our wlll, lL lles beyond Lhe bounds of
humanlLy foreseeable consequences.



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 30 of 76


LLLMLN1S:
1. A person ls performlng a lawful acL,
2. WlLh due care,
3. Pe causes an ln[ury Lo anoLher by mere accldenL,
4. WlLhouL faulL or lnLenLlon of causlng lL.

8as|s: Lack of negllgence and lnLenL. under Lhls
clrcumsLance, a person does noL commlL elLher an
lnLenLlonal felony or a culpable felony.

ACCIDLN1 NLGLIGLNCL
An evenL whlch under Lhe
clrcumsLance ls unusual
or unexpecLed by Lhe
person Lo whom lL
happens
lallure Lo observe LhaL
degree of care, precauLlon
and vlgllance whlch Lhe
clrcumsLances [usLly
demand wlLhouL whlch
such oLher person suffers
ln[ury

When c|a|m of acc|dent no apprec|ated:
(a) 8epeaLed blows
(b) 1hreaLenlng words precedlng lL and sLlll almlng Lhe
fun aL Lhe prosLaLe body of Lhe vlcLlm

V. Ak. S: IkkLSIS1I8LL ICkCL

IkkLSIS1I8LL ICkCL means LhaL Lhe offender uses
vlolence or physlcal force Lo compel anoLher person Lo
commlL a crlme.

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1he compulslon ls by means of physlcal force.
2. 1he physlcal force musL be lrreslsLlble.
3. 1he physlcal force musL come from a Lhlrd person.

asslon and obfuscaLlon cannoL amounL Lo lrreslsLlble
force.

8as|s: CompleLe absence of freedom

1he force musL be so lrreslsLlble as Lo reduce Lhe acLor
Lo a mere lnsLrumenL who acLs noL only wlLhouL wlll
buL agalnsL hls wlll. 1he compulslon musL be of such a
characLer as Lo leave no opporLunlLy Lo Lhe accused for
escape or self-defense ln equal combaL. eop|e v.
Loreno, 130 SCkA 311, 321-322, c|t|ng eop|e v.
V|||anueva, [104 h||. 4S0]

VI. Ak. 6: UNCCN1kCLLA8LL ILAk

UNCCN1kCLLA8LL ILAk means LhaL Lhe offender
employs lnLlmldaLlon or LhreaL ln compelllng anoLher Lo
commlL a crlme. 1he compulslon ls by means of
lnLlmldaLlon or LhreaL, oot fotce or vlolence.
LLLMLN1S:
1. 1he tbteot wblcb cooses tbe feot ls of oo evll
qteotet tboo, ot ot leost epool to, LhaL whlch he ls
requlred Lo commlL.
2. lL promlses an evll of such qtovlty ooJ lmmloeoce
LhaL an ordlnary man would have succumbed Lo lL.

kLUISI1LS:
1. LxlsLence of an unconLrollable fear,
2. 1he fear musL be real and lmmlnenL, and
3. 1he fear of an ln[ury ls greaLer Lhan or aL leasL
equal Lo LhaL commlLLed

8as|s: CompleLe absence of freedom, an elemenL of
volunLarlness. An acL done by me agalnsL my wlll ls noL
my acL.

uuress Lo be a valld defense should be based on real,
lmmlnenL or reasonable fear for one's llfe or llmb. lL
should noL be lnsplred by speculaLlve, fanclful or
remoLe fear. A LhreaL of fuLure ln[ury ls noL enough.

1he accused musL noL have opporLunlLy for escape or
self-defense.

IkkLSIS1I8LL ICkCL UNCCN1kCLLA8LL ILAk
vlolence or physlcal force
Lo compel anoLher
person Lo commlL a crlme
1he offender employs
lnLlmldaLlon or LhreaL ln
compelllng anoLher Lo
commlL a crlme

VII. Ak. 7: kLVLN1LD 8 AN INSULkA8LL CAUSL

INSULkA8LL CAUSL ls some moLlve, whlch has
lawfully, morally or physlcally prevenLed a person Lo do
whaL Lhe law commands.

LLLMLN1S:
1. An acL ls requlred by law Lo be done.
2. A person falls Lo perform such acL.
3. Pls fallure Lo perform such acL was due Lo some
lawful or lnsuperable cause.

8as|s: Accused acLs wlLhouL lnLenL, Lhe Lhlrd condlLlon
of volunLarlness ln lnLenLlonal felony.

Lxamp|es:
1. A prlesL cannoL be compelled Lo reveal whaL was


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 31 of 76


confessed Lo hlm.
2. An offlcer ls noL llable for arblLrary deLenLlon for
fallure Lo dellver a prlsoner Lo a [udlclal auLhorlLy
when Lhere was no avallable LransporLaLlon.


D. MI1IGA1ING CIkCUMS1ANCLS

I. GLNLkAL CCNCL1S

MI1IGA1ING CIkCUMS1ANCLS are Lhose whlch, lf
presenL ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, reduces Lhe
penalLy of Lhe crlme buL does noL erase crlmlnal llablllLy
nor change Lhe naLure of Lhe crlme.

8as|s: ulmlnuLlon of elLher freedom of acLlon,
lnLelllgence, or lnLenL, or on Lhe lesser perverslLy of Lhe
offender.

A mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance arlslng from a slngle facL
absorbs all Lhe oLher mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances arlslng
from LhaL same facL.

CkDINAk kIVILLGLD
1hose enumeraLed ln
pars. 1-10 of ArLlcle 13
ar. 1 of ArLlcle 13,
ArLlcles 64, 68, 69
ars. 1 and 2 are
prlvlleged mlLlgaLlng
under ArLlcle 68 as
amended by 8.A. no.
9344 and ArLlcle 69
ArLlcle 64 applles only
when Lhere are Lwo or
more ordlnary mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLances wlLhouL
any generlc aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances
SuscepLlble of belng offseL
by any aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances
CannoL be offseL by
aggravaLlng clrcumsLances
lf noL offseL by an
aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances, produces
only Lhe effecL of applylng
Lhe penalLy provlded by
law for Lhe crlme ln lLs
mlolmom petloJ, ln case
of dlvlslble penalLy
roduces Lhe effecL of
lmposlng upon Lhe
offender Lhe penalLy
lowet by ooe ot two
Jeqtees Lhan LhaL
provlded by law for Lhe
crlme

II. Ak. 1: INCCMLL1L IUS1IIING Ck LxLM1ING
CIkCUMS1ANCLS

C|rcumstances of Iust|f|cat|on or Lxempt|on wh|ch
may g|ve |ace to M|t|gat|on:
(a) Self-defense
(b) uefense of 8elaLlves
(c) uefense of SLrangers
(d) SLaLe of necesslLy
(e) erformance of uuLy
(f) Cbedlence Lo Crder of Superlor
(g) MlnorlLy over 9 and under 1S years of Age
(h) Causlng ln[ury by mere AccldenL
(l) unconLrollable lear

LxCL1: ArLlcle 12, pars. 1 and 2 cannoL glve place Lo
mlLlgaLlon, because Lhe menLal condlLlon of a person ls
lndlvlslble, Lhere ls no mlddle ground beLween sanlLy
and lnsanlLy, beLween presence and absence of
lnLelllgence. (uecs. of 5op. ct. of 5polo of uecembet 19,
1901 ooJ of Octobet J, 1881)

1hls mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance applles when noL all Lhe
requlslLes are presenL. lf 2 requlslLes are presenL, lL ls a
prlvlleged mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.

Notes:
lncompleLe self-defense, defense of relaLlves, and
defense of sLranger: unlawful aggresslon musL be
presenL
o When 2 of Lhe requlslLes menLloned are
presenL, lL should be consldered as a
prlvlleged mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance referred Lo
ln ArL. 69.
lncompleLe [usLlfylng clrcumsLance of avoldance of
greaLer evll or ln[ury: lf any of Lhe lasL 2 requlslLes
ls absenL, Lhere ls only a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance
lncompleLe [usLlfylng clrcumsLance of performance
of duLy: Lhere ls oo otJlooty mltlqotloq
cltcomstooce under ArL. 13, par. 1, when Lhe
[usLlfylng or exempLlng clrcumsLance has 2
requlslLes only
lncompleLe exempLlng clrcumsLances of accldenL
o lf Lhe requlslLes of (1) due care, and (2)
wlLhouL faulL are absenL, Lhe case wlll fall
under ArLlcle 36S.
lncompleLe exempLlng clrcumsLance of
unconLrollable fear: lf only one of Lhe requlslLes ls
presenL, Lhere ls only a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance

III. Ak. 2: CVLk 1S AND UNDLk 18, II 1nLkL IS
DISCLkNMLN1 Ck CVLk 70 LAkS CLD

Age of accused ls deLermlned by hls age aL Lhe daLe of
commlsslon of crlme, noL daLe of Lrlal.

1haL Lhe offender ls over 70 years of age ls only a
generlc mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 32 of 76



8as|s: ulmlnuLlon of lnLelllgence, a condlLlon of
volunLarlness

IV. Ak. 3: NC IN1LN1ICN 1C CCMMI1 SC GkAVL A
GkAVL

ku|e for the app||cat|on: 1hls clrcumsLance can be
Laken lnLo accounL only when Lhe facLs proven show
LhaL Lhere ls a ootoble and evlJeot Jlsptopottloo
beLween Lhe means employed Lo execuLe Lhe crlmlnal
acL and lLs consequences. (uolteJ 5totes v. keyes, J6
lbll. 901, 907)

Iactors that can be cons|dered are:
(a) Weapon used
(b) ln[ury lnfllcLed
(c) arL of Lhe body ln[ured
(d) MlndseL of offender aL Lhe Llme of commlsslon of
crlme

NC1LS:
noL appllcable when Lhe offender employed bruLe
force
AppreclaLed ln murder quallfled by clrcumsLances
based on manner of commlsslon, noL on Lhe sLaLe
of mlnd of Lhe accused
noL appreclaLed ln murder quallfled by Lreachery
noL appllcable Lo felonles by negllgence
noL appllcable Lo felonles where lnLenLlon ls
lmmaLerlal
Appllcable only Lo offenses resulLlng ln physlcal
ln[urles or maLerlal harm
ln crlmes agalnsL persons who do noL dle as a
resulL of Lhe assaulL, Lhe absence of Lhe lnLenL Lo
klll reduces Lhe felony Lo mere physlcal ln[urles,
buL lL does noL consLlLuLe a mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance under ArL. 13, par. 3 eop|e v.
Ga|acgac, [C.A., S C.G. 1207]

8as|s: lnLenL, an elemenL of volunLarlness ln lnLenLlonal
felony, ls dlmlnlshed.

V. Ak. 4: kCVCCA1ICN Ck 1nkLA1

kCVCCA1ICN ls any un[usL or lmproper
conducL or acL of Lhe offended parLy, capable of
exclLlng, lnclLlng or lrrlLaLlng anyone.

kLUISI1LS:
1. rovocaLlon musL be sufflclenL.
Suff|c|ent means adequaLe Lo exclLe a person
Lo commlL Lhe wrong and musL accordlngly be
proporLlonaLe Lo lLs gravlLy.
uepends on:
o 1he acL consLlLuLlng Lhe provocaLlon
o Soclal sLandlng of Lhe person provoked
o lace and Lhe Llme when Lhe provocaLlon
ls made
2. lL musL orlglnaLe from Lhe offended parLy.
3. lL musL be lmmedlaLe Lo Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme by Lhe person who ls provoked.

INCCMLL1L SLLI-
DLILNSL
MI1IGA1ING
CIkCUMS1ANCLS
lL perLalns Lo lLs absence
on Lhe parL of Lhe petsoo
JefeoJloq blmself.
lL perLalns Lo lLs presence
on Lhe parL of Lhe
offeoJeJ potty.

1hreat should noL be offenslve and poslLlvely sLrong.
CLherwlse, lL would be an unlawful aggresslon, whlch
may glve rlse Lo self-defense and Lhus no longer a
mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.

8as|s: ulmlnuLlon of lnLelllgence and lnLenL.

VI. Ak. S: VINDICA1ICN CI GkAVL CIILNSL

kLUISI1LS:
1. A grave offense done Lo Lhe one commlLLlng Lhe
felony, hls spouse, ascendanLs, descendanLs,
leglLlmaLe, naLural or adopLed broLhers or slsLers
or relaLlves by afflnlLy wlLhln Lhe same degree.
2. lelony ls commlLLed ln lmmedlaLe vlndlcaLlon of
such grave offense.

NC1LS:
lmmedlaLe" allows for a lapse of Llme, as long as
Lhe offender ls sLlll sufferlng from Lhe menLal
agony broughL abouL by Lhe offense Lo hlm.
Crave offense" lncludes any acL LhaL ls offenslve
Lo Lhe offender or hls relaLlves and Lhe same need
noL be unlawful.
1he grave offense musL be Lhe proxlmaLe cause or
proxlmaLe Lo Lhe acL of Lhe offender.
8as|s to determ|ne the grav|ty of the offense |n
v|nd|cat|on:
o Soclal sLandlng of Lhe person
o lace
o 1lme when Lhe lnsulL was made





CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 33 of 76


kCVCCA1ICN VINDICA1ICN
Made dlrecLly only Lo Lhe
person commlLLlng Lhe
felony
1he grave offense may be
commlLLed also agalnsL
Lhe offender's relaLlves
menLloned by Lhe law
1he cause LhaL broughL
abouL Lhe provocaLlon
oeeJ oot be a grave
offense
1he offended parLy musL
have done a qtove offeose
Lo Lhe offender or hls
relaLlves menLloned by
Lhe law
lL ls necessary LhaL Lhe
provocaLlon or LhreaL
lmmeJlotely preceded Lhe
acL, Lhere ls no lnLerval of
Llme beLween Lhe
provocaLlon and Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme
1he vlndlcaLlon of Lhe
grave offense may be
ptoxlmote, whlch admlLs
of an lnLerval of Llme
beLween Lhe grave
offense done by Lhe
offended parLy and Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme
by Lhe accused
lL ls mere splLe agalnsL Lhe
one glvlng Lhe
provocaLlon or LhreaL
Concerns Lhe honor of a
person

8as|s: ulmlnuLlon of Lhe condlLlons of volunLarlness.

VII. Ak. 6: ASSICN Ck C8IUSCA1ICN

kLUISI1LS:
1. 1he accused acLed upon an lmpolse.
2. 1he lmpulse musL be so powetfol LhaL lL naLurally
produced passlon or obfuscaLlon ln hlm.

ku|e for the app||cat|on of th|s paragraph: asslon or
obfuscaLlon may consLlLuLe a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance
only when Lhe same arose from lowfol seotlmeot.

WnLN MI1IGA1ING NC1 MI1IGA1ING
Accused acLed upon
lmpulse
AcL ls commlLLed ln a
splrlL of lawlessness
AcL ls commlLLed ln a
splrlL of revenge

kLUISI1LS:
1. 1here be an acL, boLh oolowfol and sofflcleot Lo
produce such a condlLlon of mlnd,
2. Sald acL whlch produced Lhe obfuscaLlon was noL
far removed from Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme by
a conslderable lengLh of Llme, durlng whlch Lhe
perpeLraLor mlghL recover hls normal equanlmlLy



NC1LS:
Lxerclse of a rlghL or fulflllmenL of duLy ls noL
proper source of passlon or obfuscaLlon.
1he acL musL be sufflclenL Lo produce such a
condlLlon of mlnd.
1he defense musL prove LhaL Lhe acL whlch
produced Lhe passlon or obfuscaLlon Look place aL
a Llme noL far removed from Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe crlme.
1he crlme commlLLed musL be Lhe resulL of a
sudden lmpulse of naLural and unconLrollable fury.
1he cause produclng passlon or obfuscaLlon musL
come from Lhe offended parLy.
lL may lawfully arlse from causes exlsLlng only ln
Lhe hones bellef of Lhe offender.
lL ls compaLlble wlLh lock of loteotloo to commlt so
qtove o wtooq.
lncompaLlble wlLh:
o vlndlcaLlon of grave offense
o 1reachery
o LvldenL premedlLaLlon










ASSICN]C8IUSCA1ICN kCVCCA1ICN
roduced by an lmpulse
whlch may be caused by
provocaLlon
Comes from Lhe ln[ured
parLy
1he offense whlch
engenders perLurbaLlon
or mlnd need noL be
lmmedlaLe, lL ls only
requlred LhaL Lhe
lnfluence Lhereof lasLs
unLll Lhe momenL Lhe
crlme ls commlLLed
MusL lmmedlaLely
precede Lhe commlsslon
of Lhe crlme
lf obfuscaLlon and provocaLlon arose from one and Lhe
same acL, boLh shall be LreaLed as only one mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance.

ASSICN]C8IUSCA1ICN IkkLSIS1I8LL ICkCL
A mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance An exempLlng
clrcumsLance
CannoL glve rlse Lo an
lrreslsLlble force
8equlres physlcal force
asslon or obfuscaLlon ls
ln Lhe offender hlmself
lrreslsLlble force musL
come from a Lhlrd person
MusL arlse from lawful
senLlmenLs
unlawful



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 34 of 76


8as|s: 1he offender who acLs wlLh passlon or
obfuscaLlon suffers a dlmlnuLlon of hls lnLelllgence and
lnLenL.

VIII: Ak. 7: SUkkLNDLk AND CCNILSSICN CI GUIL1

1WC MI1IGA1ING CIkCUMS1ANCLS:
1. volunLary surrender Lo a person ln auLhorlLy or hls
agenLs.
2. volunLary confesslon of gullL before Lhe courL prlor
Lo Lhe presenLaLlon of evldence for Lhe
prosecuLlon.

NC1L: When boLh are presenL, Lhey should have Lhe
effecL of mlLlgaLlng as Lwo lndependenL clrcumsLances.
eop|e v. Iontab|a, [61 h||. S89, S90]


kLUISI1LS CI VCLUN1Ak SUkkLNDLk:
1. 1he offender had oot beeo octoolly ottesteJ.

2. 1he offender surrender hlmself Lo a petsoo lo
ootbotlty ot to tbe lottets oqeot.

LkSCN IN AU1nCkI1 ls one dlrecLly vesLed
wlLh [urlsdlcLlon, l.e., a publlc offlcer who has
Lhe power Lo govern and execuLe Lhe laws
wheLher as an lndlvldual or as a member of
some courL or governmenLal corporaLlon,
board or commlsslon.
AGLN1 CI A LkSCN IN AU1nCkI1 ls a
person, who, by dlrecL provlslon of Lhe law, or
by elecLlon or by appolnLmenL by compeLenL
auLhorlLy, ls charged wlLh Lhe moloteoooce of
pobllc otJet and Lhe ptotectloo ooJ secotlty of
llfe ooJ ptopetty and any person who comes
Lo Lhe ald of persons ln auLhorlLy.

3. 1he surrender was volunLary.
lL musL be sponLaneous ln such a manner LhaL
lL shows Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe accused Lo
surrender uncondlLlonally Lo Lhe auLhorlLles,
elLher because he acknowledges hls gullL or
because he wlshes Lo save Lhem Lhe Lrouble
and expenses necessarlly lncurred ln hls
search and capLure.

NC1LS:
noL mlLlgaLlng when defendanL was ln facL
arresLed
When Lhe warranL of arresL had noL been served
or noL reLurned unserved because Lhe accused
cannoL be locaLed, Lhe surrender ls mlLlgaLlng.
1he law does noL requlre LhaL Lhe surrender be
prlor Lo Lhe order of arresL.
Surrender of weapons cannoL be equaLed wlLh
volunLary surrender.
volunLary surrender does noL slmply mean non-
fllghL.
1he surrender musL be by reason of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme for whlch defendanL ls
prosecuLed.
lnLenLlon Lo surrender, wlLhouL acLually
surrenderlng, ls noL mlLlgaLlng.
1here ls sponLanelLy even lf Lhe surrender ls
lnduced by fear of reLallaLlon by Lhe vlcLlm's
relaLlves.
When Lhe offender lmposed a condlLlon or acLed
wlLh exLernal sLlmulus, hls surrender ls noL
volunLary.

kLUISI1LS CI VCLUN1Ak LLA CI GUIL1:
1. 1he offender spootooeoosly coofesseJ bls qollt.
2. 1he confesslon of gullL was made lo opeo coott,
LhaL ls, before Lhe competeot coott LhaL ls Lo Lry
Lhe case.
3. 1he confesslon of gullL was made ptlot Lo Lhe
presenLaLlon of evldence for Lhe prosecuLlon.

NC1LS:
lea made afLer arralgnmenL and afLer Lrlal has
begun does noL enLlLle accused Lo Lhe mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance.
lf accused pleaded noL gullLy, even lf durlng
arralgnmenL, he ls enLlLled Lo mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance as long as he wlLhdraws hls plea of
noL gullLy Lo Lhe charge before Lhe flscal could
presenL hls evldence.
o 1he change of plea should be made aL Lhe flrsL
opporLunlLy.
o A condlLlonal plea of gullLy ls noL a mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance.
lea Lo a lesser charge ls noL a mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance because Lhe plea of gullL was noL Lo
Lhe offense charged.
lea Lo Lhe offense charged ln Lhe amended
lnformaLlon, lesser Lhan LhaL charged ln Lhe
orlglnal lnformaLlon ls a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.
Where Lhe accused pleads gullLy Lo a caplLal
offense, LhaL courL shall conducL a searchlng
lnqulry lnLo Lhe volunLarlness and full
comprehenslon of Lhe consequences of hls plea


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 3S of 76


and shall requlre Lhe prosecuLlon Lo prove hls gullL
and Lhe preclse degree of culpablllLy.
lea of gullLy ls noL mlLlgaLlng ln culpable felonles
and ln crlmes punlshable by speclal laws.

8as|s: Lesser perverslLy of Lhe offender.

Ix: Ak. 8: nSICAL DLILC1 CI CIILNDLk

NC1LS:
hyslcal defecL musL resLrlcL means of acLlon,
defense, or communlcaLlon wlLh fellow belngs.
1he physlcal defecL musL relaLe Lo Lhe offense
commlLLed.
1hls paragraph does noL dlsLlngulsh beLween
educaLed an uneducaLed deaf-muLe or bllnd
persons.

8as|s: Cne sufferlng from physlcal defecL, whlch
resLrlcLs one's means of acLlon, defense, or
communlcaLlon wlLh one's fellow belngs, does noL have
compleLe freedom of acLlon and, Lherefore, Lhere ls a
dlmlnuLlon of LhaL elemenL of volunLarlness.

x: Ak. 9: ILLNLSS CI 1nL CIILNDLk

kLUISI1LS:
1. 1he lllness of Lhe offender musL dlmlnlsh Lhe
exerclse of hls wlll-power.
2. Such lllness should noL deprlve Lhe offender of
consclousness of hls acLs.

8as|s: ulmlnuLlon of lnLelllgence and lnLenL.

xI: Ak. 10: SIMILAk Ck ANALCGCUS
CIkCUMS1ANCLS

Lxamp|es:
(a) CuLraged feellng of owner of anlmal Laken for
ransom analogous Lo vlndlcaLlon of a grave
offense.
(b) lmpulse of [ealous feellng, slmllar Lo passlon and
obfuscaLlon.
(c) ManlfesLaLlons of 8aLLered Wlfe Syndrome,
analogous Lo an lllness LhaL dlmlnlshes Lhe exerclse
of wlll power.
(d) LsprlL de corps, slmllar Lo passlon and obfuscaLlon.
(e) volunLary resLlLuLlon of sLolen properLy, slmllar Lo
volunLary surrender.
(f) LxLreme poverLy and necesslLy, slmllar Lo
lncompleLe [usLlflcaLlon based on sLaLe of
necesslLy.
(g) 1esLlfylng for Lhe prosecuLlon, analogous Lo plea of
gullLy.

NC1L: MlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances whlch arlse (1) from
Lhe moral aLLrlbuLes of Lhe offender, or (2) from hls
prlvaLe relaLlons wlLh Lhe offended parLy, or (3) from
any oLher personal cause, shall only serve Lo mlLlgaLe
Lhe llablllLy of Lhe prlnclpals, accompllces, and
accessorles as Lo whom such clrcumsLances are
aLLendanL. (ArL. 62, par. 3))

C|rcumstances wh|ch are Ne|ther Lxempt|ng nor
M|t|gat|ng:
(a) MlsLake ln Lhe blow or obettotloo lctos
(b) MlsLake ln Lhe ldenLlLy
(c) LnLrapmenL
(d) Accused ls over 18 years of age
(e) erformance of rlghLeous acLlon

L. AGGkAVA1ING CIkCUMS1ANCLS

I. GLNLkAL CCNCL1S

AGGkAVA1ING CIkCUMS1ANCLS are Lhose whlch, lf
aLLendanL ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, serve Lo
lncrease Lhe penalLy lmposed ln lLs maxlmum perlod
provlded by law for Lhe offense or Lhose LhaL change
Lhe naLure of Lhe crlme.

8as|s: 1he greaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender
manlfesLed ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe felony as shown
by:
1. 1he moLlvaLlng power lLself,
2. 1he place of Lhe commlsslon,
3. 1he means and ways employed
4. 1he Llme, or
S. 1he personal clrcumsLances of Lhe offender, or Lhe
offended parLy.

kINDS CI AGGkAVA1ING CIkCUMS1ANCLS:
1. Gener|c: Applles Lo all crlmes
AdvanLage Laken of publlc poslLlon
ConLempL or lnsulL of publlc auLhorlLy
Crlme commlLLed ln Lhe dwelllng of Lhe
offended parLy
Abuse of confldence or obvlous
ungraLefulness
lace where crlme ls commlLLed


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 36 of 76


nlghLLlme, unlnhablLed place, or band
8ecldlvlsm
PablLuallLy
CrafL, fraud or dlsgulse
unlawful enLry
8reaklng of parLs of Lhe house
use of persons under 1S years of age

2. Spec|f|c: Apply only Lo parLlcular crlmes
ulsregard of rank, age, or sex due Lhe
offended parLy ln crlmes agalnsL persons and
honor
Abuse of superlor sLrengLh or means be
employed Lo weaken Lhe defense
1reachery ln crlmes agalnsL persons
lgnomlny ln crlmes agalnsL chasLlLy
CruelLy ln crlmes agalnsL persons
use of unllcensed flrearm ln Lhe murder or
homlclde commlLLed: Lhls ls absorbed ln
rebelllon, lnsurrecLlon, sedlLlon, and
aLLempLed coup d'eLaL (8.A. no. 8294)

3. ua||fy|ng: Change Lhe naLure of Lhe crlme
Alevoslo (Lreachery) or evldenL premedlLaLlon
quallfles Lhe kllllng of a person Lo murder.
ArL. 248 enumeraLes Lhe quallfylng
aggravaLlng clrcumsLances whlch quallfy Lhe
kllllng of a person Lo murder.

4. Inherent: MusL of necesslLy accompany Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme
LvldenL premedlLaLlon ln robbery, LhefL,
esLafa, adulLery and concublnage
Abuse of publlc offlce ln brlbery
8reaklng of a wall or unlawful enLry lnLo a
house ln robbery wlLh Lhe use of force upon
Lhlngs
lraud ln esLafa
uecelL ln slmple seducLlon
lgnomlny ln rape

S. Spec|a|: 1hose whlch arlse under speclal condlLlons
Lo lncrease Lhe penalLy of Lhe offense and cannoL
be offseL by mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances
Cuasl-recldlvlsm
Complex crlmes
Lrror ln personae
1aklng advanLage of publlc poslLlon and
membershlp ln an organlzed/syndlcaLed crlme
group (Ar. 61, par. 1(a))
use of unllcensed flrearm ln homlclde or
murder

GLNLkIC

UALIIING
When noL seL off by any
mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance,
lncreases Lhe penalLy Lo
Lhe maxlmum perlod buL
wlLhouL exceedlng Lhe
llmlL prescrlbed by law
Clves Lhe crlme lLs proper
and excluslve name and
places Lhe auLhor of Lhe
crlme ln such a slLuaLlon
as Lo deserve no oLher
penalLy Lhan LhaL speclally
prescrlbed by law for sald
crlmes
MusL be alleged ln Lhe
lnformaLlon.
Same.
May be offseL by a
mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.
CannoL be offseL by a
mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance

kULLS CN AGGkAVA1ING CIkCUMS1ANCLS:
1. AggravaLlng clrcumsLances shall nC1 be
appreclaLed lf:
a. 1hey consLlLuLe a crlme speclally punlshable
by law, or
b. lL ls lncluded by Lhe law ln deflnlng a crlme
wlLh a penalLy prescrlbed.
Lxamp|e: 1haL Lhe crlme be commlLLed by means
of .flre, exploslon" (ArL. 14, par. 12) ls ln lLself a
crlme of arson (ArL. 321) or a crlme lnvolvlng
desLrucLlon (ArL. 324).
2. Same rule shall apply wlLh respecL Lo any
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance lnherenL ln Lhe crlme Lo
such a degree LhaL lL musL of necesslLy accompany
Lhe commlsslon Lhereof. (ArL.62, par.2)
3. AggravaLlng clrcumsLances whlch arlse:
4. 1he clrcumsLances whlch conslsL:
a. lrom Lhe moral aLLrlbuLes of Lhe offender,
b. lrom hls prlvaLe relaLlons wlLh Lhe offended
parLy, or
c. lrom any personal cause
Shall only serve Lo aggravaLe Lhe llablllLy of
Lhe prlnclpals, accompllces and accessorles, Lo
whom such clrcumsLances are aLLendanL. (ArL.
62, par. 3)
LxCL1ICN: When Lhere ls proof of
consplracy ln whlch case Lhe acL of one ls
deemed Lo be Lhe acL of all, regardless of lack
of knowledge of Lhe facLs consLlLuLlng Lhe
clrcumsLance. (ArL. 62, par. 4)
S. AggravaLlng clrcumsLances, regardless of lLs klnd,
should be speclflcally alleged ln Lhe lnformaLlon
Anu proved as fully as Lhe crlme lLself ln order Lo


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 37 of 76


lncrease Lhe penalLy. (Sec. 9, 8ule 110, 2000 8ules
of Crlmlnal rocedure)
6. When Lhere ls more Lhan one quallfylng
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance presenL, one of Lhem wlll
be appreclaLed as quallfylng aggravaLlng whlle Lhe
oLhers wlll be consldered as generlc aggravaLlng.

II. Ak. 1: ADVAN1AGL 8L 1AkLN 8 1nL CIILNDLk
CI nIS U8LIC CSI1ICN

8as|s: CreaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender as shown by
Lhe personal clrcumsLances of Lhe offender and also by
Lhe means used Lo secure Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.

Notes:
Appllcable only when Lhe offender ls a publlc
offlcer who Lakes advanLage of hls publlc poslLlon.
1he publlc offlcer musL use Lhe lnfluence, presLlge
or ascendancy whlch hls offlce glves hlm as Lhe
means by whlch he reallzes hls purpose.
lL ls noL aggravaLlng when lL ls an lnLegral elemenL
of, or lnherenL ln Lhe offense.
lL ls noL aggravaLlng lf accused could have
perpeLraLed Lhe crlme wlLhouL occupylng pollce
poslLlon.
lL ls lnherenL ln Lhe case of accessorles under ArL.
19, par. 3, and Lhe crlmes commlLLed by publlc
offlcers.
8.A. 76S9 provldes LhaL crlmes commlLLed by a
publlc offlcer wlll be glven Lhe penalLy prescrlbed
aL lLs maxlmum, regardless of Lhe naLure and
number of mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances.

III. Ak. 2: 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD IN CCN1LM1
CI Ck WI1n INSUL1 1C 1nL U8LIC AU1nCkI1ILS

8as|s: CreaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender, as shown by
hls lack of respecL for Lhe publlc auLhorlLles.

kLUISI1LS:
1. 1he publlc auLhorlLy ls engaged ln Lhe exerclse of
hls funcLlons.
2. Such publlc auLhorlLy ls noL Lhe person agalnsL
whom Lhe crlme ls commlLLed.
3. 1he offender knows hlm Lo be a publlc auLhorlLy.
4. Pls presence has noL prevenLed Lhe offender from
commlLLlng Lhe crlmlnal acL.

A U8LIC AU1nCkI1 ls a publlc offlcer who ls dlrecLly
vesLed wlLh [urlsdlcLlon and has Lhe power Lo govern
and execuLe Lhe laws.
An AGLN1 CI A LkSCN IS AU1nCkI1 ls any person
who, by dlrecL provlslon of law or by elecLlon or by
appolnLmenL by compeLenL auLhorlLy, ls charged wlLh
Lhe malnLenance of publlc order and Lhe proLecLlon and
securlLy of llfe and properLy.

NC1LS:
1eachers or professors of a publlc or recognlzed
prlvaLe school and lawyers are noL publlc
auLhorlLy" wlLhln Lhe conLemplaLlon of Lhls
paragraph.
ArL. 14, par. 2 does noL apply when Lhe crlme ls
commlLLed ln Lhe presence of an agenL only.
lf Lhe crlme ls commlLLed agalnsL a publlc auLhorlLy
whlle he ls ln Lhe performance of hls offlclal duLy,
Lhe offender commlLs dlrecL assaulL wlLhouL Lhls
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.
knowledge LhaL a publlc auLhorlLy ls presenL ls
essenLlal. Lack of knowledge on Lhe parL of Lhe
offender LhaL a publlc auLhorlLy ls presenL
lndlcaLes lack of lnLenLlon Lo lnsulL Lhe publlc
auLhorlLy.

IV. Ak. 3: 1nL AC1 8L CCMMI11LD:
1. W|th |nsu|t or |n d|sregard of the respect
due the offended party on the account
of h|s rank, age, or sex, or
2. 1hat |s be comm|tted |n the dwe|||ng of
the offended party, |f the |atter has not
g|ven provocat|on.

8as|s: CreaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender, as shown by
Lhe personal clrcumsLances of Lhe offended parLy and
Lhe place of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.

kANk ls Lhe deslgnaLlon or LlLle of dlsLlncLlon used Lo flx
Lhe relaLlve poslLlon of Lhe offended parLy ln reference
Lo oLhers.
1here musL be a dlfference ln Lhe soclal
condlLlon of Lhe offender and Lhe
offended parLy.
roof of facL of dlsregard and dellberaLe
lnLenL Lo lnsulL requlred.

AGL may refer Lo old age or Lhe Lender age of Lhe
vlcLlm.
1he clrcumsLance of lack of respecL due
Lo age applles ln cases where Lhe vlcLlm ls
of Lender age as well as of old age.
uellberaLe lnLenL Lo offend or lnsulL
requlred.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 38 of 76


ulsregard of old age noL aggravaLlng ln
robbery wlLh homlclde

SLx refers Lo Lhe female sex, noL Lo Lhe male sex.
ulsregard of sex ls noL aggravaLlng ln Lhe
absence of evldence LhaL Lhe accused
dellberaLely lnLended Lo offend or lnsulL
Lhe sex of Lhe vlcLlm or showed manlfesL
dlsrespecL Lo her womanhood.
Absorbed ln Lreachery.

NC1LS
1he 4 clrcumsLances can be consldered slngle or
LogeLher. lf all Lhe four clrcumsLances are presenL,
Lhey have Lhe welghL of one aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance only.
ulsregard of rank, age, or sex may be Laken lnLo
accounL only ln crlmes agalnsL persons or honor.
1here musL be evldence LhaL ln Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe crlme, Lhe accused Jellbetotely loteoJeJ Lo
offend or lnsulL Lhe sex or age of Lhe offended
parLy.

When not app||cab|e:
(a) Cffender acLed wlLh passlon and obfuscaLlon
(b) 1here exlsLs a relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe offended
parLy and Lhe offender
(c) 1he condlLlon of belng a woman ls lndlspensable ln
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.

DWLLLING musL be a bulldlng or sLrucLure excluslvely
used for resL and comforL, a comblnaLlon of house and
sLore ls noL lncluded. lL lncludes dependencles, Lhe fooL
of Lhe sLalrcase and Lhe enclosure under Lhe house.
lncludes dependencles, Lhe fooL of Lhe
sLalrcase and enclosure under Lhe house.
lL requlres LhaL Lhe crlme be wholly or
parLly be commlLLed Lhereln or ln any
lnLegral parL Lhereof.
uwelllng does noL mean Lhe permanenL
resldence or domlclle of Lhe offended
parLy or LhaL he musL be Lhe owner
Lhereof. Pe musL be acLually llvlng
Lhereln even for a Lemporary duraLlon or
purpose such as a guesL.
lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe accused
should have acLually enLered Lhe dwelllng
of Lhe vlcLlm, lL ls enough LhaL Lhe vlcLlm
was aLLacked lnslde hls house, alLhough
Lhe assallanL may have devlsed means Lo
perpeLraLe Lhe assaulL from wlLhouL.
Lven lf Lhe kllllng Look place ouLslde Lhe
dwelllng, lL ls aggravaLlng provlded LhaL
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme was begun
ln Lhe dwelllng.
1he vlcLlm need noL be Lhe owner or
occupanL of Lhe dwelllng where he was
shoL.
uwelllng ls noL lncluded ln Lhe quallfylng
clrcumsLance of Lreachery.

8ases for aggravat|ng c|rcumstance of dwe|||ng:
1he abuse of confldence whlch Lhe offended parLy
reposed ln Lhe offender by openlng Lhe door Lo
hlm, or
1he vlolaLlon of Lhe sancLlLy of Lhe home by
Lrespasslng Lhereln wlLh vlolence or agalnsL Lhe
wlll of Lhe owner.

NC1LS
Cffended parLy musL noL glve provocaLlon.
Meanlng of provocaLlon ln Lhe aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance:
o Clven by Lhe owner of Lhe dwelllng,
o SufflclenL, and
o lmmedlaLe Lo Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
o Note: lf all Lhese condlLlons are presenL, Lhe
facL LhaL Lhe crlme ls commlLLed ln Lhe
dwelllng of Lhe offended parLy ls nC1 an
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.

o kat|ona|e: When lL ls Lhe offended parLy who
has provoked Lhe lncldenL, he loses hls rlghL Lo
Lhe respecL and conslderaLlon due hlm ln hls
own house.
1here musL be a close relaLlon beLween
provocaLlon and commlsslon of crlme ln Lhe
dwelllng.

Dwe|||ng |s not aggravat|ng |n the fo||ow|ng cases:
(a) When boLh Lhe offender and Lhe offended parLy
are occupanLs of Lhe same house.
LxCL1ICN: ln case of adulLery ln Lhe con[ugal
dwelllng, Lhe same ls aggravaLlng. Powever, lf
Lhe paramour also dwells ln Lhe con[ugal
dwelllng, Lhe appllcable aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance ls abuse of confldence.

(b) When robbery ls commlLLed by Lhe use of force
upon Lhlngs, dwelllng ls noL aggravaLlng because lL
ls lnherenL.
LxCL1ICN: uwelllng ls aggravaLlng ln robbery
wlLh vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 39 of 76


persons because Lhls class of robbery can be
commlLLed wlLhouL Lhe necesslLy of
Lrespasslng of Lhe offended parLy's house.

(c) ln Lhe crlme of Lrespass Lo dwelllng, lL ls lnherenL
or lncluded by law ln deflnlng Lhe crlme.

(d) When Lhe owner of Lhe dwelllng gave sufflclenL
and lmmedlaLe provocaLlon.

(e) 1he vlcLlm ls noL a dweller of Lhe house.


V. Ak. 4: 1nL AC1 8L CCMMI11LD WI1n A8USL CI
CCNIIDLNCL Ck C8VICUS UNGkA1LIULNLSS

8as|s: CreaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender, as shown by
Lhe means and ways employed.

1here are 2 aggravaLlng clrcumsLances presenL under
par. 4 whlch musL be lndependenLly appreclaLed lf
presenL ln Lhe same case.

Abuse of confldence requlres a speclol cooflJeotlol
telotloosblp beLween Lhe offender and Lhe vlcLlm, whlle
Lhls ls noL requlred for Lhere Lo be obvlous
ungraLefulness

kLUISI1LS CI A8USL CI CCNIIDLNCL:
1. 1haL Lhe offended parLy had LrusLed Lhe offender.
2. 1haL Lhe offender abused such LrusL by commlLLlng
a crlme agalnsL Lhe offended parLy.
3. 1haL Lhe abuse of confldence faclllLaLed Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme.

NC1LS:
1he confldence beLween Lhe offender and Lhe
offended parLy musL be lmmedlaLe and personal.
o Abuse of confldence ls lnherenL ln
malversaLlon, quallfled LhefL, esLafa by
converslon or mlsapproprlaLlon, and quallfled
seducLlon.
lL ls noL a mere beLrayal of LrusL, slnce Lhe
offended parLy musL be Lhe one who acLually
reposed hls confldence ln Lhe offender.

kLUISI1LS CI C8VICUS UNGkA1LIULNLSS:
1. 1haL Lhe offended parLy had LrusLed Lhe offender,
2. 1haL Lhe offender abused such LrusL by commlLLlng
a crlme agalnsL Lhe offended parLy.
3. 1haL Lhe acL be commlLLed wlLh obvlous
ungraLefulness.

NC1L:
1he ungraLefulness conLemplaLed by par. 4 musL
be such clear and manlfesL lngraLlLude on Lhe parL
of Lhe accused.


VI. Ak. S: 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD:
1. In the pa|ace of the Ch|ef Lxecut|ve, or
2. In h|s presence, or
3. Where pub||c author|t|es are engaged |n
the d|scharge of the|r dut|es, or
4. In a p|ace ded|cated to re||g|ous worsh|p.

8as|s: CreaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender, as shown by
Lhe place of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, whlch musL
be respecLed.

NC1LS:
AcLual performance of duLles ls noL necessary
when crlme ls commlLLed ln Lhe palace or ln Lhe
presence of Lhe Chlef LxecuLlve.

kequ|s|tes regard|ng ub||c Author|t|es:
o Crlme occurred ln Lhe publlc offlce.
o ubllc auLhorlLles are acLually performlng
Lhelr publlc duLles.

kequ|s|tes regard|ng |ace Ded|cated to ke||g|ous
Worsh|p:
o 1he crlme occurred ln a place dedlcaLed Lo Lhe
worshlp of Cod regardless of rellglon.
o 1he offender musL have declded Lo commlL
Lhe crlme when he enLered Lhe place of
worshlp.
1he place musL be dedlcaLed Lo publlc rellglous
worshlp, prlvaLe chapels are noL lncluded.
1here musL be lnLenLlon Lo desecraLe Lhe place
dedlcaLed Lo publlc rellglous worshlp.
1he Chlef LxecuLlve need noL be ln Lhe alace Lo
aggravaLe Lhe llablllLy of Lhe offender. As long as
he was presenL, and hls presence ls known Lo Lhe
accused when he dld Lhe crlme, Lhere ls an
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.
LxcepL for Lhe Lhlrd whlch requlres LhaL offlclal
funcLlons are belng performed aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme, Lhe oLher places are
aggravaLlng pet se even lf no offlclal duLles or acLs
of rellglous worshlp are belng conducLed Lhere.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 40 of 76


CemeLerles are noL consldered as place dedlcaLed
Lo worshlp.
Cffender musL have lnLenLlon Lo commlL a crlme
when he enLered Lhe place.

Ak. S: WnLkL U8LIC
AU1nCkI1ILS AkL
LNGAGLD IN 1nL
DISCnAkGL CI 1nLIk
DU1ILS
Ak. 2: CCN1LM1 Ck
INSUL1 1C U8LIC
AU1nCkI1ILS
ubllc auLhorlLles are ln Lhe performance of Lhelr
duLles.
|ace where pub||c duty |s performed
ln Lhelr offlce CuLslde of Lhelr offlce.
Cffended arty
May or may noL be Lhe
publlc auLhorlLy
ubllc auLhorlLy should
noL be Lhe offended parLy


VII. Ak. 6: 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD:
1. In the n|ghtt|me, or
2. In an un|nhab|ted p|ace, or
3. 8y a band, whenever such c|rcumstance
may fac|||tate the comm|ss|on of the
offense

8as|s: 1lme and place of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme
and means and ways employed.

When Lhese 3 elemenLs are presenL ln Lhe same case
and Lhelr elemenLs can subslsL lndependenLly, Lhey
shall be consldered separaLely. lL ls noL appllcable when
Lhe mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance of passlon or obfuscaLlon
or sufflclenL provocaLlon are presenL ln Lhe commlsslon
of Lhe crlme.

When N|ghtt|me, Un|nhab|ted p|ace or 8and |s
aggravat|ng:
1. When lL focllltoteJ Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, or
2. When especlolly sooqbt for by Lhe offender Lo
lnsure Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme or for Lhe
purpose of lmpunlLy, or
3. When Lhe offender took oJvootoqe Lhereof for Lhe
purpose of lmpunlLy

NIGn11IML (obscotlJoJ) ls LhaL perlod of darkness
beglnnlng aL Lhe end of dusk and endlng aL dawn.
Commlsslon of Lhe crlme musL begln and be
accompllshed ln Lhe nlghLLlme.
When Lhe place of Lhe crlme ls lllumlnaLed by
llghL, nlghLLlme ls noL aggravaLlng.
nlghLLlme ls noL especlally soughL for when
Lhe noLlon Lo commlL Lhe crlme was concelved
of shorLly before commlsslon or when crlme
was commlLLed aL nlghL upon a casual
encounLer.
Powever, nlghLLlme need noL be speclflcally
soughL for when (1) lL faclllLaLed Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe offense, or (2) Lhe offender
Look advanLage of Lhe same Lo commlL Lhe
crlme
A bare sLaLemenL LhaL crlme was commlLLed
aL nlghL ls lnsufflclenL. 1he lnformaLlon musL
allege LhaL nlghLLlme was soughL for or Laken
advanLage of, or LhaL lL faclllLaLed Lhe crlme

GLNLkAL kULL: nlghLLlme ls absorbed ln Lreachery.

LxCL1ICN: Where boLh Lhe Lreacherous mode of
aLLack and nocLurnlLy were dellberaLely declded upon
ln Lhe same case, Lhey can be consldered separaLely lf
such clrcumsLances have dlfferenL facLual bases.

UNINnA8I1LD LACL (JespobloJo) ls one where Lhere
are no houses aL all, or a place aL a conslderable
dlsLance from Lown, where Lhe houses are scaLLered aL
a greaL dlsLance from each oLher.
SollLude musL be soughL Lo beLLer aLLaln Lhe
crlmlnal purpose
WhaL should be consldered ls wheLher ln Lhe
place of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense, Lhere
was a reasonable posslblllLy of Lhe vlcLlm
recelvlng some help.

8AND (eo cooJtlllo) refers Lo a slLuaLlon where Lhere
are more Lhan 3 armed malefacLors LhaL shall have
acLed LogeLher ln Lhe commlsslon of an offense.
1here musL be 4 or more armed men.
1he armed persons conLemplaLed musL all be
prlnclpals by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon who acLed
LogeLher ln Lhe execuLlon of Lhe acLs
consLlLuLlng Lhe crlme, ln Lhls case, consplracy
ls presumed.
lf one of Lhe four-armed malefacLors ls a
prlnclpal by lnducemenL, Lhey do noL form a
band because he had no dlrecL parLlclpaLlon.
8y a band" ls aggravaLlng ln crlmes agalnsL
properLy or agalnsL persons or ln Lhe crlme of
lllegal deLenLlon or Lreason buL does noL apply
Lo crlmes agalnsL chasLlLy.
1hls ls lnherenL ln brlgandage.
1hls ls absorbed ln Lhe clrcumsLance of abuse
of superlor sLrengLh and use of flrearms


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 41 of 76


LxCL1 when Lhe flrearm has no llcense or
Lhere ls a lack of llcense Lo carry Lhe flrearm.
When Lhe armed med meL up casually wlLh
oLhers, and a crlme was LhereafLer
commlLLed, lL cannoL be consldered as an
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.


VIII. Ak. 7: 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD CN 1nL
CCCASICN CI A CCNILAGkA1ICN, SnIWkLCk,
LAk1nUAkL, LIDLMIC Ck C1nLk CALAMI1 Ck
MISICk1UNL

8as|s: 1lme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.

keason for the aggravat|on: uebased form of
crlmlnallLy meL ln one who, ln Lhe mldsL of a greaL
calamlLy, lnsLead of lendlng ald Lo Lhe affllcLed, adds Lo
Lhelr sufferlng by Laklng advanLage of Lhelr mlsforLune
Lo despoll Lhem.

kLUISI1LS:
1. 1he crlme was commlLLed when Lhere was a
calamlLy or mlsforLune.
2. 1he offender Look advanLage of Lhe sLaLe of
confuslon or chaoLlc condlLlon from such
mlsforLune.

NC1LS:
1hls wlll noL apply lf Lhe offender was provoked by
Lhe offended parLy durlng Lhe
calamlLy/mlsforLune.
1he offender musL Lake advanLage of Lhe calamlLy
or mlsforLune.


Ix. Ak. 8: 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD WI1n 1nL AID
CI:
1. Armed men, or
2. ersons who |nsure or afford |mpun|ty

8as|s: Means and ways of commlLLlng Lhe crlme.

kLUISI1LS:
1. 1haL armed men or persons Look parL ln Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme, Jltectly ot loJltectly.
2. 1haL Lhe accused ovolleJ hlmself of Lhelr ald or
telleJ upon Lhem when Lhe crlme was commlLLed.

ku|e for the app||cat|on of the c|rcumstance: 1he
casual presence of armed men near Lhe place where
Lhe crlme was commlLLed does noL consLlLuLe an
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance when lL appears LhaL Lhe
accused dld noL avall hlmself of Lhelr ald or rely upon
Lhem Lo commlL Lhe crlme.

NC1LS:
1hls aggravaLlng clrcumsLance requlres LhaL Lhe
armed men are accompllces who Lake parL ln a
mlnor capaclLy dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, and noL when
Lhey were merely presenL aL Lhe crlme scene.
nelLher should Lhey consLlLuLe a band, for Lhen Lhe
proper aggravaLlng clrcumsLance would be
cuadrllla.
lf Lhere are four armed men, ald of armed men ls
absorbed ln employmenL of a band. lf Lhere are
Lhree armed men or less, ald of armed men may
be Lhe aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.
lL shall noL be consldered when boLh Lhe aLLacklng
parLy and Lhe parLy aLLacked were equally armed.
lL ls noL presenL when Lhe accused as well as Lhose
who cooperaLed wlLh hlm ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme acLed under Lhe same plan and for Lhe same
purpose.
Ald of armed men ls absorbed by employmenL of a
band.
lf Lhere are 4 armed men, ald of armed men ls
absorbed ln employmenL of a band. lf Lhere are 3
armed men or less, ald f armed men may be Lhe
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance.
Mere moral or psychologlcal ald or rellance ls
sufflclenL Lo consLlLuLe Lhls aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance.

Ak. 6: 8 A 8AND Ak. 8: WI1n 1nL AID CI
AkMLD MLN
As to Number
8equlres more Lhan Lhree
armed malefacLors
AL leasL Lwo
As to Act|on
More Lhan Lhree armed
malefacLors shall have
acLed LogeLher ln Lhe
commlsslon of an offense.
1hls clrcumsLance ls
presenL even lf one of Lhe
offenders merely relled
on Lhelr ald, for acLual ald
ls noL necessary.
As to Ab|||ty
8and members are all
prlnclpals
Armed men are mere
accompllces






CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 42 of 76


x. Ak. 9: 1nL ACCUSLD IS A kLCIDIVIS1

8as|s: CreaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender, as shown by
hls lncllnaLlon Lo crlmes.

A kLCIDIVIS1 ls one who aL Lhe Llme of hls Lrlal for one
crlme, shall have been prevlously convlcLed by flnal
[udgmenL of anoLher crlme embraced ln Lhe same LlLle
of Lhe 8C.

A recldlvlsL ls enLlLled Lo Lhe beneflLs of Lhe
lndeLermlnaLe SenLence Law buL ls dlsquallfled from
avalllng credlL of hls prevenLlve lmprlsonmenL.

kLUISI1LS:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls on Lrlal for an offense,
2. 1haL he was prevlously convlcLed by flnal [udgmenL
of anoLher crlme,
3. 1haL boLh Lhe flrsL and Lhe second offenses are
embraced ln Lhe same LlLle of Lhe Code,
4. 1haL Lhe offender ls convlcLed of Lhe new offense.

"At the t|me of h|s tr|a| for one cr|me"
lL ls employed ln lLs general sense, lncludlng Lhe
renderlng of Lhe [udgmenL. lL ls meanL Lo lnclude
everyLhlng LhaL ls done ln Lhe course of Lhe Lrlal,
from arralgnmenL unLll afLer senLence ls
announced by Lhe [udge ln open courL.
lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe succeedlng offense be
commlLLed oftet tbe commlssloo of Lhe precedlng
offense provlded LhaL aL Lhe Llme of hls Lrlal for Lhe
second offense, Lhe accused had already been
convlcLed of Lhe flrsL offense.
AmnesLy exLlngulshes Lhe penalLy and lLs effecLs.
ardon does noL obllLeraLe Lhe facL LhaL Lhe
accused was a recldlvlsL. 1hus, even lf Lhe accused
was granLed a pardon for Lhe flrsL offense buL he
commlLs anoLher felony embraced ln Lhe same
LlLle of Lhe Code, Lhe flrsL convlcLlon ls sLlll counLed
Lo make hlm a recldlvlsL
8elng an ordlnary aggravaLlng clrcumsLance,
recldlvlsm affecLs only Lhe perlods of a penalLy,
LxCL1 ln prosLlLuLlon and vagrancy (ArL. 202) and
gambllng (u 1602) whereln recldlvlsm lncreases
Lhe penalLles by degrees. no oLher generlc
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance produces Lhls effecL.
lf boLh offenses were commlLLed on Lhe same
daLe, Lhey shall be consldered as only one, hence,
Lhey cannoL be separaLely counLed ln order Lo
consLlLuLe recldlvlsm. !udgmenLs of convlcLlon
handed down on Lhe same day shall be consldered
as only one convlcLlon.
o kat|ona|e: 8ecause 8C requlres LhaL Lo be
consldered as separaLe convlcLlons, aL Lhe
Llme of hls Lrlal for one crlme Lhe accused
shall have been prevlously convlcLed by flnal
[udgmenL of Lhe oLher.
1o prove recldlvlsm, lL ls necessary Lo allege Lhe
same ln Lhe lnformaLlon and Lo aLLach LhereLo a
cerLlfled copy of Lhe senLence rendered agalnsL Lhe
accused.
8ecldlvlsm musL be Laken lnLo accounL no maLLer
how many years have lnLervened beLween Lhe flrsL
and second felonles.


xI. Ak. 10: 1nL CIILNDLk nAS 8LLN kLVICUSL
UNISnLD:
1. Ior an offense to wh|ch the |aw attaches
an equa| or greater pena|ty or
2. Ior two or more cr|mes to wh|ch |t
attaches a ||ghter pena|ty

8as|s: CreaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender as shown by
hls lncllnaLlon Lo crlmes.

kequ|s|tes of keiterocion or nab|tua||ty:
1. 1haL Lhe accused ls on Lrlal for an offense,
2. 1haL he prevlously setveJ seoteoce for anoLher
offense Lo whlch Lhe law aLLaches an
(a) Lqual or
(b) CreaLer penalLy, or
(c) lor Lwo or more crlmes Lo whlch lL aLLaches a
llghLer penalLy Lhan LhaL for Lhe new offense,
and
3. 1haL he ls convlcLed of Lhe new offense

NC1LS:
Slnce teltetocloo provldes LhaL Lhe accused has
duly served Lhe senLence of hls prevlous
convlcLlon/s, or ls legally consldered Lo have done
so, quasl-recldlvlsm cannoL aL Lhe same Llme
consLlLuLe teltetocloo, hence Lhls aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance cannoL apply Lo a quasl-recldlvlsL.
lf Lhe same seL of facLs consLlLuLes recldlvlsm and
teltetocloo, Lhe llablllLy of Lhe accused should be
aggravaLed by recldlvlsm whlch can easlly be
proven.
1he courL musL exerclse lLs dlscreLlon ln applylng
Lhls aggravaLlng clrcumsLance ln favor of Lhe
accused.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 43 of 76



xII. Ak. 11: 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD IN
CCNSIDLkA1ICN CI A kICL, kLWAkD Ck kCMISL

8as|s: CreaLer perverslLy of Lhe offender, as shown by
Lhe moLlvaLlng power lLself.

kLUISI1LS:
1. 1here are aL leasL Lwo prlnclpals:
(a) 1he prlnclpal by lnducemenL (one who offers)
(b) 1he prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon (accepLs)
2. 1he prlce, reward, or promlse should be prevlous
Lo and ln conslderaLlon of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlmlnal acL.

NC1LS:
1he clrcumsLance ls appllcable Lo boLh prlnclpals. lL
affecLs Lhe person who recelved Lhe prlce / reward
as well as Lhe person who gave lL.
lf wlLhouL prevlous promlse, lL was glven
volunLarlly afLer Lhe crlme had been commlLLed as
an expresslon of hls appreclaLlon for Lhe sympaLhy
and ald shown by Lhe oLher accused, lL should noL
be Laken lnLo conslderaLlon for Lhe purpose of
lncreaslng Lhe penalLy.
1he prlce, reward or promlse need noL conslsL of
maLerlal Lhlngs nor LhaL Lhe same were acLually
dellvered, lL belng sufflclenL LhaL Lhe offer made by
Lhe prlnclpal by lnducemenL be accepLed by Lhe
prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon before Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe offense.
1he lnducemenL musL be Lhe prlmary
conslderaLlon for Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe offer made by Lhe prlnclpal
by lnducemenL be accepLed by Lhe prlnclpal by
dlrecL parLlclpaLlon before Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
offense.


xIII. Ak. 12: 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD 8 MLANS
CI:
1. Inundat|on
2. I|re
3. o|son
4. Lxp|os|on
S. Strand|ng of a vesse| or |ntent|ona|
damage thereto
6. Dera||ment of a |ocomot|ve
7. 8y the use of any other art|f|ce |nvo|v|ng
great waste and ru|n

8as|s: Means and ways employed.

NC1LS:
1he clrcumsLances under Lhls paragraph wlll only
be consldered as aggravaLlng when Lhey are used
by Lhe offender as a means Lo accompllsh a
crlmlnal purpose.
When anoLher aggravaLlng clrcumsLance already
quallfles Lhe crlme, any of Lhese aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances shall be consldered as generlc
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance only.
INUNDA1ICN refers Lo use of waLer or causlng Lhe
waLer Lo flood ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense.
When Lhere ls no acLual deslgn Lo klll a person ln
burnlng a house, lL ls plaln arson even lf a person ls
kllled. Pad Lhere been an lnLenL Lo klll, Lhe crlme
commlLLed ls murder, quallfled by Lhe
clrcumsLance LhaL Lhe crlme was commlLLed by
means of flre.
llre, exploslon, and derallmenL of locomoLlve may
be parL of Lhe deflnlLlon of a parLlcular crlme such
as arson, crlme lnvolvlng desLrucLlon, and damages
and obsLrucLlon Lo means of communlcaLlon, ln
Lhese cases, Lhey do noL serve Lo lncrease Lhe
penalLy.

Ak. 12: 8 MLANS CI
INUNDA1ICN, IIkL, L1C.
Ak. 7: CN 1nL
CCCASICN CI A
CCNILAGkA1ICN,
SnIWkLCk, L1C.
1he crlme ls commlLLed by
means of any such acLs
lnvolvlng greaL wasLe or
ruln.
1he crlme ls commlLLed
on Lhe occaslon of a
calamlLy or mlsforLune.

kULLS AS 1C 1nL USL CI IIkL:
AC1 CI 1nL ACCUSLD CkIML CCMMI11LD
lnLenL was only Lo burn
buL somebody dles
Slmple arson wlLh a
speclflc penalLy (ArL. 326)
lf flre was used as a
means Lo klll
Murder
lf flre was used Lo conceal
Lhe kllllng
SeparaLe crlmes of arson
and murder/homlclde


xIV. Ak. 13: 1nL AC1 8L CCMMI11LD WI1n LVIDLN1
kLMLDI1A1ICN

8as|s: lL has reference Lo Lhe ways of commlLLlng Lhe
crlme, because evldenL premedlLaLlon lmplles a
Jellbetote ploooloq of Lhe acL before execuLlng lL.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 44 of 76



kLUISI1LS:
1he prosecuLlon musL prove -
1. 1he tlme when Lhe offender deLermlned Lo commlL
Lhe crlme,
2. An oct manlfesLly lndlcaLlng LhaL Lhe culprlL has
clung Lo hls deLermlnaLlon, and
1he premedlLaLlon musL be based upon
eLernal acLs and noL presumed from mere
lapse of Llme.
3. A sofflcleot lopse of tlme beLween Lhe
deLermlnaLlon and execuLlon, Lo allow hlm Lo
reflecL upon Lhe consequences of hls acL and Lo
allow hls consclence Lo overcome Lhe resoluLlon of
hls wlll.
1he offender musL have an opporLunlLy Lo
coolly and serenely Lhlnk and dellberaLe on
Lhe meanlng and Lhe consequences of whaL
he planned Lo do, an lnLerval long enough for
hls consclence and beLLer [udgmenL Lo
overcome hls evll deslre and scheme.

Lssence of remed|tat|on: 1he execuLlon of Lhe
crlmlnal acL musL be preceded by cool LhoughL and
reflecLlon upon Lhe resoluLlon Lo carry ouL Lhe crlmlnal
lnLenL durlng Lhe space of Llme sufflclenL Lo arrlve aL a
calm [udgmenL. eop|e v. Durante, [S3 h||. 363, 369]

NC1LS:
1here musL be evldence showlng LhaL Lhe accused
medlLaLed and reflecLed on hls lnLenLlon beLween
Lhe Llme when Lhe crlme was concelved by hlm
and Lhe Llme lL was acLually perpeLraLed.
remedlLaLlon ls absorbed by reward or promlse
only lnsofar as Lhe lnducer ls concerned, buL noL
Lhe person lnduced slnce one can be a prlnclpal by
dlrecL parLlclpaLlon wlLhouL Lhe beneflL of due
reflecLlon.
When Lhe vlcLlm ls dlfferenL from LhaL lnLended,
premedlLaLlon ls noL aggravaLlng. Powever, lf Lhe
offender premedlLaLed on Lhe kllllng of any
person, lL ls proper Lo conslder agalnsL Lhe
offender Lhe aggravaLlng clrcumsLance of
premedlLaLlon, because whoever ls kllled by hlm ls
conLemplaLed ln hls premedlLaLlon.
LvldenL premedlLaLlon, whlle lnherenL ln robbery,
may be aggravaLlng ln robbery wlLh homlclde lf Lhe
premedlLaLlon lncluded Lhe kllllng of Lhe vlcLlm.
lL ls compaLlble wlLh Lhe mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance
of lmmedlaLe vlndlcaLlon of a relaLlve for a grave
offense.

GLNkAL kULL: Where consplracy ls dlrecLly
esLabllshed, wlLh proof of Lhe aLLendanL dellberaLlon
and selecLlon of Lhe meLhod, Llme and means of
execuLlng Lhe crlme, Lhe exlsLence of evldenL
premedlcaLlon cannoL be Laken for granLed.

LxCL1ICN: When consplracy ls only lmplled, evldenL
premedlLaLlon may noL be appreclaLed, ln Lhe absence
of proof as Lo how and when Lhe plan Lo klll Lhe vlcLlm
was haLched or whaL Llme had elapsed before lL was
carrled ouL.

GLNLkAL kULL: lL ls noL appllcable ln ettot lo petsoooe.

LxCL1ICN: 1here was a general plan Lo klll anyone Lo
commlL Lhe crlme premedlLaLed.


xV. Ak. 14: CkAI1, IkAUD, Ck DISGUISL 8L
LMLCLD

8as|s: Means employed ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.

App||cat|on of ar. 14:

Craft (ostucio): lnvolves lnLellecLual Lrlckery or cunnlng
on Lhe parL of Lhe accused, A chlcanery resorLed Lo by
Lhe accused Lo ald ln Lhe execuLlon of hls crlmlnal
deslgn. lL ls employed as a scheme ln Lhe execuLlon of
Lhe crlme.

LxCL1ICNS
1. Where Lhe unlawful scheme could have been
carrled ouL [usL Lhe same even wlLhouL Lhe
preLense eop|e v. Asp|||, [191 SCkA S30, S43]
2. CrafL parLakes of an elemenL of Lhe offense.

Iraud (froude): lnsldlous words or machlnaLlons used
Lo lnduce Lhe vlcLlm Lo acL ln a manner whlch would
enable Lhe offender Lo carry ouL hls deslgn.

IkAUD CkAI1
Where Lhere ls a dlrecL
lnducemenL by lnsldlous
words or machlnaLlons,
fraud ls presenL.
1he acL of Lhe accused
done ln order noL Lo
arouse Lhe susplclon of
Lhe vlcLlm consLlLuLes
crafL.

DISGUISL (disfrot): 8esorLlng Lo any devlce Lo conceal
ldenLlLy


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 4S of 76


1he facL LhaL Lhe mask subsequenLly fell down Lhus
pavlng Lhe way for Lhls one's ldenLlflcaLlon does
noL render Lhe aggravaLlng clrcumsLance of
dlsgulse lnappllcable eop|e v. Cabato, [160 SCkA
98, 110]
ulsftoz conLemplaLes a superflclal buL somewhaL
effecLlve dlssembllng Lo avold ldenLlflcaLlon.
1he purpose of Lhe offender ln uslng any devlce
musL be Lo conceal hls ldenLlLy.
1he LesL of dlsgulse ls wheLher Lhe devlce or
conLrlvance resorLed Lo by Lhe offender was
lnLended Lo or dld make ldenLlflcaLlon more
dlfflculL, such as Lhe use of a mask or false halr or
beard.

NC1LS:
CrafL and fraud may be absorbed ln Lreachery lf
Lhey have been dellberaLely adopLed as Lhe means,
meLhods or forms for Lhe Lreacherous sLraLegy, or
Lhey may co-exlsL lndependenLly where Lhey are
adopLed for a dlfferenL purpose ln Lhe commlsslon
of Lhe crlme.
Where Lhe accused preLended Lo hlre Lhe drlver ln
order Lo geL hls vehlcle, lL was held LhaL Lhere was
crafL dlrecLed Lo Lhe LhefL of Lhe vehlcle, separaLe
from Lhe means subsequenLly used Lo
Lreacherously klll Lhe defenseless drlver. (eople
vs. San edro)


xVI. Ak. 1S: 1nA1:
1. Advantage be taken of super|or
strength, or
2. Means be emp|oyed to weaken the
defense

8as|s: Means employed ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.

NC1L: ar. 1S conLemplaLes Lwo aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances, elLher of whlch quallfles a kllllng Lo
murder. (ArL. 248)

1o Lake advantage of super|or strength means Lo
dellberaLely use excesslve fotce LhaL ls ouL of
proporLlon Lo Lhe means for self-defense avallable Lo
Lhe person aLLacked. (eople vs. Lobrlgas).

No abuse of super|or strength:
no advanLage of superlor sLrengLh when one
aLLacks anoLher wlLh passlon and obfuscaLlon.


NC1LS:
1here musL be evldence LhaL Lhe accused were
physlcally sLronger and LhaL Lhey abused such
superlorlLy.
1he aggravaLlng clrcumsLance depends on Lhe age,
slze and sLrengLh of Lhe parLles.
number of aggressors, lf armed, may polnL Lo
abuse of superlor sLrengLh.
1here ls abuse of superlor sLrengLh when weapon
used ls ouL of proporLlon Lo Lhe defense avallable
Lo Lhe offended parLy.
When Lhere are several offenders parLlclpaLlng ln
Lhe crlme, Lhey musL all be prlnclpals by dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon and Lhelr aLLack agalnsL Lhe vlcLlm
musL be concerLed and lnLended Lo be so.
Abuse of superlor sLrengLh ls lnherenL ln Lhe crlme
of parrlclde where Lhe husband kllls Lhe wlfe. lL ls
generally accepLed LhaL Lhe husband ls physlcally
sLronger Lhan Lhe wlfe.
Superlor sLrengLh ls absorbed and lnherenL ln
Lreachery.
Superlor sLrengLh absorbs cooJtlllo (band).

8 A 8AND SULkICk S1kLNG1n
1he elemenL of band ls
appreclaLed when Lhe
offense ls commlLLed by
more Lhan Lhree armed
malefacLors regardless of
Lhe comparaLlve sLrengLh
of Lhe vlcLlm or vlcLlms.
1he elemenL of abuse of
superlorlLy ls Lhe Laklng
advanLage by Lhe culprlLs
of Lhelr collecLlve sLrengLh
Lo overpower Lhelr
relaLlvely weaker vlcLlm or
vlcLlms.

1he offender emp|oys means LhaL motetlolly weaken
Lhe reslsLlng power of Lhe offended parLy.

Lxamp|es:
(a) Where one, sLruggllng wlLh anoLher, suddenly
Lhrows a cloak over Lhe head of hls opponenL Lhen
he wounds or kllls hlm.
(b) When Lhe offender, who had Lhe lnLenLlon Lo klll
Lhe vlcLlm, made Lhe deceased lnLoxlcaLed,
Lhereby maLerlally weakenlng Lhe laLLer's reslsLlng
power.

NC1L:
1hls clrcumsLance ls appllcable only Lo crlmes
agalnsL persons, and someLlmes agalnsL person
and properLy, such as robbery wlLh physlcal
ln[urles or homlclde.



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 46 of 76


xVII. Ak. 16: 1nL AC1 8L CCMMI11LD WI1n
1kLACnLk (a|evos|a)

8as|s: Means and ways employed ln Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe crlme.

1here ls treachery when Lhe offender commlLs any of
Lhe crlmes agalnsL Lhe person, employlng means,
meLhods or forms ln Lhe execuLlon Lhereof whlch Lend
dlrecLly and speclally Lo lnsure lLs execuLlon wlLhouL
rlsk Lo hlmself arlslng from Lhe defense whlch Lhe
offended parLy mlghL make. 1reachery means LhaL Lhe
offended parLy was noL glven opporLunlLy Lo make a
defense.

kLUISI1LS:
1. AL Lhe Llme of Lhe aLLack, Lhe vlcLlm was oot lo o
posltloo to JefeoJ blmself.
2. 1he offender cooscloosly oJopteJ tbe pottlcolot
meoos, metboJ ot fotm of ottock employed by
hlm.

NC1L: lL ls noL only Lhe relaLlve poslLlon of Lhe parLles
buL also wheLher or noL Lhe vlcLlm was forewarned or
afforded Lhe opporLunlLy Lo make a defense or Lo ward
off Lhe aLLack.

ku|es regard|ng 1reachery:
Appllcable only Lo crlmes agalnsL persons.
Means, meLhods or forms need noL lnsure
accompllshmenL of crlme.
1he mode of aLLack musL be consclously adopLed.

NC1LS:
1reachery ls appreclaLed even lf Lhe crlme agalnsL
Lhe person ls complexed wlLh anoLher felony
lnvolvlng a dlfferenL classlflcaLlon ln Lhe Code.
1hus, ln Lhe speclal complex crlme of robbery wlLh
homlclde, Lreachery buL can be appreclaLed lnsofar
as Lhe kllllng ls concerned.
1he suddenness of aLLack ln lLself does noL
consLlLuLe Lreachery, even lf Lhe purpose was Lo
klll, so long as Lhe declslon was made all of a
sudden and Lhe vlcLlm's helpless poslLlon was
accldenLal.
1reachery applles ln Lhe kllllng of a chlld even lf Lhe
manner of aLLack ls noL shown.
1reachery musL be proved by clear and convlnclng
evldence.
1he mode of aLLack musL be consclously adopLed.
o 1he accused musL make some preparaLlon Lo
klll Lhe deceased ln such a manner as Lo lnsure
Lhe execuLlon of Lhe crlme or Lo make lL
lmposslble or hard for Lhe person aLLacked Lo
defend hlmself or reLallaLe.
o 1he mode of aLLack musL be LhoughL of by Lhe
offender, and musL noL sprlng from
unexpecLed Lurn of evenLs.

When must 1reachery be resent:
When Lhe aggresslon ls conLlnuous, Lreachery
musL be presenL ln Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe assaulL.
o Lxample. Lven lf Lhe deceased was shoL whlle
he was lylng wounded on Lhe ground, lL
appearlng LhaL Lhe flrlng of Lhe shoL was a
mere conLlnuaLlon of Lhe assaulL ln whlch Lhe
deceased was wounded, wlLh no appreclable
Llme lnLervenlng beLween Lhe dellvery of Lhe
blows and Lhe flrlng of Lhe shoL, lL cannoL be
sald LhaL Lhe crlme was aLLended by
Lreachery.
When Lhe assaulL was noL conLlnuous, ln LhaL Lhere
was lnLerrupLlon, lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lreachery was
presenL aL Lhe momenL Lhe faLal blow was glven.
o Lxample. Pence, lf Lhere was a break ln Lhe
conLlnulLy of Lhe aggresslon and aL Lhe Llme of
Lhe faLal wound was lnfllcLed on Lhe deceased
he was defenseless, Lhe clrcumsLance of
Lreachery musL be Laken lnLo accounL.

1reachery shou|d be cons|dered even |f:
1he vlcLlm was noL predeLermlned buL Lhere was a
generlc lnLenL Lo Lreacherously klll any flrsL Lwo
persons belonglng Lo a class. (1he same rule
obLalns for evldenL premedlLaLlon).
1here was obettotlo lctos and Lhe bulleL hlL a
person dlfferenL from LhaL lnLended. (1he rule ls
dlfferenL ln evldenL premedlLaLlon).
1here was ettot lo petsoooe, hence Lhe vlcLlm was
noL Lhe one lnLended by Lhe accused. (A dlfferenL
rule ls applled ln evldenL premedlLaLlon).
keason: When Lhere ls Lreachery, lL ls lmposslble
for elLher Lhe lnLended vlcLlm or Lhe acLual vlcLlm
Lo defend hlmself agalnsL Lhe aggresslon.

1reachery absorbs: (ACL CAN)
(a) Abuse of superlor sLrengLh
(b) CrafL
(c) Lmploylng means Lo weaken Lhe defense
(d) Cuadrllla (band")
(e) Ald of armed men


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 47 of 76


(f) NlghLLlme

1reachery cannoL co-exlsL wlLh passlon or
obfuscaLlon.

1kLACnLk A8USL CI
SULkICk
S1kLNG1n
MLANS
LMLCLD 1C
WLAkLN 1nL
DLILNSL
Means,
meLhods or
forms are
employed by
Lhe offender Lo
make lL
lmposslble or
hard for Lhe
offended parLy
Lo puL any sorL
of reslsLance
Cffender only
Lakes advanLage
of hls superlor
sLrengLh and
does noL employ
means, meLhods
or forms of
aLLack.
Means are
employed buL lL
only maLerlally
weakens Lhe
reslsLlng power
of Lhe offended
parLy


xVIII. Ak. 17: MLANS 8L LMLCLD Ck
CIkCUMS1ANCLS 8kCUGn1 A8CU1 WnICn ADD
IGNCMIN 1C 1nL NA1UkAL LIILC1S CI 1nL AC1

8as|s: Means employed

IGNCMIN ls a clrcumsLance perLalnlng Lo Lhe moral
order, whlch adds dlsgrace and obloquy Lo Lhe maLerlal
ln[ury caused by Lhe crlme.

NC1LS:
lL ls appllcable Lo crlmes agalnsL chasLlLy, less
serlous physlcal ln[urles, llghL or grave coerclon,
and murder.
lL ls lnherenL ln llbel and acLs of lasclvlousness.

Mean|ng of "wh|ch add |gnom|ny to the natura|
effects of the act":
1he means employed or Lhe clrcumsLances
broughL abouL musL Lend Lo make Lhe effecLs of
Lhe crlme mote bomlllotloq or to pot tbe offeoJeJ
potty to sbome.
ln[ured parLy musL noL be dead when Lhe acL
causlng lgnomlny was lnfllcLed Lo hlm.


xIx: Ak. 18: CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD AI1Lk AN
UNLAWIUL LN1k

8as|s: Means and ways employed Lo commlL Lhe crlme.

1here ls un|awfu| entry when an enLrance (noL escape)
ls effecLed by a way noL lnLended for Lhe purpose.

Cne who acLs, noL respecLlng Lhe walls erecLed by men
Lo guard Lhelr properLy and provlde for Lhelr personal
safeLy, shows a greaLer perverslLy, a greaLer audaclLy,
hence, Lhe law punlshes hlm wlLh more severlLy.

NC1LS:
Swelllng and unlawful enLry Laken separaLely ln
murders commlLLed ln a dwelllng.
ln robbery wlLh Lhe use of force upon Lhlngs and
Lrespass Lo dwelllng.


xx: Ak. 19: AS A MLANS 1C 1nL CCMMISSICN CI A
CkIML, A WALL, kCCI, ILCCk, DCCk, Ck WINDCW
8L 8kCkLN

8as|s: Means and ways employed Lo commlL Lhe crlme.

NC1LS:
Appllcable only lf such acLs were done by Lhe
offender Lo effecL Ln18AnCL.
lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe offender should have
enLered Lhe bulldlng. lf Lhe offender broke a
wlndow Lo enable hlmself Lo reach a purse wlLh
money on Lhe Lable near LhaL wlndow, whlch he
Look whlle hls body was ouLslde of Lhe bulldlng,
Lhe crlme of LhefL was aLLended by Lhls aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance.

Ak. 19 Ak. 18
lnvolves Lhe bteokloq
(tomplmleoto) of Lhe
enumeraLed parLs of Lhe
house.
resupposes LhaL Lhere ls
oo socb bteokloq as by
enLry Lhrough Lhe
wlndow.

Where 8reak|ng of Door or W|ndow |s Lawfu|:
(a) An offlcer, ln order Lo make an arresL, may break
open a door or wlndow of any bulldlng ln whlch
Lhe person Lo be arresLed ls or ls reasonably
belleved Lo be, (Sec. 11, 8ule 113, of 8ules of
CourL)
(b) An offlcer, lf refused admlLLance, may break open
any door or wlndow Lo execuLe Lhe search warranL
or llberaLe hlmself, (Sec. 7, 8ule 126 of 8CC)




CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 48 of 76


xxI. Ak. 20: 1nL CkIML 8L CCMMI11LD:
1. W|th the a|d of persons under 1S years
of age, or
2. 8y means of motor veh|c|es, a|rsh|ps, or
other s|m||ar means

8as|s: Means and ways employed Lo commlL Lhe crlme.

1wo d|fferent c|rcumstances grouped |n th|s
paragraph:
1. W|th the a|d of persons under f|fteen years of age
lnLends Lo repress Lhe frequenL pracLlce
resorLed Lo by professlonal crlmlnals Lo avall
Lhemselves of mlnors Laklng advanLage of
Lhelr lrresponslblllLy.

2. 8y means of motor veh|c|es, a|rsh|ps, or other
s|m||ar means
lnLended Lo counLeracL Lhe greaL faclllLles
found by modern crlmlnals ln sald means Lo
commlL crlme and flee and abscond once Lhe
same ls commlLLed.
use of moLor vehlcle ls aggravaLlng where Lhe
accused purposely and dellberaLely used Lhe
moLor vehlcle ln golng Lo Lhe place of Lhe
crlme, ln carrylng away Lhe effecLs Lhereof,
and ln faclllLaLlng Lhelr escape.
Cther s|m||ar means refers Lo moLorlzed
vehlcles or oLher efflclenL means of
LransporLaLlon slmllar Lo auLomoblle or
alrplane.


xxII. Ak. 21: 1nL WkCNG DCNL IN 1nL
CCMMISSICN CI 1nL CkIML 8L DLLI8LkA1LL
AUGMLN1LD 8 CAUSING C1nLk WkCNG NC1
NLCLSSAk ICk I1S CCMMISSICN

8as|s: Ways employed Lo commlL Lhe crlme.

1here ls crue|ty when Lhe culprlL eojoys and Jellqbts ln
maklng hls vlcLlm suffer slowly and gradually, coosloq
oooecessoty pbyslcol polo ln Lhe consummaLlon of Lhe
crlmlnal acL.

kLUISI1LS:
1. 1he ln[ury caused be dellberaLely lncreased by
causlng oLher wrong,
2. 1he oLher wrong be unnecessary for Lhe execuLlon
of Lhe purpose of Lhe offender.

Crue|ty |s |nherent |n:
(a) Crlmes agalnsL persons
(b) MuLllaLlon

NC1LS:
1he wounds found on Lhe body of Lhe vlcLlm musL
be lnfllcLed whlle he was sLlll allve ln order
unnecessarlly Lo prolong physlcal sufferlng.
lf Lhe vlcLlm was already dead when Lhe acLs of
muLllaLlon were belng performed, Lhls would also
quallfy Lhe kllllng Lo murder due Lo ouLraglng of hls
corpse. (ArL. 248)
number of wounds alone does noL show cruelLy, lL
belng necessary Lo show LhaL Lhe accused
dellberaLely and lnhumanly lncreased Lhe
sufferlngs of Lhe vlcLlms.

Ak. 17: IGNCMIN Ak. 21: CkULL1
lnvolves MC8AL sufferlng 8efers Lo P?SlCAL
sufferlng

NC1L: unllke mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances (par. 10, ArL.
13), Lhere ls nC provlslon for aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances of a slmllar or analogous characLer.


xxIII. C1nLk AGGkAVA1ING CIkCUMS1ANCLS UNDLk
SLCIAL LNAL LAWS

Use of Un||censed I|rearms (Decree Cod|fy|ng the
Laws on I||ega|]Un|awfu| ossess|on, Manufacture,
Acqu|s|t|on or D|spos|t|on, of I|rearms, Ammun|t|on or
Lxp|os|ves as an aggravat|ng c|rcumstance)
lf homlclde or murder ls commlLLed wlLh Lhe use of
an unllcensed flrearm, such use of an unllcensed
flrearm shall be consldered as an aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance. (Sec. 1, par. 3)
When a person commlLs any crlme under Lhe
8evlsed enal Code or Speclal Laws wlLh Lhe use of
exploslves lncludlng buL noL llmlLed Lo plllbox,
moloLove cockLall bombs, deLonaLlon agenLs or
lncendlary devlses resulLlng ln Lhe deaLh of a
person, Lhe same ls aggravaLlng. (Sec. 3)

CCMkLnLNSIVL DANGLkCUS DkUGS AC1
When a crlme ls commlLLed by an offender who ls
under Lhe lnfluence of dangerous drugs, such sLaLe
shall be consldered as a quallfylng aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances. (Sec. 2S)
Any person who has vlolaLed SecLlons 7, 11, 12, 14,
1S, and 19, ArLlcle ll of Lhls AcL, who volunLarlly


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 49 of 76


glves lnformaLlon abouL any vlolaLlon of SecLlons 4,
S, 6, 8, 10, 13, and 16, ArLlcle ll of Lhls AcL as well
as any vlolaLlon of Lhe offenses menLloned lf
commlLLed by a drug syndlcaLe, or any lnformaLlon
leadlng Lo Lhe whereabouLs, ldenLlLles and arresL
of all or any of Lhe members Lhereof, and who
wllllngly LesLlfles agalnsL such persons as descrlbed
above, shall be exempLed from prosecuLlon or
punlshmenL for Lhe offense wlLh reference Lo
whlch hls/her lnformaLlon of LesLlmony were
glven, and may plead or prove Lhe glvlng of such
lnformaLlon and LesLlmony ln bar of such
prosecuLlon: rovlded, 1haL Lhe followlng
condlLlons concur:
o 1he lnformaLlon and LesLlmony are necessary
for Lhe convlcLlon of Lhe persons descrlbed
above,
o Such lnformaLlon and LesLlmony are noL yeL ln
Lhe possesslon of Lhe SLaLe,
o Such lnformaLlon and LesLlmony can be
corroboraLed on lLs maLerlal polnLs,
o 1he lnformanL or wlLness has noL been
prevlously convlcLed of a crlme lnvolvlng
moral LurplLude, excepL when Lhere ls no
oLher dlrecL evldence avallable for Lhe SLaLe
oLher Lhan Lhe lnformaLlon and LesLlmony of
sald lnformanL or wlLness, and
o 1he lnformanL or wlLness shall sLrlcLly and
falLhfully comply wlLhouL delay, any condlLlon
or underLaklng, reduced lnLo wrlLlng, lawfully
lmposed by Lhe SLaLe as furLher conslderaLlon
for Lhe granL of lmmunlLy from prosecuLlon
and punlshmenL.
o rovlded, furLher, 1haL Lhls lmmunlLy may be
en[oyed by such lnformanL or wlLness who
does noL appear Lo be mosL gullLy for Lhe
offense wlLh reference Lo whlch hls/her
lnformaLlon or LesLlmony were glven:
rovlded, flnally, 1haL Lhere ls no dlrecL
evldence avallable for Lhe SLaLe excepL for Lhe
lnformaLlon and LesLlmony of Lhe sald
lnformanL or wlLness.
lor drug pushers who use mlnors or menLally
lncapaclLaLed lndlvlduals as runners, courlers and
messengers, or ln any oLher capaclLy dlrecLly
connecLed Lo Lhe dangerous drugs and/or
conLrolled precursors and essenLlal chemlcal Lrade,
Lhe maxlmum penalLy shall be lmposed ln every
case. (Sec. S)
lf Lhe vlcLlm of Lhe offense ls a mlnor or a menLally
lncapaclLaLed lndlvldual, or should a dangerous
drug and/or a conLrolled precursor and essenLlal
chemlcal lnvolved ln any offense hereln provlded
be Lhe proxlmaLe cause of deaLh of a vlcLlm
Lhereof, Lhe maxlmum penalLy provlded for under
Lhls SecLlon shall be lmposed. (Sec. S)
1he provlslons of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code (AcL no.
3814), as amended, shall noL apply Lo Lhe
provlslons of Lhls AcL, excepL ln Lhe case of mlnor
offenders. Where Lhe offender ls a mlnor, Lhe
penalLy for acLs punlshable by llfe lmprlsonmenL Lo
deaLh provlded hereln shall be teclosloo petpetoo
Lo deaLh. (Sec. 98)

SLCIIIC AGGkAVA1ING CIkCUMS1ANCLS:
vlolaLlon of domlclle: nlghLLlme, papers or effecLs
noL reLurned lmmedlaLely
lnLerrupLlon of rellglous worshlp: vlolence or
LhreaLs
ulrecL assaulL: weapon, offender ls a publlc offlcer
or employee, offender lays hands upon a person ln
auLhorlLy
Crave LhreaLs: ln wrlLlng, Lhru a mlddleman
8obbery wlLh vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of
persons: unlnhablLed place, band, LxCL1 robbery
wlLh homlclde or robbery wlLh rape
8obbery wlLh force upon Lhlngs: unlnhablLed place
and by a band

I. AL1LkNA1IVL CIkCUMS1ANCLS

AL1LkNA1IVL CIkCUMS1ANCLS are Lhose whlch musL
be Laken lnLo conslderaLlon as oqqtovotloq ot
mltlqotloq accordlng Lo Lhe ootote ooJ effects of tbe
ctlme and Lhe otbet cooJltloos aLLendlng lLs
commlsslon.

8as|s: naLure and effecLs of Lhe crlme and Lhe oLher
condlLlons aLLendlng lLs commlsslon.

A|ternat|ve C|rcumstances:
1. 8elaLlonshlp
2. lnLoxlcaLlon
3. uegree of lnsLrucLlon and educaLlon of Lhe
offender

I. kLLA1ICNSnI

1he alLernaLlve clrcumsLance of relaLlonshlp shall be
Laken lnLo conslderaLlon when Lhe offeoJeJ potty ls
Lhe:
1. Spouse


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S0 of 76


2. AscendanL
3. uescendanL
4. LeglLlmaLe, naLural, or adopLed broLher
or slsLer, or
S. 8elaLlve by afflnlLy as Lhe same degree of
Lhe offender
6. SLepfaLher or sLepmoLher and sLepson or
sLepdaughLer eop|e v. 8ersaba|,[28 h||.
439, 441]
7. AdopLed parenL and adopLed chlld


When ke|at|onsh|p |s M|t|gat|ng:
1. Cr|mes aga|nst property, by analogy Lo Lhe
provlslons of ArL. 332
8obbery, usurpaLlon, fraudulenL lnsolvency,
and arson
8elaLlonshlp ls exemptloq ln LhefL, esLafa, and
mallclous mlschlef
2. Cr|mes aga|nst persons
1he offense commlLLed ls less setloos pbyslcol
lojotles ot sllqbt pbyslcol lojotles lf Lhe
offended parLy ls a telotlve of o lowet Jeqtee.

When ke|at|onsh|p |s Aggravat|ng:
1. Cr|mes aga|nst persons
lL ls aggravaLlng where Lhe offeoJeJ potty ls a
relaLlve of
o A blqbet Jeqtee Lhan Lhe offender, or
o When Lhe offender and Lhe offended
parLy are relaLlves of Lhe some Jeqtee.
ln physlcal ln[urles
o 1he crlme agalnsL persons ls setloos
pbyslcol lojotles, even lf Lhe offended
parLy ls a descendanL of Lhe offender. 8uL
Lhe serlous physlcal ln[urles musL noL be
lnfllcLed by a parenL upon hls chlld by
excesslve chasLlsemenL.
o 1he offense commlLLed ls less setloos
pbyslcol lojotles ot sllqbt pbyslcol lojotles
lf Lhe offended parLy ls telotlve of o
blqbet Jeqtee of Lhe offender.
When Lhe crlme ls homlclde or murder,
relaLlonshlp ls aggravaLlng even lf Lhe vlcLlm
of Lhe crlme s a relaLlve of a lower degree.
ln rape, relaLlonshlp ls aggravaLlng where a
sLepfaLher raped hls sLepdaughLer or ln a case
where a faLher rapes hls own daughLer.

2. Cr|mes aga|nst chast|ty
ln octs of losclvloosoess, relaLlonshlp ls always
aggravaLlng, regardless of wheLher Lhe
offender ls a relaLlve of a hlgher or lower
degree of Lhe offended parLy.

NC1L: When Lhe quallflcaLlon glven Lo Lhe crlme ls
derlved from Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe offender
and Lhe offended parLy, lL ls nelLher mlLlgaLlng nor
aggravaLlng, because ls losepotoble from and lobeteot
ln Lhe offense.


II. IN1CxICA1ICN

8as|s
As a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance, lL flnds lLs reason ln
Lhe facL LhaL when a person ls under Lhe lnfluence
of llquor, hls exetclse of wlll powet ls lmpolteJ.
As an aggravaLlng clrcumsLance, because lL ls
loteotloool, Lhe reason ls LhaL Lhe offender
resorLed Lo lL ln order Lo bolsLer hls courage Lo
commlL a crlme.
o 1he consLanL use of lnLoxlcaLlng llquor lessens
Lhe lndlvldual reslsLance Lo evll LhoughLs and
undermlnes Lhe wlll power maklng hlmself a
poLenLlal evlldoer agalnsL whose acLlvlLles,
socleLy has Lhe rlghL for lLs own proLecLlon Lo
lmpose a more sever penalLy.

MI1IGA1ING AGGkAVA1ING
lf lnLoxlcaLlon ls oot
bobltool
lf lnLoxlcaLlon ls bobltool
lf lnLoxlcaLlon ls oot
sobsepoeot to tbe ploo Lo
commlL a felony
lf lL ls loteotloool
(subsequenL Lo Lhe plan Lo
commlL a felony)

A nA8I1UAL DkUNkAkD ls one glven Lo lnLoxlcaLlon by
excesslve use of lnLoxlcaLlng drlnks.
Cnce lnLoxlcaLlon ls esLabllshed by
saLlsfacLory evldence, ln Lhe absence of proof
Lo Lhe conLrary, lL ls presumed Lo be non-
hablLual or unlnLenLlonal.

1o be Lnt|t|ed to the M|t|gat|ng C|rcumstance, |t must
be shown that:
(a) AL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlmlnal acL,
he has Laken such quanLlLy of alcohollc drlnks as Lo
blur hls reason and deprlve hlm of a cerLaln degree
of conLrol, and
(b) Such lnLoxlcaLlon ls noL hablLual, or subsequenL Lo
Lhe plan Lo commlL Lhe felony.



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S1 of 76


NC1L: lnLoxlcaLlon musL dlmlnlsh Lhe agenL's capaclLy
Lo know Lhe ln[usLlce of hls acLs, and hls wlll Lo acL
accordlngly.


III. DLGkLL CI INS1kUC1ICN AND LDUCA1ICN CI 1nL
CIILNDLk

lL does noL refer only Lo llLeracy buL more Lo Lhe level of
lnLelllgence of Lhe accused

NC1LS:
8efers Lo Lhe lack of sufflclenL lnLelllgence and
knowledge of Lhe full slgnlflcance of one's acLs.
Low degree of lnsLrucLlon and educaLlon or lack of
lL ls generally mlLlgaLlng.
Plgh degree of lnsLrucLlon and educaLlon ls
aggravaLlng when Lhe offender avalls hlmself of hls
learnlng ln commlLLlng Lhe crlme.

GLNLkAL kULL: Lack of sufflclenL educaLlon ls
mlLlgaLlng.

LxCL1ICNS:
(a) Crlmes agalnsL properLy (e.g., arson, esLafa, LhefL,
robbery)
(b) Crlmes agalnsL chasLlLy
(c) 1reason: because love of counLry should be a
naLural feellng of every clLlzen, however
unleLLered or unculLured he may be
(d) Murder
(e) 8ape

G. A8SCLU1Ck CAUSL

A8SCLU1Ck CAUSL
Where Lhe acL commlLLed ls a crlme buL for some
reason of publlc pollcy and senLlmenL, Lhere ls no
penalLy lmposed. LxempLlng and [usLlfylng
clrcumsLances are absoluLory causes. Abso|utory
Causes are Lhose where Lhe acL commlLLed ls a crlme
buL for reasons of publlc pollcy and senLlmenL Lhere ls
oo peoolty lmposeJ.

8as|s: A sound publlc pollcy requlres LhaL Lhe courLs
shall condemn Lhls pracLlce by dlrecLlng Lhe acqulLLal of
Lhe accused.

Lxamp|es of such other c|rcumstances are:
1. SponLaneous deslsLance (ArL. 6)
2. Accessorles exempL from crlmlnal llablllLy (ArL. 20)
3. ueaLh or physlcal ln[urles lnfllcLed under
excepLlonal clrcumsLances (ArL. 247)
4. ersons exempL from crlmlnal llablllLy from LhefL,
swlndllng, mallclous mlschlef (ArL 332)
S. lnsLlgaLlon

LN1kAMLN1 INS1IGA1ICN
1he ways and means are
resorLed Lo for Lhe
purpose of Lrapplng and
capLurlng Lhe lawbreaker
ln Lhe execuLlon of hls
crlmlnal plan.
lnsLlgaLor pracLlcally
lnduces Lhe would-be
accused lnLo Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe offense
and hlmself becomes a
co-prlnclpal.
nC1 a bar Lo accused's
prosecuLlon and
convlcLlon
Accused wlll be

acqulLLed.
nC1 an absoluLory cause

AbsoluLory cause


LND CI DISCUSSICN CN 1CIC
3. CIkCUMS1ANCLS WnICn AIILC1 CkIMINAL
LIA8ILI1

======================================
14. LkSCNS CkIMINALL LIA8LL ]
DLGkLL CI Ak1ICIA1ICN
======================================
1CIC UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US:

4. ersons Cr|m|na||y L|ab|e]Degree of
art|c|pat|on
a. Decree ena||z|ng Cbstruct|on of
Apprehens|on and rosecut|on of Cr|m|na|
Cffenders
|. un|shab|e Acts
||. Compare w|th Art|c|e 20
======================================

4. LkSCNS CkIMINALL LIA8LL]DLGkLL CI
Ak1ICIA1ICN.

A. LkSCNS CkIMINALL LIA8LL ICk GkAVL AND
LLSS GkAVL ILLCNILS.

Art. 16. Who are cr|m|na||y ||ab|e. 1he fo||ow|ng are
cr|m|na||y ||ab|e for grave and |ess grave fe|on|es:



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S2 of 76


1. r|nc|pa|s
2. Accomp||ces
3. Accessor|es


8. LkSCNS CkIMINALL LIA8LL ICk LIGn1
ILLCNILS

1he followlng are crlmlnally llable for llghL felonles:

1. rlnclpals
2. Accompllces.


C. Ak1ILS IN ALL CkIMLS

I. AC1IVL SU8ILC1

1he acLlve sub[ecL ls Lhe crlmlnal. Cnly naLural persons
can be Lhe acLlve sub[ecL of crlme because of Lhe hlghly
personal naLure of Lhe crlmlnal responslblllLy.

under Lhe 8evlsed enal Code, persons acL wlLh
personal mallce or negllgence, arLlflclal persons cannoL
acL wlLh mallce or negllgence.

A [urldlcal person llke a corporaLlon cannoL commlL a
crlme LhaL requlres wlllful purpose or mallclous lnLenL.
Crlmlnal acLlons are resLrlcLed or llmlLed Lo Lhe offlclals
of Lhe corporaLlon and never dlrecLed agalnsL Lhe
corporaLlon lLself, excepL under:
(a) CorporaLlon Law
(b) ubllc Servlce Law
(c) SecurlLles Law
(d) LlecLlon Code

1here ls subsLlLuLlon of deprlvaLlon of llberLy for
pecunlary penalLles ln lnsolvency cases.
CLher penalLles llke Jestletto and lmprlsonmenL are
execuLed on lndlvlduals only.

ll. ASSlvL Su8!LC1

1he passlve sub[ecL of a crlme ls Lhe person ln[ured. 1he
holder of Lhe ln[ured rlghL ls Lhe man, Lhe [urlsLlc
person, Lhe group, and Lhe SLaLe.

CorporaLlon and parLnershlps can be passlve sub[ecLs of
a crlme.

Corpses and anlmals cannoL be passlve sub[ecLs
because Lhey have no rlghLs LhaL may be ln[ured.

LxCL1ICN: under ArLlcle 2S3, Lhe crlme of defamaLlon
may be commlLLed lf Lhe lmpuLaLlon Lends Lo blacken
Lhe memory of one who ls dead.

lL should be noLed LhaL ArLlcle 16 only applles when Lhe
offenders are Lo be [udged by Lhelr lndlvldual, and noL
collecLlve llablllLy.


D. kINCIAL

Art. 17. r|nc|pa|s. 1he fo||ow|ng are cons|dered
pr|nc|pa|s:

1. 1hose who take a d|rect part |n the execut|on of the
act,
2. 1hose who d|rect|y force or |nduce others to
comm|t |t,
3. 1hose who cooperate |n the comm|ss|on of the
offense by another act w|thout wh|ch |t wou|d not
have been accomp||shed.

I. 8 DIkLC1 Ak1ICIA1ICN

kLUISI1LS:
1. 1hey pottlclpoteJ ln Lhe ctlmlool tesolotloo, and
2. 1hey cottleJ oot Lhelr plan and petsooolly Look
parL ln lLs execuLlon by acLs whlch dlrecLly Lended
Lo Lhe same end.
When Lhls elemenL ls lacklng, Lhere ls only
consplracy.

ln consplracy by prlor agreemenL, Lhe prlnclpal by
dlrecL parLlclpaLlon who does noL appear aL Lhe scene
of Lhe crlme ls noL llable, because:
non-appearance ls deemed deslsLance whlch
ls favored and encouraged,
Consplracy ls generally noL a crlme unless Lhe
law speclflcally provldes a penalLy Lherefor.
1here ls no basls for crlmlnal llablllLy because
Lhere ls no crlmlnal parLlclpaLlon.

II. 8 INDUCLMLN1

kLUISI1LS:
1. 1haL Lhe lnducemenL be made dlrecLly wltb tbe
loteotloo of procurlng Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme, and


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S3 of 76


2. 1haL such lnducemenL be Lhe Jetetmloloq coose of
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme by Lhe maLerlal
execuLor.
3. WlLhouL such lnducemenL Lhe crlme would noL
have been commlLLed

Ways of 8ecom|ng r|nc|pa| by Induct|on
8y dlrecLly fotcloq anoLher Lo commlL a crlme
o uslng ltteslstlble fotce
o 8y causlng oocoottolloble feot
o ln Lhese cases, Lhere ls no consplracy, noL
even a unlLy of crlmlnal purpose and
lnLenLlon. Cnly Lhe one uslng force or causlng
fear ls crlmlnally llable.
8y dlrecLly loJocloq anoLher Lo commlL a crlme
o 8y glvlng prlce, or offerlng tewotJ or ptomlse
8oLh Lhe one glvlng Lhe prlce or offerlng
reward or promlse and Lhe one
commlLLlng Lhe crlme ln conslderaLlon
Lhereof are prlnclpals
o 8y uslng wotJs of commooJ
1he lnclLlng words musL have greaL
domlnance and lnfluence over Lhe person
who acLs where lL would be Lhe movlng
cause for Lhe offense.
1here ls also collecLlve crlmlnal
responslblllLy

kLUISI1LS:
1he one uLLerlng Lhe words of command
musL have Lhe lnLenLlon of procurlng Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme,
1he one who made Lhe command musL
have an osceoJoocy or lofloeoce over Lhe
person who acLed,
1he words used musL be so Jltect, so
efflcocloos, so powetfol as Lo amounL Lo
physlcal or moral coerclon'
1he words of command musL be uLLered
ptlot Lo Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, and
1he maLerlal execuLor of Lhe crlme bos oo
petsoool teosoo Lo commlL Lhe crlme.

1here musL exlsL on Lhe parL of Lhe lnducer Lhe mosL
poslLlve resoluLlon and Lhe mosL perslsLenL efforL Lo
secure Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, LogeLher wlLh Lhe
presenLaLlon Lo Lhe person lnduced of Lhe very
sLrongesL klng of LempLaLlon Lo commlL Lhe crlme.

1he lnducemenL musL precede Lhe acL lnduced and
musL be so lnfluenLlal ln produclng Lhe crlmlnal acL LhaL
wlLhouL lL, Lhe acL would noL have been performed.

A LhoughLless expresslon wlLhouL lnLenLlon Lo produce
Lhe resulL ls noL an lnducemenL Lo commlL a crlme.

lf Lhe crlme commlLLed ls noL conLemplaLed ln Lhe
order glven, Lhe lnducemenL ls noL maLerlal and noL Lhe
deLermlnlng cause Lhereof.

kINCIAL 8
INDUCLMLN1
CIILNDLk WnC MADL
kCCSAL 1C CCMMI1 A
ILLCN
1here ls an lnducemenL Lo commlL a crlme
L|ab|||ty
rlnclpal becomes llable
only when Lhe crlme ls
commlLLed by Lhe
prlnclpal by dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon
Mere proposal Lo commlL
a felony ls punlshable ln
Lreason or rebelllon

1he person Lo whom Lhe
proposal ls made should
noL commlL Lhe crlme,
oLherwlse, Lhe proponenL
becomes a prlnclpal by
lnducemenL
Cr|me Invo|ved
lnvolves any crlme MusL lnvolve only Lreason
or rebelllon

Lffects of acqu|tta| of pr|nc|pa| by d|rect part|c|pat|on
upon the ||ab|||ty of pr|nc|pa| by |nducement:
Consplracy ls negaLed by Lhe acqulLLal of co-
defendanL
Cne cannoL be held gullLy of havlng lnsLlgaLed Lhe
commlsslon of a crlme wlLhouL flrsL belng shown
LhaL Lhe crlme has been acLually commlLLed by
anoLher
lf Lhe one charged as prlnclpal by dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon ls acqulLLed, hls acqulLLal ls noL a
ground for Lhe acqulLLal of Lhe prlnclpal by
lnducemenL


III. 8 INDISLNSI8LL CCCLkA1ICN

kLUISI1LS:
1. arLlclpaLlon ln Lhe crlmlnal resoluLlon, LhaL ls,
Lhere ls elLher anLerlor consplracy or unlLy of
crlmlnal purpose and lnLenLlon lmmedlaLely before
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme charged, and


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S4 of 76


8equlres parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe crlmlnal
resoluLlon
1here musL be consplracy
Concurrence ls sufflclenL
CooperaLlon ls lndlspensable

2. CooperaLlon ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense by
performlng oootbet oct, wlLhouL whlch lL would
noL have been accompllshed.
CooperaLlon musL be lndlspensable
lf dlspensable, accused ls only an accompllce
lf cooperaLlon ls necessary ln Lhe execuLlon of
Lhe offense, accused ls consldered as a
prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon

1o cooperate means Lo Jeslte ot wlsb lo commoo a
Lhlng. 8uL LhaL common wlll or purpose does noL
necessarlly mean prevlous undersLandlng, for lL can be
explalned or lnferred from Lhe clrcumsLances of each
case. eop|e v. Ape|g|do, [S6 h||. S71, S76]

CCLLLC1IVL CkIMINAL kLSCNSI8ILI1
1here ls CCLLLC1IVL CkIMINAL kLSCNSI8ILI1 when
Lhe offenders are crlmlnally llable ln Lhe same manner
and Lo Lhe same exLenL. 1he penalLy Lo be lmposed
musL be Lhe same for all.

8 DIkLC1
Ak1ICIA1ICN
8 INDUC1ICN 8
INDISLNSA8LL
CCCLkA1ICN
rlnclpals have
collecLlve
crlmlnal
responslblllLy
rlnclpal,
LxCL1 LhaL
who dlrecLly
forced anoLher
Lo commlL a
crlme, ooJ
prlnclpal by
dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon
rlnclpal has
crlmlnal
collecLlve
responslblllLy
wltb Lhe
prlnclpal by
dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon

INDIVIDUAL CkIMINAL kLSCNSI8ILI1
ln Lhe absence of consplracy, unlLy of crlmlnal purpose
and lnLenLlon lmmedlaLely before Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe crlme, or communlLy of crlmlnal deslgn, Lhe
ctlmlool tespooslblllty arlslng from dlfferenL acLs
dlrecLed agalnsL one and Lhe same person ls loJlvlJool
and noL collecLlve, and eocb of tbe pottlclpoots ls lloble
ooly fot octs commltteJ by blm. U.S. v. Magcomot, [13
h||. 386, 390]



L. ACCCMLICL

Art. 18. Accomp||ces. Accomp||ces are those
persons who, not be|ng |nc|uded |n Art. 17, cooperate
|n the execut|on of the offense by prev|ous or
s|mu|taneous acts.

kLUISI1LS:
1. 1here be communlLy of deslgn, LhaL ls, koowloq
tbe ctlmlool Jeslqo of Lhe prlnclpal by dlrecL
parLlclpaLlon, he coocots wltb tbe lottet ln hls
purpose,
knowledge of Lhe crlmlnal deslgn of Lhe
prlnclpal can be acqulred by Lhe accompllce
Lhrough:
o When Lhe prlnclpal lnforms or Lells Lhe
accompllce of Lhe former's crlmlnal
deslgn
o When Lhe accompllce saw Lhe crlmlnal
acLs of Lhe prlnclpal
1he communlLy of deslgn need noL be Lo
commlL Lhe crlme acLually commlLLed. lL ls
sufflclenL lf Lhere was a common purpose Lo
commlL a parLlcular crlme and LhaL Lhe crlme
acLually commlLLed was a naLural or probable
consequence of Lhe lnLended crlme
2. Pe cooperaLes ln Lhe execuLlon of Lhe offense by
ptevloos or slmoltooeoos octs, wlLh Lhe lnLenLlon
of supplylng motetlol or moral ald ln Lhe execuLlon
of Lhe crlme ln an efflcaclous way, and
1he cooperaLlon of Lhe accompllce ls only
necessary, noL lndlspensable
1he cooperaLlon ls noL due Lo a consplracy
1he wounds lnfllcLed by an accompllce ln
crlmes agalnsL persons should noL have
caused Lhe deaLh of Lhe vlcLlm
8elng presenL and glvlng moral supporL when
a crlme ls belng commlLLed where lL may be
Lhrough advlce, encouragemenL or agreemenL
3. 1here be a telotloo beLween Lhe acLs done by Lhe
prlnclpal and Lhose aLLrlbuLed Lo Lhe person
charged as accompllce.

UASI-CCLLLC1IVL kLSCNSI8ILI1
Some of Lhe offenders ln Lhe crlme are prlnclpals and
Lhe oLhers as accompllces.


ACCCMLICL kINCIAL 8
CCCLkA1ICN
arLlclpaLlon ls necessary
buL noL lndlspensable
arLlclpaLlon ls
lndlspensable


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age SS of 76



ACCCMLICL V. kINCIAL 8 DIkLC1 Ak1ICIA1ICN
1here ls communlLy of crlmlnal deslgn
ln case of doubL, lL shall be resolved ln favor of
lesser responslblllLy, LhaL ls, LhaL of mere
accompllce
8eLween Lhe prlnclpals and Lhe accompllces, Lhere
ls no consplracy.

ACCCMLICL CCNSIkA1Ck
1hey know and agree wlLh Lhe crlmlnal deslgn
1hey come Lo know abouL
lL afLer Lhe prlnclpals have
reached Lhe declslon, and
only Lhen do Lhey agree
Lo cooperaLe ln lLs
execuLlon
1hey come Lo know Lhe
crlmlnal lnLenLlon because
Lhey Lhemselves have
declded upon such course
of acLlon
1hey are merely
lnsLrumenLs who perform
acLs noL essenLlal Lo Lhe
perpeLraLlon of Lhe
offense
1hey are Lhe auLhors of a
crlme

ACCCMLICL kINCIAL 8
INDISLNSA8LL
CCCLkA1ICN
CooperaLlon ls
dlspensable

CooperaLlon musL be
lndlspensable
CooperaLes ln Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe offense
by prevlous or
slmulLaneous acLs, wlLh
Lhe lnLenLlon of supplylng
maLerlal or moral ald ln
Lhe execuLlon of Lhe
crlme ln an efflcaclous
way
arLlclpaLlon ln Lhe
crlmlnal resoluLlon, LhaL ls,
Lhere ls elLher anLerlor
consplracy or unlLy of
crlmlnal purpose and
lnLenLlon lmmedlaLely
before Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe crlme charged


I. ACCLSSCk

Art. 19. Accessor|es. Accessor|es are those who,
hav|ng know|edge of the comm|ss|on of the cr|me, and
w|thout hav|ng part|c|pated there|n, e|ther as
pr|nc|pa|s or accomp||ces, take part subsequent to |ts
comm|ss|on |n any of the fo||ow|ng manners:

1. 8y prof|t|ng themse|ves or ass|st|ng the offender to
prof|t by the effects of the cr|me,
2. 8y concea||ng or destroy|ng the body of the cr|me,
or the effects or |nstruments thereof, |n order to
prevent |ts d|scovery,

3. 8y harbor|ng, concea||ng, or ass|st|ng |n the escape
of the pr|nc|pa|s of the cr|me, prov|ded the accessory
acts w|th abuse of h|s pub||c funct|ons or whenever
the author of the cr|me |s gu||ty of treason, parr|c|de,
murder, or an attempt to take the ||fe of the Ch|ef
Lxecut|ve, or |s known to be hab|tua||y gu||ty of some
other cr|me.

An accessory does noL parLlclpaLe ln Lhe crlmlnal
deslgn, nor cooperaLe ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe felony,
buL, wlLh knowledge of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, he
subsequenLly Lakes pare ln Lhree ways:
(a) roflLlng from Lhe effecLs of Lhe crlme,
(b) Conceallng Lhe body, effecLs or
lnsLrumenLs of Lhe crlme ln order Lo
prevenL lLs dlscovery,
(c) AsslsLlng ln Lhe escape or concealmenL of
Lhe prlnclpal of Lhe crlme, provlded he
acLs wlLh abuse of hls publlc funcLlons or
Lhe prlnclpal ls gullLy of Lreason,
parrlclde, murder, or an aLLempL Lo Lake
Lhe llfe of Lhe Chlef LxecuLlve, or ls
known Lo be hablLually gullLy of some
oLher crlme.

An accessory musL have knowledge of Lhe commlsslon
of Lhe crlme, and havlng LhaL knowledge, he Look parL
sobsepoeot Lo lLs commlsslon.

1he crlme commlLLed by Lhe prlnclpal musL be proved
beyond reasonable doubL.

Spec|f|c Acts of Accessor|es:
(1) 8y proflLlng Lhemselves or asslsLlng Lhe offender Lo
proflL by Lhe effecLs of Lhe crlme
1he crlme commlLLed by Lhe prlnclpal under
Lhls paragraph may be any crlme, provlded lL
ls noL a llghL felony.
roflLlng Lhemselves by Lhe effecLs of Lhe
crlme
o 1he accessory should noL Lake Lhe
properLy wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe
prlnclpal.
o When a person knowlngly acqulred or
recelved properLy Laken by Lhe brlgands,
Lhe crlme ls punlshed as Lhe acL of Lhe
prlnclpal, noL Lhe acL of Lhe accessory.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S6 of 76


AsslsLlng Lhe offender Lo proflL by Lhe effecLs
of Lhe crlme

(2) 8y conceallng or desLroylng Lhe body of Lhe crlme,
or Lhe effecLs or lnsLrumenLs Lhereof, ln order Lo
prevenL lLs dlscovery

(3) 1he crlme commlLLed by Lhe prlnclpal under Lhls
paragraph may be any crlme, provlded lL ls noL a
llghL felony.
8ody of the cr|me ls Lhe cotpos Jellctl, LhaL a
speclflc offense was ln facL commlLLed by
someone.
1here musL be an aLLempL Lo hlde Lhe body of
Lhe crlme.
1he sLolen properLy ls Lhe effecL of Lhe crlme.
1he plsLol or knlfe ls Lhe lnsLrumenL of Lhe
crlme.

(4) 8y harborlng, conceallng, or asslsLlng ln Lhe escape
of Lhe prlnclpals of Lhe crlme, provlded Lhe
accessory acLs wlLh abuse of hls publlc funcLlons or
whenever Lhe auLhor of Lhe crlme ls gullLy of
Lreason, parrlclde, murder, or an aLLempL Lo Lake
Lhe llfe of Lhe Chlef LxecuLlve, or ls known Lo be
hablLually gullLy of some oLher crlme

CLASSLS CI ACCLSSCkILS CCN1LMLA1LD IN Ak1. 3:
(1) lobllc offlcets who harbor, conceal or asslsL ln Lhe
escape of Lhe prlnclpal of ooy ctlme (noL llghL
felony) wltb obose of bls pobllc fooctloos.
kLUISI1LS:
1he accessory ls a publlc offlcer
Pe harbors, conceals, or asslsLs ln Lhe escape
of Lhe prlnclpal
Pe acLs wlLh abuse of hls publlc funcLlon
1he crlme commlLLed by Lhe prlnclpals ls any
crlme, excepL a llghL felony

(2) ltlvote petsoos who harbor, conceal or asslsL ln
Lhe escape of Lhe ootbot of Lhe crlme - qollty of
tteosoo, pottlclJe, motJet, or oo ottempt oqolost
tbe llfe of tbe lteslJeot, or who ls known Lo be
bobltoolly qollty of some oLher crlme.

kLUISI1LS:
1he accessory ls a prlvaLe person
Pe harbors, conceals or asslsLs ln Lhe escape
of Lhe auLhor of Lhe crlme
1he crlme commlLLed by Lhe prlnclpal ls
elLher:
o 1reason
o arrlclde
o Murder
o An aLLempL agalnsL Lhe llfe of Lhe
resldenL
o 1haL Lhe prlnclpal ls known Lo be
hablLually gullLy of some oLher crlme

1he accessorles' llablllLy ls subordlnaLe and subsequenL.

ConvlcLlon of an accessory ls posslble noLwlLhsLandlng
Lhe acqulLLal of Lhe prlnclpal, lf Lhe crlme was ln facL
commlLLed, buL Lhe prlnclpal was noL held crlmlnally
llable, because of an exempLlng clrcumsLance.

Lven lf Lhe prlnclpal ls sLlll unknown or aL large, Lhe
accessory may be held responslble provlded Lhe
requlslLes prescrlbed by law for Lhe exlsLence of Lhe
crlme are presenL and LhaL someone commlLLed lL.

Where Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme and Lhe
responslblllLy of Lhe accused as an accessory are
esLabllshed, Lhe accessory can be convlcLed,
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe acqulLLal of Lhe prlnclpal. V|no v.
eop|e, [178 SCkA 626, 632-634]

(3) Where Lhe accused mlsleads Lhe auLhorlLles by
glvlng Lhem false lnformaLlon, such acL ls
equlvalenL Lo concealmenL and he should be held
as an accessory.


G. AN1I-ILNCING LAW

ILNCING ls Lhe acL of person who, wlLh lnLenL Lo galn
for hlmself or for anoLher, shall buy, recelve, possess,
keep, acqulre, conceal, sell or dlspose of, or shall buy
and sell, or ln any oLher manner deal ln any arLlcle,
lLem, ob[ecL or anyLhlng of value whlch he knows, or
should be known Lo hlm, Lo have been derlved from Lhe
proceeds of Lhe crlme of tobbety or tbeft.

ILNCL lncludes any person, flrm, assoclaLlon,
corporaLlon or parLnershlp or oLher organlzaLlon
who/whlch commlLs Lhe acL of fenclng.

Mere possesslon of any good, arLlcle, lLem, ob[ecL, or
anyLhlng of value whlch has been Lhe sub[ecL of
robbery or Lhlevery shall be prlma facle evldence of
fenclng.




CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S7 of 76


n. DLCkLL LNALI2ING C8S1kUC1ICN CI
AkLnLNSICN AND kCSLCU1ICN CI CkIMINAL
CIILNDLkS
1he purpose of Lhe law ls Lo dlscourage publlc
lndlfference or apaLhy Lowards Lhe apprehenslon and
prosecuLlon of crlmlnal offenders.

1he beneflLs of Lhe excepLlons ln ArLlcle 20 Jo oot apply
Lo CbsLrucLlon of !usLlce.

1he law penallzes any person who knowlngly or wlllfully
obsLrucLs, lmpedes, frusLraLes or delays Lhe
apprehenslon of suspecLs and Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon and
prosecuLlon of crlmlnal cases by commlLLlng any of Lhe
followlng acLs:
(a) revenLlng wlLnesses from LesLlfylng ln
any crlmlnal proceedlng or from
reporLlng Lhe commlsslon of any offense
or Lhe ldenLlLy of any offender/s by
means of brlbery, mlsrepresenLaLlon,
decelL, lnLlmldaLlon, force or LhreaLs,
(b) AlLerlng, desLroylng, suppresslng or
conceallng any paper, record, documenL,
or ob[ecL, wlLh lnLenL Lo lmpalr lLs verlLy,
auLhenLlclLy, leglblllLy, avallablllLy, or
admlsslblllLy as evldence ln any
lnvesLlgaLlon of or offlclal proceedlngs ln,
crlmlnal cases, or Lo be used ln Lhe
lnvesLlgaLlon of, or offlclal proceedlngs ln,
crlmlnal cases,
(c) Parborlng or conceallng, or faclllLaLlng
Lhe escape of, any person he knows, or
has reasonable ground Lo belleve or
suspecL, has commlLLed any offense
under exlsLlng penal laws ln order Lo
prevenL hls arresL prosecuLlon and
convlcLlon,
(d) ubllcly uslng a flcLlLlous name for Lhe
purpose of conceallng a crlme, evadlng
prosecuLlon or Lhe execuLlon of a
[udgmenL, or conceallng hls Lrue name
and oLher personal clrcumsLances for Lhe
same purpose or purposes,
(e) uelaylng Lhe prosecuLlon of crlmlnal
cases by obsLrucLlng Lhe servlce of
process or courL orders or dlsLurblng
proceedlngs ln Lhe flscal's offlces, ln
1anodbayan, or ln Lhe courLs,
(f) Maklng, presenLlng or uslng any record,
documenL, paper or ob[ecL wlLh
knowledge of lLs falslLy and wlLh lnLenL Lo
affecL Lhe course or ouLcome of Lhe
lnvesLlgaLlon of, or offlclal proceedlngs ln,
crlmlnal cases,
(g) SollclLlng, accepLlng, or agreelng Lo
accepL any beneflL ln conslderaLlon of
absLalnlng from, dlscounLlng, or lmpedlng
Lhe prosecuLlon of a crlmlnal offender,
(h) 1hreaLenlng dlrecLly or lndlrecLly anoLher
wlLh Lhe lnfllcLlon of any wrong upon hls
person, honor or properLy or LhaL of any
lmmedlaLe member or members of hls
famlly ln order Lo prevenL such person
from appearlng ln Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon of, or
offlclal proceedlngs ln, crlmlnal cases, or
lmposlng a condlLlon, wheLher lawful or
unlawful, ln order Lo prevenL a person
from appearlng ln Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon of or
ln offlclal proceedlngs ln, crlmlnal cases,
(l) Clvlng of false or fabrlcaLed lnformaLlon
Lo mlslead or prevenL Lhe law
enforcemenL agencles from
apprehendlng Lhe offender or from
proLecLlng Lhe llfe or properLy of Lhe
vlcLlm, or fabrlcaLlng lnformaLlon from
Lhe daLa gaLhered ln confldence by
lnvesLlgaLlng auLhorlLles for purposes of
background lnformaLlon and noL for
publlcaLlon and publlshlng or
dlssemlnaLlng Lhe same Lo mlslead Lhe
lnvesLlgaLor or Lo Lhe courL.


I. LkSCNS LxLM1 IkCM CkIMINAL LIA8ILI1

Art. 20. Accessor|es who are exempt from cr|m|na|
||ab|||ty. 1he pena|t|es prescr|bed for accessor|es
sha|| not be |mposed upon those who are such w|th
respect to the|r spouses, ascendants, descendants,
|eg|t|mate, natura|, and adopted brothers and s|sters,
or re|at|ves by aff|n|ty w|th|n the same degrees, w|th
the s|ng|e except|on of accessor|es fa|||ng w|th|n the
prov|s|ons of paragraph 1 of the next preced|ng
art|c|e.

1he exempLlon ls based on Lhe Lles of blood and Lhe
preservaLlon of Lhe cleanllness of one's name.

An accessory ls exempL from crlmlnal llablllLy, when Lhe
prlnclpal ls hls-
Spouse
AscendanL
uescendanL


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S8 of 76


LeglLlmaLe, naLural or adopLed broLher,
slsLer, or relaLlve by afflnlLy wlLhln Lhe
same degree

1he accessory ls noL exempL from crlmlnal llablllLy even
lf Lhe prlnclpal ls relaLed Lo hlm, lf such accessory:
roflLed by Lhe effecLs of Lhe crlme
AsslsLed Lhe offender Lo proflL by Lhe
effecLs of Lhe crlme
Such acLs are prompLed noL by affecLlon
buL by a deLesLable greed.

Cnly accessorles under ArL. 19(2) and (3) are exempL
from crlmlnal llablllLy lf Lhey are relaLed Lo Lhe
prlnclpals.

1les of blood or relaLlonshlp consLlLuLes a more
powerful lncenLlve Lhan Lhe call of duLy.

LND CI DISCUSSICN CN 1CIC
4. LkSCNS CkIMINALL LIA8LL ] DLGkLL CI
CkIMINAL LIA8ILI1

======================================
S. LNAL1ILS
======================================
1CIC UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US:

S. ena|t|es
a. Genera| r|nc|p|es
|. Act roh|b|t|ng the Impos|t|on of
Death ena|ty |n the h|||pp|nes
b. urposes
c. C|ass|f|cat|on
d. Durat|on and Lffect
e. App||cat|on
|. Indeterm|nate Sentence Law
||. 1hree-Io|d ku|e
|||. Subs|d|ary Impr|sonment
f. Lxecut|on and Serv|ce
|. robat|on Law
(a) Def|n|t|on of 1erms
(b) urpose
(c) Grant of probat|on, manner and
cond|t|ons
(d) Cr|ter|a of p|ac|ng an offender
on probat|on
(e) D|squa||f|ed offenders
(f) er|od of probat|on
(g) Arrest of probat|oner
(h) 1erm|nat|on of probat|on,
except|on
|. 1he Comprehens|ve
Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002
||. Iuven||e Iust|ce and We|fare
Act of 2006, Ch||d and outh
We|fare Code
(a) Def|n|t|on of ch||d |n
conf||ct w|th the |aw
(b) Lxempt|on from
cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty
(c) Iuven||e [ust|ce and
we|fare system
g. D|st|ngu|shed from revent|ve
Impr|sonment
======================================

S. LNAL1ILS

A. GLNLkAL kINCILLS

LNAL1 ls Lhe sufferlng LhaL ls lnfllcLed by Lhe SLaLe
for Lhe Lransgresslon of Lhe law.

I. DIIILkLN1 IUkIDICAL CCNDI1ICNS CI LNAL1

1. roducLlve of sufferlng, wlLhouL however affecLlng
Lhe lnLegrlLy of Lhe human personallLy
2. Commensurate w|th the offense: dlfferenL crlmes
musL be punlshed wlLh dlfferenL penalLles
3. ersona|: no one should be punlshed for Lhe crlme
of anoLher
4. Lega|: lL ls Lhe consequence of a [udgmenL
accordlng Lo law
S. Certa|n: no one musL escape lLs effecLs
6. Lqual for all
7. CorrecLlonal.

II. 1nLCkILS IUS1IIING LNAL1ILS

1. revent|on: Lo prevenL or suppress Lhe danger Lo
Lhe SLaLe arlslng from Lhe crlmlnal acL of Lhe
offender
2. Se|f-defense: Lo proLecL socleLy from Lhe LhreaL
and wrong lnfllcLed by a crlmlnal
3. keformat|on: Lo correcL and reform Lhe offender


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S9 of 76


4. Lxemp|ar|ty: Lhe crlmlnal ls punlshed Lo serve as
an example Lo deLer oLhers from commlLLlng
crlmes
S. Iust|ce: LhaL crlme musL be punlshed by Lhe SLaLe
as an acL of reLrlbuLlve [usLlce, a vlndlcaLlon of
absoluLe rlghL and moral law vlolaLed by Lhe
crlmlnal.

III. LNAL1ILS 1nA1 MA 8L IMCSLD

GLNLkAL kULL: A felony shall be posslble only by Lhe
penalLy prescrlbed by law aL Lhe Llme of lLs commlsslon

kat|ona|e: 8ecause a law cannoL be raLlonally obeyed
unless lL ls flrsL shown, and a man cannoL be expecLed
Lo obey an order LhaL has noL been glven.

NC1L: ArL. 21 lmplemenLs Lhe consLlLuLlonal
prohlblLlon agalnsL ex post focto lows. lL reflecLs Lhe
maxlm LhaL Lhere ls no crlme wlLhouL a penalLy and
LhaL Lhere ls no penalLy wlLhouL a law (oollom ctlmeo
sloe poeoo, oollo poeoo sloe leqe). 8uL, as provlded ln
ArL. 22, ex post focto lows are allowed lf favorable Lo
Lhe accused.

GLNLkAL kULL: enal laws are applled prospecLlvely

LxCL1ICN: When reLrospecLlve appllcaLlon wlll be
favorable Lo Lhe person gullLy of a felony, provlded
LhaL:
1. 1he offender ls nC1 a hablLual crlmlnal
(dellnquenL) under ArL. 62(S),
2. 1he new or amendaLory law does nC1 provlde
agalnsL lLs reLrospecLlve appllcaLlon.

kA1ICNALL ICk 1nL LxCL1ICN IN Ak1. 22: Such an
excepLlon ls based on sLrlcL [usLlce and noL on pollLlcal
conslderaLlons. 1he soverelgn, ln enacLlng subsequenL
penal law more favorable Lo Lhe accused, has
recognlzed LhaL Lhe greaLer severlLy of Lhe former law
ls un[usL. 1he soverelgn would be lnconslsLenL lf lL
would sLlll enforce lLs rlghL under Lhe condlLlons of Lhe
former law, whlch has already been regarded by
consclenLlous publlc oplnlon as [urldlcally burdensome.

NC1L: no reLroacLlve effecL even when favorable Lo
Lhe accused - lf Lhe new law ls expressly made
lnappllcable Lo pendlng acLlons or exlsLlng causes of
acLlon. 1avera v. Va|dez, [1 h|| 468, 1902]


nA8I1UAL DLLINULN1
A person who wlLhln a perlod of 10 year from Lhe daLe
of hls release or lasL convlcLlon of Lhe crlmes of serlous
or less serlous physlcal ln[urles, robbery, LhefL, esLafa,
or falslflcaLlon, ls found gullLy of any sald crlmes a Lhlrd
Llme or ofLener.

NC1LS:
If reLroacLlve effecL of a new law ls [usLlfled, lL shall
apply Lo Lhe defendanL even if he ls:
o resenLly on Lrlal for Lhe offense,
o Pas already been senLenced buL servlce of
whlch has noL begun, or
o Already servlng senLence
1he reLroacLlve effecL of crlmlnal sLaLuLes does
nC1 apply Lo Lhe culprlL's clvll llablllLy.

kLASCN: 1he rlghLs of offended persons or lnnocenL
Lhlrd parLles are noL wlLhln Lhe glfL of arblLrary dlsposal
of Lhe SLaLe.
1he provlslons of ArL. 22 are appllcable even Lo
speclal laws whlch provlde more favorable
condlLlons Lo Lhe accused.

Cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty under the repea|ed |aw subs|sts:
1. When Lhe provlslons of Lhe former law are
reenacLed, or
2. 1he rlghL Lo punlsh offenses commlLLed under an
old penal law ls noL exLlngulshed lf Lhe offenses
are sLlll punlshable ln Lhe repeallng penal law.
3. When Lhe repeal ls by lmpllcaLlon, or when a penal
law, whlch lmplledly repealed an old law, ls lLself
repealed, Lhe repeal of Lhe repeallng law revlves
Lhe prlor penal law, unless Lhe language of Lhe
repeallng sLaLuLe provldes oLherwlse. lf Lhe repeal
ls absoluLe, crlmlnal llablllLy ls obllLeraLed.
4. When Lhere ls a savlng clause.
When Lhe repeal ls absoluLe, Lhe offense
ceases Lo be crlmlnal eop|e vs. 1amayo, [61
h|| 22, 193S]

NC1LS:
no reLroacLlve effecL of penal laws as regards
[urlsdlcLlon of courL. 1he [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe courL
Lo Lry a crlmlnal acLlon ls Lo be deLermlned by Lhe
law ln force aL Lhe Llme of lnsLlLuLlng Lhe acLlon,
noL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
!urlsdlcLlon of courLs ln crlmlnal cases ls
deLermlned by Lhe allegaLlons of Lhe complalnL or
lnformaLlon, and noL by Lhe flndlngs Lhe courL may


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 60 of 76


make afLer Lrlal. eop|e vs. komua|do, [87 h||
641, 642]
Accordlng Lo L.8. 8eyes, ArL. 22 ls nC1 appllcable
Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhe 8C. lLs appllcaLlon Lo Lhe
8C can only be lnvoked where some former or
subsequenL law ls under conslderaLlon.

8ILL CI A11AINDLk
A leglslaLlve acL whlch lnfllcLs punlshmenL wlLhouL Lrlal.

IV. AC1 kCnI8I1ING 1nL IMCSI1ICN CI DLA1n
LNAL1 IN 1nL nILIINLS (k.A. 9346)

Sec. 2 of sald law provldes LhaL ln lleu of deaLh penalLy,
Lhe followlng shall be lmposed:

1. 1he penalLy of recluslon perpeLua, when Lhe law
vlolaLed makes use of Lhe nomenclaLure of Lhe
penalLles of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code, or
2. 1he penalLy of llfe lmprlsonmenL, when Lhe law
vlolaLed does noL make use of Lhe nomenclaLure of
Lhe penalLles of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code.

1he effecL ls LhaL all crlmes wlLh penalLy lmposable by
ueaLh enalLy or Lhose already lmposed, are
auLomaLlcally commuLed Lo 8ecluslon erpeLua.
Powever, such convlcLs whose penalLles are
auLomaLlcally commuLed shall noL be ellglble for parole
under Act No. 4103, oLherwlse known as Lhe
Indeterm|nate Sentence Law, as amended.


8. UkCSLS

l. ketr|but|on or exp|at|on - Lhe penalLy ls
commensuraLe wlLh Lhe gravlLy of Lhe offense
ll. Correct|on or reformat|on - as shown by Lhe rules
whlch regulaLe Lhe execuLlon of Lhe penalLles
conslsLlng ln Lhe deprlvaLlon of llberLy.
lll. Soc|a| defense - shown by lLs lnflexlble severlLy Lo
recldlvlsLs and hablLual dellnquenLs.


C. CLASSIIICA1ICN

NC1LS:
1he scale ln ArL. 2S ls only a general classlflcaLlon
of penalLles based on Lhelr severlLy, naLure and
sub[ecL maLLer.
1he scale of penalLles under ArL. 70 ls provlded for
successlve servlce of senLences lmposed on Lhe
same accused ln conslderaLlon of Lhelr severlLy and
naLures.
1he scale ln ArL. 71 are for Lhe purpose of
graduaLlng Lhe penalLles by degrees ln accordance
wlLh Lhe rules ln ArL. 61.

CLASSIIICA1ICN CI LNAL1ILS 8ASLD CN 1nLIk
NA1UkL:
1. r|nc|pa|: Lhose expressly lmposed by Lhe courL ln
Lhe [udgmenL of convlcLlon
a. D|v|s|b|e: Lhose whlch have flxed duraLlon and
are always dlvlslble lnLo Lhree perlod, namely:
maxlmum, medlum, and mlnlmum, e.g.
prlslon mayor
b. Ind|v|s|b|e: Lhose whlch have no flxed
duraLlon. 1hese are:
ueaLh
8ecluslon erpeLua
erpeLual absoluLe or speclal
dlsquallflcaLlon
ubllc censure

2. Accessory: Lhose LhaL are deemed lncluded ln Lhe
lmposlLlon of Lhe prlnclpal penalLles
erpeLual or Lemporary absoluLe
dlsquallflcaLlon
erpeLual or Lemporary speclal
dlsquallflcaLlon
Suspenslon from publlc offlce, Lhe rlghL Lo
voLe and be voLed for, Lhe professlon or
calllng
Clvll lnLerdlcLlon
lndemnlflcaLlon
lorfelLure or conflscaLlon of lnsLrumenLs and
proceeds of Lhe offense

NC1L: erpeLual or Lemporary absoluLe
dlsquallflcaLlon, perpeLual or Lemporary speclal
dlsquallflcaLlon, and suspenslon may be prlnclpal or
accessory penalLles.

Lxamp|es:
1. erpeLual absoluLe dlsquallflcaLlon ls a prlnclpal
penalLy ln prevarlcaclon (ArL. 204). lL ls an
accessory penalLy of recluslon perpeLual and
recluslon Lemporal.
2. erpeLual speclal dlsquallflcaLlon ls a prlnclpal
penalLy ln malversaLlon (ArL. 217). Also ln ArL.
214, 223, 229, 233, and 346. lL ls an accessory
penalLy of prlslon mayor and prlslon correcclonal.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 61 of 76


3. 1emporary absoluLe dlsquallflcaLlon ls a prlnclpal
penalLy when Lhe accessory acLs wlLh abuse of
publlc funcLlons (ArL. 19[3] and ArL. S8)
4. 1emporary speclal dlsquallflcaLlon ls a prlnclpal
penalLy ln dlrecL brlbery (ArL. 210). Also ln ArLlcles
20S, 214, 220, 223, 224, 226, 227, 228, 231, 23S,
239, 24S, 346, and 347.
S. Suspenslon ls a prlnclpal penalLy ln rendlLlon of
un[usL lnLerlocuLory orders (ArL. 206). Also ln
ArLlcles 200, 211, 266 and 36S.

CLASSIIICA1ICN ACCCkDING 1C SU8ILC1-MA11Lk
1. Corporal (deaLh)
2. ueprlvaLlon of freedom (recluslon, prlslon, arresLo)
3. 8esLrlcLlon of freedom (desLlerro)
4. ueprlvaLlon of rlghLs (dlsquallflcaLlon and
suspenslon)
S. ecunlary (flne)

CLASSIIICA1ICN ACCCkDING 1C 1nLIk GkAVI1
1. CaplLal
ueaLh (now prohlblLed under 8A 9346)
2. AffllcLlve
8ecluslon perpeLua
8ecluslon Lemporal
erpeLual or Lemporary absoluLe
dlsquallflcaLlon
erpeLual or Lemporary speclal
dlsquallflcaLlon
rlslon mayor
3. CorrecLlonal
rlslon correcclonal
ArresLo mayor
Suspenslon
uesLlerro
4. LlghL
ArresLo menor
ubllc censure
S. enalLles common Lo Lhe Lhree preceedlng classes:
llne, and
8ond Lo keep Lhe peace

1hls classlflcaLlon corresponds Lo Lhe classlflcaLlon
of felonles ln ArL.9 lnLo grave, less grave, and llghL.
ubllc censure ls lmposed ln ArLlcles 200, 211, 266
and 36S.
8ond Lo keep Lhe peace ls lmposed only ln Lhe
crlme of LhreaLs (ArL. 284), elLher grave (ArL. 282)
or llghL (ArL. 283). Also see AcL no. 296 as Lo power
of [usLlce of Lhe peace Lo requlre bond for good
behavlor.

IINL IS:
1. AffllcLlve - lf lL exceeds 6,000
2. CorrecLlonal - 200 Lo 6,000
3. LlghL - less Lhan 200

8CND 1C kLL 1nL LACL IS 8 ANALCG:
1. AffllcLlve - lf lL exceeds 6,000
2. CorrecLlonal - 200 Lo 6,000
3. LlghL - less Lhan 20

NC1LS:
1hls arLlcle deLermlnes Lhe classlflcaLlon of a flne
wheLher lmposed as a slngle (e.g. flne of 200 Lo
6000) or as an alLernaLlve (e.g. penalLy ls arresLo
mayor C8 a flne ranglng from 200 Lo 1000)
penalLy for a crlme.
1he rule hereln does noL apply where Lhe flne
lnvolved ls ln a compound penalLy, LhaL ls, lL ls
lmposed ln con[uncLlon wlLh anoLher penalLy. ln
Lhls case, Lhe hlghesL penalLy shall be made Lhe
basls for compuLlng Lhe perlod for Lhe prescrlpLlon
of crlmes (ArL. 90)
Where Lhe flne ln quesLlon ls exacLly 200,, under
ArL. 9 lL ls a llghL felony, hence Lhe felony lnvolved
ls a llghL felony, whereas under ArL. 26, lL ls a
correcLlonal penalLy, hence Lhe offense lnvolved ls
a less grave felony. lL has been held LhaL Lhls
dlscrepancy should be resolved llberally ln favor of
Lhe accused, hence ArL. 9 prevalls over ArL. 26
eop|e v. u na|, [99 h||. 72S, 19S6]
PCWLvL8, accordlng Lo !usLlce 8egalado Lhere ls
no such dlscrepancy. WhaL ls really ln lssue ls Lhe
prescrlpLlon of Lhe offense vls--vls Lhe
prescrlpLlon of Lhe penalLy, Lhe former belng Lhe
forfelLure of Lhe rlghL of Lhe SLaLe Lo prosecuLe Lhe
offender and Lhe laLLer belng Lhe loss of lLs power
Lo enforce Lhe [udgmenL agalnsL Lhe convlcL.
ln deLermlnlng Lhe prescrlpLlon of crlmes, apply
ArL. 9 (200 flne ls llghL felony). ln deLermlnlng Lhe
prescrlpLlon of penalLy, apply ArL. 26 (200 flne
prescrlbes ln 10 years)

D. DUkA1ICN AND LIILC1

I. DUkA1ICN

AIILIC1IVL
kec|us|on
erpetua
20 years and 1 day Lo 40 years


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 62 of 76


kec|us|on
1empora|
12 years and 1 day Lo 20 years
r|s|on Mayor 6 years and 1 day Lo 12 years, excepL
when Lhe penalLy of dlsquallflcaLlon
ls lmposed as an accessory penalLy,
ln whlch case, lLs duraLlon shall be
LhaL of Lhe prlnclpal penalLy.
1emporary
D|squa||f|cat|on

CCkkLC1ICNAL
r|s|on
correcc|ona|
6 monLhs and 1 day Lo 6 years,
excepL when suspenslon ls lmposed
as an accessory penalLy, ln whlch
case, lLs duraLlon shall be LhaL of Lhe
prlnclpal penalLy.
Suspens|on
Dest|erro
Arresto mayor 1 monLh and 1 day Lo 6 monLhs
Arresto menor 1 day Lo 30 days
8ond to keep
the peace
As Lhe courL may deLermlne

Note: uesLlerro ls a prlnclpal, correcLlonal, and dlvlslble
penalLy.

In what cases |s dest|erro |mposed?
1. Serlous physlcal ln[urles or deaLh under
excepLlonal clrcumsLances (ArL. 247)
2. ln case of fallure Lo glve bond for good behavlor
(ArL. 284)
3. As a penalLy for Lhe concublne ln concublnage (ArL.
334)
4. ln cases where afLer reduclng Lhe penalLy by one
or more degrees, desLlerro ls Lhe proper penalLy.

II. CCMU1A1ICN CI LNAL1ILS

ku|es observed by the D|rector of r|sons or the
warden |n computat|on of pena|t|es |mposed upon the
conv|cts:
ku|e No. 1 when the offender |s |n pr|son - Lhe
duraLlon of Lemporary penalLles ls from Lhe day on
whlch Lhe [udgmenL of convlcLlon becomes flnal,
and noL from Lhe day of hls deLenLlon.
o 1hls rule applles ln cases of Lemporary
penalLles (e.g. Lemporary absoluLe
dlsquallflcaLlon, Lemporary speclal
dlsquallflcaLlon, and suspenslon) and Lhe
offender ls under deLenLlon (as when he ls
undergolng prevenLlve lmprlsonmenL)
o keason: under ArL. 24, Lhe arresL and
Lemporary deLenLlon of Lhe accused ls noL
consldered a penalLy.

ku|e No. 2 when the offender |s not |n pr|son -
Lhe duraLlon of penalLles conslsLlng ln deprlvaLlon
of llberLy, ls from Lhe day LhaL Lhe offender ls
placed aL Lhe dlsposal of [udlclal auLhorlLles for Lhe
enforcemenL of Lhe penalLy.
o 1hls rule applles ln cases of penalLles
conslsLlng ln deprlvaLlon of llberLy (e.g.
lmprlsonmenL and desLlerro) and Lhe offender
ls noL ln prlson.

ku|e No. 3 the durat|on of other pena|t|es - Lhe
duraLlon ls from Lhe day on whlch Lhe offender
commences Lo serve hls senLence.
o 1hls rule applles ln cases of:
a. (enalLles conslsLlng ln deprlvaLlon of
llberLy) and Lhe offender ls undergolng
prevenLlve lmprlsonmenL, buL Lhe
offender ls enLlLled Lo a deducLlon of full
Llme or 4/S of Lhe Llme of hls deLenLlon.
b. (1emporary penalLles) and Lhe offender ls
noL under deLenLlon, because Lhe
offender has been released on ball.

NC1LS:
Servlce ln prlson beglns only on Lhe day Lhe
[udgmenL of convlcLlon becomes flnal.
lf ln cusLody and Lhe accused appeals, Lhe servlce
of Lhe senLence should commence from Lhe daLe
of Lhe promulgaLlon of Lhe declslon of Lhe
appellaLe courL, noL Lhe Lrlal courL's.

III. LIILC1

LIILC1S CI 1nL LNAL1ILS CI LkL1UAL Ck
1LMCkAk A8SCLU1L DISUALIIICA1ICN (Ak1. 30)
1. ueprlvaLlon of Lhe publlc offlces and employmenLs
whlch Lhe offender may have held, even lf
conferred by popular elecLlon.
2. ueprlvaLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo voLe ln any elecLlon for
any popular elecLlve offlce or Lo be elecLed Lo such
offlce.
3. ulsquallflcaLlon for Lhe offlces or publlc
employmenLs and for Lhe exerclse of any of Lhe
rlghLs menLloned.
4. Loss of all rlghLs Lo reLlremenL pay or oLher
penslon for any offlce formerly held

NC1LS:
LkL1UAL A8SCLU1L DISUALIIICA1ICN ls
effecLlve durlng Lhe llfeLlme of Lhe convlcL and
even afLer Lhe servlce of Lhe senLence.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 63 of 76


1LMCkAk A8SCLU1L DISUALIIICA1ICN lasLs
durlng Lhe Lerm of Lhe senLence, and ls removed
afLer Lhe servlce of Lhe same, excepL:
1. ueprlvaLlon of Lhe publlc offlce or
employmenL (LffecL no.1), and
2. Loss of all rlghLs Lo reLlremenL pay or oLher
penslon for any offlce formerly held (LffecL
no. 4)
A pleblsclLe ls noL menLloned or conLemplaLed ln
ArL.30, par. 2 (deprlvaLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo voLe),
hence, Lhe offender may voLe ln LhaL exerclse,
sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons of perLlnenL elecLlon laws
aL Lhe Llme.

LIILC1S CI 1nL LNAL1ILS CI LkL1UAL Ck
1LMCkAk SLCIAL DISUALIIICA1ICN (Ak1. 31)
1. ueprlvaLlon of Lhe offlce, employmenL, professlon
or calllng affecLed.
2. ulsquallflcaLlon for holdlng slmllar offlces or
employmenLs perpeLually or durlng Lhe Lerm of Lhe
senLence.

LIILC1S CI 1nL LNAL1ILS CI LkL1UAL Ck
1LMCkAk SLCIAL DISUALIIICA1ICN ICk 1nL
LxLkCISL CI 1nL kIGn1 CI SUIIkAGL (Ak1. 32)
1. ueprlvaLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo voLe or Lo be elecLed Lo
any publlc offlce
2. CannoL hold any publlc offlce durlng Lhe perlod of
dlsquallflcaLlon

LIILC1S CI 1nL LNAL1ILS CI SUSLNSICN IkCM
AN U8LIC CIIICL, kCILSSICN, Ck CALLING, Ck
1nL kIGn1 CI SUIIkAGL (Ak1. 33)
1. ulsquallflcaLlon from holdlng such offlce or
exerclslng such professlon or calllng or rlghL of
suffrage durlng Lhe Lerm of Lhe senLence.
2. lf suspended from publlc offlce, Lhe offender
cannoL hold anoLher offlce havlng slmllar funcLlons
durlng Lhe perlod of suspenslon.

NC1L: ulsquallflcaLlon ls Lhe wlLhholdlng of a prlvllege,
a resLrlcLlons upon Lhe rlghL of suffrage or Lo hold
offlce, and noL a denlal of a rlghL.

urpose: 1o preserve Lhe purlLy of elecLlons, one
rendered lnfamous by convlcLlon of felony or oLher
base offenses lndlcaLlve of moral LurplLude ls unflL Lo
exerclse such rlghLs. (leople vs. cottol, 62 lbll 915, 916)

LIILC1S CI CIVIL IN1LkDIC1ICN (Ak1. 34)
1. ueprlvaLlon of Lhe rlghLs of parenLal auLhorlLy or
guardlanshlp of any ward.
2. ueprlvaLlon of marlLal auLhorlLy
3. ueprlvaLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo manage hls properLy
and of Lhe rlghL Lo dlspose of such properLy by any
acL or any conveyance lotet vlvos
8uL he can dlspose of such properLy by wlll or
donaLlon mottls coose
Pe can also manage or dlspose of hls properLy by
acLs lnLer vlvos, lf done ln hls behalf by a [udlclal
guardlan appolnLed for hlm as an lncompeLenL"
(Sec. 2, 8ule 92, 8ules of CourL)

C|v|| |nterd|ct|on |s an accessory pena|ty to the
fo||ow|ng pr|nc|pa| pena|t|es:
1. lf deaLh penalLy ls commuLed Lo llfe lmprlsonmenL
2. 8ecluslon perpeLua
3. 8ecluslon Lemporal

LIILC1S CI 8CND 1C kLL 1nL LACL (Ak1. 3S)
1. 1he offender musL presenL 2 sufflclenL sureLles
who shall underLake LhaL Lhe offender wlll noL
commlL Lhe offense soughL Lo be prevenLed, and
LhaL ln case such offense be commlLLed Lhey wlll
pay Lhe amounL deLermlned by Lhe CourL, or
2. 1he offender musL deposlL such amounL wlLh Lhe
Clerk of CourL Lo guaranLee sald underLaklng, or
3. 1he offender may be deLalned, lf he cannoL glve
Lhe bond, for a perlod noL Lo exceed 6 monLhs lf
prosecuLed for grave or less grave felony, or for a
perlod noL Lo exceed 30 days, lf for a llghL felony.
8ond Lo keep Lhe peace ls dlfferenL from ball
bond whlch ls posLed for Lhe provlslonal
release of a person arresLed for or accused of
a crlme. 8ond Lo keep Lhe peace or for good
behavlor ls lmposed as a penalLy ln LhreaLs.
Accordlng Lo !usLlce 8egalado, lL ls belleved
LhaL Lhls punlLlve sancLlon cannoL be applled
slnce Lhls bond ls requlred only ln Lhe crlme of
LhreaLs and lf Lhe offender falls Lo comply
LherewlLh, Lhe penalLy lmposable ls desLlerro
(ArL. 284). nelLher can Lhls penalLy apply Lo
crlmes under speclal laws as only felonles"
(l.e. crlme punlshed under 8C) are
conLemplaLed Lhereln.


L. ALICA1ICN

GLNLkAL kULL: 1he penalLy prescrlbed by law ln
general Lerms shall be lmposed:
1. upon Lhe prlnclpals
2. lor consummaLed felony


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 64 of 76



LxCL1ICN: When Lhe law flxes a penalLy for Lhe
frusLraLed or aLLempLed felony ln cases where law
conslders LhaL Lhe penalLy lower by one or Lwo degrees
correspondlng Lo sald acLs of execuLlon ls noL
proporLlonaLe Lo Lhe wrong done.

1nL GkADUA1ICN CI LNAL1ILS kLILkS 1C:
(a) 8y degree
SLages of execuLlon (consummaLed,
frusLraLed, aLLempLed)
degree of Lhe crlmlnal parLlclpaLlon of Lhe
offender (prlnclpal, accompllce,
accessory)
(b) 8y per|od
Mlnlmum, medlum, maxlmum: refers Lo Lhe
proper perlod of Lhe penalLy whlch should be
lmposed when aggravaLlng or mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLances aLLend Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme


I. INDL1LkMINA1L SLN1LNCL LAW (ISL)

1he lSL conslsLs of a maxlmum and mlnlmum,
lnsLead of a slngle flxed penalLy. 1he prlsoner
musL be senLenced Lo lmprlsonmenL for a perlod
whlch ls noL more Lhan Lhe maxlmum and noL less
Lhan Lhe mlnlmum. 1he prlsoner musL serve Lhe
mlnlmum before he ls ellglble for parole. 1he
perlod beLween Lhe mlnlmum and maxlmum ls
lndeLermlnaLe ln Lhe sense LhaL Lhe prlsoner may
be exempLed from servlng sald lndeLermlnaLe
perlod ln whole or ln parL.
1he law does noL lmpalr Lhe powers of Lhe Chlef
LxecuLlve under Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve Code.
urpose: 1o upllfL and redeem valuable human
maLerlal and prevenL unnecessary and excesslve
deprlvaLlon of llberLy and economlc usefulness
Ducos|n, [S9 h|| 109, 117 (1933)]

MAxIMUM
1LkM
MINIMUM 1LkM
LNAL1
IMCSLD
8 kC

1haL whlch could
be properly
lmposed under
Lhe 8C,
conslderlng Lhe
aggravaLlng and
mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLances
WlLhln Lhe range
of Lhe penalLy
one degree lower
Lhan LhaL
prescrlbed by Lhe
8C, wlLhouL
conslderlng Lhe
clrcumsLances.


MAxIMUM
1LkM
MINIMUM 1LkM
*ueLermlned ln
accordance wlLh
Lhe rules and
provlslons of Lhe
Code exacLly as lf
Lhe lSL had never
been enacLed.
Sald law never
lnLended Lo
make
lnoperaLlve any
provlslons of Lhe
Code.
8u1 when Lhere
ls a prlvlleged
mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance, so
LhaL Lhe penalLy
has Lo be
lowered by one
degree, Lhe
sLarLlng polnL for
deLermlnlng Lhe
mlnlmum Lerm of
Lhe
lndeLermlnaLe
penalLy ls Lhe
penalLy nexL
lower Lhan LhaL
prescrlbed by Lhe
Code for Lhe
offense.

ln deLermlnlng
Lhe mlnlmum
penalLy, Lhe law
confers upon Lhe
courLs Lhe wldesL
dlscreLlon LhaL
Lhey ever had.
1he law does noL
requlre Lhe
mlnlmum of LhaL
nexL lower ln
degree should be
lmposed. All LhaL
ls requlred ls LhaL
lL be wlLhln Lhe
range of Lhe
penalLy nexL
lower ln degree.

LNAL1
IMCSLD 8
SL

MusL noL exceed
Lhe maxlmum
Lerm flxed by
sald law
MusL noL be less
Lhan Lhe
mlnlmum Lerm
prescrlbed by Lhe
same.

Note: lor speclal
laws, lL ls
anyLhlng wlLhln
Lhe lncluslve
range of Lhe


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 6S of 76


MAxIMUM
1LkM
MINIMUM 1LkM
prescrlbed
penalLy. CourLs
are glven
dlscreLlon ln Lhe
lmposlLlon of Lhe
lndeLermlnaLe
penalLy. 1he
aggravaLlng
mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLances
are noL
consldered
unless Lhe speclal
law adopLs Lhe
same
Lermlnology for
penalLles as
Lhose used ln Lhe
8C.
ILLUS1kA1ICN ln a frusLraLed
murder case,
penalLy of whlch
ls prlslon mayor
maxlmum Lo
recluslon
Lemporal
medlum, whlch
ls Lhe penalLy
nexL lower Lo
recluslon
Lemporal
maxlmum Lo
deaLh, Lhe
penalLy for
murder.

lf Lhere was 1
mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance
and no
aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance,
Lhe maxlmum
penalLy should
be ln Lhe
mlnlmum perlod,
LhaL ls, prlslon
mayor
maxlmum, or 10
years and 1 day
ln Lhe frusLraLed
murder case, Lhe
mlnlmum
senLence should
be Laken from
Lhe nexL lower
penalLy of prlslon
correcLlonal max
Lo prlslon mayor
medlum, or 4
years, 2 monLhs,
and 1 day Lo 10
years.

lL ls Lhe courL's
dlscreLlon Lo flx
Lhe mlnlmum
senLence wlLhln
Lhe sald range
wlLhouL
reference Lo Lhe
Lechnlcal
subdlvlslons of
max, med, and
mln perlods.

CASL, Lhe
mlnlmum was
flxed aL 7 years
and Lhe
lndeLermlnaLe
Lo 12 years,
leavlng Lo Lhe
courL Lhe preclse
Llme Lo be
served wlLhln
sald range. 1he
courL ls noL
bound Lo flx sald
maxlmum
senLence aL 12
years, Lhe
longesL
lmprlsonmenL
posslble.

CASL, a
maxlmum
senLence of 10
years and 1 day
was held Lo be
proper under Lhe
clrcumsLances.

senLence
lmposed was 7
years of prlslon
mayor as
mlnlmum Lo 10
years and 1 day
of prlslon mayor
as maxlmum.
(uucosln case,
supra)

NC1LS:
ln lmposlng a prlson senLence for an offense
punlshed by Lhe 8C or SL, Lhe courL shall
senLence Lhe accused Lo an lndeLermlnaLe
senLence, whlch has a maxlmum and a mlnlmum
Lerm based on Lhe penalLy acLually lmposed.
1he modlfylng clrcumsLances are consldered only
ln Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe maxlmum Lerm of Lhe
lndeLermlnaLe senLence and noL Lo be consldered
ln flxlng Lhe mlnlmum.

CCVLkAGL:
1he lndeLermlnaLe SenLence Law shall noL apply Lo Lhe
followlng persons:
(a) SenLenced Lo deaLh penalLy or llfe lmprlsonmenL
(b) 1reason, or consplracy or proposal Lo commlL
Lreason
(c) Mlsprlslon of Lreason, rebelllon, sedlLlon or
esplonage
(d) lracy
(e) PablLual dellnquenLs
(f) Lscaped from conflnemenL, or evaded senLence
(g) CranLed wlLh condlLlonal pardon by Lhe resldenL,
buL vlolaLed Lhe Lerms Lhereof
(h) Maxlmum Lerm of lmprlsonmenL does noL exceed
1 year
(l) SenLenced Lo Lhe penalLy of desLlerro or
suspenslon only


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 66 of 76



CCNDI1ICNS CI AkCLL:
1o deLermlne wheLher a prlsoner should be
paroled or released afLer servlng Lhe mlnlmum
senLence, Lhe 8oard looks lnLo Lhe physlcal, menLal
and moral record of Lhe prlsoners who are ellglble
Lo parole and deLermlnes Lhe proper Llme of
release of such prlsoners.

kLLLASL CI 1nL kISCNLk CN AkCLL:
1he 8oard of ardons and arole may auLhorlze
Lhe release of a prlsoner on parole, afLer he shall
have served Lhe mlnlmum penalLy lmposed on
hlm, provlded LhaL:
o Such prlsoner ls flLLed by hls Lralnlng for
release,
o 1here ls reasonable probablllLy LhaL he wlll
llve and remaln aL llberLy wlLhouL vlolaLlng Lhe
law,
o Such release wlll noL be lncompaLlble wlLh Lhe
welfare of socleLy.

LN1I1LLMLN1 1C IINAL kLLLASL AND DISCnAkGL:
lf durlng Lhe perlod of survelllance such paroled
prlsoner shall: (a) show hlmself Lo be a law abldlng
clLlzen and, (b) shall noL vlolaLe any law, Lhe 8oard
may lssue a flnal cerLlflcaLlon ln hls favor, for hls
flnal release and dlscharge.

SANC1ICN ICk VICLA1ICN CI CCNDI1ICNS CI 1nL
AkCLL:
When Lhe paroled prlsoner shall vlolaLe any of Lhe
condlLlons of hls parole: (a) Lhe 8oard may lssue an
order for hls arresL, and LhereafLer, (b) Lhe
prlsoner shall serve Lhe remalnlng unexplred
porLlon of Lhe maxlmum senLence for whlch he
was orlglnally commlLLed Lo prlson.

kLASCNS ICk IIxING 1nL MAxIMUM AND MINIMUM
1LkMS IN 1nL INDL1LkMINA1L SLN1LNCL:
1he mlnlmum and maxlmum Lerms ln Lhe
lndeLermlnaLe SenLence musL be flxed, because Lhey
are Lhe basls for Lhe followlng:
1. Whenever a prlsoner has: (a) served Lhe
MlnlMuM penalLy lmposed on hlm, and (b) ls flL
for release of Lhe prlsoner on parole, upon Lerms
and condlLlons prescrlbed by Lhe 8oard.
2. 8uL when Lhe paroled prlsoner vlolaLes any of Lhe
condlLlons of hls parole durlng Lhe perlod of
survelllance, he may be rearresLed Lo serve Lhe
remalnlng unexplred porLlon of Lhe MAxlMuM
senLence.
3. Lven lf a prlsoner has already served Lhe
MlnlMuM, buL he ls noL flLLed for release on Lhe
parole, he shall conLlnue Lo serve unLll Lhe end of
Lhe MAxlMuM Lerm.

MAxIMUM 1LkM MINIMUM
1LkM
UNDLk kC

A penalLy of
teclosloo
tempotol was
lmposed upon
an accused for
commlLLlng
homlclde.

lf no
mlLlgaLlng
or
aggravaLlng
clrcumsLan
ce
keclosloo
tempotol
medlum


Anywhere
wlLhln Lhe
range of
ptlsloo
moyot, Lhe
penalLy
nexL lower
from
teclosloo
tempotol
lf Lhere ls
one
ordlnary
mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLan
ce

keclosloo
tempotol
mlnlmum
Anywhere
wlLhln Lhe
range of
ptlsloo
moyot
wlLhouL
reference
Lo any of lLs
perlod.
lf Lhere ls
one
aggravaLlng
clrcumsLan
ce
keclosloo
tempotol
maxlmum
afLer
conslderl
ng Lhe
aggravaLl
ng
clrcumsLa
nce
Anywhere
wlLhln Lhe
range of
ptlsloo
moyot
wlLhouL
reference
Lo any of lLs
perlod.
UNDLk
SLCIAL LAWS
Accused ls
convlcLed of
lllegal
possesslon of
flrearms
punlshable by
1 year and 1
day Lo S years
of
lmprlsonmenL

Shall noL
exceed S
years as
flxed by
law
Shall noL be
less Lhan
Lhe
mlnlmum
of 1 year
and 1 day
prescrlbed
by law.



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 67 of 76


II. 1nkLL-ICLD kULL (Ak1. 70)

lf an accused has Lo serve more Lhan 3 senLences, he
cannoL be senLenced Lo more Lhan 3 Llmes Lhe mosL
severe penalLy LhaL may be lmposed on hlm for Lhe
varlous crlmes he mlghL have commlLLed.

urpose: (as well as of Lhe 40-year llmlL) 1o avold Lhe
absurdlLy of a man belng senLenced Lo lmprlsonmenL
for a longer perlod Lhan hls naLural llfe.

NC1LS:
Applles alLhough Lhe penalLles were lmposed for
dlfferenL crlmes, aL dlfferenL Llmes, and under
separaLe lnformaLlons.
lf Lhe senLence ls lndeLermlnaLe, Lhe basls of Lhe
Lhreefold-rules ls Lhe maxlmum senLence.

1nkLL-ICLD kULL:
1. 1he maxlmum duraLlon of Lhe convlcL's senLence
shall noL exceed 3 Llmes Lhe lengLh of Llme
correspondlng Lo Lhe mosL severe of Lhe penalLles
lmposed upon hlm.
2. 8uL ln no case Lo exceed 40 years
3. 1hls rule shall apply only when Lhe convlcL ls Lo
serve 4 or more senLences successlvely.
4. Subsldlary lmprlsonmenL shall be excluded ln
compuLlng for Lhe maxlmum duraLlon.

II. SU8SIDIAk IMkISCNMLN1
lallure Lo pay pecun|ary pena|ty sub[ecLs Lhe accused
Lo subsldlary lmprlsonmenL


I. LxLCU1ICN AND SLkVICL

I. kC8A1ICN LAW (.D. NC. 968)

(a) Def|n|t|on of terms

kC8A1ICN ls a dlsposlLlon under whlch a defendanL,
afLer convlcLlon and senLence, ls released sub[ecL Lo
condlLlons lmposed by Lhe courL and Lo Lhe supervlslon
of a probaLlon offlcer

L1I1ICNLk ls a convlcLed defendanL who flles a formal
appllcaLlon for probaLlon

kC8A1ICNLk ls a person placed on probaLlon

kC8A1ICN CIIICLk ls a person who lnvesLlgaLes for
Lhe courL a referral for probaLlon or supervlses a
probaLloner or boLh, and performs oLher relaLed duLles
as dlrecLed.

NC1LS:
robaLlon ls noL an absoluLe rlghL. lL ls a mere
prlvllege whose granL resLs upon Lhe dlscreLlon of
Lhe Lrlal courL. lLs granL ls sub[ecL Lo cerLaln Lerms
and condlLlons LhaL may be lmposed by Lhe Lrlal
courL. Pavlng Lhe power Lo granL Lhe probaLlon, lL
follows LhaL Lhe Lrlal courL also has Lhe power Lo
order lLs revocaLlon ln a proper case and under
proper clrcumsLances.

(b) urpose

1. 1o promoLe Lhe correcLlon and rehablllLaLlon of an
offender by provldlng hlm wlLh lndlvlduallzed
LreaLmenL,
2. 1o provlde an opporLunlLy for Lhe reformaLlon of a
penlLenL offender whlch mlghL be less probable lf
he were Lo serve a prlson senLence, and
3. 1o prevenL Lhe commlsslon of offenses

(c) Grant of probat|on, manner and cond|t|ons

kULLS CN GkAN1 CI kC8A1ICN:
1. AfLer havlng convlcLed and senLenced a defendanL,
Lhe Lrlal courL may suspend Lhe execuLlon of Lhe
senLence, and place Lhe defendanL on probaLlon,
upon appllcaLlon by Lhe defendanL wlLhln Lhe
perlod for perfecLlng an appeal.
2. robaLlon may be granLed wheLher Lhe senLence
lmposed a Lerm of lmprlsonmenL or flne only.
3. lf Lhe defendanL has perfecLed an appeal, no
appllcaLlon wlll be granLed.
4. llllng of appllcaLlon for probaLlon operaLes as a
walver of Lhe rlghL Lo appeal.
S. 1he order granLlng or denylng probaLlon shall noL
be appealable.
6. Accessory penalLles are deemed suspended once
probaLlon ls granLed.
7. 1he convlcL ls noL lmmedlaLely placed on
probaLlon. 1here shall be a prlor lnvesLlgaLlon by
Lhe probaLlon offlcer and a deLermlnaLlon by Lhe
courL.

1here are two k|nds of cond|t|ons |mposed upon the
offender under probat|on:
1. Mandatory or genera|: once vlolaLed, Lhe


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 68 of 76


probaLlon ls cancelled
a. 1he offender under probaLlon musL presenL
hlmself Lo Lhe probaLlon offlcer deslgnaLed Lo
underLake hls supervlslon, aL such place as
may be speclfled ln Lhe order, wlLhln 72
hours from recelpL of order.
b. Pe should reporL Lo Lhe probaLlon offlcer aL
leasL once a monLh.

2. D|scret|onary or spec|a|: addlLlonal condlLlons
whlch Lhe courL may lmpose for Lhe probaLloner's
correcLlon and rehablllLaLlon ouLslde prlson. 1he
enumeraLlon ls noL excluslve.

(d) Cr|ter|a of p|ac|ng an offender on probat|on

1. All lnformaLlon relaLlve Lo Lhe characLer,
anLecedenLs, envlronmenL, menLal, and physlcal
condlLlon of Lhe offender

(e) Ava||ab|e |nst|tut|ona| and commun|ty
resources.

robat|on |s to be den|ed upon f|nd|ng of the court
that:
1. 1he offender ls ln need of correcLlonal LreaLmenL
LhaL can be provlded effecLlvely by hls
commlLmenL Lo an lnsLlLuLlon.
2. 1here ls undue rlsk of commlLLlng anoLher crlme.
3. robaLlon wlll depreclaLe Lhe serlousness of Lhe
offense commlLLed.

(f) D|squa||f|ed offenders

1he benef|ts of the Decree sha|| not be extended to
those:
1. SenLenced Lo serve a maxlmum Lerm of
lmprlsonmenL of more Lhan 6 years
2. ConvlcLed of subverslon or any crlme agalnsL Lhe
naLlonal securlLy or publlc order
3. revlously convlcLed by flnal [udgmenL of an
offense punlshed by lmprlsonmenL of noL less Lhan
1 monLh and 1 day and/or a flne noL less Lhan 200
4. Cnce placed on probaLlon
S. Who appealed
6. ConvlcLed of drug Lrafflcklng or drug pushlng
7. ConvlcLed of elecLlon offenses under Lhe Cmnlbus
LlecLlon Code.



(g) er|od of probat|on

1LkM CI IMkISCNMLN1 DUkA1ICN
noL more Lhan 1 year robaLlon shall noL
exceed 1 year
More Lhan 1 year robaLlon shall noL
exceed 6 years
When penalLy ls a flne only
and offender ls made Lo
serve subsldlary
lmprlsonmenL
robaLlon shall be Lwlce
Lhe LoLal number of days
of subsldlary
lmprlsonmenL

(h) Arrest of probat|oner

AL any Llme durlng probaLlon, Lhe courL may
lssue a warranL for Lhe arresL of a probaLloner for any
serlous vlolaLlon of Lhe condlLlons of probaLlon.

If v|o|at|on |s estab||shed, the court may:
1. 8evoke hls probaLlon, and Lhus make hlm serve Lhe
senLence orlglnally lmposed, or
2. ConLlnue hls probaLlon and modlfy lLs condlLlons

Note: 1he courL order shall noL be sub[ecL Lo appeal.

(|) 1erm|nat|on of probat|on, except|on

robaLlon ls noL coLermlnous wlLh lLs perlod. 1here
musL be an order lssued by Lhe courL dlscharglng Lhe
probaLloner. upon flndlng LhaL he has fulfllled Lhe
Lerms and condlLlons of hls probaLlon, Lhe courL may
order Lhe flnal dlscharge of Lhe probaLloner. 1hls shall
have Lhe followlng effecLs:
1. Case ls deemed LermlnaLed
2. All clvll rlghLs losL or suspended are
resLored
3. Cffender's llablllLy for any flne lmposed ls
dlscharged

WnC AkL DISUALIILD ICk kC8A1ICN UNDLk
SLCIAL LAWS

I. CCMkLnLNSIVL DANGLkCUS DkUGS AC1 (k.A.
916S)
Sec. 24 - Any person convlcLed for drug traff|ck|ng or
push|ng under Lhls AcL, regardless of Lhe penalLy
lmposed by Lhe CourL, cannoL avall of Lhe prlvllege
granLed by Lhe robaLlon Law.



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 69 of 76


II. IUVLNILL IUS1ICL AND WLLIAkL AC1 CI 2006 (k.A.
9344), ALSC kLILk 1C CnILD AND CU1n WLLIAkL
CCDL (.D. 603, AS AMLNDLD)

under 8.A. 9344 (Ioveolle Iostlce ooJ welfote Act), a
mlnor 1S years (AL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme) and below ls exempL from crlmlnal llablllLy.

(a) Def|n|t|on of ch||d |n conf||ct w|th the |aw

CnILD IN CCNILIC1 WI1n 1nL LAW refers Lo a chlld
who ls alleged as, accused of, or ad[udged as, havlng
commlLLed an offense under hlllpplne laws.

NC1L: lf such mlnor acLed wlLh dlscernmenL, he ls
crlmlnally llable.

DISCLkNMLN1 ls Lhe menLal capaclLy Lo fully
appreclaLe Lhe consequences of Lhe unlawful acL, whlch
ls shown by Lhe:
1. Manner Lhe crlme was commlLLed and
2. ConducL of Lhe offender afLer lLs commlsslon.

resumpt|on: 1he mlnor commlLLed Lhe crlme wlLhouL
dlscernmenL.

(b) Lxempt|on from cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty

under 8.A. 9344 a mlnor over 1S buL below 18 who
acLed wlLhouL dlscernmenL ls exempL from crlmlnal
llablllLy

(c) Iuven||e [ust|ce and we|fare system

AGL CkIMINAL kLSCNSI8ILI1]LIILC1
< 1Syears

AbsoluLe lrresponslblllLy, exempLlng
clrcumsLance
* as amended by 8A 9344
s 1Syears

AbsoluLe lrresponslblllLy, exempLlng
clrcumsLance
* as amended by 8A 9344
1S < and < 18 CondlLlonal responslblllLy
WlLhouL dlscernmenL - noL crlmlnally
llable

When the youthfu| offender has reached the age of
e|ghteen wh||e |n comm|tment, the court sha||
determ|ne whether:
1. 1o D|sm|ss the case, lf Lhe youLhful offender has
behaved properly and has shown hls capablllLy Lo
be a useful member of Lhe communlLy, or

2. 1o ronounce the [udgment of conv|ct|on, lf Lhe
condlLlons menLloned are noL meL.
ln Lhe laLLer case, Lhe convlcLed offender may
apply for robaLlon. ln any case, Lhe youLhful
offender shall be credlLed ln Lhe servlce of hls
senLence wlLh Lhe full Llme spenL ln acLual
commlLmenL and deLenLlon.

NC1L: 1he flnal release of a youLhful offender, based
on good conducL as provlded ln ArL. 196 of .u. 603
shall noL obllLeraLe hls clvll llablllLy for damages


G. DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM kLVLN1IVL
IMkISCNMLN1

LkICD CI kLVLN1IVL IMkISCNMLN1 DLDUC1LD
IkCM 1LkM CI IMkISCNMLN1 (Ak1. 29)

kLVLN1IVL IMkISCNMLN1 ls Lhe perlod of
deLenLlon undergone by an accused where Lhe crlme
wlLh whlch he ls charged ls non-ballable or, even lf
ballable he ls unable Lo posL Lhe requlslLe ball.

kULLS IN DLDUC1ING LkICD CI kLVLN1IVL
IMkISCNMLN1:
1. lf Lhe deLenLlon prlsoner agrees volunLarlly ln
wrlng Lo ablde by Lhe same dlsclpllnary rules
lmposed upon convlcLed prlsoners, he shall be
credlLed ln Lhe servlce of Lhelr senLence wlLh Lhe
full Llme durlng whlch Lhey have undergone
prevenLlve lmprlsonmenL.

2. lf Lhe deLenLlon prlsoner does noL agree Lo ablde
by Lhe same dlsclpllnary rules lmposed upon
convlcLed prlsoners, he shall be credlLed only wlLh
4/S Lhe Llme durlng whlch he has undergone
prevenLlve lmprlsonmenL.

NC1L: under Lhe Chlld and ?ouLh Welfare Code (u
603), Lhe youLhful offender shall be credlLed ln Lhe
servlce of hls senLence wlLh Lhe full Llme he spenL ln
acLual conflnemenL and deLenLlon. lL ls noL necessary
LhaL he agreed Lo ablde by Lhe dlsclpllnary rules
lmposed upon convlcLed prlsoners.

Cffenders not ent|t|ed to be cred|ted w|th the fu||
t|me or four-f|fths of the t|me of the|r prevent|ve
|mpr|sonment:
1. 8ecldlvlsLs or Lhose convlcLed prevlously Lwlce or


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 70 of 76


more Llmes of any crlme
PablLual dellnquenLs are noL enLlLled Lo credlL
of Llme under prevenLlve lmprlsonmenL slnce
he ls necessarlly a recldlvlsL or has been
convlcLed prevlously Lwlce or more Llmes of
any crlme.

2. 1hose who, upon belng summoned for Lhe
execuLlon of Lhelr senLence, falled Lo surrender
volunLarlly (convlcLs who falled Lo volunLarlly
surrender under a flnal [udgmenL, noL Lhose who
falled or refused Lo volunLarlly surrender afLer Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme)

NC1LS:
CredlL ls glven ln Lhe servlce of senLences
conslsLlng of deprlvaLlon of llberLy (lmprlsonmenL
and desLlerro), wheLher perpeLual or Lemporal.
1hus, persons who had undergone prevenLlve
lmprlsonmenL buL Lhe offense ls punlshable by a
flne only would noL be glven credlL.
1he accused shall be released lmmedlaLely
whenever he has undergone prevenLlve
lmprlsonmenL for a perlod equal Lo or more Lhan
Lhe posslble maxlmum lmprlsonmenL for offense
charged.
lf Lhe penalLy lmposed ls arresLo menor Lo
desLlerro, Lhe accused who has been ln prlson for
30 days (arresLo menor Lo 30 days) should be
released because alLhough Lhe maxlmum penalLy
ls desLlerro (6 monLhs and 1 day Lo 6 years), Lhe
accused senLenced Lo such penalLy does noL serve
lL ln prlson.

LND CI DISCUSSICN CI 1CIC
S. LNAL1ILS

=============================================
6. MCDIIICA1ICN AND Lx1INC1ICN
CI CkIMINAL LIA8ILI1
=============================================
1CIC UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US:

6. Mod|f|cat|on and Lxt|nct|on of Cr|m|na|
L|ab|||ty
a. rescr|pt|on of Cr|mes
b. rescr|pt|on of ena|t|es
c. ardon by Cffended arty
d. ardon by the Ch|ef Lxecut|ve
e. Amnesty
=============================================

6. MCDIIICA1ICN AND Lx1INC1ICN CI CkIMINAL
LIA8ILI1

A. Lx1INC1ICN CI CkIMINAL LIA8ILI1

Art. 89. now cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty |s tota||y ext|ngu|shed.
Cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty |s tota||y ext|ngu|shed:

1. 8y the death of the conv|ct, as to the persona|
pena|t|es and as to pecun|ary pena|t|es, ||ab|||ty
therefor |s ext|ngu|shed on|y when the death of
the offender occurs before f|na| [udgment.
2. 8y serv|ce of the sentence,
3. 8y amnesty, wh|ch comp|ete|y ext|ngu|shes the
pena|ty and a|| |ts effects,
4. 8y abso|ute pardon,
S. 8y prescr|pt|on of the cr|me,
6. 8y prescr|pt|on of the pena|ty,
7. 8y the marr|age of the offended woman, as
prov|ded |n Art|c|e 344 of th|s Code.

LxLlncLlon of crlmlnal llablllLy does noL necessarlly
mean LhaL Lhe clvll llablllLy ls also exLlngulshed.

I. DLA1n CI 1nL CCNVIC1

GLNLkAL kULL: 1he deaLh of Lhe accused pendlng Lhe
appeal of hls convlcLlon exLlngulshes hls crlmlnal and
clvll llablllLy based solely on Lhe offense commlLLed.

LxCL1ICN: Clvll llablllLy arlslng from sources oLher
Lhan Lhe crlme commlLLed survlves and may be pursued
ln a separaLe clvll acLlon. Sources of clvll llablllLy oLher
Lhan crlme are law, conLracLs, quasl-conLracLs, and
quasl-dellcLs.

As Lo Lhe personal penalLles and as Lo pecunlary
penalLles, llablllLy ls exLlngulshed only when Lhe deaLh
of Lhe offender occurs before flnal [udgmenL.

ueaLh of Lhe convlcL, wheLher before or afLer flnal
[udgmenL, exLlngulshes crlmlnal llablllLy.

kULLS
Clvll llablllLy ls exLlngulshed only when deaLh
occurs before flnal [udgmenL.
Crlmlnal and clvll llablllLy ls exLlngulshed when Lhe
offender dles before flnal [udgmenL.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 71 of 76


8uL clalm for clvll llablllLy survlves lf lL may be
predlcaLed on a source of obllgaLlon oLher Lhan
dellcL, such as law, conLracLs, quasl-conLracLs and
quasl-dellcLs
lf Lhe prlvaLe offended parLy deslres Lo recover
damages from Lhe same acL or omlsslon
complalned of, he musL flle a separaLe clvll acLlon
whlch ls noL losL by prescrlpLlon of deaLh,
predlcaLed noL on Lhe felony prevlously charged
buL on oLher sources of obllgaLlon.

II. SLkVICL CI SLN1LNCL

Crlme ls a debL lncurred by Lhe offender as a
consequence of hls wrongful acL and Lhe penalLy ls buL
Lhe amounL of hls debL.

Servlce of senLence does noL exLlngulsh Lhe clvll
llablllLy. Sa|gado v. Court of Appea|s, [189 SCkA 304,
310]

III. MAkkIAGL CI 1nL CIILNDLD WCMAN AS
kCVIDLD IN Ak1ICLL 344 CI 1nL kC

Marrlage of Lhe offender wlLh Lhe offended woman
afLer Lhe commlsslon of any of Lhe crlmes of rape,
seducLlon, abducLlon or acLs of lasclvlousness musL be
conLracLed by Lhe offender ln good falLh. Marrlage
conLracLed only Lo avold crlmlnal llablllLy ls devold of
legal effecLs. eop|e v. Sant|ago, [S1 h||. 68, 70]


8. kLSCkI1ICN CI CkIMLS

Art. 90. rescr|pt|on of cr|me. Cr|mes pun|shab|e by
death, rec|us|on perpetua or rec|us|on tempora| sha||
prescr|be |n twenty years.

Cr|mes pun|shab|e by other aff||ct|ve pena|t|es sha||
prescr|be |n f|fteen years.

1hose pun|shab|e by a correct|ona| pena|ty sha||
prescr|be |n ten years, w|th the except|on of those
pun|shab|e by arresto mayor, wh|ch sha|| prescr|be |n
f|ve years.

1he cr|me of ||be| or other s|m||ar offenses sha||
prescr|be |n one year.

1he cr|me of ora| defamat|on and s|ander by deed
sha|| prescr|be |n s|x months.

L|ght offenses prescr|be |n two months.

When the pena|ty f|xed by |aw |s a compound one, the
h|ghest pena|ty sha|| be made the bas|s of the
app||cat|on of the ru|es conta|ned |n the f|rst, second
and th|rd paragraphs of th|s art|c|e. (As amended by
kA 4661, approved Iune 19, 1966).

kLSCkI1ICN CI 1nL CkIML ls Lhe forfelLure or loss of
Lhe rlghL of Lhe SLaLe Lo prosecuLe Lhe offender afLer
Lhe lapse of a cerLaln Llme.

I. kLSCkI1IVL LkICDS
1. Crlmes punlshable by
ueaLh, teclosloo petpetoo or teclosloo
tempotol: 20 years
AffllcLlve penalLles: 1S years
CorrecLlonal penalLles: 10 years
o lf ottesto moyot: S years

2. Llbel: 1 year

3. Cffenses of oral defamaLlon and slander by deed: 6
monLhs
Slmple slander: 2 monLhs
Crave slander: 6 monLhs

4. LlghL offenses: 2 monLhs

S. Crlmes punlshable by flnes
AffllcLlve: 1S years
CorrecLlonal: 10 years
LlghL: 2 monLhs

Where Lhe lasL day of Lhe prescrlpLlve perlod for flllng
an lnformaLlon falls on a Sunday or legal hollday, Lhe
lnformaLlon can no longer be flled on Lhe nexL day as
Lhe crlme has already prescrlbed. apd|angco v.
8uencam|no, [122 SCkA 713]

uefense of prescrlpLlon may be ralsed durlng Lhe Lrlal
or durlng Lhe appeal, and ls a ground for Lhe acqulLLal
of Lhe accused.

1he accused cannoL be convlcLed of an offense lesser
Lhan LhaL charged lf Lhe lesser offense had already
prescrlbed aL Lhe Llme Lhe lnformaLlon was flled.






CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 72 of 76


II. WnLN LNAL1 IS CCMCUND

When Lhe penalLy ls a compound one, Lhe hlghesL
penalLy ls Lhe basls of Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhe rules ln
ArLlcle 90.

III. VICLA1ICNS LNALI2LD 8 SLCIAL LAWS

Act No. 3763, prov|des:
1. Cffenses punlshed only by a flne or by
lmprlsonmenL for oot more Lhan ooe mootb, or
boLh: 1 year
2. Cffenses punlshed by lmprlsonmenL for mote tboo
ooe mootb, buL less tboo two yeots: 4 years
3. Cffenses punlshed by lmprlsonmenL for 2 years or
more buL less Lhan 6 years: 8 years
4. Cffenses punlshed by lmprlsonmenL for 6 years of
more: 12 years
S. Cffenses under lnLernal 8evenue Law: S years
6. vlolaLlons of munlclpal ordlnances: 2 monLhs
7. vlolaLlons of Lhe regulaLlons or condlLlons of
cerLlflcaLe of convenlence by Lhe ubllc Servlce
Commlsslon: 2 monLhs

8uL Lhe acL ls oot oppllcoble where Lhe speclal law
provldes for lLs own prescrlpLlve perlod.

rescrlpLlon of vlolaLlons penallzed by speclal laws and
ordlnances shall begln Lo run from Lhe day of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe vlolaLlon of Lhe law, and lf Lhe same
be noL known aL Lhe Llme, from Lhe dlscovery Lhereof
and Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of [udlclal proceedlngs for lLs
lnvesLlgaLlon and punlshmenL.

1he prescrlpLlon shall be lnLerrupLed when proceedlngs
are lnsLlLuLed agalnsL Lhe gullLy person, and shall begln
Lo run agaln lf Lhe proceedlngs are dlsmlssed for
reasons noL consLlLuLlng [eopardy.

Powever, ln komua|dez v. Marce|o, et a|., [G.k. No.
16SS10-33, Iu|y 28, 2006], Lhe CourL ruled LhaL Lhe
runnlng of Lhe prescrlpLlon of an offense punlshed by a
speclal law ls oot tolleJ by Lhe absence of Lhe offender
from hlllpplne soll.

V. CCMU1A1ICN CI kLSCkI1ICN CI CIILNSLS

Art. 91. Computat|on of prescr|pt|on of offenses.
1he per|od of prescr|pt|on sha|| commence to run from
the day on wh|ch the cr|me |s d|scovered by the
offended party, the author|t|es, or the|r agents, and
sha|| be |nterrupted by the f|||ng of the comp|a|nt or
|nformat|on, and sha|| commence to run aga|n when
such proceed|ngs term|nate w|thout the accused be|ng
conv|cted or acqu|tted, or are un[ust|f|ab|y stopped for
any reason not |mputab|e to h|m.

1he term of prescr|pt|on sha|| not run when the
offender |s absent from the h|||pp|ne Arch|pe|ago.

CU1LINL:
1. rescrlpLlon beglns Lo run from Lhe day on whlch
Lhe crlme ls dlscovered by Lhe offended parLy, Lhe
auLhorlLles, or Lhelr agenLs
2. lL ls lotettopteJ by Lhe flllng of Lhe complalnL or
lnformaLlon.
3. lL commences Lo run agaln when such proceedlngs
tetmloote wltboot Lhe accused belng convlcLed or
acqulLLed or are oojostlflobly sLopped for any
reason noL lmpuLable Lo hlm.
4. 1he Lerm of prescrlpLlon shall oot too when Lhe
offender ls obseot from Lhe hlllpplnes.

1he facL LhaL Lhe culprlL ls unknown wlll noL prevenL Lhe
perlod of prescrlpLlon from commenclng Lo run
because lL ls Lhe dlscovery of Lhe crlme, and noL Lhe
dlscovery of Lhe offender. lL ls also noL necessary LhaL
Lhe accused ls arresLed.

LxCL1ICNS 1C Ak1ICLL 91:
1. ConLlnulng crlmes
2. ln crlmes agalnsL false LesLlmony
1esLlmony agalnsL Lhe defendanL: from Lhe
daLe flnal [udgmenL was rendered
1esLlmony ln favor of Lhe defendanL: from Lhe
daLe when Lhe LesLlmony was glven
3. LlecLlon offenses
lf dlscovery of Lhe offense ls lncldenLal Lo
[udlclal proceedlngs: beglns when such
proceedlng LermlnaLes, oLherwlse, from Lhe
faLe of commlsslon of Lhe offense
4. 8lgamy: beglns from daLe of dlscovery

1he complalnL or lnformaLlon LhaL wlll lnLerrupL Lhe
perlod of prescrlpLlon musL be Lhe proper lnformaLlon
or complalnL correspondlng Lo Lhe offense. lf Lhe
complalnL ls amended and charges a dlfferenL crlme,
Lhe daLe of Lhe amended complalnL or lnformaLlon
should be consldered. lf lL ls merely a correcLlon of a
defecL, Lhe daLe of Lhe orlglnal complalnL or
lnformaLlon should be consldered.



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 73 of 76


C. kLSCkI1ICN CI LNAL1ILS

Art. 92. When and how pena|t|es prescr|be. 1he
pena|t|es |mposed by f|na| sentence prescr|be as
fo||ows:

1. Death and rec|us|on perpetua, |n twenty years,
2. Cther aff||ct|ve pena|t|es, |n f|fteen years,
3. Correct|ona| pena|t|es, |n ten years, w|th the
except|on of the pena|ty of arresto mayor, wh|ch
prescr|bes |n f|ve years,

kLSCkI1ICN CI 1nL LNAL1 ls Lhe loss or forfelLure
of Lhe rlghL of Lhe CovernmenL Lo execote Lhe flool
seoteoce afLer Lhe lapse of a cerLaln Llme.

I. CCNDI1ICNS

1he penalLles musL be lmposed by flnal senLence. lf Lhe
convlcL appealed and LhereafLer fled Lo Lhe mounLalns,
Lhe penalLy lmposed upon hlm would never prescrlbe,
because pendlng Lhe appeal, Lhe senLence ls noL flnal.

lf Lhe accused was never arresLed Lo serve hls senLence,
Lhe prescrlpLlve perlod cannoL commence Lo run.


II. kLSCkI1IVL LkICDS
1. ueaLh and teclosloo petpetoo: 20 years
2. CLher affllcLlve penalLles: 1S years
3. CorrecLlonal penalLles: 10 years
Attesto moyot: S years
4. LlghL penalLles: 1 year


III. kLSCkI1ICN CI CkIMLS VS. kLSCkI1ICN CI
LNAL1ILS

ln prescrlpLlon of ctlmes, lL ls Lhe penalLy prescrlbed by
law LhaL should be consldered, ln prescrlpLlon of
peooltles, lL ls Lhe penalLy lmposed LhaL should be
consldered.



IV. CCMU1A1ICN CI kLSCkI1ICN CI LNAL1ILS

Art. 93. Computat|on of the prescr|pt|on of pena|t|es.
1he per|od of prescr|pt|on of pena|t|es sha||
commence to run from the date when the cu|pr|t
shou|d evade the serv|ce of h|s sentence, and |t sha||
be |nterrupted |f the defendant shou|d g|ve h|mse|f
up, be captured, shou|d go to some fore|gn country
w|th wh|ch th|s Government has no extrad|t|on treaty,
or shou|d comm|t another cr|me before the exp|rat|on
of the per|od of prescr|pt|on.

CU1LINL:
1. rescrlpLlon of penalLles commences Lo run ftom
tbe Jote when Lhe colptlt evoJeJ tbe setvlce of hls
senLence.
2. lL ls lnLerrupLed lf Lhe convlcL
Clves hlmself up
CapLured
Coes Lo a forelgn counLry wlLh whlch we have
no exLradlLlon LreaLy, or
CommlLs anoLher crlme befote Lhe explraLlon
of Lhe perlod of prescrlpLlon

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe penalLy ls lmposed by flool senLence,
2. 1haL Lhe convlcL evoJeJ Lhe servlce of Lhe
senLence by escaplng durlng Lhe Lerm of hls
senLence,
3. 1haL Lhe convlcL who escaped from prlson bos oot
glven hlmself up, or been capLure, or gone Lo a
forelgn counLry wlLh whlch we have no exLradlLlon
LreaLy, or commlLLed anoLher crlme, and
4. 1haL Lhe penalLy has prescrlbed, because of Lhe
lapse of Llme from Lhe daLe of Lhe evaslon of Lhe
servlce of Lhe senLence by Lhe convlcL.

Lvadlng Lhe servlce of Lhe senLence ls noL commlLLlng a
crlme before Lhe explraLlon of Lhe perlod of
prescrlpLlon of penalLles.

AccepLance of condlLlonal pardon lnLerrupLs Lhe
prescrlpLlve perlod.


D. AkDCN 8 1nL CIILNDLD Ak1

lf Lhe one glvlng Lhe pardon ls Lhe offended spouse ln
adulLery, boLh offenders musL be pardoned by Lhe
offended parLy lf sald pardon ls Lo be effecLlve. eop|e
v. Infante, [S7 h||. 138]


L. AkDCN 8 1nL CnILI LxLCU1IVL

AkDCN ls an acL of grace proceedlng from Lhe power
enLrusLed wlLh Lhe execuLlon of Lhe laws whlch
exempLs Lhe lndlvldual on whom lL ls besLowed from


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 74 of 76


Lhe punlshmenL Lhe law lnfllcLs for Lhe crlme he has
commlLLed.

lL musL be glven afLer flnal [udgmenL, oLherwlse, Lhere
wlll be vlolaLlon of Lhe docLrlne of SeparaLlon of
owers.

I. kINDS CI AkDCN
1. Cond|t|ona|
LxempLlon of an lndlvldual wlLhln cerLaln
llmlLs or condlLlons from Lhe punlshmenL
whlch Lhe law lnfllcLs for Lhe offense he had
commlLLed resulLlng ln Lhe parLlal exLlncLlon
of hls crlmlnal llablllLy.

2. Abso|ute
1oLal exLlncLlon of crlmlnal llablllLy of Lhe
lndlvldual Lo whom lL ls granLed wlLhouL any
condlLlon
8esLores Lo Lhe lndlvldual hls clvll and pollLlcal
rlghLs and remlLs Lhe penalLy lmposed for Lhe
parLlcular offense of whlch he was convlcLed

A pardon, wheLher absoluLe or condlLlonal, ls ln Lhe
naLure of a deed, for Lhe valldlLy of whlch Jellvety ls an
lndlspensable requlslLe. unLll accepLed, all LhaL may
have been done ls a maLLer of lnLended favor and may
be cancelled. 8uL once accepLed by Lhe granLee, Lhe
pardon already dellvered cannoL be revoked by Lhe
auLhorlLy whlch granLed lL.

AMNLS1 AkDCN
A blankeL pardon Lo
classes of persons who
may be gullLy of pollLlcal
offenses
lncludes any crlme and ls
exerclsed lndlvldually by
Lhe resldenL
May be exerclsed even
before Lrlal or
lnvesLlgaLlon ls had
Lxerclsed when Lhe
person ls already
convlcLed
Looks backward and
abollshes and puLs lnLo
obllvlon Lhe offense lLself
Looks forward and
relleves Lhe offender from
Lhe consequences of an
offense of whlch he was
convlcLed
erson released by
amnesLy sLands before
Lhe law preclsely as
Lhough he had commlLLed
no offense
uoes noL work Lhe
resLoraLlon of Lhe rlghLs Lo
hold offlce, suffrage,
unless such rlghLs be
expressly resLored by Lhe
Lerms of Lhe pardon
A proclamaLlon of Lhe A prlvaLe acL of Lhe
resldenL wlLh Lhe
concurrence of Congress,
ls a publlc acL of whlch Lhe
courLs should Lake [udlclal
noLlce
resldenL whlch musL be
pleaded and proved by
Lhe person pardoned
Makes an ex-convlcL no
longer a recldlvlsL,
because lL obllLeraLes Lhe
lasL vesLlge of Lhe crlme
uoes noL alLer Lhe facL
LhaL Lhe accused ls a
recldlvlsL as lL produces
only Lhe exLlncLlon of Lhe
personal effecLs of Lhe
penalLy
uoes noL exLlngulsh Lhe clvll llablllLy of Lhe offender


I. AMNLS1

AMNLS1 ls an acL of Lhe soverelgn power granLlng
obllvlon or a general pardon for a pasL offense, and ls
rarely, lf ever, exerclsed ln favor of a slngle lndlvldual,
and ls usually exerLed ln behalf of cerLaln classes or
persons, who are sub[ecL Lo Lrlal buL have noL yeL been
convlcLed. 8rown v. Wa|ker, [161 U.S. 602]

lL compleLely exLlngulshes Lhe penalLy and all lLs
effecLs. lL may also be granLed afLer convlcLlon, buL clvll
llablllLy ls noL exLlngulshed by amnesLy.


G. Ak1IAL Lx1INC1ICN CI CkIMINAL LIA8ILI1

Art. 94. art|a| Lxt|nct|on of cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty.
Cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty |s ext|ngu|shed part|a||y:

1. 8y cond|t|ona| pardon,
2. 8y commutat|on of the sentence, and
3. Ior good conduct a||owances wh|ch the cu|pr|t may
earn wh||e he |s serv|ng h|s sentence.

I. CCNDI1ICNAL AkDCN

CCNDI1ICNAL AkDCN dellvered and accepLed ls
consldered a conLracL beLween Lhe soverelgn power of
Lhe execuLlve and Lhe convlcL LhaL Lhe former wlll
release Lhe laLLer upon compllance wlLh Lhe condlLlon.

Art. 9S. Cb||gat|on |ncurred by person granted
cond|t|ona| pardon. Any person who has been
granted cond|t|ona| pardon sha|| |ncur the ob||gat|on
of comp|y|ng str|ct|y w|th the cond|t|ons |mposed
there|n otherw|se, h|s non-comp||ance w|th any of the
cond|t|ons spec|f|ed sha|| resu|t |n the revocat|on of


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 7S of 76


the pardon and the prov|s|ons of Art|c|e 1S9 sha|| be
app||ed to h|m.

CU1LINL:
1. Pe musL comply sLrlcLly wlLh Lhe condlLlons
lmposed ln Lhe pardon.
2. lallure Lo comply wlLh Lhe condlLlons shall resulL ln
Lhe revocaLlon of Lhe pardon. under Sec. 64(l),
8.A.C., Lhe Chlef LxecuLlve may ordre hls arresL
and relncarceraLlon.
3. Pe becomes llable under ArL. 1S9. 1hls ls Lhe
[udlclal remedy.

II. CCMMU1A1ICN CI 1nL SLN1LNCL

lL ls a change of Lhe declslon of Lhe courL made by Lhe
Chlef LxecuLlve by reduclng Lhe degree of Lhe penalLy
lnfllcLed upon Lhe convlcL, or by decreaslng Lhe lengLh
of Lhe lmprlsonmenL or Lhe amounL of Lhe flne.

Art. 96. Lffect of commutat|on of sentence. 1he
commutat|on of the or|g|na| sentence for another of a
d|fferent |ength and nature sha|| have the |ega| effect
of subst|tut|ng the |atter |n the p|ace of the former.

CASLS WnLN CCMMU1A1ICN II kCVIDLD ICk 8
1nL kC:
When Lhe convlcL senLenced Lo deaLh ls
over 70 years of age. (ArL. 83)
When 8 [usLlces of Lhe Supreme CourL fall
Lo reach a declslon for Lhe afflrmance of
Lhe deaLh penalLy.

1he consenL of Lhe offender ls oot oecessoty.

III. ICk GCCD CCNDUC1

Art. 97. A||owance for good conduct. 1he good
conduct of any pr|soner |n any pena| |nst|tut|on sha||
ent|t|e h|m to the fo||ow|ng deduct|ons from the
per|od of h|s sentence:

1. Dur|ng the f|rst two years of h|s |mpr|sonment, he
sha|| be a||owed a deduct|on of f|ve days for each
month of good behav|or,
2. Dur|ng the th|rd to the f|fth year, |nc|us|ve, of h|s
|mpr|sonment, he sha|| be a||owed a deduct|on of
e|ght days for each month of good behav|or,
3. Dur|ng the fo||ow|ng years unt|| the tenth year,
|nc|us|ve, of h|s |mpr|sonment, he sha|| be a||owed a
deduct|on of ten days for each month of good
behav|or, and
4. Dur|ng the e|eventh and success|ve years of h|s
|mpr|sonment, he sha|| be a||owed a deduct|on of
f|fteen days for each month of good behav|or.

1here ls no allowance for good conducL whlle Lhe
prlsoner ls released under condlLlonal pardon. 1here
reason ls LhaL Lhe good conducL Llme allowance ls glven
ln conslderaLlon of Lhe good conducL observed by Lhe
prlsonder wblle setvloq bls seoteoce.

Art. 98. Spec|a| t|me a||owance for |oya|ty. A
deduct|on of one-f|fth of the per|od of h|s sentence
sha|| be granted to any pr|soner who, hav|ng evaded
the serv|ce of h|s sentence under the c|rcumstances
ment|oned |n Art|c|e S8 of th|s Code, g|ves h|mse|f up
to the author|t|es w|th|n 48 hours fo||ow|ng the
|ssuance of a proc|amat|on announc|ng the pass|ng
away of the ca|am|ty or catastrophe to |n sa|d art|c|e.

Art. 99. Who grants t|me a||owances. Whenever
|awfu||y [ust|f|ed, the D|rector of r|sons sha|| grant
a||owances for good conduct. Such a||owances once
granted sha|| not be revoked.

1he SLCIAL 1IML ALLCWANCL ICk LCAL1 CI
kISCNLk ls a deducLlon of 1/S of Lhe perlod of Lhe
senLence of a prlsoner who, havlng evaded Lhe servlce
of hls senLence durlng Lhe calamlLy or caLasLrophy
menLloned ln ArL. 1S8, glves hlmself up Lo Lhe
auLhorlLles wlLhln 48 hours followlng Lhe lssuance of
Lhe proclamaLlon by Lhe resldenL anounclng Lhe
passlng away of Lhe calamlLy or caLasLrophe.

1he deducLlon of 1/S ls based on Lhe orlglnal senLence.

1he allowance for good conducL ls noL an auLomaLlc
rlghL. lL musL be granLed by Lhe urlrecLor of rlsons.

IV. AkCLL

AkCLL conslsLs ln Lhe sospeosloo of Lhe senLence of a
convlcL afLer servlng Lhe mlnlmum Lerm of Lhe
lndeLermlnaLe penalLy, wlLhouL granLlng a pardo,
prescrlblng Lhe Lerms upon whlch Lhe senLence shall be
suspended.

lf Lhe convlcL falles Lo observe Lhe condlLlons of Lhe
parole, Lhe 8oard of ardons and arole ls auLhorlzed
Lo dlrecL hls arresL and reLurn Lo cusLody and LhereafLer


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 76 of 76


Lo cary ouL hls senLence wlLhouL deducLlon of Lhe Llme
LhaL has elapsed beLween Lhe daLe of Lhe parole and
Lhe subsequenL arresL.

1he mere commlsslon, noL convlcLlon by Lhe courL, of
any crlme ls sufflclenL Lo warranL parolee's arresL and
relncarceraLlon.

CCNDI1ICNAL AkDCN AkCLL
May be glven aL any Llme
afLer flnal [udgmenL
May be glven afLer Lhe
prlsoner has served Lhe
mlnlmum penalLy
CranLed by Lhe Chlef
LxecuLlve under Lhe
provldslons of Lhe
AdmlnlsLraLlve Code
CranLed by Lhe 8oard of
ardons and arole under
Lhe provlslon of hLe
lndeLermlnaLe SenLence
Law
When condlLlons are
vlolaLed, Lhe convlcL may
be ordered rearresLed or
relncarceraLed by Lhe
Chlef execuLlve, or may be
prosecuLed under ArL. 1S9
When condlLlons are
vlolaLed, Lhe convlcL may
be ordered rearresLed or
relncarceraLed by Lhe
Chlef execuLlve










CkIMINAL LAW
8CCk II AND SLCIAL LNAL
LAWS



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 2 of 129
CkIMINAL LAW 8CCk II AND SLCIAL LNAL LAWS
1ab|e of Contents
1CI CS UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US
8. 8CCk I I
1. Cr| mes Aga| nst Nat| ona| Secur| ty (Art. 114-123)...... ....................6
a. Ant| -| racy and Ant| -n| ghway kobbery (. D. S32) .... .................. . 10
| . Def| n| t| on of terms........... ............................ 10
| | . un| shab| e acts..................................... .... 10
b. Ant| -n| [ ack| ng Law (. D. 623S) ................... . .............. . 11
| . un| shab| e acts.............. ........................... . 11
c. numan Secur| ty Act of 2007 (k. A. 9372) ....................... .... . .12
| . un| shab| e acts of terror| sm........ . ......................... 12
| | . Who are | | ab| e.......... ...............................12
2. Cr| mes Aga| nst the Iundamenta| Laws of the State (Art. 124-133) ...... . ........ . 13
a. numan Secur| ty Act of 2007 (k. A. 9372) ...... .. ....................14
| . er| od of detent| on...................................... 1S
b. Ant| -1orture Act of 2009 (k. A. 974S) .............................1S
| . un| shab| e acts...................... ................... . 1S
| | . Who are | | ab| e......................... ................1S
3. Cr| mes Aga| nst ub| | c Crder (Art. 134-160)............................18
a. Decree Cod| fy| ng the Laws on I | | ega| ]Un| awfu| ossess| on, Manufacture, Dea| | ng | n,
Acqu| s| t| on or D| spos| t| on of I| rearms, Ammun| t| on or Lxp| os| ves (. D. 1866, as
amended by k. A. 8294) as an e| ement of the cr| mes of rebe| | | on, | nsurrect| on, sed| t| on,
or attempted coup d' etat............................... . .......22
b. numan Secur| ty Act of 2007 (k. A. 9372)
| . un| shab| e acts of 1error| stm
| | . Who are | | ab| e
| | | . Absorpt| on pr| nc| p| e | n re| at| on to comp| ex cr| mes
4. Cr| mes Aga| nst ub| | c I nterests (Art. 161-187) ...................... . .... 29
a. 1he New ub| | c 8| dd| ng Law (k. A. 9184) ...........................36
| . roh| b| ted Acts...................... ................... . 36
b. Ant| -A| | as Law (C. A. 142) ....................................37
| . un| shab| e acts................... ...................... . 37
| | . Lxcept| on.................... ........................37
S. Cr| mes ke| at| ve to Cp| um and Cther roh| b| ted Drugs.....................40
a. 1he Comprehens| ve Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002 (k. A. 916S) ............. .. 40
| . un| shab| e acts................. ........................ . 40
| | . Who are | | ab| e................... ......................41
| | | . Attempt or consp| racy, effect on | | ab| | | ty. .......................42
| v. I mmun| ty from prosecut| on and pun| shment......... .............. 42
6. Cr| mes Aga| nst ub| | c mora| s (Art. 200-202) ....... ..................... 44
7. Cr| mes Comm| tted by ub| | c Cff| cers (Art. 203-24S) ............. .......... . 48
a. Ant| -Graft and Corrupt ract| ces Act (k. A. 3019, as amended) .............. S1


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 3 of 129

| . Coverage...................................... . ....... S2
| | . un| shab| e acts........................................ . S2
| | | . Lxcept| ons........................................... S3
b. Ant| -| under Act (k. A. 7080, as amended) .......................... . SS
| . Def| n| t| on of 1erms......... .............................. SS
| | . I | | -gotten wea| th.......................................SS
| | | . | under............. . ................................ SS
| v. Ser| es]Comb| nat| on....................... . ..............SS
v. attern
c. numan Secur| ty Act of 2007 (k. A. 9372) ...........................S6
| . Ia| | ure to de| | ver suspect to proper [ ud| c| a| author| ty... ..............S6
| | . I nf| de| | ty | n the custody of deta| ned persons...... . ................ . S6
| | | . Ia| se prosecut| on........... ............................ S6
8. Cr| mes Aga| nst ersons (Art. 246-266) .................... ........... . 63
a. Ant| -V| o| ence aga| nst Women and the| r Ch| | dren Act of 2004 (k. A. 9262) ...... . .72
| . un| shab| e acts............. ............................ . 73
b. Ant| -Ch| | d ornography Act of 2009 (k. A. 977S) ................... .... . 74
| . Def| n| t| on of terms...................................... . 74
| | . Un| awfu| or pun| shab| e acts.................. ............... 7S
c. Ant| -naz| ng Law (k. A. 8049) .............. .....................7S
| . naz| ng............. . .................................7S
(a) Def| n| t| on........... . .............................. .7S
(b) A| | owed | n| t| at| on r| tes................................. . 7S
| | . Who are | | ab| e..................... ....................7S
| | | . un| shab| e acts.................. ...................... . 7S
d. Spec| a| rotect| on of Ch| | dren Aga| nst Ch| | d Abuse, Lxp| o| tat| on and D| scr| m| nat| on
Act (k. A. 7610, as amended) .............. . ................. . .....76
| . Coverage...................... ........................ 76
| | . Ch| | d prost| tut| on, pun| shab| e acts.......... .................... 76
| | | . Ch| | d traff| ck| ng, pun| shab| e acts.......... .................... . 76
e. Iuven| | e Iust| ce and We| fare Act of 2006 (k. A. 9344), a| so refer to the Ch| | d outh
and We| fare Code (. D. 603, as amended) ............................ 77
| . un| shab| e acts......................................... . 79
f. numan Secur| ty Act of 2007 (k. A. 9372)
| . un| shab| e acts of terror| sm
| | . Who are | | ab| e
9. Cr| mes Aga| nst ersona| L| berty and Secur| ty (Art. 267-292) ................. . 80
a. Ant| -W| re 1app| ng Act (k. A. 4200) ............................... 88
| . un| shab| e acts........................ . ................. . 88
| | . Lxcept| ons............................................ 88
b. numan Secur| ty Act of 2007 (k. A. 9372) ...................... . .....88
| . Surve| | | ance of suspects and | ntercept| on and record| ng of commun| cat| on....88
| | . kestr| ct| onon trave| .......... . ............................88
| | | . Lxam| nat| on of bank depos| ts and documents............... .......89
(a) Iud| c| a| Author| zat| on........... . ........................ 89
(b) App| | cat| on...... . ...................................89
| v. Unauthor| zed reve| at| on of c| ass| fed mater| a| s. ..................... 89


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 4 of 129
c. Ant| -1raff| ck| ng | n ersons Act of 2003 (k. A. 9208) .................... . 89
| . un| shab| e acts.... ...................................... 89
10. Cr| mes Aga| nst roperty (Art. 293-332)............ .................. 90
a. Ant| -Ienc| ng Law (. D. 1612) and | ts | mp| ement| ng ru| es and regu| at| ons.... . ...98
| . Ienc| ng............................... . ...............98
(a) Def| n| t| on...................................... ..... 98
(b) resumpt| on of fenc| ng............................... ...98
| | . Lxcept| on............................................98
(a) W| th c| earance or perm| t to se| | .................... ......... . 98
b. 8ounc| ng Checks Law (8. . 8| g. 22) p| us Adm| n| strat| ve C| rcu| ar No. 12-2000 ke:
ena| ty for V| o| at| on of 8. . 22 and Adm| n| strat| ve C| rcu| ar No. 13-2001 ke: C| ar| f| cat| on
of Adm| n C| rcu| ar No. 12-2000............................... .... 102
| . un| shab| e acts......................................... 102
| | . Lv| dence of know| edge of | nsuff| c| ent funds.............. . ......... 102
| | | . reference of | mpos| t| on of f| ne....... ...... .................. 102
c. Ant| -Arson Law (. D. 1613) ............ ....................... . 107
| . un| shab| e acts.................. ....... ................. 107
d. numan Secur| ty Act of 2007 (k. A. 9372)
| . un| shab| e acts of 1error| sm
e. Ant| -Carnapp| ng Act of 1972 (k. A. 6S39) ..........................109
| . Def| n| t| on of 1erms......................................109
| | . keg| strat| on..........................................109
| | | . Who are | | ab| e....................... .................. 109
(a) Duty of co| | ector of customs...................... . ........110
(b) Duty of | mporters, d| str| butors and se| | ers.....................110
(c) C| earance and perm| t................................... 110
| v. un| shab| e acts................................. . ....... 110
11. Cr| mes Aga| nst Chast| ty (Art. 333-334, 336-346) ...................... . .111
1. Ant| -hoto and V| deo Voyeur| sm Act of 2009 (k. A. 999S) ............. .... 117
a. un| shab| e acts......... . ...............................117
2. Spec| a| rotect| on of Ch| | dern Aga| nst Ch| | d Abuse, Lxp| o| tat| on and D| scr| m| nat| on
Act (k. A. 7610, as amended) ............................ . .......117
a. Ch| | d prost| tut| on and other acts of abuse........................ 117
| . un| shab| e acts.......... .............................117
| | . Compare prosecut| on for Acts of Lasc| v| ousness under Art. 366, kC and k. A.
7610, as amended...... ............................... 118
b. Cbscene pub| | cat| ons and | ndecent shows........................ 118
| . un| shab| e acts................ .......................118
3. Ant| -1raff| ck| ng | n ersons Act of 2003 (k. A. 9208)
a. un| shab| e acts
4. Ant| -V| o| ence Aga| nst Women and 1he| r Ch| | dren Act of 2004 (k. A. 9262) ...... 119
a. un| shab| e acts....... . .................................119
S. Ant| -Sexua| narassment Act of 199S (k. A. 7877) ........ .............. . 119
a. un| shab| e acts........................................119
12. Cr| mes Aga| nst C| v| | Status (Art. 347-3S2) .............. .............. 120
13. Cr| mes Aga| nst nonor (Art. 3S3-364) ....................... . .......122



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S of 129


a. Adm| n| strat| ve C| rcu| ar 09-2008 ke: Gu| de| | nes | n the Cbservance of a ku| e of
reference | n the I mpos| t| on of ena| t| es | n L| be| Cases.............. .127
| . reference of | mpos| t| on of f| ne............................. 127
14. Cr| m| na| Neg| | gence (Art. 36S) ....... ............................ 128


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 6 of 129
8CCk II AND SLCIAL LNAL LAWS
=======================================
1. CkIMLS AGAINS1 NA1ICNAL
SLCUkI1 AND 1nL LAW CI NA1ICNS
=======================================
1CICS UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US
Chapter 1: Cr|mes Aga|nst Nat|ona| Secur|ty
Sec. 1. - 1reason and Lsp|onage
CA No. 616
Sec. 2. - rovok|ng war and d|s|oya|ty |n case of
war
Sec. 3. - |racy and mut|ny on the h|gh seas |n
h|||pp|ne waters
.D. S32
k.A. 623S
k. A. 9372
=======================================
Chapter 1: Cr|mes Aga|nst Nat|ona| Secur|ty
=======================================
SLC1ICN 1. - 1kLASCN AND LSICNAGL

Ak1. 114. 1kLASCN

LLLMLN1S:
1. Cffender ls a I|||p|no ClLlzen or an a||en res|d|ng |n the
h|||pp|nes,
2. War ln whlch Lhe hlllpplnes ls lnvolved,
3. Cffender elLher -
a. Lev|es war agalnsL Lhe CovernmenL, or
b. Adheres Lo Lhe enemles, glvlng Lhem ald or
comforL.

1kLASCN - breach of alleglance Lo Lhe governmenL by a
person who owes alleglance Lo lL

ALLLGIANCL - obllgaLlon of flJellty and obeJleoce whlch Lhe
lndlvlduals owe Lo Lhe governmenL under whlch Lhey llve or
Lo Lhelr soverelgn, ln reLurn for proLecLlon Lhey recelve

1reason commlLLed ln a forelgn counLry may be prosecuLed
ln Lhe hlllpplnes. (ArL. 2, 8C)

LkSCNS LIA8LL:
1. IILIINC - permanenL alleglance, can commlL Lreason
anywhere
2. ALILN kLSIDLN1 - Lemporary alleglance, commlLs
Lreason only when resldlng ln Lhe hlllpplnes

1reason ls a war cr|me (hence cannoL be commlLLed ln Llme
of peace), punlshed by Lhe sLaLe as a measure of self-
defense and self-preservaLlon.
1


AC1S UNISnLD {MOu5 Ol cOMMl11lN6 1k45ON):
1. Levy|ng war - requlres:
a. AcLual assembllng of men
b. urpose of execuLlng a Lreasonable deslgn by force
2. Adherence to enem|es - requlres concurrence of:
a. AcLual adherence &
b. Clvlng ald or comforL

LLV WAk - musL be wlLh loteot to ovettbtow Lhe
governmenL as such, noL merely Lo reslsL a parLlcular sLaLuLe
or Lo repel a parLlcular offlcer. lL maLLers noL how valn and
fuLlle Lhe aLLempL was and how lmposslble lLs
accompllshmenL.

ln Lreason by levylng war, lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhere be a
formal declaraLlon of Lhe exlsLence of a sLaLe of war. AcLual
hosLlllLles may deLermlne Lhe daLe of Lhe commencemenL of
war.
2


ADnLkLNCL 1C LNLMILS - lnLenL Lo beLray, when a clLlzen
lotellectoolly ot emotlooolly fovots Lhe enemy and harbors
sympaLhles or convlcLlons dlsloyal Lo hls counLry's pollcy or
lnLeresL

AID]CCMICk1 - acL whlch stteoqtbeos ot teoJs to
stteoqtbeo Lhe enemy ln Lhe conducL of war agalnsL Lhe
LralLor's counLry and an acL whlch weakens or Lends Lo
weaken Lhe power of Lhe LralLor's counLry Lo reslsL or Lo
aLLack Lhe enemy

Mere accepLance of publlc offlce and dlscharge of offlclal
duLles under Lhe enemy do noL consLlLuLe per se Lhe felony
of Lreason. 8uL when Lhe poslLlon ls po||cy-determ|n|ng, Lhe
accepLance of publlc offlce and Lhe dlscharge of offlclal
duLles consLlLuLe Lreason.

CLIC DL1LkMINING - deflnes Lhe norm of conducL of all
offlces and offlclals under Lhe deparLmenL he headed had Lo
adopL and enforce, lmplemenLed Lhe pollcy, and helped ln
Lhe propagaLlon of Lhe creed of Lhe lnvader


1
coocottloq Oploloo of Iostlce letfecto, lootel v. Mlso, 77 lbll. 865
2
Iostlce Iobosoo Jlsseotloq, u5 v. loqoosoo, J lbll. 195


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 7 of 129
WAS 1C kCVL:
1. 1reason (Overt oct of qivinq oid or comfort)
a. 1est|mony - aL leasL 2 wlLnesses Lo Lhe same overL acL
b. Iud|c|a| confess|on of Lhe accused ln open courL

2. Adherence
a. Cne wlLness
b. naLure of acL lLself
c. ClrcumsLances surroundlng Lhe acL

1WC WI1NLSS kULL:
1esLlmonles need not be identico/, buL musL relaLe Lo Lhe
same overL acL.
3
lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe wlLnesses are
unlform ln Lhelr LesLlmony on Lhe overL acL, noL necessarlly
LhaL Lhere be a corroboraLlon beLween Lhem on Lhe polnL
Lhey LesLlfled.
4


1he Lwo-wlLness rule ls severe/y restrictive, hence, each of
Lhe wlLnesses musL LesLlfy Lo Lhe whole overL acL, or lf lL ls
separable, Lhere musL be Lwo wlLnesses Lo each parL of Lhe
overL acL.
S


kLASCN ICk 1WC-WI1NLSS kULL:
1he speclal naLure of Lhe crlme requlres LhaL Lhe accused be
afforded a speclol ptotectloo noL requlred ln oLher cases so
as Lo avold a mlscarrlage of [usLlce.

CIkCUMS1ANCLS INnLkLN1 IN 1kLASCN:
1. LvldenL premedlLaLlon
2. Superlor SLrengLh
3. 1reachery

AGGkAVA1ING CIkCUMS1ANCLS IN 1kLASCN:
1. CruelLy
2. lgnomlny
3. CravlLy or serlousness of Lhe acLs of Lreason

DLILNSLS NC1 A DLILNSL
uuress or unconLrollable
fear
Suspended alleglance
Cbedlence Lo de facLo
governmenL
!olnlng Lhe enemy army Lhus
becomlng a clLlzen of Lhe
enemy

NC1L:
1here ls no Lreason Lhrough negllgence. lL requlres
lnLenL.
6

1reason ls a conLlnuous offense.
7
roof of one counL ls
sufflclenL of convlcLlon.
8


J
nooft v. uolteJ 5totes, 67 5. ct. 871
1
leople v. coocepcloo 81 lbll. 789
5
leople v. scleto, 81 lbll. 121
6
ctomet v. u5 65 5op. ct. 918, Aptll 2J, 1915
7
leople v. vlctotlo, 78 lbll. 129
8
leople v. 5oo Iooo, 89 lbll. J59
1here ls no complex crlme of Lreason wlLh murder or
physlcal ln[urles.
9


Ak1. 11S. CCNSIkAC AND kCCSAL 1C CCMMI1
1kLASCN

LLLMLN1S - CCNSIkAC:
1. ln Llmes of war,
2. 1wo or more persons come Lo an agreement Lo -
a. Levy war agalnsL Lhe governmenL, or
b. Adhere Lo Lhe enemles and Lo glve Lhem ald or
comforL
3. 1hey dec|de to comm|t lL.

LLLMLN1S - kCCSAL:
1. ln Llmes of war,
2. A person who has dec|ded to |evy war agalnsL Lhe
governmenL, or to adhere Lo Lhe enemles and Lo glve
Lhem ald or comforL
3. roposes lLs execuLlon Lo some oLher person/s.

NC1L:
As a general rule, consplracy and proposal Lo commlL a
felony ls noL punlshable (ArL. 8). ArL. 11S ls an
excepLlon as lL speclflcally penallzes consplracy and
proposal Lo commlL Lreason.
Mere proposal even wlLhouL accepLance ls punlshable.
lf Lhe oLher accepLs, lL ls already consplracy.
lf acLual acLs of Lreason are commlLLed afLer Lhe
consplracy or proposal, Lhe crlme commlLLed wlll be
Lreason, and Lhe consplracy or proposal ls consldered
as a means ln Lhe commlsslon Lhereof.
1wo-wlLness rule - noL appllcable slnce Lhls ls a crlme
separaLe and dlsLlncL from Lreason.

Ak1. 116. MISkISICN CI 1kLASCN

LLLMLN1S:
1. I|||p|no clLlzen
2. Cwes a||eg|ance Lo Lhe governmengovernmenL, L
nC1 a forelgner
3. Pas know|edge of any consp|racy (Lo commlL Lreason)
agalnsL Lhe governmenL
4. Pe concea|s or does not d|sc|ose Lhe same Lo Lhe
auLhorlLles of place ln whlch /c he resldes.

NC1L:
Cffender ls punlshed as an accessory Lo Lhe crlme of
Lreason. 8uL such offender ls acLually a prlnclpal Lo Lhls
crlme.
1hls wlll noL apply lf crlme of Lreason ls already
commlLLed and lL ls noL reporLed.

9
leople v. ltleto 80 lbll. 1J8


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 8 of 129
lL ls a crlme of omlsslon.
8C menLlons 4 lndlvlduals Lo whom Lhe consplracy
musL be reporLed Lo (l.e. governor, provlnclal flscal,
mayor or clLy flscal), buL whaL lf you reporL Lo some
oLher hlgh-ranklng governmenL offlclal? Lx: n
ulrecLor? !udge lmenLel says any governmenL. Cfflclal
of Lhe ulLC ls Ck.
ArL. 116 ls an excepLlon Lo Lhe rule LhaL mere sllence
does noL make a person crlmlnally llable.

Ak1. 117. LSICNAGL

LSICNAGL - Cffense of
1. gaLherlng, LransmlLLlng, or loslng |nformat|on
2. respecLlng Lhe nat|ona| defense
3. wlLh |ntent or reason Lo belleve LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon ls
Lo be used Lo
4. Lhe |n[ury of the kepub||c of Lhe hlllpplnes or the
advantage of a fore|gn nat|on.

AC1S UNISnLD {MOu5 Ol cOMMl11lN6 5PlON46):
1. 8y enLerlng, wlLhouL auLhorlLy, a warshlp, forL, or
mlllLary or naval esLabllshmenL or reservaLlon Lo obLaln
any lnformaLlon, plans, phoLographs or oLher daLa of
confldenLlal naLure relaLlve Lo Lhe defense of Lhe
hlllpplnes.

LLLMLN1S:
a. 1haL Lhe offender (I|||p|no Ck A||en kes|dent)
enters a warshlp, forL, naval or mlllLary
esLabllshmenL or reservaLlon,
b. 1haL he has no author|ty Lherefore, and
c. 1haL hls purpose |s to obta|n |nformat|on, plans,
phoLographs or oLher daLa of a confldenLlal naLure
relaLlve Lo Lhe defense of the h|||pp|nes.

2. 8y dlscloslng Lo Lhe represenLaLlve of a forelgn naLlon
Lhe conLenLs of Lhe arLlcles, daLa or lnformaLlon
referred Lo ln Lhe precedlng paragraph, whlch he had ln
hls possesslon by reason of Lhe publlc offlce he holds.

LLLMLN1S:
a. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer,
b. 1haL he has ln h|s possess|on Lhe arLlcles, daLa or
lnformaLlon referred Lo ln Lhe flrsL mode of
commlLLlng esplonage, by reason of Lhe publlc
offlce he holds, and
c. 1haL he d|sc|oses the|r contents Lo a
represenLaLlve of a fore|gn nat|on.

LkSCNS LIA8LL:
1. I|rst mode, AN person whether:
a. llllplno clLlzen C8 resldenL allen (forelgner)
b. rlvaLe lndlvldual or a publlc offlcer
2. Second mode:
a. A publlc offlcer

NC1L:
1. 8elng a publlc offlcer ls a requlremenL ln Lhe second
mode, whlle lL ls only aggravaLlng ln Lhe flrsL.
2. WlreLapplng ls oot esploooqe lf Lhe purpose ls oot
coooecteJ wltb Jefeose.
3. ln Lhe flrsL mode of commlLLlng Lhe felony, lL ls noL
necessary LhaL Lhe offender socceeJs ln obLalnlng Lhe
lnformaLlon.

1kLASCN LSICNAGL
In both - noL condlLloned on clLlzenshlp of offender
CommlLLed ln war t|me War and eace t|me
LlmlLed ln two ways:
levylng war, and adherlng
Lo Lhe enemy glvlng hlm
ald or comforL
CommlLLed ln many ways

C.A. NC. 616
AN AC1 1C UNISn LSICNAGL AND C1nLk CIILNSLS
AGAINS1 NA1ICNAL SLCUkI1

AC1S UNISnA8LL:
1. unlawfully obLalnlng or permlLLlng Lo be obLalned
lnformaLlon affecLlng naLlonal defense,
2. unlawful dlscloslng of lnformaLlon affecLlng naLlonal
defense,
3. ulsloyal acLs or words ln Llme of peoce (l.e. causlng ln
any manner lnsubordlnaLlon, dlsloyalLy, muLlny or
refusal of duLy of any member of Lhe mlllLary, naval, or
alr forces of Lhe hlllpplnes),
4. ulsloyal acLs ln Llme of wot,
S. coospltocy Lo commlL Lhe foregolng acLs,
6. notbotloq ot cooceolloq vlolaLors of Lhe law (l.e. Lhe
offender harbors a person whom he knows as someone
who commlLLed or ls abouL Lo commlL a vlolaLlon of Lhls
AcL), and
7. hoLographlng from alrcrafL of vlLal mlllLary
lnformaLlon.


SLC1ICN 2. - kCVCkING WAk AND DISLCAL1 IN
CASL CI WAk

Ak1. 118. INCI1ING 1C WAk Ck GIVING MC1IVLS ICk
kLkISALS

LLLMLN1S:
1. Cffender performs un|awfu| or unauLhorlzed acLs,


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 9 of 129
2. Such acLs provoke or g|ve occas|on for a war lnvolvlng
or llable Lo lnvolve Lhe hlllpplnes or expose llllplno
clLlzens Lo reprlsals on Lhelr persons or properLy,

NC1L:
Crlme ls commlLLed ln Llme of peace.
lnLenL of Lhe offender ls lmmaLerlal.
ln lnclLlng Lo war, Lhe offender ls any person. lf Lhe
offender ls a publlc offlcer, Lhe penalLy ls hlgher.
8eprlsals are noL llmlLed Lo mlllLary acLlon, lL could be
economlc reprlsals, or denlal of enLry lnLo Lhelr counLry.

Ak1. 119. VICLA1ICN CI NLU1kALI1

LLLMLN1S:
1. War ln whlch Lhe hlllpplnes ls not |nvo|ved,
2. lor Lhe purpose of enforc|ng neutra||ty, a regu|at|on ls
lssued by compeLenL auLhorlLy, and
3. 1haL Lhe offender v|o|ates such regulaLlon.

NLU1kAL - A naLlon or power whlch Lakes no parL ln a
conLesL of arms golng on beLween oLhers

NC1L:
1. 1hls crlme ls commlLLed ooly lo tlmes of wot.
2. lL ls Lhe neuLrallLy of Lhe hlllpplnes LhaL was vlolaLed.
3. ALLy. adllla: declaraLlon of a compeLenL auLhorlLy l.e. Lhe
resldenL ls sufflclenL

Ak1. 120. CCkkLSCNDLNCL WI1n nCS1ILL CCUN1k

LLLMLN1S:
1. A war ln whlch Lhe h|||pp|nes |s |nvo|ved,
2. 1haL Lhe offender makes correspondence w|th an
enemy country or LerrlLory occupled by enemy Lroops,
3. 1haL Lhe correspondence ls elLher -
a. proh|b|ted by Lhe governmenL, or
b. carrled on ln c|phers or convent|ona| s|gns, or
c. conLalnlng noLlce or lnformaLlon whlch mlghL be
usefu| to the enemy.

CCkkLSCNDLNCL - communlcaLlon by means of leLLers or
lL may refer Lo Lhe leLLers, whlch pass beLween Lhose who
have frlendly or buslness relaLlons

CInLk - secreL wrlLlng sysLem, a code
10


UALIIING CIkCUMS1ANCLS:
1he followlng musL concur LogeLher -
1. 1haL Lhe noLlce or lnformaLlon mlghL be usefu| to the
enemy and
2. 1haL Lhe offender |ntended to a|d Lhe enemy

10
webstets ulctloooty

NC1L:
lf Lhe offender lnLended Lo ald Lhe enemy by glvlng
such noLlce or lnformaLlon, Lhe crlme amounLs Lo
18LASCn, hence penalLy same as LhaL for Lreason.
lL ls lmmaLerlal lf correspondence conLalns lnnocenL
maLLers when lL ls ptoblblteJ by Lhe governmenL.
rohlblLlon by Lhe governmenL ls noL essenLlal when
Lhe correspondence ls carrled on ln clphers or
convenLlonal slgns or when lL conLalns noLlce or
lnformaLlon, whlch mlghL be useful Lo Lhe enemy.
ALLy. adllla: offender has Lo be a person holdlng an
lmporLanL poslLlon

Ak1. 121. ILIGn1 1C LNLM'S CCUN1k

LLLMLN1S:
1. A war ln whlch Lhe h|||pp|nes |s |nvo|ved,
2. Cffender owes a||eg|ance Lo Lhe governmenL,
3. Cffender attempts to f|ee or go Lo enemy counLry, and
4. Colng Lo enemy counLry ls proh|b|ted by compeLenL
auLhorlLy.

LkSCNS LIA8LL:
1. I|||p|no clLlzen
2. A||en res|d|ng ln Lhe hlllpplnes

NC1L:
Mere ottempt Lo flee or go Lo enemy counLry
consummaLes Lhe crlme.
1here musL be a prohlblLlon. lf Lhere ls none, even lf
one wenL Lo enemy counLry, Lhere ls no crlme.

SLC1ICN 3. - IkAC AND MU1IN CN nIGn SLAS Ck IN
nILIINL WA1LkS

Ak1. 122. IkAC IN GLNLkAL AND MU1IN CN 1nL nIGn
SLAS Ck IN nILIINL WA1LkS

IkAC - lL ls robbery or forclble depredaLlon on Lhe hlgh
seas, wlLhouL lawful auLhorlLy and done wlLh oolmo fotooJl
and ln Lhe splrlL and lnLenLlon of unlversal hosLlllLy.

LLLMLN1S:
1. A vesse| ls on Lhe h|gh seas or h|||pp|ne waters,
2. Cffenders - not members of lLs complemenL nor
passengers of Lhe vessel, and
3. 1haL Lhe offenders -
a. attack or se|ze Lhe vessel, or
b. se|ze who|e or parL of vessel's cargo, equ|pment
or persona| be|ong|ngs of lLs complemenL or
passengers.

NC1L: under u S32, plracy may be commlLLed even by a
passenger or member of Lhe complemenL of Lhe vessel.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 10 of 129

AC1S UNISnLD {MOu5 Ol cOMMl11lN6 Plk4cY):
1. 8y attack|ng or se|z|ng a vesse| on Lhe hlgh seas or ln
Lhe hlllpplne waLers (u S32),
2. 8y se|z|ng ln Lhe vessel Lhe whole or parL of lLs cargo,
lLs equ|pment or persona| be|ong|ngs of lLs
complemenL or passengers whlle on Lhe hlgh seas or ln
hlllpplne waLers.

MU1IN - Lhe unlawful reslsLance Lo a superlor, or Lhe
ralslng of commoLlons and dlsLurbances on board a shlp
agalnsL Lhe auLhorlLy of lLs commander.

IkAC MU1IN
ersons who aLLack a
vessel or selze lLs cargo
are sLrangers Lo sald
vessels
Cffenders are members of
Lhe crew or passengers.
lnLenL Lo galn ls an
elemenL
Cffenders may only lnLend
Lo lgnore Lhe shlp's offlcers
or Lhey may be prompLed
by a deslre Lo commlL
plunder
ALLack from ouLslde ALLack from Lhe lnslde

l8AC? 8C88L8? Cn PlCP SLAS
1he offender ls an ouLslder 1he offender ls a member
of Lhe complemenL or a
passenger of Lhe vessel
ln boLh, Lhere ls lnLenL Lo galn and Lhe manner of
commlLLlng Lhe crlme ls Lhe same.

NC1L:
VLSSLL - any vessel or waLercrafL used for LransporL of
passengers and cargo from one place Lo anoLher
Lhrough hlllpplne waLers.
nILIINL WA1LkS - all bodles of waLer and all waLers
belonglng Lo Lhe hlllpplnes by hlsLorlc or legal LlLle,
lncludlng LerrlLorlal sea, Lhe sea-bed, Lhe lnsular
shelves, and oLher submarlne areas over whlch Lhe
hlllpplnes has soverelgnLy and [urlsdlcLlon. (Sec. 2,
.u. no. S32)
nIGn SLAS - any waLers on Lhe sea coasL whlch are
wlLhouL Lhe boundarles of Lhe low waLer mark alLhough
such waLers may be ln Lhe [urlsdlcLlonal llmlLs of a
forelgn governmenL, parLs of Lhe sea LhaL are noL
lncluded ln Lhe excluslve economlc zone, ln Lhe
LerrlLorlal seas, or ln Lhe lnLernal waLers of a sLaLe, or ln
Lhe archlpelaglc waLers of an archlpelaglc sLaLe (unlLed
naLlons ConvenLlon on Lhe Law of Lhe Sea)
IkAC IN nIGn SLAS - [urlsdlcLlon of any courL where
offenders are found or arresLed
IkAC IN IN1LkNAL WA1LkS - [urlsdlcLlon of
hlllpplne courLs
lor purposes of Lhe 4nti-lencinq Low, plracy ls parL of
robbery and LhefL.
under numon 5ecurity 4ct of 2007 {k.4. 9l72) a
person who commlLs an acL punlshable as plracy and
muLlny under ArL. 122 Lhereby sowlng and creaLlng a
condlLlon of wldespread and exLraordlnary fear and
panlc among Lhe populace, ln order Lo coerce Lhe
governmenL Lo glve ln Lo an unlawful demand shall be
gullLy of Lhe crlme of Lerrorlsm, and shall suffer Lhe
penalLy of 40 years of lmprlsonmenL, wlLhouL Lhe
beneflL of parole.

.D. S32
AN1I-IkAC AND AN1I-kC88Lk LAW CI 1974

LLLMLN1S - IkAC:
1. vessel ls ln h|||pp|ne waters,
2. Cffender - any person (lncludlng passenger, or
member of Lhe complemenL)
3. 1haL by means of v|o|ence or |nt|m|dat|on of persons
or force upon Lhlngs
4. 1he offender -
a. Attacks or se|zes any vessel or
b. 1akes away a whole or parL Lhereof of lLs cargo,
equ|pment or the persona| be|ong|ngs of
complemenL or passengers, lrrespecLlve of value

AC1S UNISnLD:
1. ALLack or selzure of any vessel, or
2. 1aklng away of cargo, equlpmenL or personal
belonglngs of lLs complemenL or passengers

nIGnWA kC88Lk]8kIGANDAGL - ls Lhe
1. se|zure of any person for ransom / exLorLlon / oLher
unlawful purpose, or
2. tak|ng away of the property of anoLher by means of
vlolence agalnsL / lnLlmldaLlon of person / force upon
Lhlngs / oLher unlawful means

LLLMLN1S - AIDING Ck A8L11ING IkAC:
1. knowlngly alds or proLecLs plraLes (such as glvlng Lhem
lnformaLlon abouL Lhe pollce movemenL or oLher peace
offlcers), or
2. Acqulres or recelves properLy Laken by such plraLes, or
ln any manner derlves any beneflL,
3. ulrecLly or lndlrecLly abeLs Lhe commlsslon of plracy.

NC1L: 1he purpose of brlgandage ls |nd|scr|m|nate h|ghway
robbery. u S32 punlshes as hlghway robbery or brlgandage
only acLs of robbery perpeLuaLed by ouLlaws
lndlscrlmlnaLely agalnsL any person or persons on hlllpplne


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 11 of 129
hlghways, and noL acLs of robbery commlLLed agalnsL only a
predeLermlned or parLlcular vlcLlm.
11


IkAC (kC) MU1IN (D S32)
unlshes plracy commlLLed
elLher ln hlllpplne waLers
or on Lhe hlgh seas
unlshes plracy commlLLed
ln hlllpplne waLers only
Cffenders: SLrangers Lo Lhe
vessel (non-passengers or
non-members of Lhe crew)
Cffenders: Any person (may
be a passenger, crew or
sLranger)

.D. 623S
AN1I-nIIACkING LAW

AC1S UNISnLD:
1. 8y compelllng a change ln Lhe course or desLlnaLlon of
an alrcrafL of lblllpploe teqlstty, or selzlng or usurplng
Lhe conLrol Lhereof wblle lt ls lo fllqbt,
2. 8y compelllng an alrcrafL of fotelqo teqlstty Lo land ln
hlllpplne LerrlLory or selzlng or usurplng Lhe conLrol
Lhereof whlle lL ls ln Lhe sald LerrlLory, and
3. 8y shlpplng, loadlng, or carrylng ln any passenger
alrcrafL operaLlng as a publlc uLlllLy w/ln Lhe
hlllpplnes, any exploslve, flammable, corroslve or
polsonous subsLance or maLerlal.

IN ILIGn1 - lrom Lhe momenL all exLerlor doors are closed
followlng embarkaLlon unLll Lhe same doors are agaln
opened for dlsembarkaLlon

NC1L: (ALLy. alaclos)
1. Where Lhe alrcrafL ls of lblllpploe teqlstty, Lhe offense
musL be commlLLed whlle lo fllqbt. Pence, Lhe acL
musL Lake place afLer all exLerlor doors are closed
followlng embarkaLlon.
2. Where Lhe alrcrafL ls of fotelqo teqlstty, offense oeeJ
oot toke ploce wblle lo fllqbt.

UALIIING CIkCUMS1ANCLS (Ak 1 & 2):
1. llrlng upon Lhe plloL, member of Lhe crew or
passenger of Lhe alrcrafL,
2. Lxplodlng or aLLempLlng Lo explode any bomb or
exploslve Lo desLroy Lhe alrcrafL, or
3. 1he crlme ls accompanled by murder, homlclde,
serlous physlcal ln[urles, or rape.







11
kostlco Aboy, It. v. leople of tbe lblllpploes Ck 165896 5eptembet 19,
2008

Ak1. Ak1. 123. UALIIILD IkAC

UALIIING CIkCUMS1ANCLS:
1. Selzure of Lhe vessel by board|ng or f|r|ng upon Lhe
same,
2. Abandonment by plraLes of vlcLlms w|thout means of
sav|ng themse|ves, or
3. Crlme was accompan|ed by murder, homlclde, physlcal
ln[urles, or rape.

UALIIILD MU1IN - When Lhe second or Lhlrd
clrcumsLance accompanles Lhe crlme of muLlny menLloned
ln ArL. 122, muLlny ls Lhen quallfled. llrsL clrcumsLance may
noL quallfy Lhe crlme of muLlny.

ua||f|ed |racy ls a spec|a| comp|ex cr|me punlshable by
teclosloo petpetoo Lo deaLh, regardless of Lhe number of
vlcLlms.

NC1L:
1he word crlmes" ln Lhe openlng senLence of ArL. 123
refers Lo boLh plracy and muLlny.
Powever, Lhe second quallfylng clrcumsLance
speclflcally menLlons plraLes" Lhereby excludlng
muLlneers.
1he murder/rape/homlclde/physlcal ln[urles musL have
been commlLLed on Lhe passengers or on Lhe
complemenL of Lhe vessel. arrlclde/lnfanLlclde should
be lncluded (!udge lmenLel).
lracy may be punlshed ln Lhe compeLenL Lrlbunal of
any counLry where Lhe offender may be found or lnLo
whlch he may be carrled.
Any person who alds or proLecLs plraLes or abeLs Lhe
commlsslon of plracy shall be consldered as an
accompllce.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 12 of 129
k. A. NC. 9372
nUMAN SLCUkI1 AC1 CI 2007

LLLMLN1S - 1LkkCkISM (SLC. 3):
1. Any person who comm|ts an acL punlshable under any
of Lhe followlng:
a. lracy ln general and MunlLy ln Lhe Plgh Seas or
ln Lhe hlllpplne WaLers (ArL. 122)
b. 8ebelllon or lnsurrecLlon (ArL. 134)
c. Coup d'eLaL, lncludlng acLs commlLLed by
prlvaLe persons (ArL. 134-A)
d. Murder (ArL. 248)
e. kldnapplng and Serlous lllegal ueLenLlon (ArL.
267)
f. Crlmes lnvolvlng uesLrucLlon or under 1he Law
on Arson (u 1613)
g. 1oxlc SubsLances and Pazardous and nuclear
WasLe ConLrol AcL of 1990 (8A 6969)
h. ALomlc Lnergy 8egulaLory and LlablllLy AcL of
1968 (8A S207)
l. AnLl-Pl[acklng Law (u 623S)
[. AnLl-plracy and AnLl-hlghway 8obbery Law of
1974 (u S32)
k. uecree Codlfylng Lhe Laws on lllegal and
unlawful ossesslon, ManufacLure, ueallng ln,
AcqulslLlon or ulsposlLlon of llrearms,
AmmunlLlons or Lxploslves (u 1866)

2. 1hereby sowlng and creaLlng w|despread and
extraord|nary fear and pan|c among Lhe populace

3. 1o coerce the government Lo glve ln Lo an un|awfu|
demand

LLLMLN1S - CCNSIkAC 1C CCMMI1 1LkkCkISM (SLC.4):
1. 1wo or more persons
2. Come Lo an agreement Lo commlL Lhe crlme of
Lerrorlsm
3. 1hey dec|de Lo commlL Lhe same

NC1L: Anyone found gullLy of Lerrorlsm or consplrlng Lo
commlL Lerrorlsm shall suffer Lhe penalLy of 40 years
lmprlsonmenL, wlLhouL Lhe beneflL of parole as provlded for
under AcL no. 4103 (Lhe lndeLermlnaLe SenLence Law).

WnC AkL LIA8LL - ASIDL IkCM 1nL kINCIAL:
1. Accompllce (Sec. S)
a. Not be|ng a pr|nc|pa| (under ArL 17 of Lhe 8C or a
consplraLor as deflned ln Sec 4 hereof)
b. Cooperates |n the execut|on of elLher Lhe crlme of
Lerrorlsm or consplracy Lo commlL Lerrorlsm by
prevlous or slmulLaneous acLs



2. Accessory (Sec. 6)
a. nav|ng know|edge of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme
of Lerrorlsm or consplracy Lo commlL Lerrorlsm,
and w|thout part|c|pat|ng Lhereln, elLher as
prlnclpal or accompllce under ArL. 17 and 18 of
8C
b. 1akes parL subsequent to |ts comm|ss|on ln any of
Lhe followlng manner:
l. by ptofltloq blmself or osslstloq tbe offeoJet
to ptoflt by Lhe effecLs of Lhe crlme
ll. by cooceolloq ot Jesttoyloq tbe boJy of tbe
ctlme, or Lhe effecLs, or lnsLrumenLs Lhereof,
ln order Lo prevenL lLs dlscovery
lll. by botbotloq, cooceolloq, ot osslstloq lo tbe
escope of Lhe prlnclpal or consplraLor of Lhe
crlme

C1nLk UNISnLD AC1S:
1. unauLhorlzed or Mallclous LxamlnaLlon of a 8ank or a
llnanclal lnsLlLuLlon (Sec. 36)
2. 8ank Cfflclals and Lmployees uefylng a CourL
AuLhorlzaLlon (Sec. 37)
3. lalse or unLruLhful SLaLemenL or MlsrepresenLaLlon of
MaLerlal lacL ln !olnL AffldavlLs (Sec. 38)
4. un[usLlfled 8efusal Lo 8esLore or uelay ln 8esLorlng
Selzed, SequesLered and lrozen 8ank ueposlLs,
lacemenLs, 1rusL AccounLs, AsseLs and 8ecords (Sec.
42)
S. Loss, Mlsuse, ulverslon or ulsslpaLlon of Selzed,
SequesLered and lrozen 8ank ueposlLs, lacemenLs,
1rusL AccounLs, AsseLs and 8ecords. (Sec. 43)
6. lnfldellLy ln Lhe CusLody of ueLalned ersons (Sec. 44)
7. unauLhorlzed 8evelaLlon of Classlfled MaLerlals (Sec.
46)
8. lurnlshlng lalse Lvldence, lorged uocumenL, or
Spurlous Lvldence (Sec. 47)

NC1L: When a person has been prosecuLed under a
provlslon of Lhls AcL, and afLer Lhe accused has pleaded Lo
Lhe charge, Lhe acqulLLal of Lhe accused or Lhe dlsmlssal of
Lhe case shall be a bar Lo anoLher prosecuLlon under Lhe
8C or any speclal penal laws (Sec. 49).

LND CI 1CIC
1. CkIMLS AGAINS1 NA1ICNAL SLCUkI1








CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 13 of 129
=======================================
2. CkIMLS AGAINS1 1nL
IUNDAMLN1AL LAWS CI 1nL S1A1L
=======================================
1CICS UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US

Chapter 1: Arb|trary Detent|on or Lxpu|s|on,
V|o|at|on of Dwe|||ng, roh|b|t|on, Interrupt|on and
D|sso|ut|on of eacefu| Meet|ngs and Cr|mes
Aga|nst ke||g|ous Worsh|p
Sec. 1. - Arb|trary Detent|on and Lxpu|s|on
kA 9372
kA 974S
Sec. 2. - V|o|at|on of dom|c||e
Sec. 3. - roh|b|t|on, |nterrupt|on, and d|sso|ut|on
of peacefu| meet|ngs
Sec 4. - Cr|mes aga|nst re||g|ous worsh|p
=================================================
Chapter 1: Arb|trary Detent|on or Lxpu|s|on,
V|o|at|on of Dwe|||ng, roh|b|t|on, Interrupt|on and
D|sso|ut|on of eacefu| Meet|ngs and Cr|mes
Aga|nst ke||g|ous Worsh|p
=================================================

SLC1ICN 1. - Ak8I1kAk DL1LN1ICN AND LxULSICN

Ak1. 124. Ak8I1kAk DL1LN1ICN
DL1LN1ICN - acLual conflnemenL of a person ln an
enclosure or ln any manner deLalnlng and deprlvlng hlm of
hls llberLy.

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer or employee
(whose offlclal duLles lnclude Lhe auLhorlLy Lo make an
arresL and deLaln persons),
2. 1haL he deta|ns a person, and
3. ueLenLlon ls w|thout |ega| grounds.

LLGAL GkCUNDS ICk DL1LN1ICN:
1. Commlsslon of a crlme
2. vlolenL lnsanlLy or oLher allmenL requlrlng compulsory
conflnemenL of Lhe paLlenL ln a hosplLal




NC1L:
lf Lhe offender ls a prlvaLe lndlvldual, Lhe acL of
deLalnlng anoLher ls I||ega| Detent|on. (ArL. 267 or ArL.
268)
Powever, prlvaLe lndlvlduals who coosplte wlLh publlc
offlcers can be lloble os ptloclpols ln Lhe crlme of
ArblLrary ueLenLlon.
ubllc offlcers who are noL vesLed wlLh auLhorlLy Lo
deLaln or order Lhe deLenLlon of persons accused of a
crlme or exceed Lhelr auLhorlLy may be llable for lllegal
deLenLlon because Lhey are acLlng ln Lhelr prlvaLe
capaclLy.
ArblLrary deLenLlon can be commlLLed Lhrough
lmprudence.
12

1he law does noL flx any mlnlmum perlod of deLenLlon.
Cffenders have been convlcLed of arblLrary deLenLlon
even when Lhe offended parLy was JetoloeJ fot oo
boot
1J
or even less tboo bolf oo boot.
14

ArresL wlLhouL warranL ls Lhe usual cause of arblLrary
deLenLlon LxCL1 warranLless arresL (under Sec S, 8ule
113, 8evlsed 8ules of Crlmlnal rocedure)

NC1L: sychologlcal 8esLralnL ls anoLher form of deLenLlon
1S


Ak1. 12S. DLLA IN 1nL DLLIVLk CI DL1AINLD LkSCNS
1C 1nL kCLk IUDICIAL AU1nCkI1ILS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer or employee,
2. 1haL he has deta|ned a person for some |ega| ground,
and
3. 1haL he fa||s to de||ver such person Lo Lhe proper
[udlclal auLhorlLy wlLhln:
a. 12 hours, deLalned for crlmes punlshable by llghL
penalLles, or Lhelr equlvalenL,
b. 18 hours, for crlmes punlshable by correcLlonal
penalLles, or Lhelr equlvalenL, or
c. 36 hours, for crlmes/offenses punlshable by caplLal
punlshmenL or affllcLlve penalLles, or Lhelr equlvalenL.

C|rcumstances consldered ln determ|n|ng the ||ab|||ty of Lhe
offlcer-offender:
1. Means of communlcaLlon
2. Pour of arresL and
3. CLher clrcumsLances such as Lhe Llme of surrender and
Lhe maLerlal posslblllLy for Lhe flscal Lo make Lhe

12
leople v. Mlso, c.A., J6 O.C. J196. jnete, o cblef of pollce (coovlcteJ) teottesteJ
o womoo wbo boJ beeo teleoseJ by vetbol otJet of tbe jostlce of peoce. 1be
offlcet sboolJ bove vetlfleJ tbe otJet of teleose befote ptoceeJloq to moke tbe te-
ottest.]
1J
u5 v. Aqtovoote, 10 lbll. 16
11
u5 v. 8toqoozo 10 lbll. 79
15
Astotqo v. leople, Ck No 1511J9


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 14 of 129
lnvesLlgaLlon and flle ln Llme Lhe necessary
lnformaLlon.
16


kIGn1S CI DL1AINLL:
1. Shall be |nformed of Lhe cause of hls deLenLlon
2. Allowed, upon requesL, to commun|cate and confer aL
anyLlme wlLh hls aLLorney or counsel

NC1L:
lf offender ls a prlvaLe person, Lhe crlme ls I||ega|
Detent|on.
ArL. 12S conLemplaLes arresL by vlrLue of some leqol
qtoooJ or vollJ wottootless ottest.
lf arresL ls made by vlrLue of an arresL warranL, person
may be deLalned loJefloltely unLll:
a. Pls case ls declded, or
b. Pe posLs ball
1he felony means delay ln flllng Lhe necessary
lnformaLlon or charglng of person deLalned ln courL,
whlch may be walved lf a prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon ls
asked for. 1hls does noL conLemplaLe acLual physlcal
dellvery.
1he flllng of Lhe lnformaLlon ln courL beyond Lhe
speclfled perlods does noL cure lllegallLy of deLenLlon.
Pence, Lhe deLalnlng offlcer ls sLlll llable under ArL. 12S.
nelLher does lL affecL Lhe legallLy of Lhe conflnemenL
under process lssued by Lhe courL.
1o prevenL commlLLlng Lhls felony, offlcers usually ask
accused Lo execuLe a walver of ArL. 12S, whlch should
be under oaLh and wlLh asslsLance of counsel. Such
walver ls noL vlolaLlve of Lhe consLlLuLlonal rlghL of Lhe
accused.

LLNG1n CI WAIVLk
a. LlghL offense - S days
b. Serlous and less serlous offenses - 7 Lo 10 days (!udge
lmenLel)

Ak8I1kAk
DL1LN1ICN
(Ak1. 124)
DLLA IN DLLIVLk CI
DL1AINLD (Ak1. 12S)
ueLenLlon ls lllegal
from Lhe beglnnlng.
ueLenLlon ls legal ln Lhe beglnnlng,
lllegallLy sLarLs from Lhe explraLlon
of Lhe speclfled perlods wlLhouL
Lhe persons deLalned havlng been
dellvered Lo Lhe proper [udlclal
auLhorlLy.

Ak1. 126. DLLAING kLLLASL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer or employee,

16
5oyo v. cblef of lollce of Moollo 80 lbll. 861

2. 1haL Lhere ls a [ud|c|a| or execut|ve order for the
re|ease of a prlsoner or deLenLlon prlsoner, or LhaL
Lhere ls a proceedlng upon a peLlLlon for Lhe llberaLlon
of such person,
3. 1haL Lhe offender w|thout good reason delays:
a. Lhe serv|ce of Lhe noLlce of such order Lo Lhe
prlsoner, or
b. Lhe performance of such [udlclal or execuLlve
order for Lhe release of Lhe prlsoner, or
c. Lhe proceed|ngs upon a peLlLlon for Lhe release of
such person.

NC1L: Wardens and [allers are Lhe persons mosL llkely Lo
vlolaLe Lhls provlslon.

Ak1. 127. LxULSICN

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1he offender ls a pub||c off|cer or employee,
2. 1haL he expe|s any person from Lhe hlllpplnes, or
compe|s a person to cbooqe bls teslJeoce, and
3. 1he offender ls not author|zed by law.

AC1S UNISnLD:
1. Lxpelllng a person from Lhe hlllpplnes, or
2. Compelllng a person Lo change hls resldence

NC1L:
Crlme of expulslon obsotbs qtove coetcloo. lf done by a
prlvaLe person, acL wlll amounL Lo Grave Coerc|on.
Cnly Lhe courL by a flnal [udgmenL can order a person
Lo change hls resldence buL Lhe Chlef LxecuLlve has Lhe
power Lo deporL undeslrable allens.
lf a llllplno who, afLer volunLarlly leavlng Lhe counLry, ls
lllegally refused re-enLry, he ls consldered a vlcLlm of
belng forced Lo change hls address.

k.A. 9372
nUMAN SLCUkI1 AC1 2007

LkICD CI DL1LN1ICN - WI1nCU1 IUDICIAL WAkkAN1 CI
AkkLS1 (Sec. 18):
W|th|n a per|od of 3 days counLed from Lhe momenL a
charged or suspecLed person (of Lhe crlme of Lerrorlsm
or consplracy Lo commlL lL) has been apprehended or
arresLed, deLalned, and Laken lnLo cusLody
8y any pollce or law enforcemenL personnel duly
auLhorlzed ln wrlLlng by Lhe AnLl-1errorlsm Councll,
who dld noL lncur any crlmlnal llablllLy for delay ln Lhe
dellvery of deLalned persons Lo proper [udlclal
auLhorlLles, sald personnel shall Jellvet sald charged or
suspecLed person Lo Lhe proper [udlclal auLhorlLles.
rovlded, Lhe arresL of Lhose suspecLed of Lhe crlme of
Lerrorlsm or consplracy Lo commlL Lerrorlsm musL


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 1S of 129
resulL from Lhe survelllance (Sec. 7) and examlnaLlon of
bank deposlLs (Sec. 27) of Lhls AcL

LkICD CI DL1LN1ICN - IN 1nL LVLN1 CI AN AC1UAL Ck
IMMINLN1 1LkkCkIS1 A11ACk (Sec. 19):
SuspecLs may not be deta|ned for more than 3 days
w|thout the wr|tten approva| of a munlclpal, clLy,
provlnclal or reglonal offlclal of a Puman 8lghLs
Commlsslon or [udge of Lhe munlclpal, reglonal Lrlal
courL, Lhe Sandlganbayan or a [usLlce of Lhe CourL of
Appeals nearesL Lhe place of Lhe arresL.
lf Lhe arresL ls made durlng SaLurdays, Sundays,
holldays or afLer offlce hours, Lhe arresLlng pollce or
law enforcemenL personnel shall brlng Lhe person Lhus
arresLed Lo Lhe resldence of any of Lhe offlclals
menLloned above LhaL ls nearesL Lhe place of arresL.
1he approval ln wrlLlng of any of Lhe sald offlclals shall
be secured by Lhe pollce or law enforcemenL personnel
concerned wlLhln S days afLer Lhe daLe of Lhe deLenLlon
of Lhe persons concerned.
rovlded, LhaL wlLhln 3 days afLer Lhe deLenLlon Lhe
suspecLs, whose connecLlon wlLh Lhe Lerror aLLack or
LhreaL ls noL esLabllshed, shall be released lmmedlaLely.


k.A. 974S
AN1I-1Ck1UkL AC1

LLLMLN1S - 1Ck1UkL
1. Any acL by whlch severe phys|ca| or menta| pa|n or
sufferlng
2. ls lnfllcLed by or aL Lhe lnsLlgaLlon of or wlLh Lhe
consenL or acqulescence of a person |n author|ty or hls
agenL
3. Intent|ona||y |nf||cted on a person
4. lor Lhe purpose of:
a. CbLalnlng lofotmotloo ot o coofessloo
b. loolsbmeot for an acL he or a 3
rd
person has
commlLLed, or ls suspecLed of havlng commlLLed
c. lotlmlJotloo or coerclon
d. Any reason based on Jlsctlmlootloo of ooy kloJ

AC1S CI 1Ck1UkL (Sec. 4)
1. nSICAL 1Ck1UkL - form of LreaLmenL or punlshmenL
lnfllcLed by a person ln auLhorlLy upon anoLher ln hls
cusLody LhaL causes severe paln, exhausLlon, dlsablllLy
or dysfuncLlon ln one or more parLs of Lhe body.

Lxamp|es:
a. SysLemaLlc beaLlng, headbanglng, punchlng,
klcklng, sLrlklng wlLh Lruncheon or rlfle buLL or
oLher slmllar ob[ecLs, and [umplng on Lhe sLomach,
b. lood deprlvaLlon or forclble feedlng wlLh spolled
food, anlmal or human excreLa and oLher sLuff or
subsLances noL normally eaLen,
c. LlecLrlc shock,
d. ClgareLLe burnlng, burnlng by elecLrlcally heaLed
rods, hoL oll, acld, by Lhe rubblng of pepper or
oLher chemlcal subsLances on mucous membranes,
or aclds or splces dlrecLly on Lhe wound(s),
e. 1he submerslon of Lhe head ln waLer or waLer
polluLed wlLh excremenL, urlne, vomlL and/or
blood unLll Lhe brlnk of suffocaLlon,
f. 8elng Lled or forced Lo assume flxed and sLressful
bodlly poslLlon,
g. 8ape and sexual abuse, lncludlng Lhe lnserLlon of
forelgn ob[ecLs lnLo Lhe sex organ or recLum, or
elecLrlcal LorLure of Lhe genlLals,
h. MuLllaLlon or ampuLaLlon of Lhe essenLlal parLs of
Lhe body such as Lhe genlLalla, ear, Longue, eLc.,
l. uenLal LorLure or Lhe forced exLracLlon of Lhe
LeeLh,
[. ulllng ouL of flngernalls,
k. Parmful exposure Lo Lhe elemenLs such as sunllghL
and exLreme cold,
l. 1he use of plasLlc bag and oLher maLerlals placed
over Lhe head Lo Lhe polnL of asphyxlaLlon,
m. 1he use of psychoacLlve drugs Lo change Lhe
percepLlon, memory, alerLness or wlll of a person,
such as:
l. 1he admlnlsLraLlon or drugs Lo lnduce
confesslon and/or reduce menLal
compeLency, or
ll. 1he use of drugs Lo lnduce exLreme paln or
cerLaln sympLoms of a dlsease, and
n. CLher analogous acLs of physlcal LorLure, and

2. MLN1AL]SCnCLCGICAL 1Ck1UkL - AcLs commlLLed
by a person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL whlch are
calculaLed Lo affecL or confuse Lhe mlnd and/or
undermlne a person's dlgnlLy and morale

Lxamp|es:
a. 8llndfoldlng,
b. 1hreaLenlng a person(s) or hls/her relaLlve(s) wlLh
bodlly harm, execuLlon or oLher wrongful acLs,
c. ConflnemenL ln sollLary cells or secreL deLenLlon
places,
d. rolonged lnLerrogaLlon,
e. reparlng a prlsoner for a "show Lrlal", publlc
dlsplay or publlc humlllaLlon of a deLalnee or
prlsoner,
f. Causlng unscheduled Lransfer of a person deprlved
of llberLy from one place Lo anoLher, creaLlng Lhe
bellef LhaL he/she shall be summarlly execuLed,
g. MalLreaLlng a member/s of a person's famlly,
h. Causlng Lhe LorLure sesslons Lo be wlLnessed by
Lhe person's famlly, relaLlves or any Lhlrd parLy,
l. uenlal of sleep/resL,


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 16 of 129
[. Shame lnfllcLlon such as sLrlpplng Lhe person
naked, paradlng hlm/her ln publlc places, shavlng
Lhe vlcLlm's head or puLLlng marks on hls/her body
agalnsL hls/her wlll,
k. uellberaLely prohlblLlng Lhe vlcLlm Lo communlcaLe
wlLh any member of hls/her famlly, and
l. CLher analogous acLs of menLal/psychologlcal
LorLure.

LLLMLN1S - C1nLk CkULL, INnUMAN AND DLGkADING
1kLA1MLN1 Ck UNISnMLN1 (CID1) (Sec. S):
1. uellberaLe and aggravaLed LreaLmenL or punlshmenL
(noL enumeraLed under Sec. 4)
2. lnfllcLed by person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL
3. AgalnsL a person ln cusLody
4. ALLalnlng Lhe level of severlLy sufflclenL Lo cause
sufferlng, gross humlllaLlon or debasemenL Lo Lhe laLLer

NC1L: 1he assessmenL of Lhe level of severlLy shall depend
on all Lhe clrcumsLances of Lhe case, lncludlng:
1. uuraLlon of Lhe LreaLmenL or punlshmenL
2. LffecLs, physlcal and menLal
3. ln some cases: Lhe sex, rellglon, age and sLaLe of healLh
of Lhe vlcLlm.

kCnI8I1LD DL1LN1ICN - SecreL deLenLlon places, sollLary
conflnemenL, lncommunlcado or oLher slmllar forms of
deLenLlon, where LorLure may be carrled ouL wlLh lmpunlLy
are hereby prohlblLed. (Sec. 7)

NC1L:
1he n, Al and oLher law enforcemenL agencles
concerned shall make an updaLed llsL of all deLenLlon
cenLers and faclllLles under Lhelr respecLlve [urlsdlcLlons
wlLh Lhe correspondlng daLa on prlsoners or deLalnees
lncarceraLed or deLalned Lhereln.
1hls llsL shall be avallable Lo Lhe publlc aL all Llmes and
updaLed by Lhe same agencles every S days of Lhe
monLh aL Lhe mlnlmum.

WnC AkL LIA8LL - 1Ck1UkL AND]Ck CID1:
1. r|nc|pa|
a. Any person -
l. Who acLually parLlclpaLed or lnduced anoLher
ln Lhe commlsslon
ll. Who cooperaLed ln Lhe execuLlon of Lhe acL
by prevlous or slmulLaneous acLs

b. Any superlor mlllLary, pollce or law enforcemenL
offlcer or senlor governmenL offlclal -
l. Who lssued an order Lo any lower ranklng
personnel Lo commlL LorLure for whaLever
purpose

c. 1he lmmedlaLe commandlng offlcer of Lhe unlL
concerned of Lhe Al or Lhe lmmedlaLe senlor
publlc offlclal of Lhe n and oLher law
enforcemenL agencles -
l. lor any acL or omlsslon, or negllgence
commlLLed by hlm LhaL shall have led,
asslsLed, abeLLed or allowed, wheLher dlrecLly
or lndlrecLly, Lhe commlsslon Lhereof by hls
subordlnaLes
d. Pe who has know|edge of Lhe commlsslon of
LorLure or Clu1 commlLLed by hls subordlnaLes or
oLhers wlLhln hls area of responslblllLy, and
author|ty to prevent or lnvesLlgaLe Lhe allegaLlons
yeL dld noL Lake or fa||ed to do prevent|ve or
correct|ve act|ons wheLher dellberaLely or
negllgenLly

2. Accomp||ce

3. Accessory
a. Any publlc offlcer or employee -
l. lf he has knowledge LhaL LorLure or oLher
Clu1 ls belng commlLLed and wlLhouL havlng
parLlclpaLed Lhereln elLher as prlnclpal or
accompllce, Lakes parL subsequenL Lo lLs
commlsslon ln any of Lhe followlng manner:
(a) 8y Lhemselves proflLlng from or asslsLlng
Lhe offender Lo proflL from Lhe effecLs of
Lhe acL of LorLure or oLher cruel,
lnhuman and degradlng LreaLmenL or
punlshmenL,
(b) 8y conceallng Lhe acL of LorLure or oLher
cruel, lnhuman and degradlng LreaLmenL
or punlshmenL and/or desLroylng Lhe
effecLs or lnsLrumenLs Lhereof ln order
Lo prevenL lLs dlscovery, or
(c) 8y harborlng, conceallng or asslsLlng m
Lhe escape of Lhe prlnclpal/s ln Lhe acL
of LorLure or oLher cruel, lnhuman and
degradlng LreaLmenL or punlshmenL:
rovlded, 1haL Lhe accessory acLs are
done wlLh Lhe abuse of Lhe offlclal's
publlc funcLlons

SLC1ICN 2. - VICLA1ICN CI DCMICILL

Ak1. 128. VICLA1ICN CI DCMICILL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer or employee,
2. 1haL he ls not author|zed by [udlclal order Lo enter the
dwe|||ng and]or to make a search there|n for papers or
oLher effecLs, and
3. 1haL he comm|ts any of Lhe followlng acLs:


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 17 of 129
a. enter|ng any dwelllng agalnsL Lhe wlll of Lhe owner
Lhereof,
b. search|ng papers or oLher effecLs found Lhereln
wlLhouL Lhe prevlous consenL of such owner,
c. refus|ng Lo leave Lhe premlses, afLer havlng
surrepLlLlously enLered sald dwelllng and afLer
havlng been requlred Lo leave Lhe same.

SUkkL1I1ICUSL - done Lhrough fraud or secreL means Lo
accompllsh an ob[ecL (sLealLh)

SLCIAL AGGkAVA1ING (UALIIING) CIkCUMS1ANCLS:
1. nlghLLlme
2. apers or effecLs noL consLlLuLlng evldence of a crlme
are noL reLurned lmmedlaLely

NC1L:
1he [udlclal order ls Lhe search warranL.
lf Lhe offender who enLers Lhe dwelllng agalnsL Lhe wlll
of Lhe owner ls a prlvaLe lndlvldual, Lhe crlme
commlLLed ls 1respass to Dwe|||ng.
When a publlc offlcer searched a person ouLslde hls
dwelllng" wlLhouL a search warranL and such person ls
noL legally arresLed for an offense, Lhe crlme
commlLLed by Lhe publlc offlcer ls elLher:
1. Grave Coerc|on lf vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon ls used
(ArL 286), or
2. Un[ust Vexat|on lf Lhere ls no vlolence or
lnLlmldaLlon (ArL 287).
ln Lhe 1
sL
mode, Lhe enLrance musL be agalnsL Lhe wlll of
Lhe owner of Lhe dwelllng. Lack of consenL wlll noL
sufflce.
under Lhe 3
rd
mode, even lf Lhe enLrance ls only
wlLhouL Lhe consenL of lLs owner, Lhe crlme ls
commlLLed when Lhere ls a refusal Lo leave Lhe
premlses when requlred Lo do so.

Ak1. 129. SLAkCn WAkkAN1S MALICICUSL C81AINLD
AND A8USL IN 1nL SLkVICL CI 1nCSL LLGALL C81AINLD

SLAkCn WAkkAN1 - an order ln wrlLlng lssued ln Lhe name
of Lhe eople of Lhe hlllpplnes, slgned by a [udge and
dlrecLed Lo a peace offlcer, commandlng hlm Lo search for
personal properLy descrlbed Lhereln and brlng lL before Lhe
courL.

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer or employee,
2. 1haL he has /eqo//y procured a search warranL, and
3. 1haL he exceeds h|s author|ty or uses unnecessary
severlLy ln execuLlng Lhe same.

AC1S UNISnA8LL:
1. rocurlng a search warranL wlLhouL [usL cause

LLLMLN1S:
a. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer or employee,
b. 1haL he procures a search warrant, and
c. 1haL Lhere ls no [ust cause.

2. Lxceedlng hls auLhorlLy by uslng unnecessary severlLy ln
execuLlng a search warranL legally procured

LLLMLN1S:
a. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer or employee,
b. 1haL he procures a legal search warrant, and
c. 1haL he exceeds h|s author|ty or uses unnecessary
severlLy ln execuLlng Lhe same.

Ak1. 130. SLAkCnING DCMICILL WI1nCU1 WI1NLSSLS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer or employee,
2. 1haL he ls armed w|th a search warrant leqolly
procured,
3. 1haL he searches the dom|c||e, papers or oLher
belonglngs of any person, and
4. 1haL Lhe owner or any member of hls famlly, or Lwo
wlLnesses resldlng ln Lhe same locallLy ls not present.

CkDLk CI 1nCSL WnC MUS1 WI1NLSS 1nL SLAkCn:
1. Pomeowner
2. Members of Lhe famlly of sufflclenL age and dlscreLlon
3. 8esponslble members of Lhe communlLy

SLC1ICN 3. - kCnI8I1ICN, IN1LkkU1ICN AND
DISSCLU1ICN CI LACLIUL MLL1INGS

Ak1. 131. kCnI8I1ICN, IN1LkkU1ICN AND DISSCLU1ICN
CI LACLIUL MLL1INGS

LLLMLN1S:
1. Cffender ls a pub||c off|cer or employee,
2. Pe performs any of Lhe followlng acLs:
a. proh|b|t|ng or lnLerrupLlng, wlLhouL legal ground
Lhe holdlng of a peocefu/ meetinq, or dlssolvlng
Lhe same (e.g. denlal of permlL ln arblLrary
manner).
b. h|nder|ng any person from joininq any lawful
assoclaLlon or from ottendinq any of lLs meeLlngs
c. proh|b|t|ng or hlnderlng any person from
oddressinq, elLher alone or LogeLher wlLh oLhers,
any pet|t|on to Lhe auLhorlLles for Lhe correct|on
of abuses or redress of grlevances.

1LS1S for determ|n|ng |f there |s a v|o|at|on of Art 131:
1. uangerous Lendency rule
2. Clear and presenL danger rule



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 18 of 129
NC1L:
lf Lhe offender ls a prlvaLe lndlvldual, Lhe crlme ls
D|sturbance of ub||c Crder (ArL 1S3).
Cffender musL be a sLranger, noL a parLlclpanL, ln Lhe
peaceful meeLlng, oLherwlse, Lhe offense ls Un[ust
Vexat|on.
MeeLlng musL be peaceful and Lhere musL be no legal
ground for prohlblLlng, dlssolvlng or lnLerrupLlng LhaL
meeLlng.
lnLerrupLlng and dlssolvlng a meeLlng of Lhe munlclpal
councll by a publlc offlcer ls a crlme agalnsL Lhe
leglslaLlve body and ls noL punlshable under Lhls arLlcle.
1hose holdlng peaceful meeLlngs musL comply wlLh
local ordlnances.

SLC1ICN 4. - CkIMLS AGAINS1 kLLIGICUS WCkSnI

Ak1. 132. IN1LkkU1ICN CI kLLIGICUS WCkSnI

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offlcer ls a pub||c off|cer or employee,
2. 1haL re||g|ous ceremon|es or manlfesLaLlons of any
rellglon are abouL Lo Lake place or are golng on, and
3. 1haL Lhe offender prevents or d|sturbs Lhe same.

ua||fy|ng C|rcumstance: WlLh vlolence or LhreaLs

NC1L:
8eadlng of 8lble and Lhen aLLacklng cerLaln churches ln
a publlc plaza ls noL a ceremony or manlfesLaLlon of
rellglon, buL only a meeLlng of a rellglous secL, hence,
only ArL 131 was vlolaLed.
8ellglous worshlp lncludes people ln Lhe acL of
performlng rellglous rlLes for a rellglous ceremony or a
manlfesLaLlon of rellglon. Lxamples: Mass, bapLlsm,
marrlage.
x, a prlvaLe person, punched a prlesL whlle Lhe prlesL
was glvlng homlly and mallgnlng a relaLlve of x. ls x
llable? x may be llable under ArL. 133 (Cffendlng
rellglous feellngs) because x ls a prlvaLe person.

Ak1. 133. CIILNDING 1nL kLLIGICUS ILLLINGS

LLLMLN1S:
1. AcLs complalned of were performed -
a. ln a place devoted to re||g|ous worsh|p, or
b. durlng Lhe ce|ebrat|on of any rellglous ceremony
2. AcLs musL be notor|ous|y offens|ve Lo Lhe feellngs of
Lhe falLhful

NC1L:
1he offender can be any person.
Cffense Lo feellngs ls [udged from Lhe complalnanL's
polnL of vlew.
1he phrase 'ln a place devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp'
does noL necessarlly lmply Lhe requlremenL of a
rellglous ceremony golng on. 1he phrase 'durlng Lhe
celebraLlon' ls separaLed by Lhe word 'or' from Lhe
phase 'place devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp' whlch
lndlcaLes LhaL Lhe 'rellglous ceremony' need noL be
celebraLed ln a place of worshlp.
Lxamples of rellglous ceremony (acLs performed
ouLslde Lhe church): processlons and speclal prayers for
burylng dead persons buL nC1 prayer rallles.
AcLs noLorlously offenslve Lo Lhe feellngs of Lhe falLhful
musL be dlrecLed agalnsL rellglous pracLlce or dogma or
rlLual for Lhe purpose of rldlcule, as mocklng or scofflng
or aLLempLlng Lo damage an ob[ecL of rellglous
veneraLlon.
1here musL be dellberaLe lnLenL Lo hurL Lhe feellngs of
Lhe falLhful, mere arrogance or rudeness ls noL enough

CkIML LkSCNS
LIA8LL
II LLLMLN1 IS
MISSING
rohlblLlon,
lnLerrupLlon and
ulssoluLlon of
eaceful MeeLlng
(ArL. 131)
ubllc offlcer or
employee who
ls a sLranger ln
Lhe meeLlng
lf by lnslder
Lhen un[usL
vexaLlon

lnLerrupLlon of
8ellglous Worshlp
(ArL. 132)
ubllc offlcer or
employee
lf noL rellglous
Lhen ArL 131

Cffendlng 8ellglous
leellng (ArL. 133)
Any person

LND CI DISCUSSICN CN 1CIC
2. CkIMLS AGAINS1 1nL IUNDAMLN1AL LAWS CI 1nL
S1A1L

=======================================
3. CkIMLS AGAINS1 U8LIC CkDLk
=======================================
1CICS UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US
Chapter 1: kebe|||on, sed|t|on and D|s|oya|ty
D 1866 as amended by kA 8294
Chapter 2: Cr|mes Aga|nst opu|ar kepresentat|on
Sec. 1 - Cr|mes aga|nst |eg|s|at|ve
bod|es and s|m||ar bod|es
Sec. 2 - V|o|at|on of par||amentary
|mmun|ty
Chapter 3: I||ega| Assemb||es and Assoc|at|ons


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 19 of 129
Chapter 4: Assau|t upon and kes|stance and
D|sobed|ence 1o, ersons |n Author|ty and the|r
Agents
Chapter S: ub||c D|sorders
Chapter 6: Lvas|on of Serv|ce of Sentence
Chapter 7: Comm|ss|on of Another Cr|me Dur|ng
Serv|ce of ena|ty Imposed for Another rev|ous
Cffense
================================================
Chapter 1: kebe|||on, Coup d'tat, Sed|t|on, and
D|s|oya|ty
================================================

Ak1. 134. kL8LLLICN AND INSUkkLC1ICN

LLLMLN1S:
1. ubllc uprlslng and Laklng arms agalnsL Lhe governmenL
2. urpose:
a. 1o remove from Lhe alleglance Lo CovernmenL
or laws:
l. 1errlLory of hlllpplnes (ln whole or ln parL)
ll. 8ody of land, or army/naval/oLher forces.
b. ueprlve Chlef LxecuLlve or Congress wholly or
parLlally of powers or prerogaLlves

DIS1INGUISnING kL8LLLICN IkCM C1nLk CkIMLS

kL8LLLICN INSUkkLC1ICN
urpose ls Lo overLhrow or
supersede Lhe exlsLlng
governmenL
urpose ls Lo effecL a change
of m|nor |mportance, or Lo
prevenL Lhe exerclse of
governmenL auLhorlLy wlLh
respecL Lo part|cu|ar
matters.

kL8LLLICN 1kLASCN
8equlres Laklng up of arms uoes noL requlre Laklng up
of arms
Clvlng of comforL and
moral ald alone ls noL
punlshable
Clvlng of comforL and
moral ald ls punlshable
no forelgn enemy lorelgn enemy requlred
CommlLLed durlng Llme of
peace or war
CommlLLed only durlng
Llme of war

kL8LLLICN SU8VLkSICN
Crlme agalnsL ubllc Crder Crlme agalnsL naLlonal
SecurlLy
uoes noL absorb
Subverslon
uoes noL absorb 8ebelllon
CurrenLly punlshable under
Lhe 8evlsed enal Code
no law currenLly punlshlng
Subverslon

kL8LLLICN IN GLNLkAL
A crlme of masses, of Lhe mulLlLude. lL cannoL be
commlLLed by only 1 person.
lL ls a conLlnulng crlme.
A publlc uprlslng and Laklng up of arms are necessary
for overL acLs Lo consLlLuLe rebelllon.
o Powever, Laklng parL ln Lhe clash of arms ls noL
necessary Lo be convlcLed of rebelllon.
o lf Lhere ls consplracy, knowlngly ldenLlfylng one's
self wlLh a group who commlLs rebelllon ls enough
for convlcLlon, even lf he hlmself dld noL rlse
publlcly and Lake arms.
ConsummaLed Lhe very momenL rebels rlse and Lake
arms agalnsL Lhe governmenL. 1hey do noL need Lo
achleve Lhelr purpose for rebelllon Lo be consummaLed.

UkCSL ICk kL8LLLICN
1he purpose of Lhe uprlslng musL be shown.
lL ls noL necessary for convlcLlon LhaL Lhe purpose ls
achleved.


NC1L:
lf Lhere ls no publlc uprlslng, Lhe crlme ls dlrecL assaulL
1here musL be AC1uAL parLlclpaLlon. Mere glvlng of ald
or comforL ls noL crlmlnal ln Lhe case of rebelllon.
8ebelllon absorbs oLher crlmes commlLLed ln
furLherance of rebelllon.
o lllegal possesslon of flrearms ln furLherance of
rebelllon ls absorbed by Lhe crlme of rebelllon.
o A prlvaLe crlme may be commlLLed durlng
rebelllon.
o 8ape, even lf noL ln furLherance of rebelllon,
cannoL be complexed wlLh rebelllon.
ubllc offlcer musL Lake acLlve parL because mere
sllence or omlsslon ls noL punlshed ln rebelllon
lL ls noL a defense LhaL Lhe accused never Look Lhe oaLh
of alleglance, or LhaL Lhey never recognlzed Lhe
governmenL.

eop|e v. nernandez
17
: rebelllon cannoL be complexed wlLh
ordlnary crlmes done pursuanL Lo lL
eop|e v. Geron|mo
18
: crlmes done for prlvaLe purposes
wlLhouL pollLlcal moLlvaLlon should be separaLely punlshed
Lnr||e v. Sa|azar
19
: netoooJez remalns blndlng docLrlne
operaLlng Lo prohlblL Lhe complexlng of rebelllon wlLh any

17
leople v. netoooJez, 99 lbll. kep 515 (1956)
18
leople v. Cetoolmo, C.k. No. l-89J6 (1956)
19
otlle v. 5olozot, 186 5ckA 217 (1990)


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 20 of 129
oLher offense commlLLed on Lhe occaslon Lhereof, elLher as
a means Lo lLs commlsslon or as an unlnLended effecL of any
acLlvlLy LhaL consLlLuLes rebelllon.

Ak1. 134-A. CCU D'L1A1

LLLMLN1S
1. Cffender: member of Lhe mlllLary, pollce force, or
any publlc offlcer or employee
2. Means: swlfL aLLack accompanled by vlolence,
lnLlmldaLlon, LhreaL, sLraLegy, or sLealLh.
3. oss|b|e targets: duly consLlLuLed auLhorlLles of Lhe
hlllpplnes, any mlllLary camp/lnsLallaLlon,
communlcaLlon neLworks, publlc uLlllLles, or oLher
faclllLles needed for Lhe exerclse and conLlnued
possesslon of power.
4. urpose: Lo selze or dlmlnlsh sLaLe power

CCU D'L1A1 IN GLNLkAL
May be perpeLraLed wlLh or wlLhouL clvlllan
parLlclpaLlon
May be punlshed as Lerrorlsm

Ak1. 13S. LNAL1 ICk CCU D'L1A1, kL8LLLICN AND
INSUkkLC1ICN

Ak1ICIAN1 AC1S LNAL1
kL8LLLICN
Leaders romoLes,
malnLalns, or
heads
8ecluslon
erpeLua
arLlclpanLs arLlclpaLes, or
execuLes Lhe
commands of
oLhers
8ecluslon
1emporal
CCU D'L1A1
Leaders Leads, dlrecLs, or
commands oLhers
Lo underLake a
Coup d'eLaL
8ecluslon
perpeLua
arLlclpanLs ln
governmenL
servlce
arLlclpaLes or
execuLes Lhe
commands of
oLhers
8ecluslon
1emporal
arLlclpanLs noL ln
governmenL
servlce
Alds, abeLs,
flnances, or
oLherwlse asslsLs
commlsslon
rlslon mayor ln
lLs maxlmum
perlod

LNAL1ILS AND LIA8ILI1
1he lndeLermlnaLe senLence does noL apply Lo Coup
d'eLaL, 8ebelllon, or lnsurrecLlon.
lf Lhe acLual leader ls unknown, Lhe persons who
acLually dlrecLed oLhers, spoke for Lhe unknown
leaders, slgned recelpLs, and performed oLher slmllar
acLs wlll be llable as Lhe leader.

A8SCk1ICN (kL8LLLICN AND INSUkkLC1ICN)
lf oLher common crlmes were done ln pursuance of Lhe
rebelllous purpose, Lhese crlmes are absorbed and Lhe
person ls llable only for rebelllon.
AbsorpLlon ls noL auLomaLlc. Cne has Lo show LhaL
common crlmes were done ln pursuance of rebelllous
purposes, even lf one was a member of a rebelllous
group.
lf oLher common crlmes are done for personal
purposes, even whlle Lhe person ls ln rebelllon, Lhe
person wlll be held separaLely llable.
Cnce an overL acL (even lf lL ls a crlme lLself) ls clLed as
an elemenL of 8ebelllon ln Lhe lnformaLlon, lL can no
longer be charged as a separaLe crlme.

Ak1. 136. CCNSIkAC AND kCCSAL 1C CCMMI1 CCU
D'L1A1, kL8LLLICN, Ck INSUkkLC1ICN

LNAL1ILS
1. Consplracy and proposal Lo commlL Coup d'eLaL
a. rlslon Mayor mlnlmum
b. A flne noL exceedlng hp 8,000
2. Consplracy Lo commlL 8ebelllon or lnsurrecLlon
a. rlslon correcclonal maxlmum
b. A flne noL exceedlng hp S,000
3. roposal Lo commlL 8ebelllon or lnsurrecLlon
a. rlslon correcclonal medlum
b. A flne noL exceedlng hp 2,000

NC1L:
Merely agreelng and decldlng Lo commlL Lhe above
menLloned crlmes, wlLhouL acLually performlng Lhe
overL acLs ls already punlshable.
1here ls no consplracy when Lhe people have noL
agreed, or declded Lo commlL Lhe crlmes.
Lven lf some acLs may be consLrued as helpful Lo
rebels, lf Lhere ls no lnLenL Lo ald Lhem ln achlevlng
Lhelr rebelllous purposes, Lhose who gave ald are noL
llable as consplraLors.
Lven lf someone glves speeches ln favor of Lhe crlmes,
lf Lhere ls no evldence LhaL Lhose who heard lL Look lL as
a proposal, Lhe person glvlng Lhe speech ls noL llable
under Lhls arLlcle.

Ak1. 137. DISLCAL1 CI by Ck LMLCLLS

AC1S UNISnA8LL
1. lalllng Lo reslsL rebelllon by all means
2. ConLlnulng Lo dlscharge duLles under rule of rebels
3. AccepLlng appolnLmenL under rule of rebels


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 21 of 129
NC1L: enalLy for all acLs ls rlslon Correcclonal ln lLs
mlnlmum perlod


CIILNDLkS
SPCuLu be a publlc offlcer or employee. A prlvaLe
lndlvldual cannoL vlolaLe Lhls arLlcle, even lf he accepLs
appolnLmenLs under Lhe rebel governmenL.
Should noL be ln consplracy wlLh Lhe rebels. lf Lhere ls
consplracy, he/she wlll be llable for rebelllon.

kL8LLLICN AS kL-kLUISI1L
1here musL be a rebelllon Lo be reslsLed ln Lhe flrsL
place.
1hls arLlcle ls lnappllcable ln Lhe absence of Lhe crlme of
rebelllon.

Ak1. 138. INCI1ING 1C kL8LLLICN Ck INSUkkLC1ICN

LLLMLN1S
1. Cffender does noL Lake arms or ls noL ln open hosLlllLy
agalnsL Lhe CovernmenL.
2. Pe lnclLes oLhers Lo Lhe execuLlon of any of Lhe acLs of
rebelllon
a. Pe lnclLes oLhers Lo rlse publlcly and Lake arms
agalnsL Lhe governmenL
3. Means: speeches, proclamaLlons, banners, wrlLlngs,
emblems, or oLher represenLaLlons.

ALICA8ILI1
1. eople lnclLed musL noL acLually commlL rebelllon for
Lhls arLlcle Lo apply.
2. lf people lnclLed commlL rebelllon, Lhls arLlcle ls noL
appllcable.
a. eople lnclLed would be gullLy of rebelllon as
prlnclpals by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon.
b. erson lnclLlng would be gullLy of rebelllon as
prlnclpal by lnducemenL.

DIS1INGUISnING IkCM kCCSAL 1C CCMMI1 kL8LLLICN

kCCSAL 1C CCMMI1
kL8LLLICN ( Ak1. 136)
INCI1ING 1C kL8LLLICN
(Ak1. 138)
1he person who proposes
has declded Lo commlL
rebelllon.
noL requlred LhaL Lhe
offender has declded Lo
commlL rebelllon.
1he person who proposes
Lhe execuLlon of Lhe
crlme uses secreL means.
1he lnclLlng ls done
publlcly.

NC1L: ln boLh proposal and lnclLlng, Lhe offender lnduces
anoLher Lo commlL rebelllon


Ak1. 139. SLDI1ICN

LLLMLN1S
1. Cffenders rlse publlcly and LumulLuously
2. Means: force, lnLlmldaLlon, ouLslde legal meLhod.
3. Cb[ecLlves:
a. revenL promulgaLlon/execuLlon of law or holdlng
of popular elecLlon
b. revenL governmenL or offlcer Lhereof from freely
exerclslng funcLlons
c. lnfllcL acL of haLe or revenge upon publlc offlcer or
employee or hls properLy
d. CommlL for pollLlcal or soclal end, any acL of haLe
or revenge on any person or soclal class
e. uespoll for any pollLlcal or soclal end, any person,
Lhe CovernmenL, or any dlvlslon Lhereof of all or
some of Lhelr properLy.

SLDI1ICN IN GLNLkAL
1. SedlLlon ls Lhe ralslng of commoLlons or dlsLurbances ln
Lhe SLaLe.
2. Can be commlLLed by boLh prlvaLe and publlc persons.
3. Cb[ecL ls generally a vlolaLlon of publlc peace.
4. lL cannoL be commlLLed by one person alone.
a. SomeLhlng ls consldered LumulLuous lf lL lnvolves
aL leasL four men wlLh weapons or oLher means of
vlolence.
b. MulLlple people wlLh no arms or means of vlolence
aL all cannoL commlL sedlLlon.
S. Common crlmes are noL absorbed ln sedlLlon.

NC1L: Concurrence of publlc uprlslng and purpose of
sedlLlon ls requlred. When one ls absenL, lL ls noL sedlLlon.

DIS1INGUISnING IkCM C1nLk CkIMLS

SLDI1ICN (Ak1. 139) kL8LLLICN (Ak1. 134)
ln boLh, Lhere musL be a publlc uprlslng.
SufflclenL LhaL Lhe
publlc uprlslng ls
LumulLuous.
1aklng up of arms
agalnsL Lhe governmenL
urpose of Lhe
offenders may be
pollLlcal or soclal.
1he purpose ls always
pollLlcal.

SLDI1ICN (Ak1. 139) 1kLASCN (Ak1. 114)
CommoLlons or
dlsLurbances of Lhe
SLaLe
vlolaLlon by a sub[ecL of
hls alleglance Lo hls
soverelgn



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 22 of 129
Ak1. 140. LNAL1 ICk SLDI1ICN

LkSCNS LIA8LL
1. Leader of Lhe sedlLlon
2. CLher persons part|c|pat|ng ln Lhe sedlLlon

Ak1. 141. CCNSIkAC 1C CCMMI1 SLDI1ICN
1here musL be an agreemenL and a declslon Lo rlse
publlcly and LumulLuously Lo aLLaln any of Lhe ob[ecLs
of sedlLlon ln order Lo consLlLuLe Lhe crlme of
consplracy Lo commlL sedlLlon.
1here ls no proposal Lo commlL sedlLlon.

Ak1. 142. INCI1ING 1C SLDI1ICN

UNISnA8LL AC1S
1. lnclLlng oLhers Lo sedlLlon by means of speeches,
proclamaLlons, wrlLlngs, emblems, eLc.
2. uLLerlng sedlLlous words whlch dlsLurb Lhe publlc
speech.
3. WrlLlng, publlshlng, or clrculaLlng scurrllous llbels
agalnsL CovernmenL whlch Lend Lo dlsLurb publlc
peace.

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 1 - INCI1ING C1nLkS 1C SLDI1ICN
1. 1haL Lhe offender Joes oot toke o Jltect pott ln Lhe
crlme of sedlLlon,
2. 1haL he lnclLes oLhers Lo Lhe accompllshmenL of any of
Lhe acLs whlch consLlLuLe sedlLlon, and
3. 1haL Lhe lnclLlng ls done by means of speeches,
proclamaLlons, wrlLlng, emblems, carLoons, banners, or
oLher represenLaLlons Lendlng Lo Lhe same end.

U11LkING AND WkI1ING: WnLN UNISnA8LL (AC1S 2 & 3)
1. When Lhey Lend Lo dlsLurb or obsLrucL any publlc offlcer
ln execuLlng Lhe funcLlons of hls offlce, or
2. When Lhey Lend Lo lnsLlgaLe oLhers Lo cabal and meeL
LogeLher for unlawful purposes, or
3. When Lhey suggesL or lnclLe rebelllous consplracles or
rloLs, or
4. When Lhey lead or Lend Lo sLlr up Lhe people agalnsL
Lhe lawful auLhorlLles or Lo dlsLurb Lhe peace of Lhe
communlLy, Lhe safeLy and order of Lhe governmenL.

2 kULLS kLLA1IVL 1C SLDI1ICUS WCkDS
1. C|ear and present danger ru|e
a. uanger should be boLh clear and lmmlnenL
b. 8easonable ground Lo belleve LhaL Lhe danger
apprehended ls lmmlnenL and LhaL Lhe evll Lo be
prevenLed ls a serlous one Lo Lhe SLaLe.
c. resenL Llme elemenL. noL only probable buL
very llkely lnevlLable.


2. Dangerous tendency ru|e
a. 1end Lo creaLe a danger of publlc uprlslng
b. Laslly produces dlsaffecLlon
c. roduces sLaLe of feellngs lncompaLlble wlLh a
dlsposlLlon Lo remaln loyal Lo Lhe governmenL.

.D. 1866 as amended by k.A. 8294
Sec. 1. uolowfol mooofoctote, sole, ocpolsltloo, Jlsposltloo
ot possessloo of flteotms ot ommooltloo ot losttomeots oseJ
ot loteoJeJ to be oseJ lo tbe mooofoctote of flteotms ot
ommooltloo. - lf hom|c|de or murder ls commlLLed wlLh
Lhe use of an unllcensed flrearm, such use of an unllcensed
flrearm shall be consldered as an aggravat|ng c|rcumstance
lf such acL was made ln furLherance of rebe|||on,
subvers|on, or |nsurrect|on, sald acL wlll be absorbed ln Lhe
laLLer and shall noL be punlshed as a separaLe offense.
Sec. 3. uolowfol mooofoctote, sole, ocpolsltloo, Jlsposltloo
ot possessloo of exploslves. - When a person commlLs any
of Lhe crlmes deflned ln Lhe 8C or speclal laws wlLh Lhe use
of Lhe aforemenLloned exploslves, deLonaLlon agenLs or
lncendlary devlces, whlch resulLs ln Lhe deaLh of any person
or persons, Lhe use of such exploslves, deLonaLlon agenLs or
lncendlary devlces shall be consldered as an aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance

================================================
Chapter 2: Cr|mes aga|nst opu|ar kepresentat|on
================================================

SLC1ICN 1. - CkIMLS AGAINS1 LLGISLA1IVL 8CDILS
AND SIMILAk 8CDILS

Ak1. 143. AC1S 1LNDING 1C kLVLN1 1nL MLL1ING CI
1nL ASSLM8L AND SIMILAk 8CDILS

LLLMLN1S
1. A projected or octuo/ meet|ng of Congress or any of lLs
commlLLees or subcommlLLees, const|tut|ona|
comm|ss|ons or commlLLees or dlvlslons Lhereof, or of
any prov|nc|a| board or c|ty or mun|c|pa| counc|| or
board, and
2. 1haL Lhe offender who may be any person prevents
such meeLlng by force or fraud.

NC1L: 1he Chlef of ollce and mayor who prevenLed Lhe
meeLlng of Lhe munlclpal councll are llable under ArL. 143,


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 23 of 129
when Lhe defecL of Lhe meeLlng ls noL manlfesL and requlres
an lnvesLlgaLlon before lLs exlsLence can be deLermlned.

IUS1 CAUSL
lf Lhere ls [usL cause for prevenLlng a meeLlng, Lhe
person dolng so ls noL llable under Lhls arLlcle.
!usL cause musL appear lmmedlaLely and musL noL be
one assumed and proven laLer by an lnvesLlgaLlon.

Ak1. 144. DIS1Uk8ANCL CI kCCLLDINGS

LLLMLN1S
1. An octuo/ meet|ng of Congress or any of lLs
commlLLees, consLlLuLlonal commlsslons or commlLLees
or dlvlslons Lhereof, or of any prov|nc|a| board or c|ty
or mun|c|pa| counc|| or board, and
2. 1haL Lhe offender does any of Lhe followlng acLs
a. he d|sturbs any of such meeLlngs
b. he behaves whlle ln Lhe presence of any such
bodles ln such a manner as Lo |nterrupt |ts
proceed|ngs or to |mpa|r the respect due lL.

NC1L: Accused may also be punlshed for conLempL by Lhe
leglslaLlve body

SLC1ICN 2. - VICLA1ICN CI AkLIAMLN1Ak
IMMUNI1

Ak1. 14S. VICLA1ICN CI AkLIAMLN1Ak IMMUNI1

UNISnA8LL AC1S
1. uslng force, lnLlmldaLlon, LhreaLs, or fraud Lo prevenL
aLLendance, expresslon of oplnlon, or casLlng of voLe, of
any member of Congress.
2. ArresLlng or searchlng member whlle Congress ls ln
regular or speclal sesslon.
a. unless Lhe member ls charged wlLh a crlme wlLh a
penalLy hlgher Lhan prlslon mayor
b. Powever, Lo harmonlze wlLh Lhe 1987
ConsLlLuLlon, Lhe 8C provlslon should be read as
a penalLy of prlslon mayor or hlgher"

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 1
1. Means: force, lnLlmldaLlon, LhreaLs, or fraud
2. urpose: 1o prevenL any member of Lhe naLlonal
Assembly from
a. ALLendlng a meeLlng
b. Lxpresslng oplnlon
c. CasLlng voLe

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 2
1. Cffender: ubllc offlcer or employee
2. ArresLs or searches any member of Congress
3. uurlng regular or speclal sesslon
4. Member searched/arresLed has noL commlLLed a crlme
punlshable by arresLo mayor or hlgher


NC1L: AcLual prevenLlon not necessary
lL ls noL necessary LhaL a member of Congress ls
acLually prevenLed from aLLendlng, expresslng hls
oplnlon, or voLlng.
lL ls sufflclenL LhaL offender had Lhe purpose and
performed overL acLs Lo achleve such purpose.

AkLIAMLN1Ak IMMUNI1
roLecLs from clvll and crlmlnal llablllLy
uoes noL proLecL a member of Congress from
responslblllLy before Lhe leglslaLlve body lLself
whenever LhaL member's conducL ls consldered
lnapproprlaLe or unbecomlng.
CLher members may, by voLaLlon, opL Lo suspend,
lmprlson, or expel unruly or oLherwlse errlng members
of Congress.

================================================
Chapter 3: I||ega| Assemb||es and Assoc|at|ons
================================================

Ak1. 146. ILLLGAL ASSLM8LILS

2 1LS CI ILLLGAL ASSLM8LILS
1. MeeLlng aLLended by armed persons for Lhe purpose of
commlLLlng any of Lhe crlmes punlshable under Lhe
8C,
kLUISI1LS:
1. 1here |s a meet|ng - gaLherlng or group of
persons wheLher flxed or movlng,
2. MeeLlng ls aLLended by armed persons, and
3. 1he purpose of meet|ng |s to comm|t any of
the cr|mes pun|shable under 8C

2. A meeLlng ln w]c the aud|ence, wheLher armed or noL,
|s |nc|ted to the commlsslon of Lhe crlmes of Lreason,
rebelllon or lnsurrecLlon, sedlLlon or assaulL upon a
person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL.
kLUISI1LS:
1. 1here ls a meet|ng - gaLherlng or group of persons
wheLher flxed or movlng,
2. Audlence whether armed or not |s |nc|ted Lo Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme of Lreason, rebelllon or
lnsurrecLlon, sedlLlon or Jltect ossoolt.

kLSUM1ICNS WnLN A LkSCN CAkkILS UNLICLNSLD
IIkLAkM 1C 1nL ASSLM8L
1. urpose of Lhe meeLlng ls Lo commlL a crlme under Lhe
8C lnsofar as he ls concerned.
2. ossessor ls a leader or organlzer of Lhe meeLlng.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 24 of 129
LkSCNS LIA8LL ICk ILLLGAL ASSLM8L
1. Crganlzers or leaders of Lhe meeLlng
2. ersons merely presenL aL Lhe meeLlng (excepL when
presence ls ouL of curloslLy - noL llable slnce Lhey do
noL have lnLenL Lo commlL Lhe felony of lllegal
assembly)

NC1L:
noL all Lhe persons presenL aL Lhe meeLlng of Lhe flrsL
form of lllegal assembly need Lo be armed.
lf Lhe audlence ls lnclLed Lo commlL rebelllon or
sedlLlon, Lhe crlmes commlLLed are lllegal assembly as
regards Lhe organlzers or leaders and persons merely
presenL and lnclLlng Lo rebelllon or sedlLlon lnsofar as
Lhe one lnclLlng Lhem ls concerned.

Ak1. 147. ILLLGAL ASSCCIA1ICNS

kINDS CI ILLLGAL ASSCCIA1ICNS
1. 1hose LoLally or parLlally organlzed for Lhe purpose of
commlLLlng a felony
2. 1hose LoLally or parLlally organlzed for purposes
conLrary Lo publlc morals.

LkSCNS LIA8LL
1. lounders and resldenLs
2. Members

DIS1INGUISnING ILLLGAL ASSLM8L IkCM ILLLGAL
ASSCCIA1ICNS

ILLLGAL ASSCCIA1ICN ILLLGAL ASSLM8L
noL necessary LhaL Lhere
be an acLual meeLlng
AcLual meeLlng or
assembly necessary
lL ls Lhe acL of formlng or
organlzlng and
membershlp ln Lhe
assoclaLlon LhaL are
punlshed.
lL ls Lhe meeLlng and
aLLendance aL such
meeLlng LhaL are
punlshed.
ersons llable: founders,
dlrecLors, presldenL, and
members.
ersons llable: organlzers,
or leaders, and persons
presenL aL Lhe meeLlng








===============================================
Chapter 4: Assau|t upon and res|stance and
d|sobed|ence to persons |n author|ty and the|r
agents
===============================================

Ak1. 148. DIkLC1 ASSAUL1

2 ICkMS CI DIkLC1 ASSAUL1

1. WlLhouL publlc uprlslng, by emp|oy|ng force or
|nt|m|dat|on for aLLalnmenL of any of Lhe purposes
enumeraLed ln deflnlng Lhe crlmes of rebelllon and
sedlLlon ( 1
st
form)

LLLMLN1S:
1. Cffender employs force or |nt|m|dat|on,
2. A|m of offender ls Lo aLLaln any of Lhe purposes of
Lhe crlme of rebe|||on or sed|t|on, and
3. 1haL Lhere ls no pub||c upr|s|ng.

NC1L: Cffended parLy here may be a prlvaLe person

2. WlLhouL publlc uprlslng, by attack|ng, by emp|oy|ng force
or by ser|ous|y |nt|m|dat|ng or by ser|ous|y res|st|ng any
person ln auLhorlLy or any of hls agenLs, whlle engaged ln
Lhe performance of offlclal duLles, or on Lhe occaslon of
such performance. (2
nd
form)

LLLMLN1S:
1. Cffender (a) makes an attack, (b) employs force,
(c) makes a ser|ous |nt|m|dat|on, or (d) makes a
ser|ous res|stance,
2. erson assaulLed ls a person |n author|ty or h|s
agent,
3. At the t|me of the assau|t Lhe person ln auLhorlLy
or hls agenL
a. ls engaged ln Lhe octool petfotmooce of
offlclol Jotles (moLlve ls noL essenLlal), or
b. ls assaulLed by teosoo of tbe post
petfotmooce of offlclal duLles (motlve ls
esseotlol),
4. 1haL Lhe offender knows LhaL Lhe one he ls
assaulLlng ls a person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL
(wlLh lnLenLlon Lo offend, ln[ure or assaulL), and
S. No pub||c upr|s|ng.

NC1L: Cffended parL here ls elLher a person ln auLhorlLy of
an agenL of a person ln auLhorlLy.






CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 2S of 129
kLUIkLD DLGkLL CI ICkCL, IN1IMIDA1ICN, Ck
kLSIS1ANCL ICk LIA8ILI1 1C A11ACn UNDLk 1nIS
Ak1ICLL
ICkCL LMLCLD IN1IMIDA1ICN]
kLSIS1ANCL
erson ln
Author|ty
need noL be serlous Serlous
Agent MusL be of ser|ous
characLer
Serlous

GLNLkAL kULL: D|rect assau|t |s a|ways comp/exed with
the moterio/ consequence of Lhe acL (x. dlrecL assaulL wlLh
murder).

LxCL1ICN: lf resulLlng ln a /iqht fe/ony, Lhe consequenL
crlme ls obsorbed.

NC1L:
8eslsLance Lo Lhe person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL musL
be acLlve Lo consLlLuLe a crlme under Lhls arLlcle. lL
cannoL be passlve, as when one Lhrows hlmself on Lhe
ground and refuses Lo follow orders glven by a person
ln auLhorlLy Lo move.
Lven when the person |n author|ty or the agent agrees
to f|ght, dlrecL assaulL ls sLlll commlLLed.
Lven anoLher person ln auLhorlLy can be gullLy of
assaulL upon a person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL.
Powever, Lhere can be no assau|t upon or
d|sobed|ence Lo one's auLhorlLy by anoLher person ln
auLhorlLy or hls agenL when Lhey both contend LhaL
Lhey were ln Lhe exerclse of Lhelr respecLlve dut|es.
A person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL ls noL ln Lhe acLual
performance of offlclal duLles when he:
o Lxceeds hls powers,
o uses unnecessary force or vlolence, or
o uescends lnLo maLLers whlch are prlvaLe ln naLure.
knowledge of Lhe accused LhaL Lhe vlcLlm ls a person ln
auLhorlLy or hls agenL ls essenLlal and such knowledge
musL be alleged ln Lhe lnformaLlon.
Lvldence of moLlve of Lhe offender ls lmporLanL when
Lhe person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL who ls aLLacked or
serlously lnLlmldaLed ls noL ln Lhe acLual performance
of hls offlclal duLy.
ulrecL assaulL may be commlLLed upon a prlvaLe person
who comes Lo Lhe ald of a person ln auLhorlLy slnce he
ls Lhen consldered an agenL of a person ln auLhorlLy.
ulrecL assaulL cannoL be commlLLed durlng rebelllon.
Crlme of sllghL physlcal ln[urles ls absorbed ln dlrecL
assaulL.




UALIIING CIkCUMS1ANCLS
1. When Lhe assaulL ls commlLLed wlLh a weapon,
2. When Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee, or
3. When Lhe offender lays hand upon a person ln
auLhorlLy

Ak1. 149. INDIkLC1 ASSAUL1

LLLMLN1S
1. A person ln auLhorlLy or agenL ls Lhe vlcLlm of any of Lhe
forms of dlrecL assaulL ln Lhe prevlous arLlcle.
2. A person comes Lo Lhe ald of such vlcLlm
3. Cffender makes use of force or lnLlmldaLlon upon such
person.

CIILNDLD Ak1
May be a prlvaLe person.
A prlvaLe person who comes Lo Lhe rescue of an
auLhorlLy or hls agenL en[oys Lhe prlvlleges of Lhe laLLer.

NC1L:
ulrecL assaulL musL have been commlLLed flrsL before
Lhls arLlcle can be appllcable.
lf, whlle a person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL ls performlng
hls duLy and someone helps hlm, and Lhen Lhe helper ls
aLLacked by a person, wlLhouL however aLLacklng Lhe
person ln auLhorlLy or agenL, lL ls noL lndlrecL assaulL.

Ak1. 1S0. DISC8LDILNCL 1C SUMMCNS ISSULD 8 1nL
CCNGkLSS, I1S CCMMI11LLS Ck SU8CCMMI11LLS, 8 1nL
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL CCMMISSICN, I1S CCMMI11LLS,
SU8CCMMI11LLS, Ck DIVISICNS.

UNISnA8LL AC1S
1. 8y refus|ng, w/o legal excuse, Lo obey summons lssued
by Lhe Congress or any of lLs commlLLees or
subcommlLLees, ConsLlLuLlonal commlLLees or by any
commlsslon or commlLLee chalrman or member
auLhorlzed Lo summon wlLnesses,
2. kefusa| of any person presenL before a leglslaLlve or
consLlLuLlonal body or offlclal Lo: Lo be sworn or placed
under afflrmaLlon.
3. 8y refus|ng Lo answer any legal lnqulry, or Lo produce
books, documenLs, records eLc. when requlred Lo do so
by Lhe sald bodles ln Lhe exerclse of Lhelr funcLlons,
4. kestra|n|ng anoLher from aLLendlng as w|tness ln such
body, or
S. Induc|ng d|sobed|ence Lo a summons or refusal Lo be
sworn.





CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 26 of 129

Ak1. 1S1. kLSIS1ANCL AND DISC8LDILNCL 1C A LkSCN
IN AU1nCkI1 Ck 1nL AGLN1S CI SUCn LkSCNS

UNISnA8LL AC1S
1. 8eslsLance or serlous dlsobedlence
2. Slmple dlsobedlence

LLLMLN1S CI kLSIS1ANCL Ck SLkICUS DISC8LDILNCL
1. erson ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL ls engaged ln
performance of offlclal duLles
2. 1he offender reslsLs or serlously dlsobeys
3. AcLs of Lhe offender are noL lncluded ln ArLs. 148-1S0

NC1L: 1here can be no reslsLance and serlous dlsobedlence
oo occosloo of Lhe performance of offlclal duLles. 1here
always has Lo be an acLual performance of duLles when
Lhe reslsLance or serlous dlsobedlence ls made.

LLLMLN1S CI SIMLL DISC8LDILNCL
1. AgenL ls engaged ln Lhe performance of offlclal duLy or
glves a lawful order
2. Cffender dlsobeys such duLy
3. ulsobedlence ls noL of a serlous naLure
noLe: Cnly agenLs can be Lhe vlcLlms of slmple
dlsobedlence

DISC8LDILNCL
1he dlsobedlence musL be a fallure Lo comply wlLh
orders dlrecLly lssued by auLhorlLles Lo Lhe person ln
Lhe exerclse of offlclal funcLlons.
1he dlsobedlence conLemplaLed under Lhls arLlcle ls noL
dlsobedlence Lo a law or a fallure Lo comply wlLh some
legal provlslon
1he word serlous" ln Lhls arLlcle refers only Lo
dlsobedlence, and noL Lo reslsLance. Serlous reslsLance
ls punlshed under ArL. 148.

NCN-DLLI8LkA1L A11ACk Ck LMLCMLN1 CI ICkCL
lf lL ls noL dellberaLe, lL ls only reslsLance or serlous
dlsobedlence.
A non-dellberaLe aLLack shows a lack of lnLenL Lo
lgnore, dlsregard, or defy auLhorlLy.

NC1L: no crlme
1. When accused dld noL have knowledge LhaL Lhe person
arresLlng hlm was a peace offlcer and he reslsLed.
2. When person ln auLhorlLy or agenL exceeds hls rlghLs
and duLles.






DIS1INGUISnING DIkLC1 ASSAUL1 IkCM kLSIS1ANCL AND
SLkICUS DISC8LDILNCL
DIkLC1 ASSAUL1 kLSIS1ANCL Ck SLkICUS
DISC8LDILNCL
AuLhorlLy/agenL musL be ln
performance of offlclal
duLles or was assaulLed by
reason Lhereof
1he persons ln auLhorlLy or
hls agenL musL be ln acLual
performance of hls duLles.
CommlLLed ln 4 ways:
aLLacklng, employlng force,
serlously lnLlmldaLlng,
serlously reslsLlng
CommlLLed only by reslsLlng
or serlously dlsobeylng a
person ln auLhorlLy or hls
agenL.
ALLack or employmenL of
force musL be serlous and
dellberaLe
no force ls employed, or lf
person reslsLed ls only agenL,
only sllghL force ls used.

Ak1. 1S2. LkSCNS IN AU1nCkI1 AND AGLN1S CI
LkSCNS IN AU1nCkI1WnC SnALL 8L DLLMLD AS
SUCn

LkSCNS IN AU1nCkI1
ulrecLly vesLed wlLh [urlsdlcLlon, wheLher as an
lndlvldual, or as a member of some courL or
governmenLal corporaLlon board or commlsslon
Cne who has Lhe power or auLhorlLy Lo govern and
execuLe laws
noL every publlc offlcer ls a person ln auLhorlLy.

AGLN1S
1hose who, by dlrecL provlslon of law, or by elecLlon, or
appolnLmenL by compeLenL auLhorlLy, are charged wlLh
Lhe malnLenance of publlc order and Lhe proLecLlon and
securlLy of llfe.
Any person who comes Lo Lhe ald of persons ln
auLhorlLy.

1LACnLkS, kCILSSCkS, AND LkSCNS CnAkGLD WI1n
1nL SULkVISICN CI U8LIC Ck DUL kLCCGNI2LD
kIVA1L SCnCCLS
ueemed persons ln auLhorlLy for purposes of ArLs. 148
- 1S1
noL deemed persons ln auLhorlLy for oLher purposes
under Lhe law
8eason: Lo glve Leachers proLecLlon, dlgnlLy and respecL
whlle performlng Lhelr duLles.





CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 27 of 129
================================================
Chapter S: ub||c D|sorders
================================================

Ak1. 1S3. 1UMUL1S AND C1nLk DIS1Uk8ANCLS CI U8LIC
CkDLk

UNISnA8LL AC1S
1. Causlng any serlous dlsLurbance ln a publlc place,
offlce, or esLabllshmenL
2. lnLerrupLlng or dlsLurblng performances, funcLlons, or
gaLherlngs, or peaceful meeLlngs, lf Lhe acL ls noL
lncluded ln ArLs. 131 and 132
3. Maklng any ouLcry Lendlng Lo lnclLe rebelllon or
sedlLlon ln any meeLlng, assoclaLlon, or publlc place
4. ulsplaylng placards or emblems whlch provoke a
dlsLurbance of publlc order ln such place
S. 8urylng wlLh pomp Lhe body of a person who has been
legally execuLed

UALIIING CIkCUMS1ANCL
lf Lhe 1
sL
or 2
nd
acL ls LumulLuous ln characLer, Lhe
penalLy nexL hlgher ln degree shall be lmposed.
1UMUL1UCUS - caused by more than 3 persons who
are armed or provlded wlLh means of vlolence.

NC1L:
Serlous dlsLurbance musL be planned or lnLended
lf Lhe acL of dlsLurblng or lnLerrupLlng a meeLlng or
rellglous worshlp ls commlLLed by a prlvaLe lndlvldual,
or even by a publlc offlcer who ls a parLlclpanL ln Lhe
meeLlng or rellglous worshlp whlch he dlsLurbs or
lnLerrupLs, Lhls arLlcle ls appllcable.
1hls crlme may be complexed wlLh physlcal ln[urles lf,
ln Lhe course of causlng a dlsLurbance, offenders ln[ure
oLher people.
20


DIS1INGUISnING INCI1ING 1C SLDI1ICN Ck kL8LLLICN
IkCM U8LIC DISCkDLk
INCI1ING 1C SLDI1ICN Ck
kL8LLLICN
3
kD
AC1 UNISnA8LL
UNDLk 1UMUL1S AND
C1nLk DIS1Uk8ANCLS CI
U8LIC DISCkDLk
May be done Lhrough
speech or wrlLlng
uone only Lhrough speech
(ouLcry)
uone wlLh lnLenL Lo lnduce
Lhe hearers or readers Lo
commlL Lhe crlme of
rebelllon or sedlLlon
More of an unconsclous
ouLbursL whlch ls noL
lnLenLlonally calculaLed Lo
lnduce oLhers Lo commlL
such crlmes.
1he naLure of Lhe speeches ln boLh acLs are elLher
rebelllous or sedlLlous.

20
leople v. 8ocoloJ, 89 lbll. 621 os clteJ lo keyes

Ak1. 1S4. UNLAWIUL USL CI MLANS CI U8LICA1ICN
AND UNLAWIUL U11LkANCLS

AC1S UNISnA8LL
1. ubllshlng or causlng Lo be publlshed, by means of
prlnLlng, llLhography or any oLher means of publlcaLlon
as news any fa|se news wh|ch may endanger the
pub||c order, or cause damage Lo Lhe lnLeresL or credlL
of Lhe SLaLe.
2. Lncourag|ng d|sobed|ence Lo Lhe law or Lo Lhe
consLlLuLed auLhorlLles or by pralslng, [usLlfylng or
exLolllng any acL punlshed by law, by Lhe same means
or by words, uLLerances or speeches.
3. Ma||c|ous|y pub||sh|ng or caus|ng to be pub||shed any
off|c|a| reso|ut|on or documenL w|thout proper
auLhorlLy, or before Lhey have been publlshed offlclally.
4. rlnLlng, publlshlng or dlsLrlbuLlng or (causlng Lhe
same) books, pamphleLs, perlodlcals or leafleLs wh|ch
do not bear the rea| pr|nter's name, or wh|ch are
c|ass|f|ed as anonymous.

Ak1. 1SS. ALAkMS AND SCANDALS
1. D|scharg|ng any f|rearm, rockeL, flrecracker, or oLher
exploslve wlLhln any Lown or publlc place, calculaLed Lo
cause (whlch produces) alarm or danger.
2. Inst|gat|ng or tak|ng act|ve part |n any char|var| or
oLher dlsorderly meeLlng offenslve Lo anoLher or
pre[udlclal Lo publlc LranqulllLy.
3. ulsLurblng Lhe publlc peace whlle wander|ng about at
n|ght or wh||e engaged |n any other nocturna|
amusement.
4. Causlng any d|sturbance or scanda| |n pub||c p|aces
wh||e |ntox|cated or oLherwlse, provlded Lhe acL ls noL
covered by ArL. 1S3 (LumulLs).

NC1L:
CnAkIVAkI - mock serenade or dlscordanL nolses made
wlLh keLLles, Lln horns eLc., des|gned to der|de, |nsu|t
or annoy.
I|rearm must not be pointed ot o person, oLherwlse, lL
ls i//eqo/ dischorqe of fireorm (Art. 2S4).
lor dlscharglng any flrearm, eLc, Lhe acL musL produce
alarm or danger as a consequence.
uslng flrecrackers durlng flesLas are noL punlshable
under Lhls arLlcle.

Ak1. 1S6. DLLIVLkING A LkSCN IkCM IAIL

LLLMLN1S
1. erson ls conflned ln [all or penal esLabllshmenL
2. Cffender removes such person Lherefrom or helps Lhe
escape of such person.




CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 28 of 129
ALICA8ILI1 CI Ak1ICLL
Appllcable even lf escapee ls merely a deLenLlon
prlsoner.
Appllcable lf escapee came from a hosplLal or asylum as
Lhese are consldered exLenslons of Lhe penal
lnsLlLuLlon.

CSSI8LL CIILNDLkS
1hls crlme ls usually commlLLed by an ouLslder
May be commlLLed by an employee, provlded
LhaL he does noL have cusLody or charge of such a
person, or ls oLherwlse off duLy.

VICLA1ICN, IN1IMIDA1ICN, Ck 8kI8Lk
noL necessary elemenLs of Lhe offense. 1he offense can
be commlLLed by employlng oLher means"
1he offender ls penallzed wlLh a hlgher penalLy lf he
commlLs Lhe crlme uslng vlolence, lnLlmldaLlon, or
brlbery.
8rlbery as conLemplaLed ln Lhls arLlcle - Lhe acL of
brlblng someone as a means Lo remove prlsoner from
[all, noL Lhe acL of accepLlng a brlbe.

LIA8ILI1
erson dellverlng deLalnee from [all may be held llable
as an accessory lf Lhe person helped has commlLLed
Lreason, murder, or parrlclde, because Lhe person
dellverlng asslsLs ln Lhe escape of Lhe prlnclpal.
A prlsoner who leaves cannoL be held llable under Lhls
arLlcle.
o lf he ls a prlsoner by flnal [udgemenL, he may be
llable under ArL. 1S7.
o lf he ls merely a deLenLlon prlsoner, he ls noL llable
slnce he has no senLence Lo be evaded.

================================================
Chapter 6: Lvas|on of serv|ce of sentence
================================================

Ak1. 1S7. LVASICN CI SLkVICL CI SLN1LNCL

LLLMLN1S
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a convlcL by f|na| [udgment,
2. 1haL he ls serv|ng hls senLence whlch conslsLs ln
deprlvaLlon of llberLy (dest|erro |nc|uded), and
3. 1haL he evades Lhe servlce of hls senLence by escap|ng
durlng Lhe Lerm of hls senLence

NC1L:
1hls ls a conLlnulng offense.
1hls arLlcle does noL apply Lo mlnor dellnquenLs,
deLenLlon prlsoners, or deporLees.


lf Lhe offender escaped wlLhln Lhe 1S-day appeal
perlod, crlme ls noL evaslon because [udgmenL ls noL
yeL flnal.

CIkCUMS1ANCLS UALIIING 1nL CIILNSL: LVASICN CI
SLN1LNCL WAS DCNL 1nkCUGn:
1. unlawful enLry (by scallng"),
2. 8reaklng doors, wlndows, gaLes, walls, roofs or floors,
3. uslng plcklocks, false keys, dlsgulse, decelL, vlolence or
lnLlmldaLlon, or
4. Connlvance wlLh oLher convlcLs or employees of Lhe
penal lnsLlLuLlon.

Ak1. 1S8. LVASICN CI SLkVICL CI SLN1LNCL CN 1nL
CCCASICN CI DISCkDLkS, CCNILAGkA1ICNS,
LAk1nUAkLS, Ck C1nLk CALAMI1ILS

LLLMLN1S
1. Cffender ls convlcL by flnal [udgmenL conflned ln a
penal lnsLlLuLlon
2. 1here ls a dlsorder resulLlng from conflagraLlon,
earLhquake, exploslon, slmllar caLasLrophes, or a
muLlny ln whlch Lhe offender dld noL parLlclpaLe.
3. 1he offender subsequenLly evades Lhe servlce of hls
senLence by leavlng Lhe penal lnsLlLuLlon
4. Cffender falls Lo glve hlmself up Lo Lhe auLhorlLles
wlLhln 48 hours followlng Lhe lssuance of a
proclamaLlon by Lhe Chlef LxecuLlve announclng Lhe
passlng away of such calamlLy.

NC1L:
Appllcable only Lo convlcLs by flnal [udgmenL.
ConvlcL musL leave Lhe penal lnsLlLuLlon. 1he
deducLlons or addlLlons Lo Lhe penalLy effecLed by Lhls
or oLher arLlcles ls noL appllcable Lo one who dld noL
leave a penal lnsLlLuLlon where he ls conflned desplLe
Lhe exlsLence of such calamlLles.
WhaL ls punlshed ls noL Lhe leavlng of Lhe penal
lnsLlLuLlon, buL Lhe fallure of Lhe convlcL Lo glve hlmself
up.
MU1IN - an organlzed and unlawful reslsLance Lo a
superlor offlcer.
o 1here ls no muLlny lf Lhe prlsoners dlsarmed Lhe
guards and escaped, because Lhe guards are noL
Lhelr superlor offlcers.

DLDUC1ICNS AND ADDI1ICNS
1. lf an escapee surrenders hlmself wlLhln 48 hours afLer
Lhe proclamaLlon, he ls enLlLled Lo a deducLlon of 1/S of
hls orlglnal Lerm, as provlded ln ArL. 98
2. lf an escapee falls Lo surrender hlmself wlLhln 48 hours
afLer Lhe proclamaLlon, he wlll be senLenced Lo an
addlLlonal 1/S of hls remalnlng senLence, whlch ln no
case shall exceed 6 monLhs.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 29 of 129

Ak1. 1S9. C1nLk CASLS CI LVASICN CI SLkVICL CI
SLN1LNCL

LLLMLN1S
1. 1haL Lhe offender was a conv|ct,
2. 1haL he was granLed a cond|t|ona| pardon by Lhe Chlef
LxecuLlve, and
3. 1haL he v|o|ated any of Lhe condlLlons of such pardon.

2 LNAL1ILS
1. ltlsloo cotteccloool ln lLs mlnlmum perlod - lf Lhe
penalLy remlLLed does noL exceed 6 years.
2. 1he unexp|red port|on of hls orlglnal senLence - lf Lhe
penalLy remlLLed ls h|gher than 6 years.

NC1L: Cffender musL have been found gullLy of Lhe
subsequenL offense (Lhrough w/c he vlolaLed hls condlLlonal
pardon) before he can be prosecuLed under Lhls ArLlcle. 8uL
under Lhe kevlseJ AJmlo. coJe, oo coovlctloo ls oecessoty.
resldenL has Lhe power Lo arresL, and relncarceraLe
offender wlLhouL Lrlal.

================================================
Chapter 7: Comm|ss|on of another cr|me dur|ng
serv|ce of pena|ty |mposed for another prev|ous
offense
================================================

Art. 160. CCMMISSICN CI ANC1nLk CkIML DUkING
SLkVICL CI LNAL1 IMCSLD ICk ANC1nLk kLVICUS
CIILNSL

LLLMLN1S
1. 1haL Lhe offender was already convlcLed by flnal
[udgmenL of one offense
2. 1haL he commlLLed a new felony before beglnnlng Lo
serve such senLence or whlle servlng Lhe same.

UASI-kLCIDIVISM
Speclal aggravaLlng clrcumsLance. 1he effecL ls Lo
lmpose Lhe maxlmum perlod appllcable for Lhe
subsequenL felony.
CannoL be offseL by ordlnary mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances,
buL only prlvlleged ones, such as mlnorlLy.
Cuasl recldlvlsm lnvolves Lwo crlmes.
o 1he 1
sL
one may be any crlme, wheLher punlshed
under Lhe 8C or speclal laws.
o 1he 2
nd
one, whlch ls commlLLed before servlng
senLence for Lhe flrsL one, or whlle servlng Lhe
same, should be a felony.
1hls ls because ArL. 160 speaks of Lhe
maxlmum perlod" of Lhe penalLy
prescrlbed by law for Lhe new felony.
enalLles prescrlbed by speclal laws have
no perlods, unllke felonles ln Lhe 8C.
o uoes noL requlre LhaL boLh crlmes are embraced ln
Lhe same LlLle of Lhe Code.
ulfferenL from relLeraclon, whlch requlres LhaL Lhe
offender flrsL flnlshes servlng ouL hls senLence before
commlLLlng anoLher crlme.
ulfferenL from recldlvlsm, where Lhe flrsL and second
offense musL be embraced ln Lhe same LlLle of Lhe
Code.

AkDCN
When one reaches Lhe age of 70 and he has served ouL
hls orlglnal senLence, he may be pardoned.
Pe may also be pardoned lf he flnlshes servlng Lhe
orlglnal senLence only afLer he reaches 70.
8easons for noL pardonlng person
1. PablLual crlmlnal
2. Cr lf hls conducL or oLher clrcumsLances shows he
ls noL worLhy of such clemency.

LND CI DISCUSSICN CN 1CIC
3. CkIMLS AGAINS1 U8LIC CkDLk

=======================================
4. Cr|mes Aga|nst ub||c Interest
=======================================
1CICS UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US

Chapter 1: Iorger|es
Sec. 1 - Iorg|ng the sea| of the government of the
h|||pp|ne Is|ands, the s|gnature or
stamp of the Ch|ef Lxecut|ve
Sec. 2 - Counterfe|t|ng Co|ns
Sec. 3 - Iorg|ng treasury or bank notes,
ob||gat|ons and secur|t|es, |mport|ng and
utter|ng fa|se or forged notes, ob||gat|ons
and secur|t|es
Sec. 4 - Ia|s|f|cat|on of |eg|s|at|ve, pub||c,
commerc|a|, and pr|vate documents, and
w|re|ess, te|egraph, and te|ephone
message
Sec.S - Ia|s|f|cat|on of med|ca| cert|f|cates,
cert|f|cates of mer|t or serv|ces and the
||ke


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 30 of 129
Sec.6 - Manufactur|ng, |mport|ng and possess|on
of |nstruments or |mp|ements |ntended
for the comm|ss|on of fa|s|f|cat|on
k.A. 9184
Chapter 2: Cther Ia|s|t|es
Sec. 1 - Usurpat|on of author|ty, rank, t|t|e, and
|mproper use of names, un|forms and |ns|gn|a
CA No. 142
Sec. 2 - Ia|se test|mony

Chapter 3: Irauds
Sec.1 - Mach|nat|ons, monopo||es and
comb|nat|ons
Sec. 2 - Irauds |n commerce and |ndustry
================================================
Chapter 1: Iorger|es
================================================

SLC1ICN 1 - ICkGING 1nL SLAL CI 1nL GCVLkNMLN1
CI 1nL nILIINL ISLANDS, 1nL SIGNA1UkL Ck 1nL
S1AM CI 1nL CnILI LxLCU1IVL

Ak1. 161. CCUN1LkILI1ING 1nL GkLA1 SLAL CI 1nL
GCVLkNMLN1 CI 1nL nILIINL ISLANDS, ICkGING 1nL
SIGNA1UkL Ck S1AM CI 1nL CnILI LxLCU1IVL

AC1S UNISnA8LL
1. lorglng Lhe CreaL Seal
2. lorglng Lhe slgnaLure
3. lorglng Lhe sLamp

NC1L:
When Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe resldenL ls forged, lL ls noL
falslflcaLlon buL forglng of slgnaLure of Lhe Chlef
LxecuLlve under Lhls arLlcle.

Ak1. 162. USING ICkGLD SIGNA1UkL Ck CCUN1LkILI1
SLAL Ck S1AM

LLLMLN1S
1. CreaL seal was counLerfelLed or slgnaLure/sLamp
forged.
2. Cffender knew of such counLerfelLlng or forgery
3. Cffender uses such fake seal, sLamp, or slgnaLure

NC1L:
1he offender ln Lhls arLlcle should noL be Lhe one who
dld Lhe counLerfelLlng or forgery, oLherwlse, he wlll be
llable under Lhe prevlous paragraph.
Cffender ls punlshed under Lhls arLlcle wlLh a penalLy
one degree lower Lhan LhaL provlded ln Lhe nexL
precedlng arLlcle, even lf hls acL ls LhaL of an accessory
Lo Lhe crlme of counLerfelLlng Lhe greaL seal or forglng
Lhe sLamp or slgnaLure.

SLC1ICN 2 - CCUN1LkILI1ING CCINS

Ak1. 163. MAkING, U11LkING, AND IMCk1ING IALSL
CCINS

LLLMLN1S
1. 1here are false or counLerfelLed colns
2. Cffender made, lmporLed, or uLLered sald colns
3. ln case of uLLerlng, offender should be ln connlvance
wlLh elLher counLerfelLer of lmporLer

NC1L:
A coln ls counLerfelL lf lL ls forged, or lf lL ls noL
auLhorlzed by Lhe governmenL as legal Lender,
regardless lf lL ls of lnLrlnslc value.
CounLerfelLlng ls Lhe lmlLaLlon of legal or genulne coln
such as Lo decelve an ordlnary person ln bellevlng lL Lo
be genulne.
1o uLLer ls Lo pass counLerfelLed colns, dellver or glve
away.
1o lmporL ls Lo brlng Lhem lnLo porL. lmporLaLlon ls
compleLe even before enLry aL Lhe CusLoms Pouse.
1hls arLlcle also applles Lo h|||pp|ne co|ns, fore|gn
state co|ns, and co|ns w|thdrawn from c|rcu|at|on. 1hls
does noL requlre LhaL Lhe colns counLerfelLed be legal
Lender.

Ak1. 164 - MU1ILA1ICN CI CCINS, IMCk1A1ICN AND
U11LkANCL CI CCINS

AC1S UNISnA8LL
1. Mut||at|ng co|ns of legal currency wlLh Lhe furLher
requlremenL LhaL Lhere be |ntent to damage or Lo
defraud anoLher.
2. Import|ng or utter|ng such muLllaLed coln wlLh Lhe
furLher requlremenL LhaL Lhere musL be conn|vance
w|th the mut||ator or lmporLer ln case of uLLerlng.

NC1L:
MuLllaLlon ls Lo Lake off parL of Lhe meLal elLher by
flllng lL or subsLlLuLlng lL for anoLher meLal of lnferlor
quallLy, Lo d|m|n|sh by |ngen|ous means the meta| ln
Lhe coln.
Iore|gn notes and co|ns not |nc|uded under th|s
art|c|e. MuLllaLlon musL be of Phi/ippine /eqo/ tender.
1here musL be |ntent|on Lo muLllaLe.





CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 31 of 129
Ak1. 16S. SLLLING CI IALSL Ck MU1ILA1LD CCINS
WI1nCU1 CCNNIVANCL

AC1S UNISnA8LL
1. ossesslon wlLh lnLenL Lo uLLer coln counLerfelLed or
muLllaLed by anoLher.
2. AcLually uLLerlng, whlle knowlng colns Lo be false or
muLllaLed.

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 NC. 1
1. ossesslon
a. Covers possesslon ln general, from acLual
possesslon Lo consLrucLlve possesslon
2. lnLenL Lo uLLer
3. knowledge LhaL Lhe colns are forged/muLllaLed

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 NC. 2
1. AcLually uLLerlng such colns
2. knowledge LhaL Lhe colns are forged/muLllaLed.

LLGAL 1LNDLk
1. 1hls arLlcle does noL requlre LhaL Lhe coln belng uLLered
ls legal Lender
2. 8uL lf Lhe coln belng uLLered or possessed ls a muLllaLed
coln, lL musL be legal Lender, because of ArL. 16S

un|sh|ng possess|on and utterance
1. 1he possesslon or uLLerance punlshed under Lhls arLlcle
ls LhaL whlch ls done wlLhouL connlvance wlLh Lhe
orlglnal forgers, muLllaLors, or lmporLers.
2. lf, along wlLh possesslon or uLLerance, one ls also Lhe
auLhor or Lhe muLllaLlon or forgery, he wlll be llable
under elLher ArLs. 164 or 16S.
3. ossesslon and uLLerance musL always be wlLh Lhe
knowledge LhaL Lhese are forged or muLllaLed colns.
knowledge need noL be expressed, buL may be lnferred
from acLs of Lhe offender.

SLC1ICN 3 - ICkGING 1kLASUk Ck 8ANk NC1LS,
C8LIGA1ICNS AND SLCUkI1ILS, IMCk1ING AND
U11LkING IALSL Ck ICkGLD NC1LS, C8LIGA1ICNS
AND SLCUkI1ILS

Ak1. 166. ICkGING 1kLASUk Ck 8ANk NC1LS, Ck C1nLk
DCCUMLN1S AA8LL 1C 8LAkLk, IMCk1ING AND
U11LkING SUCn IALSL Ck ICkGLD NC1LS Ck
DCCUMLN1S

AC1S UNISnA8LL
1. lorglng or falslflcaLlon of Lreasury or banklng noLes or
oLher documenLs
2. lmporLaLlon of such false or forged obllgaLlons or noLes
3. uLLerlng such ln connlvance wlLh Lhe forgers or
lmporLers

NC1L:
lorglng ls commlLLed by glvlng a Lreasury or bank noLe
or any lnsLrumenL payable Lo bearer or order an
appearance of a Lrue and genulne documenL.
lalslflcaLlon ls commlLLed by eraslng, subsLlLuLlng,
counLerfelLlng or alLerlng by any means Lhe flgures and
leLLers, words, slgns conLalned Lhereln.
lorglng lN8 cbecks ls noL lncluded under Lhls arLlcle.
1haL ls folslflcotloo of commetclol Jocomeot ooJet
Attlcle 172.
CbllgaLlon or securlLy lncludes bonds, cerLlflcaLe of
lndebLedness, bllls, naLlonal bank noLes, coupons,
Lreasury noLes, cerLlflcaLes of deposlL, checks, drafLs for
money, and sweepsLakes money.

Ak1. 167. CCUN1LkILI1ING, IMCk1ING, Ck U11LkING
INS1kUMLN1S NC1 AA8LL 1C 8LAkLk

LLLMLN1S
1. 1here ls an lnsLrumenL payable Lo order or oLher
documenL noL payable Lo bearer
2. 1he offender forges such documenL or lmporLs or
uLLers such forged lnsLrumenL.
3. ln case of uLLerlng, Lhe offender ls ln connlvance wlLh
Lhe forgers or lmporLers

Ak1. 168. ILLLGAL CSSLSSICN AND USL CI IALSL
1kLASUk Ck 8ANk NC1LS AND C1nLk INS1kUMLN1S CI
CkLDI1

LLLMLN1S
1. uocumenLs ln Lhe precedlng arLlcles are forged or
falslfled by anoLher person
2. Cffender knows Lhem Lo be forged or falslfled
3. Pe uses Lhem or possesses Lhem wlLh lnLenL Lo use

NC1L:
1he acL soughL Lo be punlshed ls knowlngly possesslng
wlLh lnLenL Lo use any of such forged Lreasury or bank
noLes.
1he accused has Lhe burden Lo glve a saLlsfacLory
explanaLlon of hls possesslon of forged bllls. Mere
possesslon of false money blll, wlLhouL lnLenL Lo use lL
Lo Lhe damage of anoLher, ls noL a crlme.
A person ln possesslon of falslfled documenL and who
makes use of Lhe same ls presumed Lo be maLerlal
auLhor of falslflcaLlon.

Ak1. 169. nCW ICkGLk IS CCMMI11LD

WAS ICkGLk IS CCMMI11LD
1. Clvlng any documenL menLloned ln precedlng arLlcles
Lhe appearance of a Lrue/genulne documenL


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 32 of 129
2. Lraslng, subsLlLuLlng, counLerfelLlng, or alLerlng whaL ls
ln Lhe documenL.

SLC1ICN 4 - IALSIIICA1ICN CI LLGISLA1IVL, U8LIC,
CCMMLkCIAL, AND kIVA1L DCCUMLN1S, AND
WIkLLLSS 1LLLGkAn AND 1LLLnCNL MLSSAGLS

Ak1. 170. IALSIIICA1ICN CI LLGISLA1IVL DCCUMLN1S

LLLMLN1S
1. 1here ls a blll, resoluLlon, or ordlnance enacLed,
approved, or pendlng approval by Congress or any
provlnclal or munlclpal councll/board.
2. 1he offender alLers lL
3. Pe has no proper auLhorlLy Lo do so
4. AlLeraLlon has changed Lhe meanlng of Lhe documenL

NC1L:
1he blll, resoluLlon, or ordlnance musL be genulne. 1hls
arLlcle does noL cover a fabrlcaLed or slmulaLed
leglslaLlve documenL.
Cffender can be any person, for as long as he has no
auLhorlLy.
1hls arLlcle only punlshes alLeraLlon whlch changes lLs
meanlng. Any oLher Lamperlng wlLh leglslaLlve
documenLs ls covered under ArL. 171 or 172.

Ak1. 171. IALSIIICA1ICN 8 U8LIC CIIICLk Ck
LMLCLL, Ck NC1Ak Ck LCCLLSIAS1ICAL MINIS1Lk

LLLMLN1S
1. Cffender: ubllc offlcer, employee, eccleslasLlcal
mlnlsLer, or noLary publlc
2. 1akes advanLage of hls offlclal poslLlon
3. lalslfles a documenL by commlLLlng any of Lhe acLs
menLloned ln Lhe arLlcle
4. ln case offender ls eccleslasLlcal mlnlsLer' falslflcaLlon
commlLLed be wlLh respecL Lo clvll sLaLus of persons.

1AkLS ADVAN1AGL CI CIIICIAL CSI1ICN
1. Pe has duLy Lo make or prepare, or oLherwlse lnLervene
ln a preparaLlon of a documenL
2. Pe has Lhe offlclal cusLody of Lhe documenLs whlch he
falslfles

DCCUMLN1
1. Any wrlLLen sLaLemenL by whlch a rlghL ls esLabllshed or
an obllgaLlon exLlngulshed.
2. MusL be compleLe or have Lhe appearance of a Lrue and
genulne documenL
3. MusL be of apparenL legal efflcacy
4. ars. 6,8, and Lhe second parL of par. 7 requlre a
genulne documenL, whlle Lhe oLhers do noL.



1
S1
AC1: CCUN1LkILI1ING Ck IMI1A1ING AN SIGNA1UkL,
nANDWkI1ING Ck kU8kIC

2 WAS UNDLk 1nIS AkAGkAn
1. CCUN1LkILI1ING - lmlLaLlng any handwrlLlng,
slgnaLure or rubrlc
2. ILIGNING - slmulaLlng a slgnaLure, handwrlLlng, or
rubrlc ouL of one whlch does noL exlsL.

kLUISI1LS
1. lnLenL or aLLempL Lo lmlLaLe
2. Some resemblance beLween Lhe genulne and forged
handwrlLlng, slgnaLure, or rubrlc

IN1LN1
1. lf Lhere ls sufflclenL resemblance beLween Lhe genulne
and Lhe forged slgnaLures, lL can be concluded LhaL Lhe
accused had lnLenLlon Lo lmlLaLe slgnaLure.
2. 1here can be no lnLenL" Lo counLerfelL or lmlLaLe lf Lhe
person had auLhorlLy Lo slgn.

kLSLM8LANCL
1. lmlLaLlon need noL be perfecL.
2. 8esemblance musL be such LhaL ls llkely Lo decelve an
ordlnary person deallng wlLh Lhe documenL

2
ND
AC1: CAUSING I1 1C ALAk 1nA1 LkSCNS nAVL
Ak1ICIA1LD IN AN AC1 Ck kCCLLDING WnLN 1nL IN
IAC1 DID NC1 SC Ak1ICIA1L.

LLLMLN1S
1. Cffender caused lL Lo appear ln a documenL LhaL a
person has parLlclpaLed ln an acL or proceedlng.
2. ersons dld noL ln facL parLlclpaLe.

NC1L:
lmlLaLlon of a slgnaLure ls noL requlred ln Lhls arLlcle.
lf performed by a prlvaLe person, as wlLh all acLs under
ArL. 171, ArL. 172 should be applled.

3
kD
AC1: A11kI8U1ING 1C LkSCNS WnC nAVL
Ak1ICIA1LD IN AN AC1 Ck kCCLLDING S1A1LMLN1S
C1nLk 1nAN 1nCSL IN IAC1 MADL 8 1nLM

LLLMLN1S
1. ersons parLlclpaLed ln an acL or proceedlng
2. ersons made sLaLemenLs ln LhaL proceedlng.
3. Cffender aLLrlbuLed Lo such person or persons
sLaLemenLs oLher Lhan Lhose ln facL made.






CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 33 of 129

4
1n
AC1: MAkING UN1kU1nIUL S1A1LMLN1S IN A
NAkkA1ICN CI IAC1S

LLLMLN1S
1. Cffender makes narraLlon of facLs
2. 1here was a legal obllgaLlon Lo dlsclose Lhe LruLh
3. lacLs narraLed are absoluLely false
4. Wrongful lnLenL of ln[urlng a Lhlrd person

NAkkA1ICN CI IAC1S
1. MusL be narraLlon of facLs, noL concluslons of law
2. uoes noL lnclude mlsLakes ln [udgmenL

LLGAL C8LIGA1ICN
1. 1here ls a law requlrlng Lhe dlsclosure of Lhe LruLh of
Lhe facLs narraLed
2. lf Lhe law does noL requlre a plece of lnformaLlon, even
lf accused ls lled abouL LhaL lnfo, he ls noL llable.
3. Legal obllgaLlon ls lnherenL ln resldency cerLlflcaLe.

A8SCLU1LL IALSL
1. Cffender musL be aware of falslLy
2. lf Lhe sLaLemenLs are noL alLogeLher false, Lhere belng
some colourable LruLh ln such sLaLemenLs, Lhe crlme of
falslflcaLlon ls noL deemed Lo have been commlLLed.

WkCNGIUL IN1LN1
1. A person ls noL gullLy lf he was noL anlmaLed by deslre
Lo do wrong or Lo ln[ure a Lhlrd person.
2. Cood falLh ls a defense. lf offender belleved whaL he
puL was Lrue, he ls noL llable.

C1nLk NC1LS
1. Lven lf consenL for conLracL was obLalned by vlolence, lL
does noL make facLs narraLed ln lL false.
2. 1here can be falslflcaLlon by omlsslon.

S
1n
AC1: AL1LkING 1kUL DA1LS

NC1L:
1here ls falslflcaLlon only when Lhe daLe menLloned ln
Lhe documenL ls essenLlal.
Change of daLe musL affecL Lhe veraclLy of Lhe
documenL or Lhe effecLs/meanlng Lhereof.

6
1n
AC1: MAkING AN AL1LkA1ICN Ck IN1LkCALA1ICN IN
A GLNUINL DCCUMLN1 WnICn CnANGLS I1S MLANING

LLLMLN1S
1. AlLeraLlon (change) or lnLercalaLlon (lnserLlon) on a
documenL.
2. Made on a genulne documenL
3. AlLeraLlon or lnLercalaLlon has changed lLs meanlng
4. Meanlng of Lhe documenL ls now false.

CnANGLS I1S MLANING
1. Change Lhe effecLs whlch lL would oLherwlse produce
2. unless LhaL happens, Lhere could noL exlsL an essenLlal
elemenL or lnLenLlon Lo commlL a crlme.

MLANING IS NCW IALSL
1. AlLeraLlon whlch speaks Lhe LruLh ls noL falslflcaLlon
2. MusL be alLeraLlon/lnLercalaLlon whlch causes Lhe
lnsLrumenL Lo speak a language dlfferenL ln legal effecL
from whaL lL orlglnally spoke.

7
1n
AC1: ISSUING IN AN AU1nLN1ICA1LD ICkM A
DCCUMLN1 UkCk1ING 1C 8L A CC CI AN CkIGINAL
DCCUMLN1 WnLN NC SUCn CkIGINAL LxIS1S, Ck
INCLUDING IN SUCn A CC A S1A1LMLN1 CCN1kAk 1C,
Ck DIIILkLN1 IkCM, 1nA1 CI 1nL GLNUINL CkIGINAL

CIILNDLk
1. CommlLLed only by a publlc offlcer or noLary publlc who
Lakes advanLage of hls offlclal poslLlon.
2. lf prlvaLe lndlvldual ls ln consplracy wlLh offender, he ls
gullLy of Lhls crlme and lncurs Lhe same llablllLy and
penalLy as publlc offlcer.

IN1LN1 1C GAIN Ck kLIUDICL
1. 1he ldea of galn or lnLenL Lo cause damage Lo a Lhlrd
person ls noL necessary.
2. lL ls Lhe offlclal characLer of Lhe offender whlch ls
malnly Laken lnLo conslderaLlon.
3. lnLeresL of Lhe communlLy whlch ls lnLended Lo be
guaranLeed.

8
1n
AC1: IN1LkCALA1ING AN INS1kUMLN1 Ck NC1L
kLLA1IVL 1C 1nL ISSUANCL 1nLkLCI IN A kC1CCCL,
kLGIS1k, Ck CIIICIAL 8CCk.

NC1L:
ConLemplaLes Lhe changlng enLrles ln records such as
Lhe local clvll reglsLry.
Mallclous lnLenL noL necessary

Ak1. 172. IALSIIICA1ICN 8 kIVA1L INDIVIDUAL AND USL
CI IALSIIILD DCCUMLN1S

AC1S UNISnA8LL
1. lalslflcaLlon of publlc, offlclal or commerclal documenL
by prlvaLe lndlvldual.
2. lalslflcaLlon of prlvaLe documenL by any person.
3. use of falslfled documenL Lo ln a [udlclal proceedlng, or
Lo Lhe pre[udlce of anoLher ln any oLher proceedlng.




CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 34 of 129

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 NC.1
1. Cffender: prlvaLe lndlvldual or publlc offlcer noL Laklng
advanLage of poslLlon.
2. CommlLLed any acL of falslflcaLlon under ArL. 171
a. Lxcept|on: ar.7 whlch by deflnlLlon cannoL be
commlLLed by prlvaLe lndlvldual/publlc offlcer noL
Laklng advanLage of poslLlon. auLhenLlcaLlon
3. ubllc/offlclal/commerclal documenL.

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 NC.2
1. Cffender commlLLed any of Lhe acLs of falslflcaLlon.
2. rlvaLe documenL.
3. uamage Lo a Lhlrd parLy or aL leasL lnLenL Lo cause such
damage.
a. need noL be maLerlal
b. uamage Lo one's honor ls lncluded
c. LffecL need noL be Lo proflL offender for as long as
lL damaged anoLher.

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 NC.3 (IUDICIAL kCCLLDING)
1. Cffender knew documenL was falslfled by anoLher
2. uocumenL ls embraced ln ArL. 171, or nos. 1 or 2 of ArL.
172
3. lnLroduced ln evldence ln [udlclal proceedlng

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 NC.3 (AN C1nLk kCCLLDING)
1. Cffender knew documenL was falslfled by anoLher
2. Lmbraces ln ArL. 171, or nos. 1 or 2 of ArL. 172
3. used such documenL (noL ln [udlclal proceedlng)
4. use caused damage Lo anoLher or lL was used wlLh
lnLenL Lo cause such damage.

DAMAGL Ck IN1LN1 1C DAMAGL A 1nIkD Ak1
1. Cnly necessary when falslfylng prlvaLe documenLs, or
uslng any falslfled documenL ln proceedlngs oLher Lhan
[udlclal proceedlngs.
2. noL necessary when falslfylng a publlc, offlclal, or
commerclal documenL.
3. Also noL necessary when documenLs are used ln [udlclal
proceedlngs.

4 kINDS CI DCCUMLN1S
1. ubllc documenL
a. lssued by publlc offlclal ln response Lo Lhe
exlgencles of publlc servlce.
b. ubllc offlclal lnLervened ln execuLlon.
c. AuLhorlzed by a noLary publlc or a compeLenL
publlc offlclal wlLh requlred solemnlLles.
2. Cfflclal documenL
a. lssued by a publlc offlclal ln Lhe exerclse of Lhe
funcLlons of hls offlce.
b. All pleadlngs flled wlLh Lhe courL are publlc or
offlclal documenLs.

3. Commerclal documenL
a. ueflned and regulaLed by Code of Commerce
b. romoLe or faclllLaLe Lrade.
c. Cash dlsbursemenL vouchers noL lncluded.
4. All oLher wrlLlngs are prlvaLe.

kIVA1L DCCUMLN1S CCNSIDLkLD U8LIC
1. ueed whlch was prlvaLely falslfled, buL Lhen presenLed
Lo Lhe noLary publlc by Lhe falslfler for
acknowledgmenL.
2. lf prlvaLe documenL becomes parL of an offlclal record
and ls cerLlfled by a publlc offlcer duly auLhorlzed by
law.

kLSUM1ICNS
1. ossessor and uLLerer of a falslfled documenL ls
presumed Lo be Lhe auLhor of Lhe falslflcaLlon.
2. Lspeclally lf accused has sufflclenL and sLrong moLlve.
a. 1he facL LhaL peLlLloner beneflLLed and even
proflLed from Lhe falslfled noLarlzed 8elease of
8eal LsLaLe MorLgage are sLrong lndlcaLlons LhaL
she parLlclpaLed ln Lhe falslflcaLlon of Lhe same
documenL."
21


CCMLLxLD WI1n LS1AIA
1. 1here ls a complex crlme of falslflcaLlon of a publlc,
offlclal, or commerclal documenL, wlLh esLafa.
2. 1here ls no such complex crlme lf whaL ls lnvolved ls a
prlvaLe documenL.
a. 8eason: 1o be punlshable, falslfled prlvaLe
documenLs need Lo be accompanled by damage, or
lnLenL Lo damage a Lhlrd person. WhaL would be
damage from an acL consLlLuLlng esLafa acLually
merely consummaLes Lhe crlme of falslflcaLlon of a
prlvaLe documenL.
b. ulsLlngulsh from a publlc documenL whlch needs
no damage Lo a Lhlrd parLy Lo be punlshable. Any
damage resulLlng from such use of Lhe documenL
could be aLLrlbuLed Lo a separaLe crlme such as
esLafa, because damage ls noL an elemenL of
falslflcaLlon of a publlc documenL.

DIS1INGUISnING kIVA1L IkCM U8LIC DCCUMLN1
kIVA1L U8LIC]CIIICIAL
re[udlce Lo a Lhlrd parLy ls
prlmarlly Laken lnLo
accounL
rlnclpal Lhlng punlshed ls Lhe
vlolaLlon of publlc falLh and
Lhe preservaLlon of LruLh
whlch Lhe documenL
solemnly proclalms
lf such damage ls noL
apparenL, or Lhere ls aL
leasL noL lnLenLlon Lo cause
lmmaLerlal wheLher or noL
some pre[udlce has been
caused Lo Lhlrd persons.

21
Nletvo v. leople, C.k. No. 15J1JJ (2006)


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 3S of 129
lL, Lhe falslflcaLlon ls noL
punlshable

NC1L:
lalslflcaLlon ls consummaLed Lhe momenL Lhe genulne
documenL ls alLered or Lhe momenL Lhe false documenL
ls execuLed.
1here may be a frusLraLed sLage lf falslflcaLlon ls
lmperfecL.
usage, whlch ls noL an elemenL of falslflcaLlon, ls
punlshed separaLely from acLual falslflcaLlon.
o lL cannoL be deemed necessarlly lncluded ln Lhe
crlme of falslflcaLlon of a publlc documenL by a
publlc offlcer or employee or by a prlvaLe person.
o May be a lesser offense.

Ak1. 173. IALSIIICA1ICN CI WIkLLLSS, CA8LL,
1LLLGkAn, AND 1LLLnCNL MLSSAGLS, AND USL CI
IALSIIILD MLSSAGLS

AC1S UNISnA8LL
1. uLLerlng flcLlLlous messages
2. lalslfylng messages
3. uslng falslfled messages

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 NC.1 AND NC.2
1. Cffender ls an offlcer or employee of CovernmenL, or
of prlvaLe corporaLlon engaged ln servlce of sendlng or
recelvlng wlreless, cable, or Lelephone messages
2. 1he offender elLher
a. uLLers a flcLlLlous message
b. lalslfles a message

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 NC.3
1. Accused knew messages were falslfled
2. Accused used such falslfled dlspaLch
3. 8esulLed ln pre[udlce of Lhlrd parLy, or Lhere was lnLenL
Lo pre[udlce.

kIVA1L INDIVIDUAL
1. CannoL commlL Lhe flrsL Lwo acLs by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon
unless he ls an employee of a corporaLlon engaged ln
LelecommunlcaLlons servlces.
2. Can be held gullLy as a prlnclpal by lnducemenL, lf he
lnduced such publlc or governmenL employee Lo
perform punlshable acLs.
3. ConnecLlon wlLh LelecommunlcaLlons neLwork ls noL
necessary Lo commlL Lhlrd acL. Any person can be held
llable for Lhe use of falslfled dlspaLch.




SLC1ICN S - IALSIIICA1ICN CI MLDICAL CLk1IIICA1LS,
CLk1IIICA1LS CI MLkI1, SLkVICL, AND 1nL LIkL

Ak1. 174 - IALSL MLDICAL CLk1IIICA1L, IALSL
CLk1IIICA1LS CI MLkI1 Ck SLkVICL, L1C.

LkSCNS LIA8LL
1. hyslclan or surgeon, for falslfylng a medlcal cerLlflcaLe
2. ubllc offlcer, for falslfylng a cerLlflcaLe of merlL,
servlce, good conducL, or oLher slmllar clrcumsLances.
3. rlvaLe lndlvldual, for falslfylng any of Lhe documenLs
menLloned ln Lhe flrsL Lwo acLs.

"SIMILAk CIkCUMS1ANCLS"
1. Slmllar Lo merlL, servlce, or good conducL.
2. 1hus, cerLlflcaLes perLalnlng Lo ownershlp of properLy
are noL lncluded.

Ak1. 17S - USING CI IALSL CLk1IIICA1LS

LLLMLN1S
1. Crlme ln ArL. 174 has been commlLLed by anoLher
person
2. Cffender knew of Lhe falslfled naLure of Lhe cerLlflcaLe
3. Cffender used such false cerLlflcaLe

SCCL
1. 1hls arLlcle only applles Lo use of Lhose falslfled
documenLs covered by ArL. 174.
2. 1hls arLlcle applles, even lf Lhe falslfled documenLs
were used ln a [udlclal proceedlng.

SLC1ICN 6 - MANUIAC1UkING, IMCk1ING, AND
CSSLSSICN CI INS1kUMLN1S Ck IMLLMLN1S

Ak1. 176 - MANUIAC1UkING AND CSSLSSICN CI
INS1kUMLN1S Ck IMLLMLN1S ICk IALSIIICA1ICN


AC1S UNISnA8LL
1. Maklng or lnLroduclng lnLo Lhe counLry, lmplemenLs
and lnsLrumenLs for counLerfelLlng/falslflcaLlon
2. ossesslng lLems made or lmporLed by anoLher person,
wlLh lnLenL Lo use Lhe same.
a. lncludes consLrucLlve possesslon
b. LlLher acLual ownershlp or mere conLrol

IMLLMLN1S CCNIISCA1LD
1. noL necessary LhaL Lhey form a compleLe seL for
counLerfelLlng
2. Lnough LhaL Lhey may be employed by Lhemselves or
LogeLher wlLh oLher lmplemenLs Lo commlL Lhe crlme of
counLerfelLlng or falslflcaLlon



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 36 of 129

k.A. 9184: 1nL GCVLkNMLN1 kCCUkLMLN1 AC1
(1nL NLW U8LIC 8IDDING LAW)

UNISnA8LL AC1S
1. 1hose commlLLed by publlc offlcers
a. Cpen any sealed 8ld and any and all documenLs
requlred Lo be sealed or dlvulglng Lhelr conLenLs,
prlor Lo Lhe appolnLed Llme for Lhe publlc openlng
of 8lds or oLher documenLs.
b. uelaylng wlLhouL [usLlflable cause any of Lhe
followlng beyond Lhe prescrlbed perlods:
l. Screenlng for ellglblllLy
ll. Cpenlng for blds
lll. LvaluaLlon and posL evaluaLlon for blds
lv. Awardlng of conLracLs
c. unduly lnfluenclng or exerLlng undue pressure on
any member of Lhe 8AC or any offlcer or employee
of Lhe procurlng enLlLy Lo Lake a parLlcular bldder.
d. SpllLLlng of conLracLs whlch exceed procedural
purchase llmlLs and cooperaLlve blddlng
e. Abuslng exerclse of power Lo re[ecL any and all
blds, wlLh manlfesL preference Lo any bldder who
ls closely relaLed Lo hlm.
f. noLe: lf any of Lhe foregolng acLs are done ln
colluslon wlLh prlvaLe lndlvlduals, Lhe prlvaLe
lndlvlduals shall be llkewlse llable for Lhe offense.
Such prlvaLe lndlvldual shall be permanenLly
dlsquallfled from LransacLlng buslness wlLh Lhe
governmenL.

2. 1hose commlLLed by prlvaLe lndlvlduals
l. Accompanled by permanenL dlsquallflcaLlon
from LransacLlng buslness wlLh Lhe governmenL
and Lemporary Lo perpeLual dlsquallflcaLlon
from publlc offlce When Lwo or more bldders
agree and submlL dlfferenL 8lds as lf Lhey were
bona flde, when Lhey knew LhaL one or more of
Lhem was so much hlgher Lhan Lhe oLher LhaL lL
could noL be honesLly accepLed and LhaL Lhe
conLracL wlll surely be awarded Lo Lhe pre-
arranged lowesL 8ld.
ll. When a bldder mallclously submlLs dlfferenL 8lds
Lhrough Lwo or more persons, corporaLlons,
parLnershlps or any oLher buslness enLlLy ln
whlch he has lnLeresL, Lo creaLe Lhe appearance
of compeLlLlon LhaL does noL ln facL exlsL so as Lo
be ad[udged as Lhe wlnnlng bldder.
lll. When Lwo or more bldders enLer lnLo an
agreemenL whlch call upon one Lo refraln from
blddlng for rocuremenL conLracLs, or whlch call
for wlLhdrawal of blds already submlLLed, or
whlch are oLherwlse lnLended Lo secure as
undue advanLage Lo any one of Lhem.
lv. When a bldder, by hlmself or ln connlvance wlLh
oLhers, employ schemes whlch Lend Lo resLraln
Lhe naLural rlvalry of Lhe parLles or operaLes Lo
sLlfle or suppress compeLlLlon and Lhus produce
a resulL dlsadvanLageous Lo Lhe publlc.
b. CLher acLs
l. SubmlL ellglblllLy requlremenLs of whaLever
klnd and naLure LhaL conLaln false lnformaLlon
or falslfled documenLs calculaLed Lo lnfluence
Lhe ouLcome of Lhe ellglblllLy screenlng
process or conceal such lnformaLlon ln Lhe
ellglblllLy requlremenLs when Lhe lnformaLlon
wlll lead Lo a declaraLlon of lnellglblllLy from
parLlclpaLlng ln publlc blddlng.
ll. SubmlL 8lddlng uocumenLs of whaLever klnd
and naLure Lhan conLaln false lnformaLlon or
falslfled documenLs or conceal such
lnformaLlon ln Lhe 8lddlng uocumenLs, ln
order Lo lnfluence Lhe ouLcome of Lhe publlc
blddlng.
lll. arLlclpaLe ln a publlc blddlng uslng Lhe name
of anoLher or allow anoLher Lo use one's name
for Lhe purpose of parLlclpaLlng ln a publlc
blddlng.
lv. WlLhdraw a 8ld, afLer lL shall have quallfled as
Lhe LowesL CalculaLed 8ld/PlghesL 8aLed 8ld,
or Lo accepL and award, wlLhouL [usL cause or
for Lhe purpose of forclng Lhe rocurlng LnLlLy
Lo award Lhe conLracL Lo anoLher bldder. 1hls
shall lnclude Lhe non-submlsslon of
requlremenLs such as buL noL llmlLed Lo,
performance securlLy, preparaLory Lo Lhe flnal
award of Lhe conLracL.

3. When Lhe bldder ls a [urldlcal enLlLy, crlmlnal llablllLy
and Lhe accessory penalLles shall be lmposed on lLs
dlrecLors, offlcers or employees who acLually commlL
any of Lhe foregolng acLs.

IUkISDIC1ICN
!urlsdlcLlon over Lhe offenses deflned under Lhls ArLlcle shall
belong Lo Lhe approprlaLe courLs, accordlng Lo laws exlsLlng
aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offenses.













CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 37 of 129

================================================
Chapter 2: Cther fa|s|t|es
================================================

SLC1ICN 1 - USUkA1ICN CI AU1nCkI1, kANk, 1I1LL,
AND IMkCLk USL CI NAMLS, UNIICkMS, AND
INSIGNIA

Ak1. 177. USUkA1ICN CI AU1nCkI1 AND CIIICIAL
IUNC1ICNS

AC1S UNISnA8LL
1. usurpaLlon of auLhorlLy - knowlngly and falsely
represenLlng oneself Lo be an offlcer, eLc.
a. Mere acL of knowlngly and falsely represenLlng
oneself Lo be an offlcer eLc. ls sufflclenL.
b. lL ls noL necessary LhaL he performs an acL
perLalnlng Lo a publlc offlcer
2. usurpaLlon of offlclal funcLlons - dolng any acL
perLalnlng Lo any publlc offlcer, eLc. wlLhouL belng
auLhorlzed Lo do so.
a. LssenLlal LhaL offender should have performed acL
perLalnlng Lo publlc offlcer

kLkLSLN1A1ICN
1. MusL be poslLlve, express, and expllclL
2. MusL represenL offlcers named ln arLlcle, and noL [usL
any auLhorlLy flgure
3. 8epresenLaLlon may be shown ln acLs, and noL [usL
words.

CIILNDLkS
1. 1hls arLlcle may be vlolaLed by boLh prlvaLe and publlc
offlcers.
Ak1. 178. USING IIC1I1ICUS NAML AND CCNCLALING
1kUL NAML

UNISnA8LL AC1S
1. uslng flcLlLlous name
2. Conceallng Lrue name and oLher personal
clrcumsLances

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 NC.1
1. Cffender uses a flcLlLlous name
2. Such name ls used publlcly
3. urpose ls
a. Conceal a crlme
b. Lvade execuLlon of [udgmenL
c. Causes damage Lo publlc lnLeresL

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 NC.2
1. Cffender conceals Lrue name and oLher personal
clrcumsLances
2. urpose ls Lo conceal ldenLlLy

IIC1I1ICUS NAML CCNCLALING 1kUL NAML
LlemenL of publlclLy musL
be presenL
ubllclLy elemenL noL
necessary
3 posslble purposes Cnly 1 purpose: conceal Lrue
ldenLlLy

C.A. 142 AS AMLNDLD 8 k.A. 608S:
1nL AN1I ALIAS LAW

kCnI8I1LD AC1S
1. uslng a name dlfferenL from LhaL whlch he was
reglsLered aL blrLh ln Lhe offlclal local clvll reglsLry
2. uslng a name dlfferenL from LhaL whlch he reglsLered
wlLh Lhe bureau of lmmlgraLlon upon enLry lnLo Lhe
counLry
3. uslng a name whlch was noL auLhorlzed by a
compeLenL courL as a subsLlLuLe name

LxCL1ICNS
1. LlLerary purposes
2. Clnema, Lelevlslon, radlo, and oLher enLerLalnmenL
purposes
3. ALhleLlc evenLs

NC1LS CN 1nL LAW
1. !udlclal auLhorlLy musL be flrsL secured by a person who
deslres Lo use an allas.
2. Powever, a common-law wlfe does noL lncur crlmlnal
llablllLy under Lhe AnLl-Allas Law lf she uses Lhe
surname of Lhe man she has been llvlng w/ for Lhe pasL
20 years and has been lnLroduclng herself Lo Lhe publlc
as hls wlfe.

Ak1. 179. ILLLGAL USL CI UNIICkMS Ck INSIGNIA

LLLMLN1S
1. Cffender uses an lnslgnla, unlform, or dress
2. Such perLalns Lo an offlce noL held by offender or a
class of persons of whlch he ls noL a member
3. used publlcly and lmproperly

INSIGNIA, UNIICkM, Ck DkLSS
1. Cenulne lnslgnla, unlform, or dress ls noL necessary.
Cffender can wear an lmlLaLlon and sLlll be llable.
2. An exacL lmlLaLlon ls noL necessary, for as long as Lhere
ls a colourable resemblance calculaLed Lo decelve Lhe
general publlc.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 38 of 129
3. MusL perLaln Lo an acLual offlcer or class of persons.
1he person ls noL llable lf Lhe lnslgnla, unlform, or dress
perLalns Lo an lmaglnary offlce or class.

SLC1ICN 2 - IALSL 1LS1IMCN

Ak1. 180. IALSL 1LS1IMCN AGAINS1 A DLILNDAN1

LLLMLN1S
1. 1haL Lhere be a cr|m|na| proceed|ng,
2. Cffender test|f|es fa|se|y under oath oqoinst Lhe
defendanL Lhereln,
3. Cffender knows LhaL lL ls fa|se, and
4. 1he defendanL agalnsL whom Lhe false LesLlmony ls
glven ls elLher acqu|tted or conv|cted ln a flnal
[udgmenL.

IALSL 1LS1IMCN - commlLLed by a person who, belng
under oaLh and requlred Lo LesLlfy as Lo Lhe LruLh of a
cerLaln maLLer aL a hearlng before a compeLenL auLhorlLy,
shall deny Lhe LruLh or say someLhlng conLrary Lo lL

NC1L:
vlolaLlon of Lhls arLlcle requlres crlmlnal lnLenL. Pence,
lL cannoL be commlLLed Lhrough negllgence.
1he offender need noL lmpuLe gullL upon Lhe accused
Lo be llable.
1he defendanL musL aL leasL be senLenced Lo a
correcLlonal penalLy or a flne, or musL have been
acqulLLed.
1he wlLness who gave false LesLlmony ls llable even lf
Lhe courL dld noL conslder hls LesLlmony.
enalLy depends upon senLence lmposed on Lhe
defendanL excepL ln Lhe case of a [udgmenL of
acqulLLal.
Slnce ArL. 180 does noL prescrlbe Lhe penalLy where
Lhe defendanL ln a crlmlnal case ls senLenced Lo a llqbt
peoolty, false LesLlmony ln case of a llghL penalLy
cannoL be punlshed, conslderlng LhaL a penal law musL
always be sLrlcLly consLrued.

Ak1. 181. IALSL 1LS1IMCN IAVCUkA8LL 1C 1nL
DLILNDAN1

LLLMLN1S
1. 1haL Lhe LesLlmony musL be glven ln a clvll case,
2. 1haL Lhe LesLlmony musL relaLe Lo Lhe lssues presenLed
ln sald case,
3. 1haL Lhe LesLlmony musL be false,
4. 1haL Lhe false LesLlmony musL be glven by Lhe
defendanL knowlng Lhe same Lo be false, and
S. 1haL Lhe LesLlmony musL be mallclous and glven wlLh an
lnLenL Lo affecL Lhe lssues presenLed ln Lhe sald case.


NC1L:
1esLlmony by negaLlve sLaLemenL ls sLlll ln favor of Lhe
defendanL.
lalse LesLlmony ln favor of defendanL need noL dlrecLly
lnfluence Lhe declslon of acqulLLal nor beneflL Lhe
defendanL. 1he lnLenL Lo favor defendanL ls sufflclenL.
A sLaLemenL of mere oplnlon ls noL punlshable.
ConvlcLlon or acqulLLal ls noL necessary (flool joJqmeot
ls oot oecessoty), buL gravlLy of crlme ln prlnclpal case
should be shown.
uefendanL who falsely LesLlfled ln hls own behalf ln
crlmlnal case ls gullLy of false LesLlmony favourable Lo
Lhe defendanL
8ecLlflcaLlon made sponLaneously afLer reallzlng
mlsLake ls noL false LesLlmony.
1he penalLy ln Lhls arLlcle ls less Lhan LhaL whlch ls
provlded ln Lhe precedlng arLlcle because Lhere ls no
danger Lo llfe or llberLy of Lhe defendanL

Ak1. 183. IALSL 1LS1IMCN IN C1nLk CASLS AND
LkIUk IN SCLLMN AIIIkMA1ICN

AC1S UNISnA8LL
1. lalse LesLlmony under oaLh ln a proceedlng oLher Lhan
[udlclal
2. lalse affldavlL

LLLMLN1S
1. SLaLemenL under oaLh or affldavlL upon maLerlal maLLer
2. Made before a compeLenL offlcer auLhorlzed admlnlsLer
such oaLh.
3. Wllful and dellberaLe asserLlon of a falsehood
a. er[ury cannoL be wllful where Lhe oaLh ls
accordlng Lo bellef or convlcLlon as Lo lLs LruLh
22

b. lL musL appear LhaL Lhe accused knows hls
sLaLemenL Lo be false or ls consclously lgnoranL of
lLs LruLh
23

4. 1haL Lhe lnformaLlon glven ls requlred by law.

CCML1LN1 CIIICLk
1. erson who has a rlghL Lo lnqulre lnLo Lhe quesLlons
presenLed Lo hlm under hls [urlsdlcLlon
2. no per[ury lf noL compeLenL auLhorlLy

kLUIkLD 8 LAW
1. 1here ls a law requlrlng lL C8
2. 1he sLaLemenL or documenL ls made for legal purposes.
3. lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe oaLh had been admlnlsLered wlLh
a vlew of carrylng lnLo effecL a legal purpose.



22
IuuC llMN1l NO15, p.76
2J
Moofott lll., et. ol., v. 5olvotletto, C.k. No. 168J01(2007)


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 39 of 129

DLIINI1ICNS
1. CA1n - any form of aLLesLaLlon manlfesLlng a
commlLmenL Lo perform an acL falLhfully and LruLhfully
2. AIIIDAVI1 - a sworn sLaLemenL ln wrlLlng made before
an auLhorlzed offlcer
3. MA1LkIAL MA11Lk - Lhe maln facL, Lhe sub[ecL of
lnqulry or clrcumsLances whlch Lends Lo prove Lhe facL
a. LeglLlmaLely affecLs Lhe credlL of any wlLness who
LesLlfles
b. SLrengLhens or corroboraLes LesLlmonles

MA1LkIALI1
1. 1here musL be compeLenL proof of Lhe maLerlallLy of
Lhe false LesLlmony
2. MaLLer musL noL slmply be perLlnenL, LhaL ls, relaLlng Lo
collaLeral maLLers whlch make more or less probable
Lhe proposlLlon aL lssue.
3. lL musL be maLerlal, LhaL ls, dlrecLly provlng or
dlsprovlng a facL aL lssue.
4. no per[ury lf false lmpuLaLlons ln LesLlmony or affldavlL
were noL on maLerlal maLLer.

SU8CkNA1ICN CI LkIUk
1. knowlngly and wllfully procurlng anoLher Lo swear
falsely
2. noL expressly punlshed ln Lhe revlsed penal code, buL
offender may be llable as a prlnclpal by lnducemenL.

Ak1. 184. CIILkING IALSL 1LS1IMCN IN LVIDLNCL

LLLMLN1S
1. Cffered ln evldence false wlLness or LesLlmony
2. Cffender knew of falslLy
3. uurlng [udlclal or offlclal proceedlngs

NC1L:
1hls arLlcle applles when Lhe offender, wltboot loJocloq
anoLher buL knowlng hlm Lo be a false wlLness,
presenLed hlm and Lhe laLLer LesLlfled falsely ln a
[udlclal or offlclal proceedlng.
1he felony ls consummaLed Lhe momenL a false wlLness
ls offeteJ ln any [udlclal or offlclal proceedlng. Looklng
for a false wlLness ls noL punlshed by law as LhaL ls noL
offerlng a false wlLness.
1he false wlLness need noL be convlcLed of false
LesLlmony. A mere offer Lo presenL hlm ls sufflclenL.








================================================
Chapter 3: Irauds
================================================

SLC1ICN 1. - MACnINA1ICNS, MCNCCLILS, AND
CCM8INA1ICNS

Ak1. 18S. MACnINA1ICNS IN U8LIC AUC1ICNS

AC1S UNISnA8LL
1. SollclLlng glfL Lo refraln from Laklng parL ln publlcaLlon
2. ALLempLlng Lo cause bldders Lo sLay away from an
aucLlon

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 NC.1
1. ubllc aucLlon
2. Accused sollclLed glfLs/promlse of glfLs
3. ln conslderaLlon of refralnlng from Laklng parL ln Lhe
aucLlon
4. lnLenL ls Lo cause reducLlon of Lhe prlce of Lhe Lhlng
aucLloned.

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 NC.2
1. ubllc aucLlon
2. Cffender: aLLempLed Lo cause Lhe bldders Lo sLay away
3. Means: LhreaLs, glfLs, promlses or any oLher arLlflce
4. lnLenL: reducLlon of prlce of Lhlng aucLloned

AC1S AkL ICkMAL CkIMLS
1. lL ls noL requlred LhaL Lhe person maklng proposal
acLually refralns from Laklng parL ln any publlcaLlon.
1he crlme ls commlLLed by mere sollclLaLlon.
2. lL ls noL requlred LhaL Lhe person accepL Lhe offer or
glfL. 1he crlme ls consummaLed by mere offerlng of Lhe
glfL or promlse ln conslderaLlon of refralnlng Lo Lake
parL.

(Ak1. 186, 188, 189, SULkSLDLD 8 1nL IN1LLLLC1UAL
kCLk1 CCDL)

SLC1ICN 2. - IkAUDS

Ak1. 187. IMCk1A1ICN AND DISCSI1ICN CI IALSLL
MAkkLD Ak1ICLLS Ck MLkCnANDISL MADL CI GCLD,
SILVLk, Ck C1nLk kLCICUS ML1ALS Ck ALLCS

Ak1ICLLS CI MLkCnANDISL INVCLVLD
1. Cold
2. Sllver
3. reclous meLals
4. Alloys





CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 40 of 129
L|ements
1. Cffender lmporLs, sells, or dlsposes lLem
2. SLamps, brands, or marks fall Lo lndlcaLe Lhe acLual
flneness or quallLy
3. Cffender knows of such fallure Lo lndlcaLe

SLLLING, DISCSING, AND IMCk1ING
1. lL ls noL necessary LhaL such lLems are acLually sold and
publlc acLually decelved, before one can be llable under
Lhls arLlcle
2. lf one ls charged wlLh lmporLaLlon, Lhere musL be proof
LhaL lLem was ln facL lmporLed.

CIILNDLk
1. 1hose who lmporL, sell, or dlspose lLems.
2. 1hls arLlcle ls noL appllcable Lo Lhe manufacLurer of
arLlcles of gold, sllver, eLc. Pe ls llable for esLafa.

LND CI DISCUSSICN CN 1CIC
4. CkIMLS AGAINS1 U8LIC IN1LkLS1S

=======================================
S. Cr|me ke|at|ve to Cp|um and Cther
roh|b|ted Drugs
=======================================
1CIC UNDLk SLLA8US
1he Comprehens|ve Dangerous Drug Act of 2002
================================================

NC1L: 1he uangerous urug AcL of 2002 repealed Lhe arLlcles
under 1lLle llve of Lhe revlsed penal code. Crlmes relaLlve Lo
prohlblLed drugs are now covered by 8.A. 916S.

AC1S UNISnA8LL

1. lmporLaLlon of dangerous drugs or conLrolled
precursors and essenLlal chemlcals.
a. 8egardless of quanLlLy or purlLy lnvolved.
b. ClrcumsLances whlch warranL maxlmum penalLy
l. lmporLlng such lLems Lhrough Lhe use of a
dlplomaLlc passporL, dlplomaLlc faclllLles, or
any oLher means lnvolvlng an offenders'
offlclal sLaLus lnLended Lo faclllLaLe unlawful
enLry.
ll. Crganlzer, manager, or flnancler.

2. Sale, Lradlng, admlnlsLraLlon, dlspensaLlon, dellvery,
dlsLrlbuLlon and LransporLaLlon of dangerous drugs or
conLrolled precursors.
a. ClrcumsLances whlch warranL maxlmum penalLy
l. Cffense Lransplrlng wlLhln 100 meLers from
school
ll. uslng mlnors or menLally lncapaclLaLed
persons as runners, courlers, and
messengers.
lll. vlcLlm of Lhe offense ls a mlnor or menLally
lncapaclLaLed person.
lv. uangerous drug or conLrolled precursor or
essenLlal chemlcal be Lhe proxlmaLe deaLh of
a vlcLlm.
v. Crganlzer, manager, flnancler

3. MalnLenance of a den, dlve, or resorL where any
dangerous drug or conLrolled precursor and essenLlal
chemlcal are used or sold.
a. CIUM DIVL Ck kLSCk1. place where dangerous
drug and/or conLrolled precursor and essenLlal
chemlcal ls admlnlsLered, dellvered, sLored for
lllegal purposes, dlsLrlbuLed, sold or used ln any
form
b. ClrcumsLances whlch warranL maxlmum penalLy
l. urug ls admlnlsLered, dellvered, or sold Lo a
mlnor who ls allowed Lo use Lhe same
ll. Crganlzer, manager, or flnancler
c. ClrcumsLance ralslng penalLy Lo deaLh and flne of
hp 1 - 1S mllllon.
l. When dangerous drug ls proxlmaLe cause of
deaLh of a person uslng Lhe same ln such
den, dlve, or resorL
ll. lmposed on malnLalner/owner or operaLor of
such place.
d. lf den, dlve, or res orL ls owned by a 3
rd
person, Lhe
same shall be conflscaLed ln favor of Lhe
governmenL
l. MusL allege LhaL place was lnLenLlonally used
ln Lhe furLherance of Lhe crlme
ll. rosecuLlon musL prove such lnLenL.
lll. Cwner musL be lncluded as an accused ln Lhe
crlmlnal complalnL
e. CLher persons llable ln relaLlon Lo dens, dlves, or
resorLs
l. Any employee who ls aware of Lhe naLure of
such place
ll. Any person who ls aware of Lhe naLure of Lhe
place and shall knowlngly vlslL Lhe same.

4. 8e|ng emp|oyees or v|s|tors of drug den
a. ersons ||ab|e:
l. Any employee of a den, dlve or resorL who ls
aware of Lhe naLure of Lhe place as such
ll. Any person noL belng lncluded ln number 1,
who ls aware of Lhe naLure of Lhe place as such
and shall knowlngly vlslL Lhe same.
b. A person who vlslLed anoLher who was smoklng
oplum shall noL be llable lf Lhe place ls noL an
oplum dlve or resorL


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 41 of 129

S. ManufacLure of dangerous drugs, and/or conLrolled
precursors and essenLlal chemlcals.
a. resence of any conLrolled precursor/essenLlal
chemlcal or laboraLory equlpmenL ln a clandesLlne
laboraLory ls prlma facle proof of manufacLure of
any dangerous drug.
b. AggravaLlng clrcumsLance: lf clandesLlne laboraLory
l. lnvolved parLlclpaLlon or presence of mlnors
ll. Was locaLed wlLhln 100 meLers of resldenLlal,
buslness, church, or school premlses
lll. Was secured wlLh booby Lraps
lv. Was concealed wlLh leglLlmaLe buslness
operaLlons
v. Lmployed pracLlLloner, chemlcal englneer,
publlc offlclal, or forelgner.
c. ua||fy|ng clrcumsLance: Crganlzes, manages or
acLs as flnancler
d. 1he protector or codd|er ls also llable.

6. lllegal chemlcal dlverslon of conLrolled precursors and
essenLlal chemlcals
a. ulverLlng conLrolled precursors and essenLlal
chemlcals deslgnaLed for a legal purpose Lowards
Lhe manufacLure of lllegal drugs.

7. ManufacLure or dellvery of equlpmenL, lnsLrumenL,
apparaLus, or oLher paraphernalla for dangerous drugs
and/or conLrolled precursors and essenLlal chemlcals
a. AcLs punlshable: dellvery, possesslon wlLh lnLenL Lo
dellver, or manufacLure wlLh lnLenL Lo dellver
b. knowlng, or under clrcumsLances where one
reasonably should know LhaL lL wlll be used
relaLlve Lo dangerous drugs or conLrolled
precursor/essenLlal chemlcals.
c. Maxlmum penalLy lf mlnor or menLally
lncapaclLaLed person was used Lo dellver such
equlpmenL.

8. ossesslon of uangerous urugs
a. ossesslon ln Lhe followlng quanLlLles, regardless
of purlLy
l. 10 grams or more: oplum, morphlne, heroln,
cocalne or cocalne hydrochlorlde, marl[uana
resln or marl[uana resln oll, or oLher
dangerous drugs.
ll. S0 grams or more lf shabu
lll. S00 grams or more of marl[uana
b. lf possesslon ls less Lhan Lhe quanLlLles above,
penalLy ls lowered.

LLLMLN1S CI CSSLSSICN CI CIUM
1. Cccupancy or Laklng
2. lnLenL Lo possess

NC1L:
WhaL ls punlshed ls presenL possesslon, noL pasL
possesslon
lL ls noL necessary Lo allege ln lnformaLlon LhaL
accused ls noL auLhorlzed Lo possess oplum

9. ossesslon of equlpmenL, lnsLrumenL, apparaLus, and
oLher paraphernalla for dangerous drugs
a. ln case of medlcal pracLlLloners or oLher
professlonals, he/she musL be followlng Lhe
lmplemenLlng guldellnes lssued by Lhe uangerous
urugs 8oard.
b. ossesslon ls prlma facle evldence LhaL Lhe
possessor has smoked, consumed, admlnlsLered Lo
hlmself/herself, ln[ecLed, lngesLed, or used a
dangerous drug.
c. Cuallfylng clrcumsLance: arLy, soclal gaLherlng, or
ln Lhe prox|mate company of at |east 2 persons.

10. use of uangerous urugs
a. lf person who has LesLed poslLlve ls also found ln
possesslon of dangerous drugs, he should be
prosecuLed under possesslon.
1sL convlcLlon - mlnlmum of 6 mos. of
rehablllLaLlon
2nd convlcLlon - lmprlsonmenL and flne
b. Where Lhe accused ls also found Lo be ln
possession of donqerous druqs, Lhls SecLlon shall
noL apply. Sec. 11, possesslon of dangerous drugs,
shall apply. Pence, u5 is subsumed by
PO5555lON.
Lx. lf Lhe offender ls caughL wlLh possesslon of
paraphernalla, possesslon of dangerous drugs
and use of dangerous drugs, Lhe offense ls
CSSLSSICN of dangerous drugs.

11. CulLlvaLlon or CulLure of planLs classlfled as dangerous
drugs or are sources Lhereof
a. ln case of medlcal laboraLorles, malnLalners and
oLher professlonals musL sLrlcLly follow Lhe
guldellnes for Lhe proper culLlvaLlon, culLure,
handllng, experlmenLaLlon, and dlsposal of such
planLs.
b. Land or greenhouses used shall be
conflscaLed ln favor of Lhe SLaLe, unless
Lhe owner proves lack of knowledge of
such culLlvaLlon or culLure desplLe Lhe
exerclse of due dlllgence.
c. Maxlmum penalLy ls applled lf land used
was of Lhe publlc domaln, or lf one acLed
as an organlzer, manager, or flnancler.



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 42 of 129
12. lallure Lo malnLaln or keep orlglnal records of
LransacLlons on uangerous urugs and/or conLrolled
precursors and essenLlal chemlcals.

13. unnecessary prescrlpLlon of dangerous drugs.
a. Appllcable Lo physlclans or oLher medlcal
pracLlLloners auLhorlzed Lo prescrlbe medlclne.
b. rescrlpLlon ls unnecessary when physlcal or
physlologlcal condlLlon does noL requlre Lhe
dosage prescrlbed.

14. unlawful prescrlpLlon of dangerous drugs
a. Appllcable Lo anyone who makes or lssues a
prescrlpLlon when he or she ls noL auLhorlzed by
law Lo do so.
b. WheLher person for whom eLh prescrlpLlon was
made acLually needed Lhe drug ls lrrelevanL.

A11LM1S CI 1nL ICLLCWING SnALL 8L UNISnLD 8
1nL SAML LNAL1 IMCSLD ICk 1nL CCNSUMMA1LD
ILLCN
1. lmporLaLlon of any dangerous drug or conLrolled
precursor and essenLlal chemlcal
2. Sale, Lradlng, admlnlsLraLlon, dlspensaLlon, dellvery,
dlsLrlbuLlon and LransporLaLlon of any dangerous drug
and/or conLrolled precursor and essenLlal chemlcal
3. MalnLenance of a den, dlve, or resorL where any
dangerous drug ls used ln any form
4. ManufacLure of any dangerous drug and/or conLrolled
precursor and essenLlal chemlcal
S. CulLlvaLlon or culLure of planLs whlch are sources of
dangerous drugs.

kLSCkI1ICN
1. 1he perlod of prescrlpLlon for Lhe offense charged
agalnsL a drug dependenL under Lhe compulsory
submlsslon program shall noL run durlng Lhe Llme LhaL
Lhe drug dependenL ls under conflnemenL ln a CenLer
or oLherwlse under Lhe LreaLmenL and rehablllLaLlon
program approved by Lhe board.

CCNDI1ICNS ICk LxLM1ICN IkCM CkIMINAL LIA8ILI1
UNDLk 1nL VCLUN1Ak SU8MISSICN kCGkAM
1. Pe/she has complled wlLh Lhe rules and regulaLlons of
Lhe rehablllLaLlon cenLer, lncludlng Lhe rules of Lhe
afLer-care and follow-up program
2. Pe/she has never been charged or convlcLed of any
offense punlshable under Lhe uangerous urug AcL, Lhe
8C, or oLher speclal penal laws.
3. Pe/she has no record of escape from a cenLer, or ln Lhe
evenL of an escape, he surrendered hlmself/herself
wlLhln a week.
4. Pe/she poses no serlous danger Lo hlmself/herself,
hls/her famlly or Lhe communlLy by hls/her exempLlon
from crlmlnal llablllLy.
S. Cther persons ||ab|e:
a. ubllc offlcer or employee who mlsapproprlaLes,
mlsapplles or falls Lo accounL for conflscaLed,
selzed, or surrendered dangerous drugs, planL
sources of dangerous drugs, conLrolled precursors
and essenLlal chemlcals,
lnsLrumenLs/paraphernalla and/or laboraLory
equlpmenL lncludlng Lhe proceeds or properLles
obLalned from Lhe unlawful acLs.
b. Any elecLlve local or naLlonal offlclal who have
beneflLed from Lhe proceeds of Lrafflcklng of
dangerous drugs or have recelved any
flnanclal/maLerlal conLrlbuLlons or donaLlons from
naLural or [urldlcal persons gullLy of drug
Lrafflcklng.
c. lf Lhe vlolaLlon of Lhe AcL ls commlLLed by a
parLnershlp, corporaLlon, assoclaLlon or any
[udlclal person, Lhe parLner, presldenL, dlrecLor, or
manager who consenLs Lo or knowlngly LoleraLes
such vlolaLlon shall be held crlmlnally llable as co-
prlnclpal.
d. Any person who ls found qollty of plootloq any
dangerous drugs and/or conLrolled precursor and
essenLlal chemlcals, regardless of quanLlLy or
purlLy (penalLy of deaLh).
e. Any person vlolaLlng a regulaLlon lssued by Lhe
uangerous urugs 8oard
f. Any person auLhorlzed Lo conducL drug LesL who
lssues false or fraudulenL drug LesL resulLs
knowlngly, wllfully or Lhrough gross negllgence.
g. Any governmenL offlcer Lasked wlLh Lhe
prosecuLlon of drug-relaLed cases under Lhls AcL
who delays or bungles Lhe prosecuLlon.

NC1L:
All school heads, supervlsors and Leachers shall be
deemed Lo be persons ln auLhorlLy and, as such, are
vesLed wlLh Lhe power Lo apprehend, arresL, or cause
Lhe apprehenslon or arresL of any person who shall
vlolaLe any of Lhe sald provlslon.
1hey shall be consldered as persons ln auLhorlLy lf Lhey
are ln Lhe school or wlLhln lLs lmmedlaLe vlclnlLy, or
beyond such lmmedlaLe vlclnlLy lf Lhey are ln
aLLendance ln any school or class funcLlon ln Lhelr
offlclal capaclLy as school heads, supervlsors or
Leachers.
Any Leacher or school employee who dlscovers or flnds
LhaL any person ln Lhe school or wlLhln lLs lmmedlaLe
vlclnlLy ls vlolaLlng Lhls AcL shall have Lhe duLy Lo reporL
Lhe vlolaLlon Lo Lhe school head or supervlsor who


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 43 of 129
shall, ln Lurn, reporL Lhe maLLer Lo Lhe proper
auLhorlLles.
lallure Lo reporL ln elLher case shall, afLer hearlng,
consLlLuLe sufflclenL cause for dlsclpllnary acLlon by Lhe
school auLhorlLles. (Sec. 44)


LND CI DISCUSSICN CN 1CIC
S. CkIMLS kLLA1IVL 1C CIUM AND C1nLk
kCnI8I1LD DkUGS


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 44 of 129

====================================================================================
6. Cr|mes Aga|nst ub||c Mora|s
====================================================================================
.D. 1602. kLSCkI8ING S1IIILk LNAL1ILS IN ILLLGAL GAM8LING
(kepeoleJ Att. 195-199 klc, lu 18J 8ettloq low, ooJ lu 119 cockflqbtloq low losofot os tbey ote locooslsteot wltb lt).
====================================================================================
1CICS UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US:
Chapter 1: Gamb||ng and 8ett|ng
D 1602
kA 9287
D 483
D 449

Chapter 2: Cffenses Aga|nst Decency and Good
Customs
D 1S63
====================================================================================

LNAL1 AC1S UNISnA8LL
ltlsloo cotteccloool,
medlum or flne ranglng
from 1,000 Lo 6,000

ln case of recldlvlsm:
ltlsloo moyot, medlum
or flne ranglng from
S,000 Lo 10,000

1. Any person who shall d|rect|y or |nd|rect|y takes part ln any lllegal or unauLhorlzed acLlvlLles or
games of:
a. CockflghLlng, [ueLeng, [al-alal or horse raclng Lo lnclude bookle operaLlons and game flxlng,
numbers, blngo and oLher forms of loLLerles
b. Cara y cruz, pomplang and Lhe llke
c. 7-11 and any game uslng dlce
d. 8lack [ack, lucky nlne, poker and lLs derlvaLlves, monLe, baccaraL, cua[o, panggulgue and
oLher card games
e. ak que, hlgh and low, mah[ong, domlno and oLher games uslng plasLlc Llles and Lhe llke
f. SloL machlnes, rouleLLe, plnball and oLher mechanlcal conLrapLlons and devlces
g. uog raclng, boaL raclng, car raclng and oLher forms of races
h. 8askeLball, boxlng, volleyball, bowllng, plngpong and oLher forms of lndlvldual or Leam
conLesLs Lo lnclude game flxlng, polnL shavlng and oLher machlnaLlons
l. 8anklng or percenLage game, or any oLher game or scheme, wheLher upon chance or sklll,
whereln wagers conslsLlng of money, arLlcles of value or represenLaLlve of value are aL
sLake or made
2. Any person who know|ng|y perm|ts any form of gambllng ln an lnhablLed or unlnhablLed place
or ln any bulldlng, vessel or oLher means of LransporLaLlon owned or conLrolled by hlm
ltlsloo cotteccloool
maxlmum, flne of
6,000
1. Any person who shall knowlngly permlL gambllng ln a place wlLh repuLaLlon of a gambllng place,
or LhaL prohlblLed gambllng ls frequenLly carrled on Lhereln, or ln a publlc or governmenL
bulldlng or barangay hall
2. MalnLalner or conducLor of above gambllng schemes
ltlsoo moyot, medlum,
wlLh Lemporary
absoluLe
dlsquallflcaLlon or flne
of 6,000
lf malnLalner, conducLor, banker of gambllng schemes, player, promoLer, referee, umplre, [udge
or coach ln case of game flxlng, polnL shavlng and machlnaLlon ls a governmenL offlclal
ltlsloo cotteccloool
medlum or flne 400 Lo
2,000
Any person who knowlngly and wlLhouL lawful purpose possess loLLery llsL, paper or oLher
maLLer conLalnlng leLLers, flgures, slgns or symbols perLalnlng Lo or ln any manner used ln
Lhe games of [ueLeng, [al-alal or horse raclng bookles, and slmllar games of loLLerles and
numbers whlch have Laken place or abouL Lo Lake place
1emporary absoluLe
dlsquallflcaLlon
8arangay offlclal who wlLh knowledge of exlsLence of gambllng house/place ln hls [urlsdlcLlon
falls Lo abaLe or Lake acLlon
ltlsloo cotteccloool
maxlmum or flne S00
Lo 2000
SecurlLy offlcer, waLchman, prlvaLe or house deLecLlve of hoLels, vlllages, bulldlngs, enclosures
and Lhe llke whlch have repuLaLlon of gambllng place or where gambllng acLlvlLles are belng
held


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 4S of 129
================================================
Chapter 1: Gamb||ng and 8ett|ng
================================================
GAM8LING - any game or scheme, wheLher upon chance or
sklll whereln wagers conslsLlng of money, arLlcles or value or
represenLaLlve of value are aL sLake or made

MAIN1AINLk - person who seLs up and furnlshes Lhe means
wlLh whlch Lo carry on Lhe gambllng game or scheme

CCNDUC1Ck - person who manages or carrles on Lhe
gambllng game or scheme

NC1L:
1. ln u 1602, playlng for money ls oot a necessary
elemenL Lo Lhe game for one Lo commlL a crlme. When
Lhe law names Lhe games, punlshlng any person who
Lakes parL Lhereln, lLs purpose ls Lo prohlblL absoluLely
Lhose games.
2. A mere bysLander or specLaLor ls noL crlmlnally llable
because he does noL dlrecLly or lndlrecLly Lake parL.
3. A game or scheme ls punlshable even lf wlnnlng
depends upon sklll as long as wagers (conslsLlng of
money, arLlcles of value or represenLaLlve of value) are
aL sLake or made.
4. roof LhaL game Look place or ls abouL Lo Lake place ls
noL necessary, burden of evldence ls shlfLed Lo accused
Lo show LhaL hls possesslon ls lawful or ls noL
connecLed wlLh [ueLeng game, buL proof Lo Lhe
conLrary by prosecuLlon ls necessary when [ueLeng llsLs
perLaln Lo games played on daLes oLher Lhan Lhe daLe
of Lhe rald.
S. u S19 has ouLlawed plnball and sloL machlnes and
oLher slmllar devlces and nulllfled all permlLs and/or
llcenses Lo operaLe Lhe same.

LLLMLN1S - kNCWINGL LkMI11ING GAM8LING 1C 8L
CAkkILD CN IN A LACL CWNLD Ck CCN1kCLLLD 8 1nL
CIILNDLk:
1. 1haL a gamb||ng game was carr|ed on ln an lnhablLed
or unlnhablLed place or ln any bulldlng, vessel or oLher
means of LransporLaLlon.
2. 1haL Lhe p|ace, bulldlng, vessel or oLher means of
LransporLaLlon ls owned or contro||ed by Lhe offender.
3. 1haL Lhe offender perm|tted Lhe carrylng on of such
game, knowlng LhaL lL ls a gambllng game.

LC11Lk - Scheme for Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of prlzes by cbooce
among persons who have pald, or agreed Lo pay a valuable
conslderaLlon for Lhe chance Lo obLaln a prlze.

LLLMLN1S - LC11Lk:
1. ConslderaLlon
2. Chance
3. rlze/advanLage/lnequallLy ln amounL or value whlch ls
ln Lhe naLure of prlze

NC1L: ln a cr|m|na| case (C|sen)
24
, Lhere ls no loLLery where
a person geLs Lhe full value for hls money, and Lhe wlnnlng
of prlce ls merely lncldenLal. 8uL ln a c|v|| case (L| Debate)
2S
,
lf Lhe lnducemenL Lo wln prlze ls Lhe reason for Lhe purchase
Lhen even lf full value for money ls recelved, lL ls sLlll loLLery.

ILLLGAL NUM8Lk GAMLS - any form of lllegal gambllng
acLlvlLy whlch uses numbers or comblnaLlons Lhereof as
facLors ln glvlng ouL [ackpoLs/prlzes/reLurns. lL lncludes
games such as [ueLeng and maslao.

NC1L: 8.A. 9287 lncreased penalLles for lllegal number
games, amendlng cerLaln provlslons of u 1602.

k.A. 9287
AC1 INCkLASING 1nL LNAL1ILS ICk ILLLGAL NUM8LkS
GAMLS

Ak1ICIA1ICN
LNAL1:
IMkISCNMLN1
AcLs as 8eLLor 30 - 90 days
AcLs as personnel or sLaff
Allows hls vehlcle, house,
bulldlng or land Lo be used
ln such operaLlon
6 yrs and 1 day - 8 yrs
AcLs as collecLor or agenL 8 yrs and 1 day - 10 yrs
AcLs as coordlnaLor,
conLroller or supervlsor
10 yrs and 1 day - 12 yrs
AcLs as malnLalner,
manager or operaLor
12 yrs and 1 day - 14 yrs
AcLs as flnancler or
caplLallsL
14 yrs and 1 day - 16 yrs
AcLs as flnancler or coddler 16 yrs and 1 day - 18 yrs

GCVLkNMLN1 CIIICIAL
AND]Ck LMLCLL
LNAL1
lf collecLor, agenL,
coordlnaLor, conLroller,
supervlsor, malnLalner,
manager, operaLor,
flnancler or caplLallsL
1. 12 yrs and 1 day - 20
yrs
2. llne: 3M - SM
3. erpeLual and absoluLe
dlsquallflcaLlon from
publlc offlce
Local CovernmenL Cfflclal:
Pavlng know|edge of
exlsLence of Lhe operaLlon
wlLhln hls [urlsdlcLlon buL
falls Lo abaLe or Lake acLlon,
or to|erates Lhe same
erpeLual and absoluLe
dlsquallflcaLlon from publlc
offlce

21
u5 v. Olseo J6 lbll. J95
25
l uebote v. 1opoclo 11 lbll. 280


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 46 of 129
Law Lnforcer: lalls Lo
apprehend perpeLraLors
AdmlnlsLraLlve enalLy:
Suspenslon or ulsmlssal

Ak1. 196. IMCk1A1ICN, SALL AND CSSLSSICN CI
LC11Lk 1ICkL1S Ck ADVLk1ISLMLN1S

AC1S UNISnA8LL:
1. 8y |mport|ng lnLo Lhe hlllpplnes from any forelgn
place or porL any loLLery LlckeL or adverLlsemenL.
2. 8y se|||ng or d|str|but|ng Lhe same ln conn|vance w|th
the |mporter.
3. 8y possess|ng, know|ng|y and w|th |ntent to use,
loLLery LlckeLs or adverLlsemenLs.
4. 8y se|||ng or d|str|but|ng the same w|thout conn|vance
wlLh Lhe lmporLer.

NC1LS:
1he possesslon of any loLLery LlckeL or adverLlsemenL ls
ptlmo focle evldence of lnLenL Lo sell, dlsLrlbuLe or use
Lhe same.
1he loLLery LlckeLs need noL be genulne, as long as Lhey
have Lhe appearance Lhereof.

.D. No. 483
8L11ING, GAML-IIxING Ck CIN1-SnAVING AND
MACnINA1ICNS IN SCk1 CCN1LS1S
(kepeoleJ Att. 197)

8L11ING - beLLlng money or any ob[ecL or arLlcle of value or
represenLaLlve of value upon Lhe resulL of any game, races
and oLher sporLs conLesLs
GAML-IIxING - any arrangemenL, comblnaLlon, scheme or
agreemenL by whlch Lhe resulL of any game, races or sporLs
conLesLs shall be predlcLed and/or knows oLher Lhan on Lhe
basls of Lhe honesL playlng sklll or ablllLy of Lhe players or
parLlclpanLs
CIN1-SnAVING - any such arrangemenL, comblnaLlon,
scheme or agreemenL by whlch Lhe sklll of ablllLy of any
player or parLlclpanL ln a game, races or sporLs conLesLs Lo
make polnLs or scores shall be llmlLed dellberaLely ln order
Lo lnfluence Lhe resulL Lhereof ln favor of one or Lhe oLher
Leam, player or parLlclpanL Lhereln
GAML MACnINA1ICN - any oLher fraudulenL, decelLful,
unfalr or dlshonesL means, meLhod, manner or pracLlce
employed for Lhe purpose of lnfluenclng Lhe resulL of any
game, races or sporLs conLesLs






Ak1. 198. ILLLGAL 8L11ING CN nCkSL kACLS

AC1S UNISnLD: (DUkING LkICDS NC1 ALLCWLD 8
LAW)
1. 8y bett|ng on horse races
2. 8y ma|nta|n|ng or emp|oy|ng a tota||zer or oLher devlce
or scheme for beLLlng on races or reallzlng proflL
Lherefrom.

1C1ALI2Lk - machlne for reglsLerlng and lndlcaLlng Lhe
number and naLure of beLs made on horse races.

NC1L:
1he penalLy ls hlgher for a person who employs a
LoLallzer or oLher devlce.
Porse races are noL allowed on: (a) !une 12Lh of each
year, (b) uec 30Lh of each year, (c) Any reglsLraLlon or
voLlng days and (d) Poly 1hursday and Cood lrlday.
1he race held on Lhe same day and aL Lhe same place ls
punlshable as a separaLe offense.
no llablllLy lf Lhere ls no beLLlng or use of LoLallzer.

.D. 449
CCCkIIGn1ING LAW of 1974
(kepeoleJ Att. 199)

nCLDING CI CCCkIIGn1S - CockflghLlng shall be allowed
only ln llcensed cockplLs durlng:
1. Sundays
2. Legal Polldays
3. uurlng local flesLas for noL more Lhan 3 days
4. rovlnclal, clLy or munlclpal agrlculLure, commerclal or
lndusLrlal falr, carnlval or exposlLlon for a slmllar perlod
of Lhree days upon resoluLlon, sub[ecL Lo approval of
Chlef of ConsLabulary or hls auLhorlzed
represenLaLlve-noL allowed wlLhln monLh of local
flesLa of for more Lhan Lwo occaslons a year ln same
clLy or munlclpallLy
S. xcP1: uecember 30, !une 12, november 30, Poly
1hursday, Cood lrlday, LlecLlon or 8eferendum uay
and durlng 8eglsLraLlon uays for such elecLlon or
referendum

CCCkIIGn1ING ICk LN1Lk1AINMLN1 CI 1CUkIS1S Ck
ICk CnAkI1A8LL UkCSLS: Chlef of ConsLabulary or hls
auLhorlzed represenLaLlve may also allow Lhe holdlng of
cockflghLlng for:
1. LnLerLalnmenL of forelgn dlgnlLarles
2. 1ourlsLs
3. 8allkbayan
4. lor supporL of naLlonal fund-ralslng campalgns for
charlLable purposes as may be auLhorlzed by Lhe Cfflce
of Lhe resldenL, upon resoluLlon of a provlnclal board,
clLy or munlclpal councll


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 47 of 129

NC1L:
1. ermlLLlng gambllng of any klnd ln cockplL ls punlshed
under Lhe same uecree (Cwner, manger or lessee of
cockplL LhaL permlLs gambllng shall be crlmlnally llable)
2. SpecLaLors ln cockflghL are noL llable unless he
parLlclpaLes as beLLor.
3. 8eLLlng ln Porse 8aces ls allowed durlng perlods
provlded by law buL beLLlng ln cockflghLs ls prohlblLed
aL all Llmes.


================================================
Chapter 2: Cffenses Aga|nst Decency and Good
Customs
================================================

Ak1. 200. GkAVL SCANDAL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender performs an act]s,
2. 1haL such acL/s be h|gh|y scanda|ous as offendlng
aga|nst decency or good cusLoms,
3. 1haL Lhe hlghly scandalous conducL does not express|y
fa|| wlLhln any oLher arLlcle of Lhe 8C, and
4. 1haL Lhe acL/s complalned of be commlLLed ln a pub||c
p|ace or wlLhln Lhe pub||c know|edge or vlew.

GkAVL SCANDAL - conslsLs of acLs whlch are offenslve Lo
decency and good cusLoms whlch, havlng been commlLLed
publlcly and Lhus, glve rlse Lo publlc scandal Lo persons who
have accldenLally wlLnessed Lhe acLs.

DLCLNC - proprleLy of conducL, proper observance of Lhe
requlremenL of modesLy, good LasLe, eLc.

CUS1CMS - esLabllshed usage, soclal convenLlons carrled on
by LradlLlon and enforced by soclal dlsapproval of any
vlolaLlon Lhereof

NC1L:
1he publlc vlew ls noL requlred. lL ls sufflclenL lf
commlLLed ln publlc place.
lor belng commlLLed wlLhln Lhe publlc knowledge, lL
may occur even ln a prlvaLe place, Lhe number of
people who sees lL ls noL maLerlal, excepL when seen by
only one oLher person aL nlghL, Lhus negaLlng Lhe
degree of publlclLy requlred.
1he essence of grave scandal ls publlclLy and LhaL Lhe
acLs commlLLed are noL only conLrary Lo morals and
good cusLoms buL musL llkewlse be of such characLer as
Lo cause publlc scandal Lo Lhose wlLnesslng lL.


Ak1. 201. IMMCkAL DCC1kINLS, C8SCLNL U8LICA1ICNS
AND LxnI8I1ICNS AND INDLCLN1 SnCWS

LkSCNS LIA8LL:
1. 1hose who pub||c|y expound or proc|a|m doctr|nes
open|y contrary Lo publlc morals.
2. AuLhors of obscene ||terature, publlshed wlLh Lhelr
knowledge ln any form.
3. Ld|tors pub||sh|ng such obscene llLeraLure.
4. Cwners or operaLors of esLabllshmenLs se|||ng obscene
||terature.
S. 1hose who exh|b|t |ndecent or lmmoral plays, scenes,
acLs or shows ln LheaLers, falrs, clnemas or any oLher
place.
6. 1hose who se||, d|str|bute, or exh|b|t pr|nts, engravlng,
sculpLures or llLeraLure, whlch are offenslve Lo morals.

"C8SCLNL LI1LkA1UkL Ck IMMCkAL Ck INDLCLN1 LAS,
SCLNLS Ck AC1S":
1. 1hose w/c glorlfy crlmlnals or condone crlmes,
2. 1hose w/c serve no oLher purpose buL Lo saLlsfy Lhe
markeL for vlolence, lusL or pornography,
3. 1hose w/c offend agalnsL any race or rellglon,
4. 1hose w/c Lend Lo abeL Lhe Lrafflc and Lhe use of
prohlblLed drugs, and
S. 1hose LhaL are conLrary Lo law, publlc order, morals,
good cusLoms, esLabllshed pollcles, lawful orders,
decrees and edlcLs.

1LS1 CI C8SCLNI1:
WheLher Lhe Lendency of Lhe maLLer has a Lendency Lo
deprave or corrupL Lhose whose mlnds are open Lo such
lmmoral lnfluences. A maLLer can also be consldered
obscene lf lL shocks Lhe ordlnary and common sense of men
as lndecency.
26


C8SCLNL - someLhlng offenslve Lo chasLlLy, decency or
dellcacy

NC1L:
ubllclLy ls an essenLlal elemenL.
Mere nudlLy ln palnLlngs and plcLures ls noL obscene.
lcLures w/ sllghL degree of obscenlLy havlng no arLlsLlc
value and belng lnLended for commerclal purposes fall
wlLhln Lhls arLlcle.
1he auLhor of obscene llLeraLure ls llable only when lL ls
publlshed wlLh hls knowledge. And ln every case, Lhe
edlLor publlshlng lL, ls llable.
1he purpose of Lhe law ln punlshlng obscene
publlcaLlons and exhlblLlons ls Lo proLecL Lhe morals of
Lhe publlc.


26
u5 v. kottloqet, 15 lbll. J52


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 48 of 129
Ak1. 202. VAGkAN1S AND kCS1I1U1LS
Note: 8.A. 101S8 has decrlmlnalalzed vagrancy by amendlng
ArL. 202 Lo punlsh prosLlLuLles only. upon effecLlvlLy, all
pendlng cases shall be dlsmlssed, and all Lhose servlng Llme
for vagrancy shall be released.

kCS1I1U1LS - Women who hablLually lndulge ln (1) sexual
lnLercourse or (2) lasclvlous conducL, for money or proflL.

SI1UA1ICN CkIML
lf fenced and wlLh
prohlblLlon of enLry
1respass 1o uwelllng
lf lfenced and enLered Lo
hunL/flsh
ALLempLed 1hefL
lf nnoL fenced and wlLh no
prohlblLlon of enLry
vagrancy

.D. 1S63.
MLNDICANC LAW CI 1978

LkSCNS LIA8LL:
1. MLnulCAn1 MLNDICAN1 - 1hose wlLh no vlslble and
legal means of supporL, or lawful employmenL and
physlcally able Lo work buL neglecLs Lo apply hlmself Lo
lawful calllng and lnsLead uses begglng as means of
llvlng (hlgher penalLy lf convlcLed 2 or more Llmes)
2. Any person who abets mend|cancy by glvlng alms on
publlc roads, sldewalks, parks and brldges excepL lf
glven Lhrough organlzed agencles operaLlng under
regulaLlons of MlnlsLry of ubllc lnformaLlon

NC1L:
1. Clvlng alms Lhrough organlzed agencles operaLlng
under Lhe rules and regulaLlons of Lhe MlnlsLry of ubllc
lnformaLlon ls noL a vlolaLlon of Lhe Mendlcancy Law.
2. A vagranL wlLhouL vlslble means of supporL may
become a mendlcanL lf he uses begglng as a means of
llvlng.
3. Under k.A. 9344 persons be|ow e|ghteen (18) years of
age shall be exempL from prosecuLlon for Lhe crlme of
vagrancy and prosLlLuLlon under SecLlon 202 of Lhe
8evlsed enal Code, of mendlcancy under resldenLlal
uecree no. 1S63, and snlfflng of rugby under
resldenLlal uecree no. 1619, such prosecuLlon belng
lnconslsLenL wlLh Lhe unlLed naLlons ConvenLlon on Lhe
8lghLs of Lhe Chlld.

LND CI DISCUSSICN CN 1CIC
6. CkIMLS AGAINS1 U8LIC MCkALS




=======================================
7. Cr|mes Comm|tted by ub||c Cff|cers
=================================
1CICS UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US:

Chapter 1: re||m|nary rov|s|ons
Chapter 2: Ma|feasance and M|sfeasance |n Cff|ce
Sec. 1 - Dere||ct|on of Duty
Sec. 2 - 8r|bery
kA 3019
kA 7080
kA 9372
Chapter 3: Irauds and I||ega| Lxact|ons and
1ransact|ons
Chapter 4: Ma|versat|on of ub||c Iunds or
roperty
Chapter S: Inf|de||ty of ub||c Cff|cers
Sec. 1 - Inf|de||ty |n the custody of pr|soners
Sec. 2 - Inf|de||ty |n the custody of document
Sec. 3 - keve|at|on of secrets
Chapter 6: Cther Cffenses or Irregu|ar|t|es by
ub||c Cff|cers
Sec. 1 - D|sobed|ence, refusa| of ass|stance, and
ma|treatment of pr|soners
Sec. 2 - Ant|c|pat|on, pro|ongat|on and
abandonment of the dut|es and powers of
pub||c off|ce
Sec. 3 - Usurpat|on of powers and un|awfu|
appo|ntments
Sec. 4 Abuses aga|nst chast|ty
===============================================
Chapter 1: re||m|nary rov|s|ons
===============================================

Ak1. 203. WnC AkL U8LIC CIIICLkS

kLUISI1LS:
1o be a publlc offlcer, one musL be -
1. 1aklng parL ln Lhe performance of publlc funcLlons ln
Lhe CovernmenL, or performlng publlc duLles as an
employee, agenL or subordlnaLe offlclal, of any rank or
class, ln Lhe governmenL or any of lLs branches, and
2. 1haL hls auLhorlLy Lo Lake parL ln Lhe performance of
publlc funcLlons or Lo perform publlc duLles musL be -
a. 8y dlrecL provlslon of Lhe law, or
b. 8y popular elecLlon, or
c. 8y appolnLmenL by compeLenL auLhorlLy.



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 49 of 129
NC1L:
ubllc offlcers lnclude every publlc servanL from Lhe
lowesL Lo Lhe hlghesL rank provlded LhaL Lhey exerclse
publlc funcLlons.
A governmenL laborer ls noL a publlc offlcer. Powever,
Lemporary performance by a laborer of publlc funcLlons
makes hlm a publlc offlcer.

================================================
Chapter 2: Ma|feasance and M|sfeasance |n Cff|ce
================================================

MALILASANCL erformance of some acL whlch
oughL noL Lo be done
MISILASANCL lmproper performance of some acL
whlch mlghL lawfully be done
NCNILASANCL Cmlsslon of an acL whlch oughL Lo be
performed


MISILASANCL:
1. knowlngly renderlng un[usL [udgmenL
2. 8enderlng [udgmenL Lhrough negllgence
3. 8enderlng un[usL lnLerlocuLory order
4. Mallclous delay ln Lhe admlnlsLraLlon of [usLlce

NCNILASANCL:
1. uerellcLlon of duLy ln prosecuLlon of offenses

MALILASANCL:
1. ulrecL brlbery
2. lndlrecL brlbery

SLC1ICN 1. - DLkLLIC1ICN CI DU1

Ak1. 204. kNCWINGL kLNDLkING AN UNIUS1 IUDGMLN1

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a [udge,
2. 1haL he renders a [udgment ln Lhe case submlLLed Lo
hlm for declslon,
3. 1haL Lhe [udgmenL |s un[ust, and
4. 1haL Lhe [udge knows that the dec|s|on ls un[usL.

NC1L:
A [udgment ls a flnal conslderaLlon and deLermlnaLlon
by a courL of compeLenL [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe lssues
submlLLed Lo lL ln an acLlon or proceedlng.
An un[ust [udgment ls one whlch ls conLrary Lo law, or
noL supporLed by Lhe evldence, or boLh.
no llablllLy lf error ln good falLh
An un[usL [udgmenL may resulL from:
1. Lrror (w/ bad fa|th)
2. I||-w||| or revenge
3. 8r|bery
1here musL be evldence LhaL Lhe declslon rendered ls
un[usL. lL ls noL presumed.
Abuse of dlscreLlon or mere error of [udgmenL coooot
llkewlse serve as basls for renderlng an un[usL [udgmenL
ln Lhe absence of proof or an allegaLlon of bad falLh.

Ak1. 20S. IUDGMLN1 kLNDLkLD 1nkCUGn NLGLIGLNCL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a [udge,
2. 1haL he renders [udgmenL ln a case subm|tted Lo hlm
for declslon,
3. 1haL Lhe [udgmenL ls monifest/y un[ust, and
4. 1haL lL ls due to |nexcusab|e neg||gence or lgnorance.

MANIILS1L UNIUS1 IUDGMLN1 - manlfesLly conLrary Lo
law LhaL even a person havlng meager knowledge of law
cannoL doubL Lhe ln[usLlce.

Ak1. 206. UNIUS1 IN1LkLCCU1Ck CkDLk

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a [udge, and
2. 1haL he performs any of Lhe followlng acLs:
a. know|ng|y renders an un[usL lnLerlocuLory order
or decree, or
b. 8enders a man|fest|y un[ust |nter|ocutory order or
decree Lhrough |nexcusab|e neg||gence or
lgnorance.

IN1LkLCCU1Ck CkDLk - one lssued by Lhe courL decldlng
a collaLeral or lncldenLal maLLer, lL ls noL a flnal
deLermlnaLlon of Lhe lssues of Lhe acLlon or proceedlng

Ak1. 207. MALICICUS DLLA IN 1nL ADMINIS1kA1ICN CI
IUS1ICL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a [udge,
2. 1haL Lhere ls a proceed|ng |n h|s court,
3. 1haL he de|ays the adm|n|strat|on of [usLlce, and
4. 1haL Lhe delay ls ma||c|ous, LhaL ls, Lhe delay ls caused
by Lhe [udge wlLh dellberaLe lnLenL Lo lnfllcL damage on
elLher parLy ln Lhe case.

NC1L: Mere delay wlLhouL mallce ls noL punlshable.

Ak1. 208. kCSLCU1ICN CI CIILNSLS, NLGLIGLNCL AND
1CLLkANCL

AC1S UNISnA8LL:
1. 8y ma||c|ous|y refra|n|ng from lnsLlLuLlng prosecuLlon
agalnsL vlolaLors of Lhe law


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S0 of 129
2. 8y mallclously to|erat|ng Lhe commlsslon of offenses

LLLMLN1S CI DLkLLIC1ICN CI DU1 IN 1nL kCSLCU1ICN
CI CIILNSLS:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or offlcer of Lhe law
who has a duLy Lo cause Lhe prosecuLlon of, or Lo
prosecuLe offenses,
2. 1haL Lhere ls derellcLlon of Lhe duLles of hls offlce, LhaL
ls, knowlng Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, he does noL
cause Lhe prosecuLlon of Lhe crlmlnal or knowlng LhaL a
crlme ls abouL Lo be commlLLed he LoleraLes lLs
commlsslon,
3. 1haL Lhe offender acLs wlLh mallce and dellberaLe
lnLenL Lo favor Lhe vlolaLor of Lhe law.

NC1L:
1. kLVAkICACICN ls Lhe negllgence and Lolerance ln Lhe
prosecuLlon of an offense.
2. 1here musL be a duLy on Lhe parL of Lhe publlc offlcer Lo
prosecuLe or move for Lhe prosecuLlon of Lhe offender.
Powever, a flscal ls under no compulslon Lo flle an
lnformaLlon based upon a complalnL lf he ls convlnced
LhaL Lhe evldence before hlm ls lnsufflclenL Lo warranL
flllng an acLlon ln courL.
3. 1he crlme musL be proved flrsL before an offlcer can be
convlcLed of derellcLlon of duLy. lf Lhe gullL of Lhe law-
vlolaLor ls noL proved, Lhe person charged wlLh Lhe
derellcLlon of duLy ls noL llable.
4. Mallclously" slgnlfles dellberaLe evll lnLenL, a
derellcLlon of duLy caused by poor [udgmenL or honesL
mlsLake ls noL punlshable.
S. A publlc offlcer who harbors, conceals, or asslsLs ln Lhe
escape of an offender, when lL ls hls duLy Lo prosecuLe
hlm, ls llable as prlnclpal ln Lhe crlme of derellcLlon of
duLy ln Lhe prosecuLlon of offenses. Pe ls noL an
accessory.
6. lf glfL/promlse ls a conslderaLlon for hls conducL, crlme
ls dlrecL brlbery.

Ak1. 209. 8L1kAAL CI 1kUS1 8 AN A11CkNL Ck
SCLICI1Ck - kLVLLA1ICN CI SLCkL1S

AC1S UNISnA8LL:
1. Causlng damage Lo cllenL elLher
a. 8y any ma||c|ous breach of professlonal duLy, or
b. 8y |nexcusab|e neg||gence or lgnorance.
- uamage ls necessary
2. kevea||ng any of the secrets of h|s c||ent learned by
hlm ln hls professlonal capaclLy.
- uamage ls nC1 necessary.
3. Undertak|ng the defense of Lhe opposlng parLy ln Lhe
same case, wlLhouL Lhe consenL of hls 1sL cllenL, afLer
havlng underLaken Lhe defense of a cllenL or havlng
recelved confldenLlal lnformaLlon from sald cllenL.

SLC1ICN 2. - 8kI8Lk

Ak1. 210. DIkLC1 8kI8Lk

AC1S UNISnA8LL:
1. 8y agree|ng Lo perform, or by perform|ng, ln
conslderaLlon of any offer, promlse, glfL or presenL- an
act const|tut|ng a cr|me, ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe
performance of hls offlclal duLles
- AccepLance of Lhe offer or promlse ls enough
Lo consummaLe Lhe crlme. lf Lhe offer ls noL
accepLed, only Lhe person offerlng Lhe glfL ls
llable for aLLempLed corrupLlon of a publlc
offlcer.
- glfL musL have a value or be capable of
pecunlary esLlmaLlon. lL could be ln Lhe form
of money, properLy or servlces.
2. 8y accept|ng a glfL ln conslderaLlon of Lhe execuLlon of
an act wh|ch does not const|tute a cr|me ln connecLlon
wlLh Lhe performance of hls offlclal duLy
3. 8y agree|ng to refra|n, or by refra|n|ng, from do|ng
someth|ng wh|ch |t |s h|s off|c|a| duty to do, ln
conslderaLlon of a glfL or promlse

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender be a pub||c off|cer,
2. 1haL Lhe offender accepts an offer or prom|se or
recelves a glfL or presenL by hlmself or Lhrough
anoLher,
3. 1haL such offer or promlse be accepLed or glfL/presenL
rece|ved by Lhe publlc offlcer -
a. WlLh a vlew Lo commlLLlng some crlme, C8
b. ln conslderaLlon of an execuLlon of an acL whlch
does noL consLlLuLe a crlme, buL Lhe acL musL be
un[usL, C8
c. 1o refraln from dolng someLhlng whlch ls hls
offlclal duLy Lo do,
4. 1haL Lhe acL whlch Lhe offender agrees Lo perform or
whlch he executes be connected w|th the performance
of hls offlclal duLles.

1LMCkAk LkICkMANCL CI U8LIC IUNC1ICNS MAkL
1nL LkSCN A U8LIC CIIICLk

lor purposes of Lhls arLlcle, Lemporary performance of
publlc funcLlons ls sufflclenL Lo consLlLuLe a person a publlc
offlcer. A prlvaLe person may commlL Lhls crlme only ln Lhe
case ln whlch cusLody of prlsoners ls enLrusLed Lo hlm

8kI8Lk LxIS1S WnLN 1nL GII1 IS:
1. volunLarlly offered by a prlvaLe person
2. SollclLed by Lhe publlc offlcer and volunLarlly dellvered
by Lhe prlvaLe person


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S1 of 129
3. SollclLed by Lhe publlc offlcer buL Lhe prlvaLe person
dellvers lL ouL of fear of Lhe consequences should Lhe
publlc offlcer perform hls funcLlons. 1he crlme by Lhe
glver ls noL corrupLlon of publlc offlclals due Lo hls
lnvolunLarlness.

DIkLC1 8kI8Lk, 3
kD
ar. kLVAkICACICN
8oLh conslsL of omlsslons Lo do an acL requlred Lo be
performed.
A g|ft or prom|se ls glven ln
conslderaLlon of Lhe
omlsslon
Not necessary

ADDI1ICNAL LLLMLN1
ICUk1n LLLMLN1: 1he acL whlch Lhe publlc offlcer agrees
Lo perform musL be connected w|th the performance of
off|c|a| dut|es. lL ls enough LhaL Lhe acL ls parL of Lhe
esLabllshed procedure of a governmenLal agency.

8kI8Lk (Ak1. 210) kC88Lk (Ak1. 294)
When Lhe vlcLlm has
commlLLed a crlme and glves
money/glfL Lo avold arresL or
prosecuLlon.
When Lhe vlcLlm dld noL
commlL a crlme and he ls
lnLlmldaLed wlLh arresL
and/or prosecuLlon Lo
deprlve hlm of hls
personal properLy.
vlcLlm parLs wlLh hls money or
properLy volunLarlly.
vlcLlm ls deprlved of hls
money or properLy by
force or lnLlmldaLlon.

Ak1. 211. INDIkLC1 8kI8Lk

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer,
2. 1haL he accepts g|fts, and
3. 1haL Lhe sald glfLs are offered Lo hlm by reason of hls
offlce.

NC1L:
1he arLlcle uses Lhe words glfL" and noL promlse,"
and accepL", noL [usL recelve".
1he glfL ls glven ln anLlclpaLlon of fuLure favor from Lhe
publlc offlcer.
1here musL be clear lnLenLlon on Lhe parL of Lhe publlc
offlcer Lo Lake Lhe glfL offered and conslder Lhe
properLy as hls own for LhaL momenL. Mere physlcal
recelpL unaccompanled by any oLher slgn, clrcumsLance
or acL Lo show such accepLance ls noL sufflclenL Lo
convlcL Lhe offlcer.
1here ls no attempted or frustrated |nd|rect br|bery.

DIkLC1 8kI8Lk INDIkLC1 8kI8Lk
ln boLh, publlc offlcer recelves a glfL.
1here ls an agreement usually no such agreemenL.
beLween Lhe publlc offlcer
and Lhe glver.
Cfflcer agrees Lo perform or
refraln from dolng an act.
Not necessary LhaL Lhe
offlcer do an acL, as long as
he accepLs glfLs by reason of
hls offlce.

Ak1. 211-A. UALIIILD 8kI8Lk

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer entrusted w|th law
enforcemenL,
2. 1haL he refra|ns from arresLlng/ prosecuLlng an
offender for crlme punlshable by rec/usion perpetuo
ooJ/ot Jeotb and
3. In cons|derat|on of any offer, promlse or glfL.

Ak1. 212. CCkkU1ICN CI U8LIC CIIICIALS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender makes offers or prom|ses or g|ves
g|fts or presents Lo a publlc offlcer, and
2. 1haL Lhe offers or promlses are made or Lhe glfLs or
presenLs glven Lo a publlc offlcer, under clrcumsLances
LhaL wlll make the pub||c off|cer ||ab|e for d|rect
br|bery or |nd|rect br|bery.

NC1L:
1he offender ls Lhe glver of Lhe glfL or Lhe offeror of Lhe
promlse. 1he acL may or may noL be accompllshed.
under D 749, glvers of brlbes and oLher glfLs as well as
accompllces ln brlbery and oLher grafL cases are
lmmooe from prosecuLlon lf Lhey volunLarlly glve any
lnformaLlon abouL any commlsslon of dlrecL, lndlrecL,
and quallfled brlbery, and any corrupLlon of publlc
offlclals, ptovlJeJ tbot:
1. 1he lnformaLlon musL refer Lo consummaLed
vlolaLlons of any of Lhe above-menLloned
provlslons of law, rules and regulaLlons
2. lnformaLlon and LesLlmony are necessary for Lhe
convlcLlon of Lhe accused publlc offlcer,
3. Such lnformaLlon and LesLlmony are noL ln
possesslon of Lhe SLaLe.
4. Such lnformaLlon and LesLlmony can be
corroboraLed on lLs maLerlal polnLs
S. lnformanL or wlLness has noL been prevlously
convlcLed of a crlme lnvolvlng moral LurplLude

k.A. NC. 3019
AN1I-GkAI1 AND CCkkU1 kAC1ICLS AC1

U8LIC CIIICLk - elecLlve and appolnLlve offlclals and
employees, permanenL or Lemporary, wheLher ln Lhe
classlfled or unclasslfled or exempL servlce recelvlng


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S2 of 129
compensaLlon, even nomlnal, from Lhe governmenL

kLCLIVING AN GII1 - lncludes Lhe acL of accepLlng dlrecLly
or lndlrecLly a glfL from a person oLher Lhan a member of
Lhe publlc offlcer's lmmedlaLe famlly, ln behalf of hlmself or
of any member of hls famlly or relaLlve wlLhln Lhe fourLh
clvll degree, elLher by consangulnlLy or afflnlLy, even on Lhe
occaslon of a famlly celebraLlon or naLlonal fesLlvlLy llke
ChrlsLmas, lf Lhe value of Lhe glfL ls under Lhe clrcumsLances
manlfesLly excesslve.

LkSCNS LIA8LL:

1. Any pub||c off|cer who shall perform any of Lhe followlng
acLs:

a. ersuad|ng, |nduc|ng or |nf|uenc|ng anoLher publlc offlcer
Lo perform an acL consLlLuLlng a v|o|at|on of ru|es and
regu|at|ons duly promulgaLed by compeLenL auLhorlLy or an
offense ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe offlclal duLles of Lhe laLLer, or
allowlng hlmself Lo be persuaded, lnduced, or lnfluenced Lo
commlL such vlolaLlon or offense.

NC1L: ersuaslon need noL be successful. 1he gravamen of
Lhe offense ls Lhe persuaslon.

b. ulrecLly or lndlrecLly request|ng or rece|v|ng any g|ft,
present, share, percentage, or benef|t for hlmself or for any
oLher person ln connecLlon wlLh any contract or transact|on
beLween Lhe governmenL and any oLher parLy whereln Lhe
pub||c off|cer |n h|s off|c|a| capac|ty has to |ntervene under
Lhe law.

c. ulrecLly, or lndlrecLly request|ng or rece|v|ng any g|ft,
present, or other pecun|ary or mater|a| benef|t, for hlmself
or for anoLher, from any person for whom Lhe publlc offlcer,
ln any manner or capaclLy, has secured or obLalned, or wlll
secure or obLaln, any CovernmenL perm|t or ||cense, ln
conslderaLlon for Lhe help glven or Lo be glven.

d. AccepLlng or havlng any member of hls fomlly accept
emp|oyment ln a ptlvote enLerprlse whlch has pendlng
offlclal buslness wlLh hlm durlng Lhe pendency Lhereof or
wlLhln ooe yeot afLer lLs LermlnaLlon.

NC1L: 1he acL ls molo ptoblblto.

e. Causlng any undue |n[ury to any party, lncludlng Lhe
CovernmenL, or glvlng any prlvaLe parLy any unwarranted
benef|ts, advantage, or preference ln Lhe dlscharge of hls
offlclal, admlnlsLraLlve or [udlclal funcLlon Lhrough moolfest
parLlallLy, evlJeot bad falLh or qtoss loexcosoble negllgence.
1hls provlslon shall apply Lo offlcers and employees of
offlces or governmenL corporaLlons charged wlLh Lhe granL
of llcenses or permlLs or oLher concesslons.

NC1L:
- 1he besL defense ls LhaL Lhe parLlallLy was noL manlfesL.
1haL Lhe parLlallLy ls manlfesL ls a heavy burden on Lhe
prosecuLlon. (!usLlce eralLa).
- AnoLher defense ls Lhe Arlas docLrlne
27
. 1he defense
applles ln a case where Lhe accused ls an approvlng
offlcer and ls on Lrlal for slgnlng an un[usL conLracL.
1he defense ls LhaL Lhe approvlng offlcer relled on
Lhe prlor slgnaLures of hls subordlnaLes and had no
reason Lo suspecL wrong-dolng and was swamped
wlLh a loL of documenLs on LhaL day LhaL he slgned.
- 1here ls no aLLempLed or frusLraLed sLage of Lhe crlme
deflned ln Sec. 3(e) of 8.A. no. 3019.

f. Neg|ect|ng or refus|ng, afLer due demand or requesL,
wlLhouL sufflclenL [usLlflcaLlon, to act w|th|n a reasonab|e
t|me on any matter pend|ng before h|m for Lhe purpose of
obta|n|ng dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, from any person lnLeresLed
ln Lhe maLLer some pecun|ary or mater|a| benef|L or
advanLage, or for Lhe purpose of favorlng hls own lnLeresL or
glvlng undue advanLage ln favor of or dlscrlmlnaLlng agalnsL
any oLher lnLeresLed parLy.

g. LnLerlng, on behalf of Lhe CovernmenL, lnLo any contract
or transact|on monifest/y ond qross/y d|sadvantageous Lo
Lhe same, wbetbet ot oot tbe pobllc offlcet ptoflteJ ot wlll
ptoflt Lhereby.

NC1L: ln deLermlnlng wheLher Lhe conLracL was manlfesLly
and grossly dlsadvanLageous, lL ls noL merely conslderaLlon
of Lhe pecunlary amounL lnvolved. (!usLlce eralLa)

h. ulrecLly or lndlrecLly havlng f|nanc|a| or pecun|ary
|nterest |n any bus|ness, contract or transact|on ln
connecLlon wlLh whlch he |ntervenes or take part ln hls
offlclal capaclLy, or ln whlch he ls proh|b|ted by the
const|tut|on or by any law from havlng any lnLeresL.

NC1L:
- AcLual lnLervenLlon ls requlred.
- under Lhe Code of rofesslonal ConducL, Lhe publlc
offlcer MuS1 dlvesL hls lnLeresL.

l. ulrecLly or lndlrecLly becomlng lnLeresLed, for personal
galn, or havlng a maLerlal lnLeresL ln any LransacLlon or acL
requlrlng Lhe approva| of a board, pane|, or group of wh|ch
he |s a member, and whlch exerclses dlscreLlon ln such
approval, eveo lf be votes oqolost tbe some ot Joes oot
pottlclpote ln Lhe acLlon of Lhe board, commlLLee, panel or
group.
lnLeresL for personal galn shall be presumed
agalnsL Lhose publlc offlcers responslble for Lhe

27
Atlos v. 5ooJlqooboyoo, 180 5ckA J09 (1989)


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S3 of 129
approval of manlfesLly unlawful, lnequlLable or
lrregular LransacLlons or acLs by Lhe board, panel,
or group Lo whlch Lhey belong.

[. knowlngly approvlng or granLlng any llcense, permlL,
prlvllege, or beneflL ln favor of any person noL quallfled for
or not |ega||y ent|t|ed to such ||cense, permlL, prlvllege, or
advanLage, or of a mere represenLaLlve or dummy of one
who ls noL so quallfled or enLlLled.

k. D|vu|g|ng va|uab|e |nformat|on of a conf|dent|a|
character, acqulred by hls offlce or by hlm on accounL of hls
offlclal poslLlon Lo unauLhorlzed persons, or releaslng such
lnformaLlon ln advance of lLs auLhorlzed release daLe.

2. Any person havlng fam||y or c/ose persono/ re/otion wlLh
any publlc offlclal who shall caplLallze or explolL or Lake
advanLage of such famlly or close personal relaLlon by
dlrecLly or lndlrecLly requesLlng or recelvlng any presenL,
glfL, or maLerlal, or pecunlary advanLage from any person
havlng some buslness, LransacLlon, appllcaLlon, requesL, or
conLracL wlLh Lhe governmenL ln whlch such publlc offlclal
has Lo lnLervene (Sec. 4)

3. Any person who shall know|ng|y |nduce or cause any
publlc offlclal Lo commlL any of Lhe offenses under (A). (Sec.
4)

4. Spouse or any relaLlve, by consangulnlLy or afflnlLy, wlLhln
Lhe JtJ clvll degree, of Lhe lteslJeot of tbe lblllpploes, tbe
vlce-lteslJeot, tbe lteslJeot of tbe 5eoote, ot 5peoket of Lhe
Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves, who shall lnLervene, dlrecLly or
lndlrecLly, ln any buslness LransacLlon, conLracL or
appllcaLlon wlLh Lhe governmenL.

NC1L (LxCL1ICNS):
1hls prohlblLlon shall nC1 apply Lo:
1. Any person who, pr|or to the assumpt|on of offlce of any
of Lhe above offlclals Lo whom he ls relaLed, has been
a|ready dea||ng wlLh Lhe governmenL along Lhe same llne of
buslness or any LransacLlon, conLracL or appllcaLlon already
exlsLlng or pendlng aL Lhe Llme of such assumpLlon of publlc
offlce,
2. Any appllcaLlon flled by hlm, Lhe approva| of wh|ch |s not
discretionory on Lhe parL of Lhe offlclal(s) concerned buL
depends upon compllance wlLh requlslLes provlded by law,
or rules or regulaLlons lssued pursuanL Lo law,
3. Any acL lawfully performed ln an off|c|a| capac|ty or ln Lhe
exerclse of a profess|on. (Sec. S)
4. Any member of Congress, durlng Lhe Lerm for whlch he
has been elecLed, who shall acqulre or recelve any personal
pecunlary lnLeresL ln any speclflc buslness enLerprlse whlch
shall be direct/y ond porticu/or/y favored or benef|ted by
any |aw or reso|ut|on outhored by hlm prevlously approved
or adopLed by Congress durlng hls Lerm.
5. Aoy pobllc offlcet who recommended Lhe lnlLlaLlon ln
Congress of Lhe enacLmenL or adopLlon of any law or
resoluLlon and acqulres or recelves such lnLeresL durlng hls
lncumbency.

NC1L: unlawful for such member of Congress or oLher
publlc offlcer, who, havlng such lnLeresL prlor Lo Lhe
approval of such law or resoluLlon auLhored or
recommended by hlm, conLlnues for 30 days afLer such
approval Lo reLaln such lnLeresL.

6. Any publlc offlcer who shall fa|| to f||e a Lrue, deLalled and
sworn sLaLemenL of asseLs and llablllLles (SALN) wlLhln J0
Joys afLer assumlng offlce and LhereafLer on or before Lhe
1SLh day of Aprll followlng Lhe close of every calendar year,
as well as upon Lhe explraLlon of hls Lerm of offlce, or upon
hls reslgnaLlon or separaLlon from offlce (Sec. 7).

r|ma fac|e ev|dence of and d|sm|ssa| due to unexp|a|ned
wea|th (Sec. 8)
1. lf a publlc offlclal has been found Lo have acqulred
durlng hls lncumbency, wheLher ln hls name or ln Lhe
name of oLher persons, an amounL of properLy and/or
money moolfestly ouL of proporLlon Lo hls salary and Lo
hls oLher lawful lncome.
2. roperLles ln Lhe name of Lhe spouse and dependenLs
of such publlc offlclal may be Laken lnLo conslderaLlon,
when Lhelr acqulslLlon Lhrough leglLlmaLe means
cannoL be saLlsfacLorlly shown.
3. 8ank deposlLs ln Lhe name of or manlfesLly excesslve
expendlLures lncurred by Lhe publlc offlclal, hls spouse
or any of Lhelr dependenLs lncludlng buL noL llmlLed Lo
acLlvlLles ln any club or assoclaLlon or any osLenLaLlous
dlsplay of wealLh lncludlng frequenL Lravel abroad of a
non-offlclal characLer by any publlc offlclal when such
acLlvlLles enLall expenses evlJeotly ouL of proporLlon Lo
leglLlmaLe lncome.

NC1L: CompeLenL courL ls Lhe Sandlganbayan (Sec. 10).

GLNLkAL kULL: rescrlpLlve perlod ls 1S years (Sec. 11).
LxCL1ICNS: unsollclLed glfLs or presenLs of small or
lnslgnlflcanL value offered or glven as a mere ordlnary Loken
of graLlLude of frlendshlp accordlng Lo local cusLoms or
usage, shall be excepLed from Lhe provlslons of Lhls acL (Sec.
14).

NC1L:
- no publlc offlcer shall be allowed Lo reslgn or reLlre
pendlng an lnvesLlgaLlon.
- Suspenslon whlle pendlng ln courL afLer va||d |nformat|on
(cannoL be auLomaLlc), and loss of beneflLs lf convlcLed by
flnal [udgmenL, maxlmum duraLlon of prevenLlve suspenslon
ls 90 days, acqulLLal relnsLaLemenL and salarles and
beneflLs whlch he falled Lo recelve


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S4 of 129
- 1he courLs are noL bound by Lhe sLaLemenL of asseLs and
llablllLles flled.
- enalLy of forfelLure cannoL be applled reLroacLlvely.

=================================================
Chapter 3: Irauds and |||ega| transact|ons and
exact|ons
=================================================

Ak1. 213. IkAUDS AGAINS1 1nL U8LIC 1kLASUk AND
SIMILAk CIILNSLS

A. IkAUDS AGAINS1 U8LIC 1kLASUk

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender be a pub||c off|cer,
2. 1haL he should have taken advantage of hls offlce, LhaL
ls, he |ntervened ln Lhe LransacLlon ln hls off|c|a|
capac|ty,
3. 1haL he enLered lnLo an agreement wlLh any lnLeresLed
parLy or speculaLor or made use of any oLher scheme
wlLh regard Lo (a) furnlshlng supplles (b) Lhe maklng of
conLracLs, or (c) Lhe ad[usLmenL or seLLlemenL of
accounL relaLlng Lo a pub||c property or funds, and
4. 1haL Lhe accused had |ntent to defraud the
government.

NC1L:
1he publlc offlcer musL acL ln hls offlclal capaclLy.
1he felony ls consummated by mere|y enter|ng |nto an
agreement wlLh any lnLeresLed parLy or speculaLor or
by mere|y mak|ng use of any scheme Lo defraud Lhe
CovernmenL.

8. ILLLGAL LxAC1ICNS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1he offender ls a pub||c off|cer entrusted w|th the
co||ect|on of Laxes, llcenses, fees and oLher lmposLs,
and
2. 1haL he ls gu||ty of any of Lhe followlng acLs or
omlsslons,
a. Demand|ng, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly Lhe paymenL of
sums dlfferenL from or |arger than those
author|zed by law, or
b. Ia|||ng vo|untar||y to |ssue a rece|pt, as provlded
by law, for any sum of money collecLed by hlm
offlclally, or
c. Co||ect|ng or recelvlng, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, by
way of paymenL or oLherwlse, Lhlngs or ob[ecLs of
a naLure d|fferent from that prov|ded by |aw.



NC1L:
Mere demand of a larger or dlfferenL amounL ls
sufflclenL Lo consummaLe Lhe crlme. 1he essence ls Lhe
lmproper collecLlon and damage Lo Lhe governmenL ls
noL requlred.
lf sums are recelved wlLhouL demandlng Lhe same, a
felony under Lhls arLlcle ls noL commlLLed. Powever, lf
Lhe sum ls glven as a sorL of glfL or graLlflcaLlon, Lhe
crlme ls lndlrecL brlbery.
When Lhere ls decelL ln demandlng larger fees, Lhe
crlme commlLLed ls esLafa.
1hls felony may be complexed wlLh malversaLlon. Lx. A
Lax collecLor who collecLed a sum larger Lhan LhaL
auLhorlzed by law and spenL all of Lhem ls gullLy of Lwo
crlmes, namely: (1) lllegal exacLlon, for demandlng a
greaLer amounL, and (2) malversaLlon for
mlsapproprlaLlng Lhe amounL collecLed.
Cfflcers and employees of Lhe 8l8 or CusLoms are noL
covered by Lhls arLlcle, slnce Lhey are covered by Lhe
nl8C or Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve Code.

Ak1. 214. C1nLk IkAUDS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer,
2. 1haL he Lakes advantage of h|s off|c|a| pos|t|on, and
3. 1haL he comm|ts any of the frauds or decelLs
enumeraLed ln arL. 31S and 316. (esLafa, swlndllng)

NC1L: 1he penalLy under Lhls ArLlcle ls ln addlLlon Lo Lhe
penalLles prescrlbed ln Lhe arLlcles vlolaLed

Ak1 21S. kCnI8I1LD 1kANSAC1ICNS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls an appo|nt|ve publlc offlcer,
2. 1haL he becomes lnterested, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, ln
any LransacLlon of exchange or speculaLlon,
3. 1haL Lhe LransacLlon takes p|ace w|th|n the terr|tory
sub[ecL Lo hls [urlsdlcLlon, and
4. 1haL he becomes lnLeresLed ln Lhe LransacLlon durlng
hls |ncumbency.

NC1L:
1he LransacLlon musL be of exchange or speculaLlon.
Lxamples of LransacLlons of exchange or speculaLlon
are buylng and selllng sLocks, commodlLles, land, eLc.
whereln one hopes Lo Lake advanLage of an expecLed
rlse or fall ln prlce for galn or proflL and noL merely
as lnvesLmenL
urchaslng of sLocks or shares ln a company ls slmple
lnvesLmenL and noL a vlolaLlon of Lhe arLlcle. Powever,
regularly buylng securlLles for resale ls speculaLlon.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age SS of 129
Ak1. 216. CSSLSSICN CI kCnI8I1LD IN1LkLS1S 8 A
U8LIC CIIICLk

LkSCNS LIA8LL:
1. ubllc offlcer who became lnLeresLed ln any conLracL or
buslness ln whlch lL ls hls offlclal duLy Lo lnLervene.
2. LxperLs, arblLraLors and prlvaLe accounLanLs who Look
parL ln any conLracL or LransacLlon connecLed wlLh Lhe
esLaLe or properLy ln Lhe approval, dlsLrlbuLlon or
ad[udlcaLlon of whlch Lhey had acLed.
3. Cuardlans and execuLors wlLh respecL Lo properLy
belonglng Lo Lhelr wards or Lhe esLaLe.

NC1L:
AcLual fraud ls noL necessary.
lnLervenLlon musL be by vlrLue of publlc offlce held.
AcL ls punlshed because of Lhe posslblllty LhaL fraud
may be commlLLed or LhaL Lhe offlcer may place hls
own lnLeresL above LhaL of Lhe CovernmenL or of Lhe
parLy whlch he represenLs.
Const|tut|ona| proh|b|t|ons ex|st
- Congress: cannoL personally appear as counsel,,
cannoL be lnLeresLed flnanclally ln any franchlse or
speclal prlvllege granLed by governmenL, cannoL
lnLervene ln any maLLer before offlce of
CovernmenL
- LxecuLlve - cannoL hold any oLher offlce
- ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons - cannoL hold any
oLher offlce, or engage ln pracLlce of professlon or
managemenL of buslness, or be flnanclally
lnLeresLed ln a conLracL wlLh or franchlse/prlvllege
by Lhe governmenL

k.A. 7080
AN AC1 DLIINING AND LNALI2ING 1nL CkIML CI
LUNDLk

ILL-GC11LN WLAL1n: Any asseL, properLy, buslness
enLerprlse or maLerlal possesslon of any person acqulred by
hlm dlrecLly or lndlrecLly Lhrough dummles, nomlnees,
agenLs, subordlnaLes, and/or buslness assoclaLes by any
comb|nat|on or ser|es of Lhe followlng means or slmllar
schemes:

A. 1hrough mlsopptoptlotloo, coovetsloo, mlsose ot
molvetsotloo of publlc funds or ralds on Lhe publlc Lreasury.
8. 8y rece|v|ng, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, any commlsslon,
glfL, share, percenLage, klckbacks or any oLher form of
pecun|ary benef|t from any person and/or enLlLy ln
connecLlon wlLh any government contract or pro[ecL or by
reason of Lhe offlce or poslLlon of Lhe publlc offlcer
concerned,
C. 8y the |||ega| or fraudu|ent conveyance or
dlsposlLlon of asseLs be|ong|ng to the Nat|ona| Government
or any of lLs subdlvlslons, agencles or lnsLrumenLallLles or
governmenL-owned or conLrolled corporaLlons and Lhelr
subsldlarles,
u. 8y obtololoq, tecelvloq ot occeptloq, Jltectly ot
loJltectly, any shares of sLock, equlLy or any oLher form of
|nterest or part|c|pat|on, lncludlng Lhe promlse of fuLure
employmenL ln any buslness enLerprlse or underLaklng.
L. 8y esLabllshlng oqtlcoltotol, loJosttlol ot
commetclol monopo/ies or oLher comb|nat|ons, and/or
lmplemenLaLlon of decrees and orders lnLended Lo beneflL
parLlcular persons or speclal lnLeresLs,
l. 8y Laklng undue advantage of offlclal poslLlon,
auLhorlLy, relaLlonshlp, connecLlon or lnfluence Lo un[usLly
enrlch hlmself or Lhemselves aL Lhe expense and Lo Lhe
damage or pre[udlce of Lhe llllplno people and Lhe 8epubllc
of Lhe hlllpplnes.

LUNDLk IS A CkIML CI MALUM IN SL
lunder ls a crlme of molom lo se because Lhe consLlLuLlve
crlmes are molo lo se. 1he elemenLs of meos teo musL be
proven ln a prosecuLlon for plunder. 1he leglslaLlve
declaraLlon ln 8.A. 76S9 LhaL plunder ls a helnous offense
lmplles LhaL lL ls malum ln se. lor when Lhe acLs punlshed are
lnherenLly lmmoral or lnherenLly wrong, Lhey are mala ln se
and lL does noL maLLer LhaL such acLs are punlshed ln a
speclal law.

LkSCNS LIA8LL:
A. Any publlc offlcer who, by hlmself or ln connlvance
wlLh members of hls famlly, relaLlves by afflnlLy or
consangulnlLy, buslness assoclaLes and subordlnaLes or oLher
persons, amasses, accumulaLes, or acqulres lll-goLLen wealLh
Lhrough a comblootloo ot setles of overL or crlmlnal acLs as
descrlbed under above ln Lhe aggregaLe amounL or LoLal
value of aL leasL 50 MllllON l5O5, shall be gullLy of Lhe
crlme of plunder (as amended by 8A 76S9).
8. Any person who parLlclpaLed wlLh Lhe sald publlc
offlcer ln Lhe commlsslon of plunder.

IUkISDIC1ICN: Sandlganbayan

kULL CI LVIDLNCL: lor purposes of esLabllshlng Lhe crlme of
plunder, lL shall not be necessary Lo prove each and every
crlmlnal acL done, lL belng sufflclenL Lo esLabllsh beyond
reasonable doubL a potteto of overL or crlmlnal acLs
lndlcaLlve of Lhe overall unlawful scheme or consplracy.

kLSCkI1ICN: 20 yeots. Powever, Lhe rlghL of Lhe SLaLe Lo
recover properLles unlawfully acqulred by publlc offlcers
from Lhem or from Lhelr nomlnees or Lransferees shall noL be
barred by prescrlpLlon, laches or esLoppel.

"CCM8INA1ICN", refers Lo aL leasL Lwo (2) acLs falllng under
dlfferenL caLegorles of enumeraLlon provlded ln sec. 1, par.
(d).


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S6 of 129
Lxample: ralds on Lhe publlc Lreasury ln sec. 1, par. (d), and
fraudulenL conveyance of asseLs belonglng Lo Lhe naLlonal
governmenL under sec. 1 par. (d), subpar. (3).

"SLkILS" refer Lo Lwo (2) or more overL or crlmlnal acLs
falllng under Lhe same caLegory of enumeraLlon found ln sec.
1, par. (d), say, mlsapproprlaLlon, malversaLlon and ralds on
Lhe publlc Lreasury, all of whlch falls under sec. 1, par. (d),
subpar. (1). "verlly, had Lhe leglslaLure lnLended a Lechnlcal
or dlsLlncLlve meanlng for comblnaLlon" and serles", lL
would have Laken greaLer palns ln speclally provldlng for lL ln
Lhe law.
28
"

k.A. 9372
nUMAN SLCUkI1 AC1

Peno/ty for loi/ure to ue/iver 5uspect to the Proper ludicio/
4uthority within 1hree uoys. - 1he penalLy of Len (10) years
and one day Lo Lwelve (12) years of lmprlsonmenL shall be
lmposed upon any pollce or law enforcemenL personnel who
has apprehended or arresLed, deLalned and Laken cusLody of
a person charged wlLh or suspecLed of Lhe crlme of Lerrorlsm
or consplracy Lo commlL Lerrorlsm and falls Lo dellver such
charged or suspecLed person Lo Lhe proper [udlclal auLhorlLy
wlLhln Lhe perlod of Lhree days. (Sec. 20)

lnfide/ity in the custody of uetoined Persons. - Any publlc
offlcer who has dlrecL cusLody of a deLalned person or under
Lhe provlslons of Lhls AcL and who by hls dellberaLe acL,
mlsconducL, or lnexcusable negllgence causes or allows Lhe
escape of such deLalned person shall be gullLy of an offense
and shall suffer Lhe penalLy of:

(a) 12 years and 1 day Lo 20 years of lmprlsonmenL, lf Lhe
deLalned person has already been convlcLed and senLenced
ln a flnal [udgmenL of a compeLenL courL, and
(b) 6 years and 1 day Lo 12 years of lmprlsonmenL, lf Lhe
deLalned person has noL been convlcLed and senLenced ln a
flnal [udgmenL of a compeLenL courL. (Sec. 44)

Peno/ty for lo/se or untruthfu/ 5totement or
Misrepresentotion of Moterio/ loct in loint 4ffidovits. - Any
false or unLruLhful sLaLemenL or mlsrepresenLaLlon of
maLerlal facL ln Lhe [olnL affldavlLs requlred respecLlvely ln
SecLlon 12 and SecLlon 32 of Lhls AcL shall consLlLuLe a
crlmlnal offense and Lhe afflanLs shall suffer lndlvldually Lhe
penalLy of 10 years and 1 day Lo 12 years of lmprlsonmenL
(Sec. 47)

Peno/ty for lurnishinq lo/se vidence, lorqed uocument, or
5purious vidence. - 1he penalLy of Lwelve (12) years and
one day Lo LwenLy (20) years of lmprlsonmenL shall be
lmposed upon any person who knowlngly furnlshes false

28
sttoJo v. 5ooJlqooboyoo, J69 5ckA J91 (2001)
LesLlmony, forged documenL or spurlous evldence ln any
lnvesLlgaLlon or hearlng under Lhls AcL.

uomoqes fot uoptoveo cbotqe of 1ettotlsm. - upon acqulLLal,
any person who ls accused of Lerrorlsm shall be enLlLled Lo
Lhe paymenL of damages ln Lhe amounL of S00,000.00 for
every day LhaL he or she has been deLalned or deprlved of
llberLy or arresLed wlLhouL a warranL as a resulL of such an
accusaLlon. 1hls ls wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe rlghL of Lhe
acqulLLed accused Lo flle crlmlnal or admlnlsLraLlve charges
agalnsL Lhose responslble for charglng hlm wlLh Lhe case of
Lerrorlsm.

Any offlcer, employee, personnel, or person who delays Lhe
release or refuses Lo release Lhe amounLs awarded Lo Lhe
lndlvldual acqulLLed of Lhe crlme of Lerrorlsm shall suffer Lhe
penalLy of slx (6) monLhs of lmprlsonmenL. (Sec 48)

=================================================
Chapter 4: Ma|versat|on of ub||c Iunds or
roperty
=================================================

Ak1. 217. MALVLkSA1ICN CI U8LIC IUNDS Ck kCLk1

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender be a pub||c off|cer (or prlvaLe person
lf enLrusLed wlLh publlc funds or lf ln connlvance wlLh
publlc offlcers),
2. 1haL he had Lhe custody or contro| of funds or
property (lf noL accounLable for Lhe funds, crlme
commlLLed ls LhefL or quallfled LhefL),
3. 1haL Lhose funds or properLy were pub||c funds or
property (even lf prlvaLe funds, Lhey become publlc lf
aLLached, selzed, deposlLed or commlngled wlLh publlc
funds), and
4. 1haL he:
a. Appropr|ated Lhe funds or properLy
b. 1ook or m|sappropr|ated Lhem
c. ConsenLed or, Lhrough abandonmenL or
negllgence, perm|tted any other person to take
such publlc funds or properLy.

NC1LS:
1. lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe offender proflLed by hls
malversaLlon. Pls belng remlss ln Lhe duLy of
safekeeplng publlc funds vlolaLes Lhe LrusL reposed.
2. ubllc funds Laken need noL be mlsapproprlaLed.
3. lL can be commlLLed elLher wlLh mollce ot tbtooqb
oeqllqeoce ot lmptoJeoce alLhough Lhe penalLy ls Lhe
same. negllgence of Lhe accounLable publlc offlcer
musL be poslLlvely and clearly shown Lo be lnexcusable.
4. ln deLermlnlng wheLher Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer,
whaL ls conLrolllng ls Lhe naLure of hls offlce and noL


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S7 of 129
Lhe deslgnaLlon - conLemplaLes publlc offlcer who
recelves money or properLy from governmenL for whlch
he ls bound Lo accounL, musL have auLhorlLy Lo collecL
or recelve
S. 1he funds or properLy musL be recelved ln an off|c|a|
capac|ty. CLherwlse, Lhe crlme commlLLed ls esLafa.

CIkCUMS1ANCLS MAkING A kIVA1L INDIVIDUAL LIA8LL
1. when Lhey are ln consplracy wlLh publlc offlcers, and
2. when Lhey have charge of naLlonal, provlnclal or
munlclpal funds, revenues or properLy ln any capaclLy.
3. 1hose who are accessory or accompllce Lo a publlc
offlcer
4. ueposlLory or admlnlsLraLor of publlc funds or properLy

NC1LS
1. When malversaLlon ls noL commlLLed Lhrough
negllgence, lack of crlmlnal lnLenL or good falLh ls a
defense.
2. 1he fallure of a publlc offlcer Lo have any duly
forLhcomlng publlc funds or properLy upon demand, by
any auLhorlzed offlcer, shall be prlma facle evldence
LhaL he has puL such mlsslng funds or properLy Lo
personal use. Powever, lf aL Lhe very momenL when Lhe
shorLage ls dlscovered, Lhe accounLable offlcer ls
noLlfled, and he lmmedlaLely pays Lhe amounL from hls
pockeL, Lhe presumpLlon does noL arlse.
3. 8eLurnlng Lhe embezzled funds ls noL an exempLlng
clrcumsLance buL only mlLlgaLlng.
4. A person whose negllgence made posslble Lhe
commlsslon of malversaLlon by anoLher can be held
llable as a prlnclpal by lndlspensable cooperaLlon.

MALVLkSA1ICN (Ak1. 217) LS1AIA WI1n A8USL CI
CCNIIDLNCL (Ak1. 31S)
lunds or properLy usually
pub||c
lunds/properLy are always
pr|vate
Cffender ls usually a publlc
offlcer who ls accountab|e
for Lhe publlc
funds/properLy
Cffender ls a prlvaLe
lndlvldual or even a publlc
offlcer who ls not
accountab|e for publlc
funds/properLy
Crlme ls commlLLed by
appropr|at|ng, tak|ng, or
m|sappropr|at|ng]consent|n
g, or through abandonment
or neg||gence, perm|tt|ng
any oLher person Lo Lake Lhe
publlc funds/properLy
Crlme ls commlLLed by
m|sappropr|at|ng,
convert|ng, or deny|ng
hav|ng rece|ved money,
goods or oLher personal
properLy

1he facL LhaL Lhe obllgaLlon Lo deposlL Lhe collecLlons of
Lhe ClLy 1reasurer's Cfflce ls noL covered by appellanL's
offlclal [ob descrlpLlon ls of no legal consequence ln a
prosecuLlon for MalversaLlon. WhaL ls essenLlal ls LhaL
appellanL had cusLody or conLrol of publlc funds by
reason of Lhe duLles of hls offlce
29
.

Ak1. 218. IAILUkL CI ACCCUN1A8LL CIIICLk 1C kLNDLk
ACCCUN1 IAILUkL CI ACCCUN1A8LL CIIICLk 1C kLNDLk
ACCCUN1

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer, wheLher ln Lhe
servlce or separaLed Lherefrom,
2. 1haL he musL be an accountab|e off|cer for pub||c
funds or property,
3. 1haL he ls requ|red by law or regulaLlon Lo render
accounts Lo Lhe Commlsslon on AudlL, or Lo a provlnclal
audlLor, and
4. 1haL he fa||s Lo do so for a perlod of two months after
such accounts shou|d be rendered.

NC1L: uemand and mlsapproprlaLlon are noL necessary.

Ak1. 219. IAILUkL CI A kLSCNSI8LL U8LIC CIIICLk 1C
kLNDLk ACCCUN1S 8LICkL LLAVING 1nL CCUN1k

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer,
2. 1haL he musL be an accountab|e off|cer for pub||c
funds or property, and
3. 1haL he musL have un|awfu||y |eft (or be on Lhe polnL of
leavlng) Lhe hlllpplnes w|thout secur|ng from the
Comm|ss|on on Aud|t a cert|f|cate showlng LhaL hls
accounLs have been flnally seLLled.

NC1L: 1he acL of leavlng Lhe hlllpplnes musL be
unauLhorlzed or noL permlLLed by law.

Ak1. 220. ILLLGAL USL CI U8LIC IUNDS Ck kCLk1

LLLMLN1S CI 1LCnNICAL MALVLkSA1ICN:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer,
2. 1haL Lhere ls pub||c fund or property under h|s
adm|n|strat|on,
3. 1haL such publlc fund or properLy has been
appropr|ated by |aw or ord|nance (wlLhouL Lhls, lL ls
slmple molvetsotloo), and
4. 1haL he app||es the same to a pub||c use other than for
wh|ch such fund or properLy has been appropr|ated by
law or ordlnance.

NC1L:
1o dlsLlngulsh Lhls arLlcle wlLh ArL 217 (malversaLlon), ln
lllegal use of publlc funds or properLy, Lhe offender

29
leople v. nlpol, 151 lbll. 679 (200J)


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S8 of 129
Joes oot Jetlve ooy petsoool qolo, Lhe funds are merely
devoLed Lo some oLher publlc use.
Absence of damage ls only a mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.

ILLLGAL USL CI
IUNDS Ck kCLk1
(Ak1. 220)
MALVLkSA1ICN
(Ak1. 217)
Cffender ls an accounLable publlc offlcers.
Cffender does noL derlve
any personal galn or proflL.
Cffender ln cerLaln cases
proflLs from Lhe proceeds of
Lhe crlme.
1he publlc fund or
properLy ls applled Lo
anoLher publlc use.
1he publlc fund or properLy
ls applled Lo personal use.

Ak1. 221. IAILUkL 1C MAkL DLLIVLk CI U8LIC IUNDS
Ck kCLk1

AC1S UNISnA8LL:
1. 8y falllng Lo make paymenL by a publlc offlcer who ls
under obllgaLlon Lo make such paymenL from
CovernmenL funds ln hls possesslon
2. 8y refuslng Lo make dellvery by a publlc offlcer who has
been ordered by compeLenL auLhorlLy Lo dellver any
properLy ln hls cusLody or under hls admlnlsLraLlon
(musL be mallclous)

LLLMLN1S CI IAILUkL 1C MAkL AMLN1:
1. 1haL Lhe pub||c off|cer has governmenL funds or
properLy ln hls possesslon.
2. 1haL he ls under ob||gat|on Lo elLher:
a. make payment from such funds, or
b. to de||ver property |n h|s custody or
admlnlsLraLlon when ordered by compeLenL
auLhorlLy, and
3. 1haL he ma||c|ous|y fa||s or refuses Lo do so.

NC1L: enalLy ls based on value of funds/properLy Lo be
dellvered.

Ak1. 222. CIIICLkS INCLUDLD IN 1nL kLCLDING
kCVISICNS

LkSCNS LIA8LL UNDLk Ak1. 217 1C 221:
1. rlvaLe lndlvldual who, ln any capaclLy, have charge of
any naLlonal, provlnclal or munlclpal funds, revenue, or
properLy. xomple: a wlLhholdlng Lax agenL
2. AdmlnlsLraLor or deposlLary of funds or properLy LhaL
has been aLLached, selzed or deposlLed by publlc
auLhorlLy, even lf owned by a prlvaLe lndlvldual.

NC1L:
Sherlffs and recelvers fall under Lhe Lerm
admlnlsLraLor"
!udlclal admlnlsLraLor noL covered by Lhls
arLlcle.(AppolnLed Lo admlnlsLer esLaLe of deceased and
noL ln charge of properLy aLLached, lmpounded or
placed ln deposlL by publlc auLhorlLy)
rlvaLe properLy ls lncluded lf lL ls attached, se|zed or
depos|ted by pub||c author|ty.

=================================================
Chapter S: Inf|de||ty of ub||c Cff|cers
=================================================

SLC1ICN 1. - INIIDLLI1 IN 1nL CUS1CD CI
kISCNLkS

Ak1. 223. CCNNIVING WI1n Ck CCNSLN1ING 1C LVASICN

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer (on duLy),
2. 1haL he ls charged w|th the conveyance or custody of a
pr|soner, elLher deLenLlon prlsoner or prlsoner by flnal
[udgmenL,
3. 1haL such prlsoner escaped from h|s custody, and
4. 1haL he was |n connivonce wlLh Lhe prlsoner ln Lhe
laLLer's escape.

DL1LN1ICN kISCNLk - A person becomes a deLenLlon
prlsoner from Lhe momeot be ls bookeJ. 1hls refers Lo Lhe
occompllsbmeot of tbe bookloq sbeet and fllllng ouL of a
form where he ls flnger prlnLed. lrom LhaL Llme on, he ls
already a deLenLlon prlsoner eveo lf be ls oot yet
locotcetoteJ.
1he release of a deLenLlon prlsoner who could noL be
dellvered Lo [udlclal auLhorlLles wlLhln Lhe Llme flxed by
law ls noL lnfldellLy ln Lhe cusLody of a prlsoner. nelLher
ls mere lenlency or laxlLy ln Lhe performance of duLy
consLlLuLes of lnfldellLy.
1here ls teol ooJ octool evosloo of servlce of senLence
when Lhe cusLodlan permlLs Lhe prlsoner Lo obLaln a
relaxaLlon of hls lmprlsonmenL.

Ak1. 224. LVASICN 1nkCUGn NLGLIGLNCL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer,
2. 1haL he ls charged wlLh Lhe conveyance or custody of a
pr|soner, elLher deLenLlon prlsoner or prlsoner by flnal
[udgmenL, and
3. 1haL such prlsoner escapes through hls neq/iqence.

NC1L:
1he arLlcle punlshes a deflnlLe laxlLy whlch amounLs Lo
dellberaLe non-performance of a duLy.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age S9 of 129
1he facL LhaL Lhe publlc offlcer tecoptoteJ Lhe prlsoner
who had escaped from hls cusLody does noL afford hlm
compleLe exculpaLlon.
1he llablllLy of an escaplng prlsoner:
a. lf he ls a prlsoner by flnal [udgmenL, he ls llable for
evaslon of servlce (ArL. 1S7)
b. lf he ls a deLenLlon prlsoner, he does noL lncur
crlmlnal llablllLy (unless he cooperaLed wlLh Lhe
offender).
1he negllgenL publlc offlcer suffers Lhe same penalLy
regardless of wheLher Lhe prlsoner ls a convlcL or
merely a deLenLlon prlsoner.

Ak1. 22S. LSCAL CI kISCNLk UNDLk 1nL CUS1CD CI A
LkSCN NC1 A U8LIC CIIICLk

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pr|vate person,
2. 1haL Lhe conveyance or cusLody of a prlsoner or person
under arresL ls conflded Lo hlm, (ne has custody)
3. 1haL Lhe prlsoner or person under arrest escapes, and
4. 1haL Lhe offender consents Lo Lhe escape of Lhe
prlsoner or person under arresL, or LhaL Lhe escape
Lakes place Lhrough hls neg||gence.

NC1L: 1hls arLlcle ls noL appllcable lf a ptlvote petsoo moJe
tbe ottest and he consenLed Lo Lhe escape of Lhe person he
arresLed.

SLC1ICN 2. - INIIDLLI1 CI 1nL CUS1CD CI
DCCUMLN1S

Ak1. 226. kLMCVAL, CCNCLALMLN1, Ck DLS1kUC1ICN CI
DCCUMLN1S

LLLMLN1S CI INIIDLLI1 IN CUS1CD CI DCCUMLN1S:
1. 1hat the offender be a pub||c off|cer,
2. 1haL he abstracts, destroys or concea|s a documenL or
papers,
3. 1haL Lhe sald documenL or paper should have been
entrusted Lo such publlc offlcer by reason of hls offlce,
and
4. 1hat damage, wheLher serlous or noL, Lo a Lhlrd parLy
or Lo Lhe publlc lnLeresL should have been caused.

NC1L:
1he documenL musL be compleLe and one by whlch a
rlghL could be esLabllshed or an obllgaLlon could be
exLlngulshed.
apers" would lnclude checks, promlssory noLes and
paper money.
A posL offlce offlclal who reLalned Lhe mall wlLhouL
forwardlng Lhe leLLers Lo Lhelr desLlnaLlon ls gullLy of
lnfldellLy ln Lhe cusLody of papers.
8emoval of a documenL or paper musL be for an llllclt
potpose. 1here ls llllclL purpose when Lhe lnLenLlon of
Lhe offender ls Lo:
a. Lamper wlLh lL,
b. Lo proflL by lL, or
c. Lo commlL any acL consLlLuLlng a breach of LrusL ln
Lhe offlclal care Lhereof.
8emoval ls consummaLed upon removal or secreLlng
away of Lhe documenL from lLs usual place. lL ls
lmmotetlol wbetbet ot oot tbe llllclt potpose of tbe
offeoJet bos beeo occompllsbeJ.
lnfldellLy ln Lhe cusLody of documenLs Lhrough
desLrucLlon or concealmenL Joes oot tepolte ptoof of
oo llllclt potpose.
uellverlng Lhe documenL Lo Lhe wrong parLy ls lnfldellLy
ln Lhe cusLody Lhereof.

Ak1. 227. CIIICLk 8kLAkING SLAL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer,
2. 1haL he ls charged w|th the custody of papers or
properLy,
3. 1haL Lhese papers or properLy are sea|ed by proper
auLhorlLy, and
4. 1haL he breaks Lhe seals or permlLs Lhem Lo be broken.

lL ls Lhe breaklng of Lhe seals and noL Lhe openlng of a
closed envelope whlch ls punlshed.
uamage or lnLenL Lo cause damage ls oot oecessoty,
damage ls ptesomeJ.

Ak1. 228. CLNING CI CLCSLD DCCUMLN1S

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pub||c off|cer,
2. 1haL any closed papers, documenLs, or ob[ecLs are
entrusted to hls cusLody,
3. 1haL he opens or perm|ts Lo be opened sald closed
papers, documenLs or ob[ecLs, and
4. 1haL he does not have proper auLhorlLy.

NC1L: uamage ls noL necessary.

SLC1ICN 3. - kLVLLA1ICN CI SLCkL1S

Ak1. 229. kLVLLA1ICN CI SLCkL1S 8 AN CIIICLk

LLLMLN1S CI Ak. 1 (5ck15 kNOwN 8Y k45ON Ol nl5
Olllcl4L c4P4cl1Y):
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer,
2. 1haL he knows of a secreL by reason of hls offlclal
capaclLy,


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 60 of 129
3. 1haL he reveals such secreL wlLhouL auLhorlLy or
[usLlflable reasons, and
4. 1haL damage, greaL or small, be caused Lo Lhe publlc
lnLeresL.
SecreL musL affecL publlc lnLeresL noL secreLs of a
prlvaLe lndlvldual.
Lsplonage for Lhe beneflL of anoLher SLaLe ls noL
conLemplaLed by Lhe arLlcle. lf regardlng mlllLary
secreLs or secreLs affecLlng sLaLe securlLy, Lhe crlme
may be esplonage.

LLLMLN1S CI Ak. 2 (wkON6luLLY uLlvklN6 P4Pk5
Ok cOPl5 Ol P4Pk5 Ol wnlcn n M4Y n4v cn4k6
4Nu wnlcn 5nOuLu NO1 8 Pu8Ll5nu):

1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer,
2. 1haL he has charge of papers,
3. 1haL Lhose papers should noL be publlshed,
4. 1haL he dellvers Lhose papers or coples Lhereof Lo a
Lhlrd person,
S. 1haL Lhe dellvery ls wrongful, and
6. 1haL damage be caused Lo publlc lnLeresL.

NC1L:
cn4k6 means cusLody or conLrol. lf he ls merely
enLrusLed wlLh Lhe papers and noL wlLh Lhe cusLody
Lhereof, he ls noL llable under Lhls arLlcle.
lf Lhe papers conLaln secreLs whlch should noL be
publlshed, and Lhe publlc offlcer havlng charge Lhereof
removes and dellvers Lhem wrongfully Lo a Lhlrd
person, Lhe crlme ls revelaLlon of secreLs. Cn Lhe oLher
hand, lf Lhe papers do noL conLaln secreLs, Lhelr
removal for an llllclL purpose ls lnfldellLy ln Lhe cusLody
of documenLs.
uamage ls essenLlal Lo Lhe acL commlLLed.

Ak1. 230. U8LIC CIIICLk kLVLALING SLCkL1S CI kIVA1L
INDIVIDUAL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer,
2. 1haL he knows of Lhe secreL of a prlvaLe lndlvldual by
reason of hls offlce, and
3. 1haL he reveals such secreLs wlLhouL auLhorlLy or
[usLlflable reason.


nC1L:
8evelaLlon Lo one person ls sufflclenL.
lf Lhe offender ls an aLLorney, he ls properly llable
under ArL. 209 (beLrayal of LrusL by an aLLorney).
uamage Lo prlvaLe lndlvldual ls noL necessary.


===========================================
Chapter 6: Cther offenses or |rregu|ar|t|es by
ub||c Cff|cers
===========================================

SLC1ICN 1. - DISC8LDILNCL, kLIUSAL CI ASSIS1ANCL,
AND MAL1kLA1MLN1 CI kISCNLkS

Ak1. 231. CLN DISC8LDILNCL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a [udlclal or execuLlve offlcer,
2. 1haL Lhere ls a [udgmenL, declslon or order of superlor
auLhorlLy,
3. 1haL such [udgmenL, declslon or order was made wlLhln
Lhe scope of Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe superlor auLhorlLy
and lssued wlLh all Lhe legal formallLles, and
4. 1haL Lhe offender wlLhouL any legal [usLlflcaLlon openly
refuses Lo execuLe Lhe sald [udgmenL, declslon or under
whlch he ls duLy bound Lo obey.

Ak1. 232. DISC8LDILNCL 1C CkDLk CI SULkICk CIIICLk,
WnLN SAID CkDLk WAS SUSLNDLD 8 INILkICk CIIICLk

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer,
2. 1haL an order ls lssued by hls superlor for execuLlon,
3. 1haL he has for any reason suspended Lhe execuLlon of
such order,
4. 1haL hls superlor dlsapproves Lhe suspenslon of Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe order, and
S. 1haL Lhe offender dlsobeys hls superlor desplLe Lhe
dlsapproval of Lhe suspenslon.

nC1L: A publlc offlcer ls noL llable lf Lhe order of Lhe
superlor ls lllegal.

Ak1. 233. kLIUSAL CI ASSIS1ANCL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer,
2. 1haL a compeLenL auLhorlLy demands from Lhe offender
LhaL he lend hls cooperaLlon Lowards Lhe
admlnlsLraLlon of [usLlce or oLher publlc servlce, and
J. 1haL Lhe offender falls Lo do so mallclously.

1hls felony lnvolves a requesL from one publlc offlcer Lo
anoLher.
uamage Lo Lhe publlc lnLeresL or Lhlrd parLy ls essenLlal.
uemand ls necessary.
uemand musL be from compeLenL auLhorlLy




CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 61 of 129
Ak1. 234. kLIUSAL 1C DISCnAkGL LLLC1IVL CIIICL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls elecLed by popular elecLlon Lo a
publlc offlce,
2. 1haL he refuses Lo be sworn ln or dlscharge Lhe duLles
of sald offlce,
3. 1haL Lhere ls no legal moLlve for such refusal Lo be
sworn ln or Lo dlscharge Lhe duLles of sald offlce.
lf Lhe elecLed person ls dlsquallfled, hls refusal Lo be
sworn ln or Lo dlscharge Lhe duLles of Lhe offlce ls
[usLlfled.
8efusal Lo dlscharge Lhe duLles of an appolnLlve offlce ls
noL covered by Lhls arLlcle.

Ak1. 23S. MAL1kLA1MLN1 CI kISCNLkS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee,
2. 1haL he has charge of a prlsoner or deLenLlon prlsoner
(oLherwlse Lhe crlme ls physlcal ln[urles), and
3. 1haL he malLreaLs such prlsoner ln elLher of Lhe
followlng manners:
a. by overdolng hlmself ln Lhe correcLlon or handllng
of a prlsoner or deLenLlon prlsoner under hls
charge elLher -
l. by Lhe lmposlLlon of punlshmenLs noL
auLhorlzed by Lhe regulaLlons, or
ll. by lnfllcLlng such punlshmenLs (Lhose
auLhorlzed) ln a cruel and humlllaLlng manner,
or
b. by malLreaLlng such prlsoner Lo exLorL a confesslon
or Lo obLaln some lnformaLlon from Lhe prlsoner.
nC1L:
1he publlc offlcer musL have acLual charge of Lhe
prlsoner ln order Lo be held llable (noL merely by legal
flcLlon).
Cffended parLy musL be a: a) convlcL by flnal [udgmenL,
or b) deLenLlon prlsoner.
MalLreaLmenL should noL be due Lo personal
grudge, oLherwlse, llable for physlcal ln[urles
only.
Cffender may also be held llable for physlcal
ln[urles or damage caused. (enalLy provlded ln
ArLlcle 23S ls lmposed ln addlLlon Lo penalLy for
ln[ury or damage caused)





SLC1ICN 2. - AN1ICIA1ICN, kCLCNGA1ICN AND
A8ANDCNMLN1 CI 1nL DU1ILS AND CWLkS CI
U8LIC CIIICL

Ak1. 236. AN1ICIA1ICN CI DU1ILS CI A U8LIC CIIICL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls enLlLled Lo hold a publlc offlce or
employmenL, elLher by elecLlon or appolnLmenL,
2. 1haL Lhe law requlres LhaL he should flrsL be sworn ln
and/or should flrsL glve a bond,
3. 1haL he assumes Lhe performance of Lhe duLles and
powers of such offlce, and
4. 1haL he has noL Laken hls oaLh of offlce and/or glven
Lhe bond requlred by law.

Ak1. 237. kCLCNGING LkICkMANCL CI DU1ILS AND
CWLkS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls holdlng a publlc offlce,
2. 1haL Lhe perlod provlded by law, regulaLlons or speclal
provlslons for holdlng such offlce has already explred,
and
3. 1haL he conLlnues Lo exerclse Lhe duLles and powers of
such offlce.

NC1L: Cfflcers conLemplaLed: Lhose who have been
suspended, separaLed, declared over-aged or dlsmlssed.

Ak1. 238. A8ANDCNMLN1 CI CIIICL Ck CSI1ICN

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer,
2. 1haL he formally reslgns from hls poslLlon,
3. 1haL hls reslgnaLlon has noL yeL been accepLed, and
4. 1haL he abandons hls offlce Lo Lhe deLrlmenL of Lhe
publlc servlce.

1here musL be formal or wrlLLen reslgnaLlon.
1he offense ls quallfled lf Lhe purpose behlnd Lhe
abandonmenL ls Lo evade Lhe dlscharge of duLles
conslsLlng of prevenLlng, prosecuLlng or punlshlng any
of Lhe crlmes agalnsL naLlonal securlLy (e.g. Lreason,
esplonage), ln whlch case, Lhe penalLy ls hlgher.

A8AnuCnMLn1 Cl ClllCL
C8 CSl1lCn (A81. 238)
uL8LLlC1lCn Cl uu1?
(A81. 208)
CommlLLed by any publlc
offlcer
CommlLLed only by publlc
offlcers who have Lhe duLy
Lo lnsLlLuLe prosecuLlon
1here ls acLual abandonmenL
Lhrough reslgnaLlon Lo evade
Lhe dlscharge of duLles.
ubllc offlcer does noL
abandon hls offlce buL
merely falls Lo prosecuLe a


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 62 of 129
vlolaLlon of Lhe law.

SLC1ICN 3. - USUkA1ICN CI CWLkS AND
UNLAWIUL ACIN1MLN1S

Ak1. 239. USUkA1ICN CI LLGISLA1IVL CWLkS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls an execuLlve or [udlclal offlcer, and
2. 1haL he (a) makes general rules or regulaLlons beyond
Lhe scope of hls auLhorlLy or (b) aLLempLs Lo repeal a
law or (c) suspends Lhe execuLlon Lhereof.

Ak1. 240. USUkA1ICN CI LxLCU1IVL IUNC1ICNS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a [udge, and
2. 1haL he (a) assumes a power perLalnlng Lo Lhe
execuLlve auLhorlLles, or (b) obsLrucLs execuLlve
auLhorlLles ln Lhe lawful exerclse of Lhelr powers.

nC1L: LeglslaLlve offlcers are noL llable for usurpaLlon of
execuLlve funcLlons

Ak1. 241. USUkA1ICN CI IUDICIAL IUNC1ICNS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls an offlcer of Lhe execuLlve branch
of Lhe governmenL, and
2. 1haL he (a) assumes [udlclal powers, or (b) obsLrucLs Lhe
execuLlon of any order or declslon rendered by any
[udge wlLhln hls [urlsdlcLlon.

Ak1. 242. DISC8LING kLULS1 ICk DISUALIIICA1ICN

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer,
2. 1haL a proceedlng ls pendlng before such publlc offlcer,
3. 1haL Lhere ls a quesLlon broughL before Lhe proper
auLhorlLy regardlng hls [urlsdlcLlon, whlch ls noL yeL
declded,
4. 1haL he has been lawfully requlred Lo refraln from
conLlnulng Lhe proceedlng, and
S. 1haL he conLlnues Lhe proceedlng.

Ak1. 243. ADDkLSSING CkDLkS Ck kLULS1S 8
LxLCU1IVL CIIICLk 1C AN IUDICIAL AU1nCkI1

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls an execuLlve offlcer,
2. 1haL he addresses any order or suggesLlon Lo any
[udlclal auLhorlLy, and
3. 1haL Lhe order or suggesLlon relaLes Lo any case or
buslness comlng wlLhln Lhe excluslve [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe
courLs of [usLlce.

nC1L: LeglslaLlve or [udlclal offlcers are noL llable under Lhls
arLlcle.

Ak1. 244. UNLAWIUL ACIN1MLN1S

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer,
2. 1haL he nomlnaLes or appolnLs a person Lo a publlc
offlce,
3. 1haL such person lacks Lhe legal quallflcaLlon Lherefor,
and
4. 1haL Lhe offender knows LhaL hls nomlnee or appolnLee
lacks Lhe quallflcaLlon aL Lhe Llme he made Lhe
nomlnaLlon or appolnLmenL.

nC1L:
Mere recommendlng, even lf wlLh Lhe knowledge LhaL
Lhe person recommended ls noL quallfled, ls noL a
crlme. Pe musL nomlnaLe.
1here musL be a law provldlng for Lhe quallflcaLlons of a
person Lo be nomlnaLed or appolnLed Lo a publlc offlce.

SLC1ICN 4. - A8USLS AGAINS1 CnAS1I1

Ak1. 24S. A8USLS AGAINS1 CnAS1I1

WAS CI CCMMI11ING A8USLS AGAINS1 CnAS1I1:
1. 8y sollclLlng or maklng lmmoral or lndecenL advances Lo
a woman lnLeresLed ln maLLers pendlng before Lhe
offendlng offlcer for declslon, or wlLh respecL Lo whlch
he ls requlred Lo submlL a reporL Lo or consulL wlLh a
superlor offlcer,
2. 8y sollclLlng or maklng lmmoral or lndecenL advances Lo
a woman under Lhe offender's cusLody,
3. 8y sollclLlng or maklng lmmoral or lndecenL advances Lo
Lhe wlfe, daughLer, slsLer, or relaLlve wlLhln Lhe same
degree by afflnlLy of any person ln cusLody of Lhe
offendlng warden or offlcer

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer,
2. 1haL he sollclLs or makes lmmoral or lndecenL advances
Lo a woman, and
3. 1haL such woman musL be -
a. lnLeresLed ln maLLers pendlng before Lhe offender
for declslon, or wlLh respecL Lo whlch he ls
requlred Lo submlL a reporL Lo or consulL wlLh a
superlor offlcer, or


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 63 of 129
b. under Lhe cusLody of Lhe offender who ls a warden
or oLher publlc offlcer dlrecLly charged wlLh care
and cusLody of prlsoners or person under arresL, or
c. Lhe wlfe, daughLer, slsLer or relaLlve wlLhln Lhe
same degree by afflnlLy of Lhe person ln Lhe
cusLody of Lhe offender.

nC1L:
1he moLher of Lhe person ln Lhe cusLody of Lhe publlc
offlcer ls noL lncluded.
1o sollclL means Lo propose earnesLly and perslsLenLly
someLhlng unchasLe and lmmoral Lo a woman.
1he crlme ls consummaLed by mere proposal.
roof of sollclLaLlon ls noL necessary when Lhere ls
sexual lnLercourse.

LND CI DISCUSSICN CN 1CIC
7. CkIMLS CCMMI11LD 8 U8LIC CIIICLkS

=======================================
8. Cr|mes Aga|nst ersons
=======================================
1CICS UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US:

Chapter 1: Destruct|on of L|fe
Sec. 1 - arr|c|de, Murder, nom|c|de
Sec. 2 - Infant|c|de and Abort|on
Sec. 3 - Due|
Chapter 2: hys|ca| In[ur|es
k.A. 9262
k.A. 977S
k.A. 8049
k.A. 7610
k.A. 9344

================================================
Chapter 1: Destruct|on of L|fe
================================================

SLC1ICN CNL - AkkICIDL, MUkDLk, nCMICIDL

Ak1. 246. AkkICIDL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL a person |s k|||ed,
2. 1haL Lhe deceased ls kllled by the accused,
3. 1haL Lhe deceased ls Lhe
a. faLher, moLher, or chlld, wheLher leqltlmote ot
llleqltlmote, or
b. leqltlmote otbet ascendanL or oLher descendanL, or
c. leqltlmote spoose of Lhe accused.

kLLA1ICNSnI CI 1nL CIILNDLk WI1n 1nL VIC1IM IS 1nL
LSSLN1IAL LLLMLN1
1. 8equlred Lo deLermlne leglLlmacy of relaLlonshlp
2. 1he followlng are excluded (l.e., Lhe accused wlll noL be
gullLy of parrlclde) ALAlC
a. AdopLlve relaLlonshlp (adopLlng parenL-adopLed
chlld)
b. Chlld less Lhan 3 days old (lnfanLlclde)
c. 8elaLlonshlp by afflnlLy (ln-laws)
d. llleglLlmaLe oLher ascendanL/descendanL
e. Common-law spouse

NC1LS:
1. 8elaLlonshlp musL be alleged and proved. lf noL alleged,
lL can only be consldered as an ordlnary aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance.
2. unlshed by teclosloo petpetoo Lo deaLh
3. Cnly relaLlves by blood and ln dlrecL llne (excepL
spouse) are consldered
4. Marrlages among Musllms or among members of
eLhnlc culLural communlLles recognlzed (ArL. 33, lamlly
Code)
S. arrlclde Lhrough reckless lmprudence
a. 8eckless lmprudence - punlshed by ottesto
moyot ln lLs max. perlod Lo ptlsloo
cotteccloool ln lLs med. perlod
b. Slmple lmprudence or negllgence - punlshed
by ottesto moyot ln lLs med.-max. perlods
6. arr|c|de by m|stake: exlsLs because knowledge of
relaLlonshlp ls noL requlred ln parrlclde
7. arrlclde by om|ss|on (ln relaLlon Lo ArL. 276, 2
nd
par. -
Abandonlng a mlnor)
8. SLranger cooperaLlng ln parrlclde ls only gullLy of
homlclde or murder, as Lhe case may be.

AkkICIDL IS NC1 UNISnA8LL 8 kcLu5lON PkP1u4
1C DLA1n WnLN:
1. lL ls commlLLed Lhrough negllgence (ArL. 36S)
2. CommlLLed by mlsLake (ArL. 249)
3. CommlLLed under excepLlonal clrcumsLances (ArL.
247)

Ak1. 247. DLA1n Ck nSICAL INIUkILS INILIC1LD UNDLk
LxCL1ICNAL CIkCUMS1ANCLS

LLLMLN1S:
1. A |ega||y marr|ed person or parent surpr|ses h|s
spouse or daughter (Lhe laLLer musL be under 18 and
llvlng wlLh Lhem) ln Lhe act of comm|tt|ng sexua|
|ntercourse w|th another person,


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 64 of 129
2. Pe/she k|||s any or both of Lhem or lnfllcLs upon any or
boLh of Lhem any ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ury ln Lhe acL or
lmmedlaLely LhereafLer, and
3. Pe has not promoted or fac|||tated the prost|tut|on of
h|s w|fe or daughter, or LhaL he has not consented Lo
Lhe lnfldellLy of Lhe oLher spouse.

NC1L: 1he arLlcle does noL deflne a crlme buL granLs a
slngular mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance and provldes for Lhe
penalLy of Jestletto (as a form of proLecLlon for Lhe accused)
lnsLead of Lhe severe penalLy prescrlbed for parrlclde,
homlclde, or physlcal ln[urles

DLIINI1ICNS:
1. leqolly mottleJ excludes common-law relaLlonshlp
2. LeglLlmacy of parenL noL requlred, as long as
a. uaughLer ls mlnor, unmarrled and llvlng wlLh her
parenLs
3. 5otptlse means Lo come up suddenly and
unexpecLedly"


3. lo tbe oct of commlttloq sexool lotetcootse wltb
oootbet person ls saLlsfled lf clrcumsLances show
reasonably LhaL Lhe carnal acL ls belng commlLLed or
has [usL been commlLLed
4. lmmeJlotely tbeteoftet means Lhe dlscovery, escape,
pursulL and Lhe kllllng musL all form parLs of one
conLlnuous acL

IUS1IIICA1ICN ICk Ak1. 247: 8UkS1 CI ASSICN
1he kllllng musL be Lhe proxlmaLe resulL of Lhe ouLrage
overwhelmlng Lhe accused, and noL lnfluenced by exLernal
facLors

nSICAL INIUkILS MUS1 8L SLkICUS
lf Lhe physlcal ln[urles are less serlous or sllghL, lL ls an
absoluLory cause, Lhus no crlmlnal llablllLy

NC1LS:
8oth w|ves and husbands are enLlLled Lo Lhe beneflLs
of Lhls arLlcle
Sexual lnLercourse does not lnclude preparaLory acLs
no crlmlnal llablllLy lf physlcal ln[urles are lnfllcLed upon
Lhlrd persons (l.e., Lhose oLher Lhan Lhe wlfe/daughLer
and Lhe paramour)

Ak1. 248. MUkDLk

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL a person |s k|||ed,
2. 1haL Lhe deceased ls kllled by the accused
3. 1haL Lhe kllllng was aLLended by any of Lhe followlng
qua||fy|ng c|rcumstances:
a. wlLh Lreachery, Laklng advanLage of superlor
sLrengLh, wlLh Lhe ald of armed men, or employlng
means Lo weaken Lhe defense or of means or
persons Lo lnsure or afford lmpunlLy,
b. ln conslderaLlon of prlce, reward or promlse,
c. by means of lnundaLlon, flre, polson, exploslon,
shlpwreck, sLrandlng of vessel, derallmenL or
assaulL upon a sLreeL car or locomoLlve, fall of
alrshlp, by means of moLor vehlcles or wlLh Lhe use
of any oLher means lnvolvlng greaL wasLe or ruln,
d. on occaslon of any of Lhe calamlLles enumeraLed ln
Lhe precedlng paragraph, or of an earLhquake,
erupLlon of a volcano, desLrucLlve cyclone,
epldemlc or any oLher publlc calamlLy,
e. wlLh evldenL premedlLaLlon, or
f. wlLh cruelLy, by dellberaLely and lnhumanely
augmenLlng Lhe sufferlng of Lhe vlcLlm or ouLraglng
or scofflng aL hls person or corpse, and
4. 1he kllllng ls not parr|c|de or |nfant|c|de.

Murder ls Lhe unlawful kllllng of any person, whlch ls noL
parrlclde or lnfanLlclde, provlded LhaL any of Lhe
enumeraLed clrcumsLances are presenL

NC1LS:
1. Intent to k||| - essenLlal ln all clrcumsLances LxCL1
Lreachery
2. punlshed by teclosloo petpetoo Lo deaLh
3. vlcLlm musL be kllled ln order Lo consummaLe Lhe
crlme, lf vlcLlm lS nC1 kllled-elLher aLLempLed or
frusLraLed murder
4. 1reachery - presenL when Lhe acL consLlLuLlng Lhe
felony ls sudden and unexpecLed Lo Lhe polnL of
lncapaclLaLlng Lhe vlcLlm Lo repel or escape lL
1he means, meLhods, or form of aLLack musL
be consclously adopLed by Lhe offender
resenL when an adulL person aLLacks a chlld
of Lender years
S. noL enough LhaL superlor sLrengLh ls presenL, lL musL
be Laken advanLage of
Also applles when acL ls commlLLed on
occaslon of a publlc calamlLy
6. Armed men musL Lake parL ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme dlrecLly or lndlrecLly
Accused musL avall hlmself of Lhelr ald or rely
upon Lhem
7. erson who recelved Lhe prlce, reward, or promlse ls a
prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon, person who gave such
prlce, reward, or promlse ls a prlnclpal by lnducLlon.
8C1P are gullLy of murder.
8. 1reachery and premedlLaLlon are lnherenL ln murder by
polson, and Lhus, cannoL be consldered as aggravaLlng.



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 6S of 129

kULLS ICk ALICA1ICN CI UALIIING CIkCUMS1ANCLS
1. Murder wlll exlsL wlLh only one of Lhe clrcumsLances,
oLhers musL be consldered as generlc aggravaLlng
2. When oLher clrcumsLances are absorbed or lncluded ln
one quallfylng clrcumsLance, Lhey cannoL be consldered
as generlc aggravaLlng
3. Any of Lhe clrcumsLances musL be alleged ln order Lo
quallfy Lhe crlme Lo murder
- CLherwlse, lL ls only a generlc aggravaLlng

CU1kAGING Ck SCCIIING A1 nIS LkSCN Ck CCkSL:
UALIIING CIkCUMS1ANCL NC1 MLN1ICNLD IN Ak1. 14
1. CuLraglng: Lo commlL an exLremely vlclous or deeply
lnsulLlng acL
2. Scofflng: Lo [eer, lmplles a showlng of lrreverence

Ak1. 249. nCMICIDL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL a person was k|||ed,
2. 1haL Lhe accused k|||ed h|m w|thout any [ust|fy|ng
c|rcumstances,
3. 1haL Lhe accused had Lhe |ntent|on to k|||, whlch ls
presumed, and
4. 1haL Lhe kllllng was not attended by any of Lhe
qua||fy|ng c|rcumstances of murder, or by LhaL of
parrlclde or lnfanLlclde

NC1LS:
1. nom|c|de ls Lhe unlawful kllllng of any person, whlch ls
nelLher parrlclde, murder, nor lnfanLlclde
2. ConsummaLed when vlcLlm ls kllled, oLherwlse,
aLLempLed or frusLraLed
3. resumpLlon of lnLenL Lo klll
a. WlLh respecL Lo crlmes of personal vlolence, Lhe
penal law looks parLlcularly Lo Lhe maLerlal resulLs
followlng Lhe unlawful acL and holds Lhe aggressor
responslble for all Lhe consequences Lhereof.
b. Lvldence of lnLenL Lo klll ls lmporLanL only ln
aLLempLed or frusLraLed homlclde
l. lnLenL Lo klll ls concluslvely presumed when
Lhe vlcLlm dles
ll. Cenerally shown by Lhe klnd of weapon
used, Lhe parLs of Lhe vlcLlm's body aL whlch
lL was almed, and by Lhe wounds lnfllcLed
8uL purpose of Lhe accused may also
be consldered
lll. 1he elemenL of lnLenL Lo klll ls lncompaLlble
wlLh lmprudence or negllgence
lnLenL Lo klll musL be proved beyond
reasonable doubL
lv. no aLLempLed or frusLraLed homlclde
Lhrough lmprudence or negllgence, crlme
would be physlcal ln[urles Lhrough reckless
lmprudence
As an excepLlon, see AccldenLal
homlclde (lLem 6)
4. When Lwo dlfferenL persons lnfllcLed Lhe wounds whlch
caused Lhe deaLh, boLh are gullLy of homlclde
a. 1he burden Lo prove oLherwlse ls on each of Lhe
defendanLs
b. roof of consplracy ls noL necessary
c. Also applles when lL was noL shown whlch wounds
were lnfllcLed by each person
S. When defense ls noL allowed Lo exculpaLe
a. 8efusal of vlcLlm Lo be operaLed
b. When Lhe acL of morLally woundlng and Lhe facL of
sulclde by Lhe vlcLlm concur
6. use of unllcensed flrearm ls consldered as an
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance and noL as a separaLe crlme
7. unlshed by teclosloo tempotol

ACCIDLN1AL nCMICIDL ls Lhe deaLh of a person broughL
abouL by a lawful acL performed wlLh proper care and sklll,
and wlLhouL homlcldal lnLenL
L.g. lf ln a game, Lhe rules have been vlolaLed and
deaLh resulLed, deLermlne lnLenL Lo klll:
l. lf wlLh lnLenL Lo klll, lL ls lnLenLlonal
homlclde
ll. lf wlLhouL lnLenL Lo klll, lL ls homlclde
Lhrough negllgence

CCkUS DLLIC1I
ln all crlmes agalnsL persons ln whlch Lhe deaLh of Lhe vlcLlm
ls an elemenLs of Lhe offense, Lhere musL be saLlsfacLory
evldence of
1. 1he facL of deaLh, and
2. 1he ldenLlLy of Lhe vlcLlm
- does noL refer Lo Lhe body of Lhe vlcLlm buL Lo Lhe
acLual commlsslon of Lhe crlme charged

Ak1. 2S0. LNAL1 ICk IkUS1kA1LD AkkICIDL,
MUkDLk, Ck nCMICIDL

CourLs may lmpose a penalLy Lwo degrees lower for
frusLraLed parrlclde, murder or homlclde.
CourLs may lmpose a penalLy Lhree degrees lower for
aLLempLed parrlclde, murder or homlclde.
1hls rule ls permlsslve-noL mandaLory
An aLLempL on, or a consplracy agalnsL, Lhe llfe of Lhe
Chlef LxecuLlve, eLc., ls punlshable by deaLh.

Ak1. 2S1. DLA1n CAUSLD IN A 1UMUL1UCUS AIIkA

LLLMLN1S
1. 1haL Lhere be severa| persons,


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 66 of 129
2. 1haL Lhey d|d not compose groups organ|zed for Lhe
common purpose of assaulLlng and aLLacklng each
oLher reclprocally,
3. 1haL Lhese several persons quarre||ed and assau|ted
one anoLher ln a confused and tumu|tuous manner,
4. 1haL someone was k|||ed ln Lhe course of Lhe affray,
S. 1haL lL cannot be ascerta|ned who actua||y k|||ed Lhe
deceased, and
6. 1haL Lhe person or persons who |nf||cted ser|ous
phys|ca| |n[ur|es or who used v|o|ence con be
|dent|f|ed.

NC1LS:
1. 1UMUL1UCUS AIIkA
a. 1umulLuous (as used ln ArL. 1S3) means LhaL Lhe
dlsLurbance ls caused by aL leasL four persons who
are armed or are provlded wlLh means of vlolence
b. 1here musL be no unlLy of purpose oand lnLenLlon
among Lhe persons who used vlolence
2. LkSCNS LIA8LL:
a. erson or persons who lnfllcLed serlous physlcal
ln[urles
b. lf lL ls noL known who lnfllcLed serlous physlcal
ln[urles on Lhe deceased, all persons who used
vlolence upon Lhe person of Lhe vlcLlm
3. When Lhere are 2 ldenLlfled groups of men who
assaulLed each oLher, Lhere ls no LumulLuous affray.
4. 1he person kllled need noL be a parLlclpanL ln Lhe
affray.
S. uoes noL apply when Lhe person who lnfllcLed Lhe faLal
wound ls known, ln LhaL case, Lhe crlme wlll be
homlclde under ArL. 249.

Ak1. 2S2. nSICAL INIUkILS INILIC1LD IN A
1UMUL1UCUS AIIkA

LLLMLN1S
1. 1haL Lhere ls a LumulLuous affray as referred Lo ln Lhe
precedlng arLlcle,
2. 1haL a parLlclpanL or some parLlclpanLs Lhereof suffer
serlous physlcal ln[urles or physlcal ln[urles of a less
serlous naLure only,
3. 1haL Lhe person responslble Lherefor cannoL be
ldenLlfled, and
4. 1haL all Lhose who appear Lo have used vlolence upon
Lhe person of Lhe offended parLy are known.

nC1LS:
1. ersons llable: Cnly Lhose who have used vlolence on
Lhe person of Lhe offended parLy.
enalLy wlll be one degree lower Lhan LhaL
provlded for Lhe physlcal ln[ury lnfllcLed
2. ln[ured parLy musL be a parLlclpanL of Lhe LumulLuous
affray (as opposed Lo Lhe precedlng arLlcle
3. lf Lhe one who caused physlcal ln[urles ls known, he
wlll be llable for physlcal ln[urles acLually commlLLed.
4. SllghL physlcal ln[urles noL lncluded

Ak1. 2S3. GIVING ASSIS1ANCL 1C SUICIDL
AC1S UNISnA8LL:
1. AsslsLlng anoLher Lo commlL sulclde, wheLher Lhe
sulclde ls consummaLed or noL.
2. Lendlng hls asslsLance Lo anoLher Lo commlL sulclde Lo
Lhe exLenL of dolng Lhe kllllng hlmself.

NC1LS:
1. lf Lhe sulclde ls noL consummaLed
a. lor Lhe flrsL punlshable acL: arresLo mayor ln lLs
medlum and maxlmum perlods
b. lor Lhe second punlshable acL: one or Lwo degrees
lower Lhan LhaL provlded for consummaLed sulclde
2. An aLLempL Lo commlL sulclde ls an acL, buL lL ls noL
punlshable by law
a. A person who aLLempLs Lo commlL sulclde ls noL
crlmlnally llable.
b. A pregnanL woman who Lrled Lo commlL sulclde by
means of polson buL lnsLead of dylng, Lhe feLus ln
her womb was expelled, ls noL llable for aborLlon
l. ln order Lo lncur crlmlnal llablllLy for Lhe
resulL noL lnLended, one musL be
commlLLlng a felony
ll. unlnLenLlonal aborLlon ls punlshable only
when lL ls caused by vlolence, noL by polson
(ArL. 2S7)
3. AsslsLance Lo sulclde ls dlfferenL from mercy-kllllng
a. LuLhanasla or mercy-kllllng ls Lhe pracLlce of
palnlessly puLLlng Lo deaLh a person sufferlng from
some lncurable dlsease. ln Lhls case, Lhe person
does noL wanL Lo dle. A docLor who resorLs Lo
euLhanasla may be held llable for murder

Ak1. 2S4. DISCnAkGL CI IIkLAkMS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender dlscharges a flrearm agalnsL or aL
anoLher person, and
2. 1haL Lhe offender has no lnLenLlon Lo klll LhaL person.

nC1LS:
1. 1he offender musL shooL aL anoLher wlLh any flrearm
wlLhouL lnLenLlon of kllllng hlm
a. 1he purpose of Lhe offender may be Lo lnLlmldaLe
or frlghLen Lhe offended parLy
b. lf Lhe flrearm ls noL dlscharged aL a person, Lhe acL
ls noL punlshed under Lhls arLlcle
c. A dlscharge Lowards Lhe house of Lhe offended
parLy, noL knowlng ln whaL parL of Lhe house Lhe
people lnslde were, ls only alarm under ArL. 1SS.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 67 of 129
d. lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe gun was lnlLlally almed aL or
agalnsL Lhe offended parLy, even lf lL was noL
polnLed aL Lhe offended parLy when lL flred
e. lf Lhere's lnLenL Lo klll, lL may be frusLraLed or
aLLempLed parrlclde, murder, or homlclde
2. LssenLlal Lo prove LhaL Lhe dlscharge of flrearm was
dlrecLed preclsely agalnsL Lhe offended parLy
3. lf Lhe lllegal dlscharge lnfllcLs serlous or less serlous
physlcal ln[urles Lo Lhe offended parLy, Lhere wlll be a
complex crlme of lllegal dlscharge of flrearm w/ serlous
or less serlous physlcal ln[urles

SLC1ICN 1WC - INIAN1ICIDL AND A8Ck1ICN

Ak1. 2SS. INIAN1ICIDL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL a chlld was kllled,
2. 1haL Lhe deceased chlld was less Lhan Lhree days (72
hours) of age, and
3. 1haL Lhe accused kllled Lhe sald chlld.

lnfanLlclde ls Lhe kllllng of any chlld less Lhan Lhree days of
age, wheLher Lhe klller ls parenL or grandparenL, any oLher
relaLlve of Lhe chlld, or a sLranger

NC1LS:
1. 1he chlld musL be born allve and can susLaln an
lndependenL llfe when lL ls kllled
a. 8urden of proof ls upon Lhe prosecuLlon
2. enalLy ls LhaL of elLher parrlclde or murder, dependlng
on Lhe relaLlonshlp of Lhe accused wlLh Lhe vlcLlm
3. MlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance of conceallng dlshonor
a. Appllcable only Lo Lhe moLher and maLernal
grandparenLs
b. uellnquenL moLher musL be of good repuLaLlon

Ak1. 2S6. IN1LN1ICNAL A8Ck1ICN

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhere ls a pregnanL woman,
2. 1haL any of Lhe followlng ways ls commlLLed
a. vlolence ls exerLed, or
b. drugs or beverages admlnlsLered, wlLhouL vlolence
upon and wlLhouL consenL of Lhe pregnanL woman,
or
c. drugs or beverages admlnlsLered, wlLh Lhe consenL
of Lhe pregnanL woman,
3. 1haL as a resulL of Lhe use of vlolence or drugs or
beverages upon her, or any oLher acL of Lhe accused,
Lhe feLus dles, elLher ln Lhe womb or afLer havlng been
expelled Lherefrom,
4. 1haL Lhe aborLlon ls lnLended

A8Ck1ICN ls Lhe wllful kllllng of Lhe foeLus ln Lhe uLerus, or
Lhe vlolenL expulslon of Lhe foeLus from Lhe maLernal womb
whlch resulLs ln Lhe deaLh of Lhe foeLus

nC1LS:
1. loeLus musL dle ln consummaLed aborLlon, oLherwlse,
deLermlne lf Lhere ls lnLenL Lo aborL
a. lf wlLh lnLenLlon, frusLraLed lnLenLlonal aborLlon
b. lf wlLhouL lnLenLlon, physlcal ln[urles
2. When lnfanLlclde (as opposed Lo aborLlon): lf Lhe foeLus
a. Could susLaln an lndependenL llfe, afLer separaLlon
from maLernal womb, and
b. ls kllled
3. 1he person who lnLenLlonally caused Lhe aborLlon ls
llable
a. lf Lhe woman/moLher permlLLed, she wlll be llable
under ArL. 2S8, oLherwlse, she ls noL llable

Ak1. 2S7. UNIN1LN1ICNAL A8Ck1ICN

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhere ls a pregnanL woman,
2. 1haL vlolence ls used upon such pregnanL woman
wlLhouL lnLendlng an aborLlon,
3. 1haL Lhe vlolence ls lnLenLlonally exerLed, and
4. 1haL as a resulL of Lhe vlolence Lhe feLus dles, elLher ln
Lhe womb or afLer havlng been expelled Lherefrom

NC1LS:
1. Can only be commlLLed by vlolence
a. vlolence or acLual physlcal force (as opposed Lo
LhreaLs or mere admlnlsLerlng of subsLance wlLh
no lnLenLlon Lo commlL aborLlon) musL be used
2. lnLenLlon may be lnferred from Lhe condlLlon of Lhe
pregnanL woman (l.e. wheLher pregnancy ls noLlceable)
3. May be commlLLed Lhrough lmprudence
4. May be complexed wlLh homlclde and parrlclde
S. lf Lhere's no lnLenL Lo cause aborLlon and Lhere's no
vlolence commlLLed, Lhen Lhere's no aborLlon of any
klnd

Ak1. 2S8. A8Ck1ICN kAC1ICLD 8 1nL WCMAN nLkSLLI
Ck 8 nLk AkLN1S

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhere ls a pregnanL woman who has suffered an
aborLlon,
2. 1haL Lhe aborLlon ls lnLended, and
3. 1haL Lhe aborLlon ls caused by -
a. Lhe pregnanL woman herself
b. any oLher person, wlLh her consenL, or
c. any of her parenLs, wlLh her consenL for Lhe
purpose of conceallng her dlshonor.



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 68 of 129
NC1LS:
1. MlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance (as dlsLlngulshed from
lnfanLlclde) for Lhe purpose of conceallng dlshonor
a. Cnly appllcable Lo Lhe pregnanL woman and noL Lo
Lhe parenLs of Lhe pregnanL woman
2. lf Lhe purpose of Lhe woman's parenLs was nC1 Lo
conceal dlshonor, Lhen Lhey wlll be llable for lnLenLlonal
aborLlon under ArL. 2S6

Ak1. 2S9. A8Ck1ICN kAC1ICLD 8 A nSICIAN Ck
MIDWIIL AND DISLNSING CI A8Ck1IVL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhere ls a pregnanL woman who has suffered an
aborLlon,
2. 1haL Lhe aborLlon ls lnLended,
3. 1haL Lhe offender, who musL be a physlclan or mldwlfe,
causes or asslsLs ln causlng Lhe aborLlon, and
4. 1haL sald physlclan or mldwlfe Lakes advanLage of hls or
her sclenLlflc knowledge or sklll.

nC1LS:
1. 1he Laklng advanLage of sclenLlflc knowledge or sklll for
Lhe desLrucLlon of human llfe [usLlfles Lhe lmposlLlon of
Lhe maxlmum penalLy

LLLMLN1S AS 1C nAkMACIS1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pharmaclsL.
2. 1haL Lhere ls no proper prescrlpLlon from a physlclan.
3. 1haL Lhe offender dlspenses any aborLlve.

nC1LS:
1. 1he effecL of knowledge LhaL Lhe aborLlve would be
used Lo cause aborLlon:
a. WlLhouL knowledge, punlshable under Lhls arLlcle
b. WlLh knowledge, punlshable as an accompllce ln
Lhe crlme of aborLlon
2. noL necessary for Lhe aborLlve Lo be acLually used, Lhe acL
consLlLuLlng Lhe offense ls dlspenslng Lhe aborLlve w/o
proper prescrlpLlon

SLC1ICN 1nkLL - DULL

Ak1. 260. kLSCNSI8ILI1 CI Ak1ICIAN1S IN A DULL

AC1S UNISnA8LL
1. kllllng one's adversary ln a duel
2. lnfllcLlng upon Lhe adversary serlous physlcal ln[urles
3. Maklng combaL alLhough no physlcal ln[urles have been
lnfllcLed

LkSCNS LIA8LL
1. kINCIALS - person who kllled or lnfllcLed physlcal
ln[urles upon hls adversary, or boLh combaLanLs ln any
oLher cases.
2. ACCCMLICLS - seconds

NC1LS:
1. A duel ls a formal or regular combaL prevlously
concerLed beLween Lwo parLles ln Lhe presence of Lwo
or more seconds of lawful age on each slde, who make
Lhe selecLlon of arms and flx all Lhe oLher condlLlons of
Lhe flghL
2. lnLenL Lo klll ls dlsregarded-so penalLy wlll be LhaL for
physlcal ln[urles only as opposed Lo Lhose lnfllcLed for
frusLraLed/aLLempLed homlclde

Ak1. 261. CnALLLNGING 1C A DULL

AC1S UNISnA8LL:
1. Challenglng anoLher Lo a duel.
2. lnclLlng anoLher Lo glve or accepL a challenge Lo a duel.
3. Scofflng aL or decrylng anoLher publlcly for havlng
refused Lo accepL a challenge Lo flghL a duel.

LkSCNS LIA8LL
1. Challengers, and
2. lnsLlgaLors
1here musL be lnLenLlon Lo have a formal duel (as opposed
Lo llghL LhreaLs under ArL. 28S, par. 2)

===========================================
Chapter 2: hys|ca| In[ur|es
================================================
CkIMLS UNISnA8LL:
A. MuLllaLlon
8. Serlous physlcal ln[urles
C. AdmlnlsLerlng ln[urlous subsLance or beverages
u. Less serlous physlcal ln[urles
L. SllghL physlcal ln[urles and malLreaLmenL

Ak1. 262. MU1ILA1ICN

1WC (2) kINDS:
1. CAS1kA1ICN: lnLenLlonally muLllaLlng anoLher by
deprlvlng hlm, LoLally or parLlally, of some essenLlal
organ for reproducLlon.
2. MAnLM Ck C1nLk IN1LN1ICNAL MU1ILA1ICN:
lnLenLlonally maklng oLher muLllaLlon, l.e. lopplng,
cllpplng off any parL of Lhe body of Lhe offended parLy,
oLher Lhan Lhe essenLlal organ for reproducLlon, Lo
deprlve hlm of LhaL parL of hls body.

1here musL be lnLenLlonal muLllaLlon - offender musL have
Lhe lnLenL Lo deprlve Lhe offended parLy of a parL of hls
body


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 69 of 129
lf Lhere's no lnLenLlon, Lhen crlme wlll be consldered as
serlous physlcal ln[urles

nSICAL INIUkILS DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM:
1. A11LM1LD Ck IkUS1kA1LD nCMICIDL
a. ALLempLed homlclde may be commlLLed, even lf no
physlcal ln[urles are lnfllcLed
b. lnLenL Lo klll ls noL presenL ln Lhe crlme of physlcal
ln[urles
2. MU1ILA1ICN
a. lnLenLlon Lo lop or cllp off some parL of Lhe body ls
presenL ln muLllaLlon

Ak1. 263. SLkICUS nSICAL INIUkILS

nCW CCMMI11LD:
1. Woundlng,
2. 8eaLlng,
3. AssaulLlng, or
4. AdmlnlsLerlng ln[urlous subsLances


SLkICUS nSICAL INIUkILS AkL:
1. When Lhe ln[ured person becomes lnsane, lmbeclle,
lmpoLenL or bllnd ln consequence of Lhe physlcal
ln[urles lnfllcLed.
2. When Lhe ln[ured person -
a. loses Lhe use of speech or Lhe power Lo hear or Lo
smell,
b. loses an eye, a hand, fooL, arm or leg, or loses Lhe
use of any such member, or loses Lhe use of any
such member,
c. becomes lncapaclLaLed for Lhe work ln whlch he
had been hablLually engaged
3. When Lhe ln[ured person -
a. becomes deformed,
b. loses any oLher member of hls body,
c. loses Lhe use Lhereof, or
d. becomes lll or lncapaclLaLed for Lhe performance
of Lhe work ln whlch he had been hablLually
engaged ln for more Lhan 90 days
4. When Lhe ln[ured person becomes lll or lncapaclLaLed
for labor for more Lhan 30 days (buL noL more Lhan 90
days).

AkAGkAn 1
1. lmpoLency lncludes lnablllLy Lo copulaLe and sLerlllLy,
no lnLenL Lo deprlve (as opposed Lo casLraLlon)
2. CompleLe bllndness (as opposed Lo paragraph 2 - loss
of an eye only)

AkAGkAn 2 (menLlons prlnclpal members of Lhe body)
1. Loss of power Lo hear of boLh ears (as opposed Lo
paragraph 3 - loss of one ear only)
2. Loss of use of hand or lncapaclLy for usual work musL
be permanenL
a. 1hls musL be proven by clear and concluslve
evldence
3. noLe LhaL Lhe offended parLy musL have an avocaLlon
or work aL Lhe Llme of Lhe ln[ury [also ln paragraph (3)]
a. Work lncludes sLudles or preparaLlon for a
professlon
b. Means lncapaclLy for a cerLaln klnd of work only,
buL noL for all

AkAGkAn 3
1. ueformlLy ls meanL physlcal ugllness, permanenL and
deflnlng abnormallLy. lL musL be consplcuous and
vlslble (l.e., dependlng on whaL parL of Lhe body)
a. lf scar ls usually covered, Lhen lL's noL consldered
consplcuous or vlslble
b. Loss of LeeLh may be consldered as deformlLy
l. ln[ury musL be LhaL whlch cannoL be
repalred by Lhe acLlon of naLure
ll. LxCL1lCnS: old men/women and chlldren
2. Loss of flngers may fall under paragraph 2 lf lL resulLs ln
Lhe loss of Lhe use of Lhe hand lLself
3. Covers any member whlch ls noL a prlnclpal member of
Lhe body

AkAGkAn 4
1. Any klnd of labor ls lncluded
2. PosplLallzaLlon for more Lhan 30 days may mean elLher
lllness or lncapaclLy for labor for more Lhan 30 days
3. 1here musL be evldence of Lhe lengLh of perlod of
lllness or capaclLy when Lhe caLegory of Lhe offense of
serlous physlcal ln[urles
1he absence Lhereof makes Lhe offense only sllghL
physlcal ln[urles
4. Lessenlng of efflclency ln work ls noL lncapaclLy

UALIIILD SLkICUS nSICAL INIUkILS
1. ln relaLlon Lo persons menLloned parrlclde and
clrcumsLances menLloned ln murder - hlgher penalLles
wll be lnfllcLed
2. uCLS nC1 lnclude ln[urles caused by excesslve
chasLlsemenL of a parenL upon hls chlld

NC1LS:
1. lL can be commlLLed by reckless lmprudence, or by
slmple lmprudence or negllgence
2. 1here musL be no lnLenL Lo klll, oLherwlse, crlme would
be frusLraLed/aLLempLed murder, parrlclde, or homlclde
3. Medlcal aLLendance ls noL lmporLanL ln serlous physlcal
ln[urles




CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 70 of 129
Ak1. 264. ADMINIS1LkING INIUkICUS SU8S1ANCL Ck
8LVLkAGLS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender lnfllcLed upon anoLher person any
serlous physlcal ln[ury,
2. 1haL lL was done by knowlngly admlnlsLerlng Lo hlm any
ln[urlous subsLances or beverages or by Laklng
advanLage of hls weakness of mlnd or credullLy, and
3. Pe had no lnLenL Lo klll.

NC1LS:
1. AdmlnlsLerlng: lnLroduclng lnLo Lhe body
2. lf Lhere ls lnLenL Lo klll, lL ls frusLraLed murder - Lhe
ln[urlous subsLance Lo be consldered as polson
3. knowledge applles Lo Lhe ln[urlous naLure of Lhe
subsLance or beverage
4. by Laklng advanLage of hls weakness of mlnd or
credullLy" may Lake place ln Lhe case of wlLchcrafL,
magneLlsm and Lhe llke

Ak1. 26S. LLSS SLkICUS nSICAL INIUkILS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offended parLy ls lncapaclLaLed for labor or
needs medlcal aLLendance for 10 days or more (buL noL
more Lhan 30 days), and
2. 1haL Lhe physlcal ln[urles musL noL be Lhose descrlbed
ln Lhe precedlng arLlcles.

UALIIILD LLSS SLkICUS nSICAL INIUkILS
1. llne noL noL exceedlng S200, ln addlLlon Lo arresLo
mayor, when
a. 1here ls a manlfesL lnLenL Lo lnsulL or offend Lhe
ln[ured person, or
b. 1here are clrcumsLances addlng lgnomlny Lo Lhe
offense
(a) and (b) are consldered as
l. Crdlnary aggravaLlng clrcumsLance ln
serlous physlcal ln[urles
ll. Slander by deed ln sllghL physlcal ln[urles
2. A hlgher penalLy, when Lhe vlcLlm ls elLher
a. 1he offender's parenLs, ascendanLs, guardlans,
curaLors or Leachers
b. ersons of rank or persons ln auLhorlLy, provlded
Lhe crlme ls noL dlrecL assaulL

nC1LS:
1. Medlcal aLLendance or lncapaclLy for labor ls requlred
a. when Lhere's no lncapcalLy for labor or medlcal
aLLendance needed, lL wlll be consldered only as
sllghL physlcal ln[urles
l. lf ln[urles were healed wlLhln 30 days -
sllghL physlcal ln[urles
ll. lf ln[urles were healed only afLer 30 days -
serlous phylslcal ln[urles (as lllness for more
Lhan 30 days)
2. 1hls arLlcle applles even lf Lhere was no lncapaclLy buL
Lhe medlcal LreaLmenL was for more Lhan 10 days
3. 1here musL be proof as Lo Lhe perlod of requlred
medlcal aLLendance

Ak1. 266. SLIGn1 nSICAL INIUkILS AND MAL1kLA1MLN1

1nkLL (3) kINDS:
1. hyslcal ln[urles whlch lncapaclLaLed Lhe offended parLy
for labor from one (1) Lo nlne (9) days or requlred
medlcal aLLendance durlng Lhe same perlod.
2. hyslcal ln[urles whlch dld noL prevenL Lhe offended
parLy from engaglng ln hls hablLual work or whlch dld
noL requlre medlcal aLLendance (Lx. black eye).
3. lll-LreaLmenL of anoLher by deed wlLhouL causlng any
ln[ury. (e.g. slapplng Lhe face wlLhouL causlng dlshonor)

NC1LS:
1. kLSUM1ICN
a. ln Lhe absence of proof as Lo Lhe perlod of Lhe
offended parLy's lncapaclLy for labor or of Lhe
requlred medlcal aLLendance, Lhe crlme commlLLed
ls presumed as sllghL physlcal ln[urles
b. When Lhere ls no evldence Lo esLabllsh Lhe gravlLy
or duraLlon of acLual ln[ury or Lo show Lhe causal
relaLlonshlp Lo deaLh, Lhe offense ls sllghL physlcal
ln[urles

2. SULkVLNING LVLN1
a. When Lhe charge conLalned ln Lhe lnformaLlon
flled was for sllghL physlcal ln[urles because lL was
belleved LhaL Lhe wound suffered would requlre
medlcal aLLendance for elghL (8) days only, buL
durlng prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon lL was found LhaL
Lhe heallng would requlre more Lhan LhlrLy (30)
days, Lhls supervenlng evenL can sLlll be Lhe sub[ecL
of amendmenL or of a new charge wlLhouL placlng
Lhe accused ln double [eopardy
30


Ak1. 266-A. kAL, 266-8. LNAL1ILS

SIMLL kAL (UNDLk AkAGkAn 1):

A. LLLMLN1S:
1. 1he offender |s a man,
2. 1he offender had carna| know|edge of a woman,
3. Such acL ls accompllshed (any one of Lhe
followlng):
a. Lhrough force, threat or |nt|m|dat|on,

J0
leople v. Mooolooq, 85 lbll. 829


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 71 of 129
b. when Lhe offended party |s depr|ved of
reason or otherw|se unconsc|ous,
c. by means of fraudu|ent mach|nat|on or grave
abuse of author|ty, or
d. when Lhe offended party |s under 12 years of
age (statutory rape) or ls demented, even
Lhough none of Lhe clrcumsLances menLloned
above be presenL

8. LNAL1ILS IMCSLD
31

1. recluslon perpeLua
2. recluslon perpeLua Lo deaLh when:
a. vlcLlm became lnsane by reason or on Lhe
occaslon of rape, or
b. Lhe rape ls aLLempLed and a homlclde ls
commlLLed by reason or on Lhe occaslon
Lhereof.
3. ueaLh when:
a. homlclde ls commlLLed,
b. vlcLlm ls under 18 years old and offender ls:
l. parenL,
ll. ascendanL,
lll. sLep-parenL,
lv. guardlan,
v. relaLlve by consangulnlLy or afflnlLy
wlLhln Lhe 3rd clvll degree,
vl. common law spouse of vlcLlm's
parenL,
c. under Lhe cusLody of Lhe pollce or mlllLary
auLhorlLles or any law enforcemenL or penal
lnsLlLuLlon,
d. commlLLed ln full vlew of Lhe spouse, parenL
or any of Lhe chlldren or oLher relaLlves wlLhln
Lhe 3rd degree of consangulnlLy,
e. vlcLlm ls a rellglous engaged ln leglLlmaLe
rellglous vocaLlon or calllng and ls personally
known Lo be such by Lhe offender before or aL
Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme,
f. a chlld below 7 years old,
g. offender knows he ls affllcLed wlLh Plv or AluS
or any oLher sexually Lransmlsslble dlsease
and Lhe vlrus ls LransmlLLed Lo Lhe vlcLlm,
h. offender ls a member of Lhe Al, or para-
mlllLary unlLs Lhereof, or Lhe n, or any law
enforcemenL agency or penal lnsLlLuLlon,
when Lhe offender Look advanLage of hls
poslLlon Lo faclllLaLe Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme,
l. by reason or on occaslon of Lhe rape, Lhe
vlcLlm suffered permanenL physlcal muLllaLlon
or dlsablllLy,

31
lotsooot to k.A. 9J16 (Act ltoblbltloq tbe lmposltloo of ueotb leoolty lo tbe
lbllpploes) tbe peoolty of teclosloo petpetoo wltboot ellqlblllty fot potole sboll be
lmposeJ, lo lleo of Jeotb peoolty
[. Lhe offender knew of Lhe pregnancy of Lhe
offended parLy aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon
of Lhe crlme, and
k. Lhe offender knew of Lhe menLal dlsablllLy,
emoLlonal dlsorder and/or physlcal handlcap
of Lhe offended parLy aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme.

kAL 1nkCUGn SLxUAL ASSAUL1 (UNDLk AkAGkAn 2)

A. LLLMLN1S:
1. Lhe offender (man or woman) comm|ts an act of
sexua| assau|t
2. Lhe acL ls commlLLed by |nsert|ng:
a. hls penls lnLo anoLher person's mouLh or anal
orlflce, or
b. any lnsLrumenL or ob[ecL lnLo Lhe genlLal or
anal orlflce of anoLher person
3. Lhe acL ls commlLLed under any of Lhe
clrcumsLances menLloned under paragraph 1

8. LNAL1ILS IMCSLD:
1. ltlsloo moyot - ln general
2. ltlsloo moyot Lo teclosloo tempotol when:
a. Lhere was use of deadly weapon, or
b. commlLLed by Lwo or more persons.
3. keclosloo tempotol - when Lhe vlcLlm has become
lnsane
4. keclosloo tempotol Lo teclosloo petpetoo - rape ls
aLLempLed and homlclde ls commlLLed
S. keclosloo petpetoo - homlclde ls commlLLed by
reason or on occaslon of rape
6. keclosloo tempotol - commlLLed wlLh any of Lhe 10
aggravaLlng clrcumsLances menLloned ln Lhls
arLlcle

NC1LS:
1. 1he 4 c|rcumstances:
a. uslng force or lnLlmldaLlon: Lhe degree sufflclenL
Lo overcome reslsLance
l. Accordlng Lo eop|e v. Las |as, Ir.
32
, Lhe
LesL ls wheLher reasonable fear ls produced
ln Lhe mlnd of Lhe vlcLlm
ll. verbal refusal alone won'L do, Lhere musL
be a physlcal sLruggle LhaL's manlfesL and
Lenaclous
lll. 1he force need noL be lrreslsLable, force or
vlolence necessary ls relaLlve, dependlng on
Lhe age, slze, and sLrengLh of Lhe parLles
and Lhelr relaLlon Lo each oLher
lv. Where reslsLance would be fuLlle, offerlng
none aL all does noL amounL Lo consenL

J2
C.k. No. 1JJ111, lebtooty 20, 2002


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 72 of 129
v. lnLlmldaLlon - enough LhaL lL produces fear
ln Lhe vlcLlm, musL be vlewed ln llghL of Lhe
vlcLlm's percepLlon and [udgmenL aL Lhe
Llme of rape
vl. Moral ascendancy or lnfluence has been
held Lo be a subsLlLuLe, ln a long llne of
cases
33
- ln Lhls case, noL necessary LhaL
vlcLlm puL up a deLermlned reslsLance
b. Cffended parLy ls deprlved of reason or oLherwlse
unconsclous
l. ueprlvaLlon need noL be compleLe
ll. lnLercourse wlLh a deaf-muLe woman wll
only be consldered rape lf she's also be
prove Lo be an lmbeclle
lll. noL consldered rape where consenL ls
lnduced by Lhe admlnlsLraLlon of
drugs/llquor, whlch lnclLes her passlons and
doesn'L deprlve her of wlll power
c. 8y means of fraudulenL machlnaLlon or grave
abuse of auLhorlLy
d. when Lhe offended parLy ls under 12 years of age
or ls demenLed, even Lhough none of Lhe
clrcumsLances menLloned above be presenL
(SLaLuLory rape)
l. ConsenL and characLer (e.g. prosLlLuLe) of
Lhe offended parLy ls lmmaLerlal

2. 1WC (2) S1AGLS:
a. CCNSUMMA1LD
l. eneLraLlon ls necessary
ll. lL ls enough LhaL Lhe labla ma[ora be
peneLraLed, even Lhe sllghLesL
lll. enls need noL be erecL - sLlll consldered
rape lf accused repeaLedly Lrled Lo lnserL
Lhe penls ln Lhe vaglna, even lf ln valn
b. A11LM1LD
l. 1he offender has already performed overL
acLs wlLh Lhe lnLenLlon Lo have carnal
knowledge of Lhe offended parLy, buL whlch
was noL consummaLed some cause or
accldenL oLher Lhan hls own sponLaneous
deslsLance
ll. 1here musL be lnLenL Lo have carnal
knowledge of Lhe woman agalnsL her wlll
c. Lhere can be no frusLraLed rape because any
peneLraLlon of Lhe female organ ls sufflclenL.
Clearly, ln Lhe crlme of rape, from Lhe momenL
Lhe offender has carnal knowledge of hls vlcLlm he
acLually aLLalns hls purpose and, from LhaL
momenL also all Lhe essenLlal elemenLs of Lhe
offense have been accompllshed. noLhlng more ls

JJ
leople v. ulcbosoo, C.k. No. 118986-89, lebtooty 19, 2001, leople v.
8ozooo, C.k. No. 1JJJ1J-11, Motcb 2, 2000, leople v. loolpoe, J16 5ckA
757 (1999), leople v. letez, J07 5ckA 276 (1999)
lefL Lo be done by Lhe offender, because he has
performed Lhe lasL acL necessary Lo produce Lhe
crlme. 1hus, Lhe felony ls consummaLed."
34


3. Pomlclde commlLLed by reason of" (l.e., ln Lhe course
of" or because of") rape ls a speclal complex crlme
a. 8ape musL come before lnLenL Lo klll or acL of
kllllng
b. uoes noL apply when Lhe lnLenL Lo klll or kllllng acL
preceded Lhe rape acL (l.e., when vlcLlm was ln Lhe
polnL of deaLh when she was ravaged)
c. lncludes deaLh of vlcLlm Lhrough S1u glven by Lhe
accused who raped her

4. CharacLer of Lhe woman ls lmmaLerlal
a. 1esLlmony of vlcLlm alone ls enough for convlcLlon

S. llngers - counLs as ob[ecLs" under rape Lhrough sexual
assaulL

6. lndemnlLy and uamages
a. Awardlng of hpS0,000 as lndemnlLy ls mandaLory
upon flndlng of Lhe facL of rape
b. Moral damages may be auLomaLlcally awarded ln
rape cases w/o need of proof
7. MulLlple 8ape
a. Lach offender ls responslble noL only for Lhe rape
he personally commlLLed, buL also for Lhose
commlLLed by Lhe oLhers

Ak1. 266-C. LIILC1 CI AkDCN.

LIILC1 CI MAkkIAGL
Marrlage exLlngulshes noL only Lhe penal acLlon buL llkewlse
Lhe penalLy lmposed and only as Lo Lhe prlnclpal

Ak1. 266-D. kLSUM1ICNS

LVIDLNCL WnICn MA 8L ACCL1LD
1. Any physlcal overL acL manlfesLlng reslsLance agalnsL
Lhe acL of rape ln any degree from Lhe offended parLy
2. Where Lhe offended parLy ls so slLuaLed as Lo render
hlm/her lncapable of glvlng consenL

k.A. 9262
AN1I - VICLLNCL AGAINS1
WCMLN AND CnILDkLN AC1 CI 2004

VICLLNCL AGAINS1 WCMLN AND 1nLIk CnILDkLN,
DLIINLD
- 8efers Lo any acL or a serles of acLs commlLLed by any
person agalnsL a woman who ls hls wlfe, former wlfe,

J1
leople v. Otlto jC.k. No. 88721, Aptll J, 1990]


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 73 of 129
or agalnsL a woman wlLh whom Lhe person has or had a
sexual or daLlng relaLlonshlp, or wlLh whom he has a
common chlld, or agalnsL her chlld wheLher leglLlmaLe
or llleglLlmaLe, wlLhln or wlLhouL Lhe famlly abode,
whlch resulL ln or ls llkely Lo resulL ln physlcal, sexual,
psychologlcal harm or sufferlng, or economlc abuse
lncludlng LhreaLs of such acLs, baLLery, assaulL,
coerclon, harassmenL or arblLrary deprlvaLlon of llberLy.
It |nc|udes, but |s not ||m|ted to, (1) phys|ca|, (2)
sexua|, (3) psycho|og|ca| and (4) econom|c v|o|ence.


DLIINI1ICN CI 1LkMS
AGAINS1 WnCM CCMMI11LD
1. a woman
A. who ls hls wlfe,
8. who ls hls former wlfe, or
C. wlLh whom Lhe person has or had a sexual or
daLlng relaLlonshlp, or
u. wlLh whom he has a common chlld,
2. Lhe woman's chlld
a. wheLher leglLlmaLe or llleglLlmaLe, wlLhln or
wlLhouL Lhe famlly abode

1he vlolence commlLLee musL resulL ln or ls llkely Lo resulL ln
physlcal, sexual, psychologlcal harm or sufferlng, or
economlc abuse lncludlng LhreaLs of such acLs, baLLery,
assaulL, coerclon, harassmenL or arblLrary deprlvaLlon of
llberLy. lL lncludes, buL ls noL llmlLed Lo:
a. hyslcal vlolence: refers Lo acLs LhaL lnclude bodlly
or physlcal harm,
b. Sexual vlolence: refers Lo an acL whlch ls sexual ln
naLure, commlLLed agalnsL a woman or her chlld
c. sychologlcal vlolence: refers Lo acLs or omlsslons
causlng or llkely Lo cause menLal or emoLlonal
sufferlng of Lhe vlcLlm,
d. Lconomlc abuse" refers Lo acLs LhaL make or
aLLempL Lo make a woman flnanclally dependenL

UNISnA8LL AC1S (Sec. S):
1. Caus|ng phys|ca| harm Lo Lhe woman or her chlld,
2. 1hreaten|ng Lo cause Lhe woman or her chlld physlcal
harm,
3. Attempt|ng to cause Lhe woman or her chlld physlcal
harm,
4. laclng Lhe woman or her chlld |n fear of |mm|nent
phys|ca| harm,
S. ALLempLlng Lo compel or compelllng Lhe woman or her
chlld to engage |n conduct whlch Lhe woman or her
chlld has Lhe r|ght to des|st from or des|st from
conduct wh|ch the woman or her ch||d has the r|ght to
engage ln, or aLLempLlng Lo restr|ct or restr|ct|ng Lhe
woman's or her chlld's freedom of movement or
conduct by force or LhreaL of force, physlcal or oLher
harm or LhreaL of physlcal or oLher harm, or
lnLlmldaLlon dlrecLed agalnsL Lhe woman or chlld. 1hls
shall lnclude, buL noL llmlLed Lo, Lhe followlng acLs
commlLLed wlLh Lhe purpose or effecL of conLrolllng or
resLrlcLlng Lhe woman's or her chlld's movemenL or
conducL:
a. 1hreaLenlng Lo depr|ve or acLually deprlvlng Lhe
woman or her chlld of custody Lo her/hls famlly,
b. Depr|v|ng or LhreaLenlng Lo deprlve Lhe woman or
her chlldren of f|nanc|a| support legally due her or
her famlly, or dellberaLely provldlng Lhe woman's
chlldren lnsufflclenL flnanclal supporL,
c. ueprlvlng or LhreaLenlng Lo deprlve Lhe woman or
her chlld of a |ega| r|ght,
d. revenLlng Lhe woman ln engaglng ln any
|eg|t|mate profess|on, occupat|on, bus|ness or
act|v|ty or conLrolllng Lhe vlcLlm's own money or
properLles, or solely conLrolllng Lhe con[ugal or
common money, or properLles,
6. lnfllcLlng or LhreaLenlng Lo |nf||ct phys|ca| harm on
onese|f for the purpose of contro|||ng her acLlons or
declslons,
7. Causlng or aLLempLlng Lo cause Lhe woman or her chlld
Lo engage |n any sexua| act|v|ty wh|ch does not
const|tute rape, by force or LhreaL of force, physlcal
harm, or Lhrough lnLlmldaLlon dlrecLed agalnsL Lhe
woman or her chlld or her/hls lmmedlaLe famlly,
8. Lngaglng ln purposeful, knowlng, or reck|ess conduct,
persona||y or through another that a|arms or causes
substant|a| emot|ona| or psycho|og|ca| d|stress Lo Lhe
woman or her chlld. 1hls shall lnclude, buL noL be
llmlLed Lo, Lhe followlng acLs:
a. SLalklng or followlng Lhe woman or her chlld ln
publlc or prlvaLe places,
b. eerlng ln Lhe wlndow or llngerlng ouLslde Lhe
resldence of Lhe woman or her chlld,
c. LnLerlng or remalnlng ln Lhe dwelllng or on Lhe
properLy of Lhe woman or her chlld agalnsL her/hls
wlll,
d. uesLroylng Lhe properLy and personal belonglngs
or lnfllcLlng harm Lo anlmals or peLs of Lhe woman
or her chlld, and
e. Lngaglng ln any form of harassmenL or vlolence,
9. Caus|ng menta| or emot|ona| angu|sh, pub||c r|d|cu|e
or hum|||at|on to the woman or her ch||d, lncludlng,
buL noL llmlLed Lo, repeaLed verbal and emoLlonal
abuse, and denlal of flnanclal supporL or cusLody of
mlnor chlldren of access Lo Lhe woman's chlld/chlldren.

VLNUL
A. Ceneral 8ule: 81C deslgnaLed as lamlly CourL has
orlglnal and excluslve [urlsdlcLlon
8. ln Lhe absence of (A): 81C where any of Lhe elemenLs ls
commlLLed, aL Lhe opLlon of complalnanL

kC1LC1ICN CkDLkS, DLIINLD (Sec. 8)


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 74 of 129
- Crder lssued under Lhls acL for Lhe purpose of
prevenLlng furLher acLs of vlolence agalnsL a woman or
her chlld speclfled ln SecLlon S of Lhls AcL and granLlng
oLher necessary rellef. 1he rellef granLed under a
proLecLlon order serves Lhe purpose of safeguardlng
Lhe vlcLlm from furLher harm, mlnlmlzlng any dlsrupLlon
ln Lhe vlcLlm's dally llfe, and faclllLaLlng Lhe opporLunlLy
and ablllLy of Lhe vlcLlm Lo lndependenLly regaln conLrol
over her llfe. 1he provlslons of Lhe proLecLlon order
shall be enforced by law enforcemenL agencles.

kC1LC1ICN CkDLkS ISSULD UNDLk 1nIS AC1
8AkANGA
kC1LC1ICN
CkDLk
1LMCkAk
kC1LC1ICN
CkDLk
LkMANLN1
kC1LC1ICN
CkDLk
lssued by punong
barangay, afLer ex
parLe
deLermlnaLlon of
Lhe basls of Lhe
appllcaLlon, whlch
orders perpeLraLor
Lo deslsL from
commlLLlng acLs
under SecLlon S (1)
and (2) of Lhls AcL.
lssued by Lhe
courL on Lhe
daLe of flllng
of Lhe
appllcaLlon
afLer ex parLe
deLermlnaLlon
LhaL such
order should
be lssued.
lssued by Lhe
courL afLer noLlce
and hearlng. 1he
courL shall
schedule a
hearlng on Lhe
lssuance of a C
prlor Lo or on Lhe
daLe of explraLlon
of Lhe 1C.
8C's shall be
effecLlve for 1S
days.
1C's shall be
effecLlve for
30 days.
Shall be effecLlve
unLll revoked by a
courL.

kC1LC1ICN CkDLkS 1nA1 MA 8L ISSULD UNDLk 1nIS
AC1:
1. 8AkANGA kC1LC1ICN CkDLk (8C)
roLecLlon order lssued by Lhe unong
8arangay orderlng Lhe perpeLraLor Lo deslsL from
commlLLlng acLs under SecLlon S (1) and (2) of Lhls AcL.
A unong 8arangay who recelves appllcaLlons for a 8C
shall lssue Lhe proLecLlon order Lo Lhe appllcanL on Lhe
daLe of flllng afLer ex parLe deLermlnaLlon of Lhe basls
of Lhe appllcaLlon. 8Cs shall be effecLlve for flfLeen
(1S) days.
2. 1LMCkAk kC1LC1ICN CkDLk (1C)
roLecLlon order lssued by Lhe courL on Lhe daLe of
flllng of Lhe appllcaLlon afLer ex parLe deLermlnaLlon
LhaL such order should be lssued. A courL may granL ln a
1C any, some or all of Lhe rellefs menLloned ln Lhls AcL
and shall be effecLlve for LhlrLy (30) days. 1he courL
shall schedule a hearlng on Lhe lssuance of a C prlor
Lo or on Lhe daLe of Lhe explraLlon of Lhe 1C.
3. LkMANLN1 kC1LC1ICN CkDLk (C)
roLecLlon order lssued by Lhe courL afLer noLlce and
hearlng. A C shall be effecLlve unLll revoked by a
courL upon appllcaLlon of Lhe person ln whose favor Lhe
order was lssued.

(k.A. 977S)
AN1I - CnILD CkNCGkAn AC1 CI 2009

CnILD refers Lo
a. a person below elghLeen (18) years of age or over, buL
ls unable Lo fully Lake care of hlmself/herself from
abuse, neglecL, cruelLy, explolLaLlon or dlscrlmlnaLlon
because of a physlcal or menLal dlsablllLy or condlLlon.
b. a person regardless of age who ls presenLed, deplcLed
or porLrayed as a chlld as deflned hereln, and
c. compuLer-generaLed, dlglLally or manually crafLed
lmages or graphlcs of a person who ls represenLed or
who ls made Lo appear Lo be a chlld as deflned hereln.

CnILD CkNCGkAn refers Lo any publlc or prlvaLe
represenLaLlon, by whaLever means, of a chlld engaged ln
real or slmulaLed expllclL sexual acLlvlLles or any
represenLaLlon of Lhe sexual parLs of a chlld for prlmarlly
sexual purposes.

CnILD CkNCGkAn MA1LkIALS refers Lo Lhe means and
meLhods by whlch chlld pornography ls carrled ouL:
1. As to form:
a. V|sua| dep|ct|on - noL only lmages of real
chlldren buL also dlglLal lmage, compuLer
lmage or compuLer-generaLed lmage.
[e.g., (l) undeveloped fllm and vldeoLapes, (ll)
sLored daLa and/or lmages capable of
converslon lnLo a vlsual lmage, (lll)
phoLograph, fllm, vldeo, plcLure, dlglLal lmage
or plcLure, compuLer lmage or plcLure, (lv)
drawlngs, carLoons, sculpLures or palnLlngs
deplcLlng chlldren],
b. Aud|o representat|on of a person who ls or ls
represenLed as belng a chlld and who ls
engaged ln or ls represenLed as belng engaged
ln expllclL sexual acLlvlLy, or an audlo
represenLaLlon LhaL advocaLes, encourages or
counsels any sexual acLlvlLy wlLh chlldren
whlch ls an offense under Lhls AcL.
(e.g., audlo recordlngs and llve audlo
Lransmlsslon conveyed Lhrough whaLever
medlum lncludlng real-Llme lnLerneL
communlcaLlons),
c. Wr|tten text or mater|a| LhaL advocaLes or
counsels expllclL sexual acLlvlLy wlLh a chlld
and whose domlnanL characLerlsLlc ls Lhe
descrlpLlon, for a sexual purpose, of an expllclL
sexual acLlvlLy wlLh a chlld.
2. As to content:
a. lL lncludes represenLaLlon of a person who ls,
appears Lo be, or ls represenLed as belng a
chlld, Lhe domlnanL characLerlsLlc of whlch ls
Lhe deplcLlon, for a sexual purpose, of:


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 7S of 129
l. Lhe sexual organ or Lhe anal reglon, or
a represenLaLlon Lhereof,
ll. Lhe breasLs, or a represenLaLlon of Lhe
breasLs, of a female person.

LxLICI1 SLxUAL AC1IVI1 lncludes acLual or slmulaLed -
1. sexual lnLercourse or lasclvlous acL lncludlng, buL noL
llmlLed Lo, conLacL lnvolvlng genlLal Lo genlLal, oral Lo
genlLal, anal Lo genlLal, or oral Lo anal, wheLher
beLween persons of Lhe same or opposlLe sex,
2. besLlallLy,
3. masLurbaLlon,
4. sadlsLlc or masochlsLlc abuse,
S. lasclvlous exhlblLlon of Lhe genlLals, buLLocks, breasLs,
publc area and/or anus, or
6. use of any ob[ecL or lnsLrumenL for lasclvlous acLs

kCnI8I1LD AC1S
A. 1o hlre, employ, use, persuade, lnduce or coerce a chlld
Lo perform ln Lhe creat|on or product|on of any form of
chlld pornography,
8. 1o produce, d|rect, manufacture or create any form of
chlld pornography,
C. 1o pub||sh offer, transm|t, se||, d|str|bute, broadcast,
advert|se, promote, export or |mport any form of chlld
pornography,
u. 1o possess any form of ch||d pornography wlLh Lhe
|ntent to se||, d|str|bute, pub||sh, or broadcast:
rovlded. 1haL possesslon of Lhree (3) or more arLlcles
of chlld pornography of Lhe same form shall be prlma
facle evldence of Lhe lnLenL Lo sell, dlsLrlbuLe, publlsh or
broadcasL,
L. 1o knowlngly, wlllfully and lnLenLlonally provlde a
venue for the comm|ss|on of prohlblLed acLs as, buL
noL llmlLed Lo, dens, prlvaLe rooms, cublcles, clnemas,
houses or ln esLabllshmenLs purporLlng Lo be a
leglLlmaLe buslness,
l. lor f||m d|str|butors, theaters and te|ecommun|cat|on
compan|es, by Lhemselves or ln cooperaLlon wlLh oLher
enLlLles, Lo d|str|bute any form of ch||d pornography,
C. lor a parent, |ega| guard|an or person havlng cusLody
or conLrol of a chlld Lo knowlngly perm|t the ch||d to
engage, part|c|pate or ass|st ln any form of chlld
pornography,
P. 1o engage ln Lhe |ur|ng or groom|ng of a ch||d,
I. 1o engage ln pander|ng of any form of ch||d
pornography,
!. 1o w||fu||y access any form of ch||d pornography,
k. 1o consp|re to comm|t any of the proh|b|ted acts
stated |n th|s sect|on.
L. 1o possess any form of chlld pornography.

SNDICA1LD CnILD CkNCGkAn
lf carrled ouL by a group of 3 or more persons consplrlng or
confederaLlng wlLh one anoLher.

(k.A. 8049)
AN1I - nA2ING LAW

nA2ING ls an lnlLlaLlon rlLe or pracLlce as a prerequ|s|te for
adm|ss|on |nto membersh|p |n a fratern|ty, soror|ty or
organ|zat|on by placlng Lhe recrulL, neophyLe or appllcanL ln
some embarrass|ng or hum|||at|ng s|tuat|ons such as
forc|ng h|m to do men|a|, s|||y, foo||sh and other s|m||ar
tasks or acLlvlLles or oLherwlse sub[ecLlng hlm Lo physlcal or
psychologlcal sufferlng or ln[ury,
8u1 lL excludes Lhose LesLs and procedure employed for
prospecLlve regular members of Lhe Armed lorces of Lhe
hlllpplnes (Al) and hlllpplne naLlonal ollce (n) as
approved by Lhe SecreLary of naLlonal uefense and Lhe
naLlonal ollce Commlsslon duly recommended by Lhe Chlef
of SLaff of Al and Lhe ulrecLor Ceneral of n

"CkGANI2A1ICN" shall lnclude: any club of Lhe Al, n,
hlllpplne MlllLary Academy (MA), or offlcer and cadeL
corps of Lhe ClLlzen's MlllLary 1ralnlng (CM1) and ClLlzen's
Army 1ralnlng (CA1)

kCCLDUkL ICk ALLCWLD nA2ING
A. WrlLLen noLlce musL be glven Lo Lhe school auLhorlLles
or head of organlzaLlon seven (7) days prlor Lo Lhe
conducL of lnlLlaLlon
8. 1he wrlLLen noLlce musL lndlcaLe:
a. 1haL Lhe perlod of lnlLlaLlon acLlvlLles wlll noL
exceed Lhree (3) days,
b. 1he names of Lhose Lo be sub[ecLed Lo such
acLlvlLles, and
c. An underLaklng LhaL no physlcal vlolence be
employed
C. 1wo (2) represenLaLlves of Lhe school or organlzaLlon
musL be asslgned Lo be presenL durlng Lhe lnlLlaLlon,
Lhey shall ensure LhaL no physlcal harm wlll be lnfllcLed

WnC AkL LIA8LL
A. As pr|nc|pa|s
1. 1he off|cers and members of Lhe fraLernlLy,
sororlLy or organlzaLlon who acLually parLlclpaLed
ln Lhe lnfllcLlon of physlcal harm
2. 1he parents, lf held ln Lhe home of one of Lhe
offlcers or members of Lhe fraLernlLy, group, or
organlzaLlon, when Lhey have acLual knowledge of
Lhe hazlng conducLed buL falled Lo Lake any acLlon
Lo prevenL Lhe same
3. 1he off|cers, former off|cers, or a|umn| of Lhe
organlzaLlon, group, fraLernlLy or sororlLy who
acLually planned alLhough noL presenL when
commlLLed
4. A fraLernlLy or sororlLy's adv|ser who was presenL
durlng Lhe hazlng conducLed buL falled Lo Lake
acLlon Lo prevenL Lhe same


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 76 of 129
8. As accomp||ces
1. 1he owner of the p|ace where Lhe hazlng ls
conducLed, when he has acLual knowledge of Lhe
hazlng conducLed buL falled Lo Lake any acLlon Lo
prevenL
2. Schoo| author|t|es who consenL Lo Lhe hazlng or
who have acLual knowledge, buL falled Lo Lake any
acLlon Lo prevenL Lhe same

PklM4 l4cl LVIDLNCL CI Ak1ICIA1ICN AS kINCIAL
1he presence of any person durlng Lhe hazlng
unless he prevenLed Lhe commlsslon of Lhe acLs punlshable
hereln

1he above-menLloned llablllLles shall apply Lo Lhe presldenL,
manager, dlrecLor or oLher responslble offlcer of a
corporaLlon engaged ln hazlng as a requlremenL for
employmenL ln Lhe manner provlded hereln.

Any person charged under Lhls provlslon shall noL be
enLlLled Lo Lhe mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance LhaL Lhere was
no lnLenLlon Lo commlL so grave a wrong.


k.A. 7610
SLCIAL kC1LC1ICN CI CnILDkLN AGAINS1 CnILD
A8USL, LxLCI1A1ICN AND DISCkIMINA1ICN AC1

CkIMLS UNISnA8LL
CnILD kCS1I1U1ICN AND C1nLk SLxUAL A8USL

WnC AkL CnILDkLN LxLCI1LD IN kCS1I1U1ICN AND
C1nLk SLxUAL A8USL
Chlldren, wheLher male or female, who for money, proflL, or
any oLher conslderaLlon or due Lo Lhe coerclon or lnfluence
of any adulL, syndlcaLe or group, lndulge ln sexual
lnLercourse or lasclvlous conducL

WnC AkL LIA8LL
1. 1hose who engage ln or promoLe, faclllLaLe or lnduce
chlld prosLlLuLlon
(e.g., acLlng as procurer of or Laklng advanLage of
lnfluence or relaLlonshlp Lo procure a chlld prosLlLuLe,
lnduclng a person Lo be a cllenL of chlld prosLlLuLe,
LhreaLenlng or uslng vlolence Lowards or glvlng
moneLary conslderaLlon or goods Lo a chlld Lo engage
hlm ln prosLlLuLlon),
2. 1hose who commlL Lhe acL of sexual lnLercourse or
lasclvlous conducL wlLh a chlld explolLed ln prosLlLuLlon
or sub[ecLed Lo oLher sexual abuse,
3. 1hose who derlve proflL or advanLage Lherefrom. (e.g.,
os manager/owner of Lhe esLabllshmenL where chlld
prosLlLuLlon Lakes place),

A11LM1 1C CCMMI1 CnILD kCS1I1U1ICN
1. Any person, noL belng a relaLlve of Lhe chlld, ls found
alone wlLh Lhe sald chlld ln a hldden or secluded area
under clrcumsLances whlch lead a reasonable person Lo
belleve LhaL Lhe chlld ls abouL Lo be explolLed ln
prosLlLuLlon and oLher sexual abuse, and
2. Any person who recelves servlces from a chlld ln a
sauna parlor or baLh, massage cllnlc, healLh club, and
oLher slmllar esLabllshmenLs

CnILD 1kAIIICkING
Any person who shall engage ln Lradlng and deallng wlLh
chlldren lncludlng, buL noL llmlLed Lo, Lhe acL of buylng
and selllng of a chlld for money, or for any oLher
conslderaLlon, or barLer

A11LM1 1C CCMMI1 CnILD 1kAIIICkING
1. When a chlld Lravels alone Lo a forelgn counLry wlLhouL
valld reason Lherefor and wlLhouL clearance lssued by
Lhe ueparLmenL of Soclal Welfare and uevelopmenL or
wrlLLen permlL or [usLlflcaLlon from Lhe chlld's parenLs
or legal guardlan,
2. When a person, agency, esLabllshmenL or chlld-carlng
lnsLlLuLlon recrulLs women or couples Lo bear chlldren
for Lhe purpose of chlld Lrafflcklng, or
3. When a docLor, hosplLal or cllnlc offlclal or employee,
nurse, mldwlfe, local clvll reglsLrar or any oLher person
slmulaLes blrLh for Lhe purpose of chlld Lrafflcklng, or
4. When a person engages ln Lhe acL of flndlng chlldren
among low-lncome famllles, hosplLals, cllnlcs, nurserles,
day-care cenLers, or oLher chlld-durlng lnsLlLuLlons who
can be offered for Lhe purpose of chlld Lrafflcklng

C8SCLNL U8LICA1ICNS AND INDLCLN1 SnCWS
1. Any person who shall hlre, employ, use, persuade,
lnduce or coerce a chlld Lo perform ln obscene
exhlblLlons and lndecenL shows, wheLher llve or ln
vldeo, or model ln obscene publlcaLlons or
pornographlc maLerlals or Lo sell or dlsLrlbuLe Lhe sald
maLerlals, or
2. Any ascendanL, guardlan, or person enLrusLed ln any
capaclLy wlLh Lhe care of a chlld who shall cause and/or
allow such chlld Lo be employed or Lo parLlclpaLe ln an
obscene play, scene, acL, movle or show or ln any oLher
acLs covered hereunder

C1nLk AC1S CI A8USL
1. Any person who shall commlL any oLher acLs of chlld
abuse, cruelLy or explolLaLlon or Lo be responslble for
oLher condlLlons pre[udlclal Lo Lhe chlld's developmenL
2. Any person who shall keep or have ln hls company a
mlnor, Lwelve (12) years or under or who ln Len (10)
years or more hls [unlor ln any publlc or prlvaLe place,
hoLel, moLel, beer [olnL, dlscoLheque, cabareL, penslon
house, sauna or massage parlor, beach and/or oLher
LourlsL resorL or slmllar places (Lhls provlslon shall noL


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 77 of 129
apply Lo any person who ls relaLed wlLhln Lhe fourLh
degree of consangulnlLy or afflnlLy or any bond
recognlzed by law, local cusLom and LradlLlon or acLs ln
Lhe performance of a soclal, moral or legal duLy)
3. Any person who shall lnduce, dellver or offer a mlnor Lo
any one prohlblLed by Lhls AcL Lo keep or have ln hls
company a mlnor as provlded ln Lhe precedlng
paragraph
4. Any person, owner, manager or one enLrusLed wlLh Lhe
operaLlon of any publlc or prlvaLe place of
accommodaLlon, wheLher for occupancy, food, drlnk or
oLherwlse, lncludlng resldenLlal places, who allows any
person Lo Lake along wlLh hlm Lo such place or places
any mlnor hereln descrlbed
S. Any person who shall use, coerce, force or lnLlmldaLe a
sLreeL chlld or any oLher chlld Lo:
a. 8eg or use begglng as a means of llvlng,
b. AcL as condulL or mlddlemen ln drug Lrafflcklng or
pushlng, or
c. ConducL any lllegal acLlvlLles

SANC1ICNS ICk LS1A8LISnMLN1S Ck LN1LkkISLS
All esLabllshmenLs and enLerprlses whlch promoLe or
faclllLaLe any of Lhe acLs punlshable under Lhls AcL shall be:
1. lmmedlaLely closed,
2. Lhelr auLhorlLy or llcense Lo operaLe cancelled
3. wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe owner or manager
Lhereof belng prosecuLed, and
4. a slgn wlLh Lhe words "off llmlLs" shall be
consplcuously dlsplayed ouLslde Lhe
esLabllshmenLs or enLerprlses by Lhe ueparLmenL
of Soclal Welfare and uevelopmenL (uSWu) for
such perlod whlch shall noL be less Lhan one (1)
year, as Lhe ueparLmenL may deLermlne (1he
unauLhorlzed removal of such slgn shall be
punlshable)

WnLN DLLMLD 1C kCMC1L Ck IACILI1A1L AN CI 1nL
AC1S UNISnA8LL: lf Lhe acLs consLlLuLlng Lhe same occur ln
Lhe premlses of sald esLabllshmenL
1he same presumpLlon apply Lo an enLerprlse such as a
sauna, Lravel agency, or recrulLmenL agency whlch:
a. promoLes Lhe aforemenLloned acLs as parL of a
Lour for forelgn LourlsLs,
b. exhlblLs chlldren ln a lewd or lndecenL show,
c. provldes chlld masseurs for adulLs of Lhe same or
opposlLe sex and sald servlces lnclude any
lasclvlous conducL wlLh Lhe cusLomers, or
d. sollclLs chlldren or acLlvlLles consLlLuLlng Lhe
aforemenLloned acLs

WCkkING CnILDkLN
Chlldren below flfLeen (1S) years of age shall noL be
employed, excepL:
a. When a chlld works dlrecLly under Lhe sole
responslblllLy of hls parenLs or legal guardlan and
where only members of Lhe employer's famlly are
employed: rovlded, however, 1haL hls
employmenL nelLher endangers hls llfe, safeLy and
healLh and morals, nor lmpalrs hls normal
developmenL: rovlded, furLher, 1haL Lhe parenL or
legal guardlan shall provlde Lhe sald mlnor chlld
wlLh Lhe prescrlbed prlmary and/or secondary
educaLlon, or
b. When a chlld's employmenL or parLlclpaLlon ln
publlc & enLerLalnmenL or lnformaLlon Lhrough
clnema, LheaLer, radlo or Lelevlslon ls essenLlal:
rovlded, 1he employmenL conLracL concluded by
Lhe chlld's parenL or guardlan, wlLh Lhe express
agreemenL of Lhe chlld concerned, lf posslble, and
Lhe approval of Lhe ueparLmenL of Labor and
LmploymenL: rovlded, 1haL Lhe followlng
requlremenLs ln all lnsLances are sLrlcLly complled
wlLh:
l. 1he employer shall ensure Lhe proLecLlon,
healLh, safeLy and morals of Lhe chlld,
ll. 1he employer shall lnsLlLuLe measures Lo
prevenL Lhe chlld's explolLaLlon or
dlscrlmlnaLlon Laklng lnLo accounL Lhe
sysLem and level of remuneraLlon, and
Lhe duraLlon and arrangemenL of worklng
Llme, and
lll. 1he employer shall formulaLe and
lmplemenL, sub[ecL Lo Lhe approval and
supervlslon of compeLenL auLhorlLles, a
conLlnulng program for Lralnlng and sklll
acqulslLlon of Lhe chlld

ln Lhe above excepLlonal cases: Lhe employer shall flrsL
secure a work permlL from Lhe ueparLmenL of Labor
and LmploymenL (uCLL) whlch shall ensure observance
of Lhe above requlremenL


k.A. 9344
IUVLNILL IUS1ICL AND WLLIAkL AC1 CI 2006

CnILD refers Lo a person under Lhe age of 18 years.

CnILD A1 kISk refers Lo a chlld who ls vulnerable Lo and aL
Lhe rlsk of commlLLlng crlmlnal offenses because of
personal, famlly and soclal clrcumsLances, such as, buL
noL llmlLed Lo, Lhe followlng:
a. belng abused by any person Lhrough sexual,
physlcal, psychologlcal, menLal, economlc or any
oLher means and Lhe parenLs or guardlan refuse,
are unwllllng, or unable Lo provlde proLecLlon for
Lhe chlld,
b. belng explolLed lncludlng sexually or economlcally,


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 78 of 129
c. belng abandoned or neglecLed, and afLer dlllgenL
search and lnqulry, Lhe parenL or guardlan cannoL
be found,
d. comlng from a dysfuncLlonal or broken famlly or
wlLhouL a parenL or guardlan,
e. belng ouL of school,
f. belng a sLreeLchlld,
g. belng a member of a gang,
h. llvlng ln a communlLy wlLh a hlgh level of
crlmlnallLy or drug abuse, and
l. llvlng ln slLuaLlons of armed confllcL.

CnILD IN CCNILIC1 WI1n 1nL LAW refers Lo a chlld who ls
alleged as, accused of, or ad[udged as, havlng commlLLed an
offense under hlllpplne laws

CU1n DL1LN1ICN nCML refers Lo a 24-hour chlld-carlng
lnsLlLuLlon managed by accredlLed local governmenL unlLs
(LCus) and llcensed and/or accredlLed nongovernmenL
organlzaLlons (nCCs) provldlng shorL-Lerm resldenLlal care
for chlldren ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law who are awalLlng courL
dlsposlLlon of Lhelr cases or Lransfer Lo oLher agencles or
[urlsdlcLlon

IUVLNILL IUS1ICL AND WLLIAkL SS1LM refers Lo a
sysLem deallng wlLh chlldren aL rlsk and chlldren ln confllcL
wlLh Lhe law, whlch provldes chlld-approprlaLe proceedlngs,
lncludlng programs and servlces for prevenLlon, dlverslon,
rehablllLaLlon, re-lnLegraLlon and afLercare Lo ensure Lhelr
normal growLh and developmenL.

CU1LINL CI 1nL SS1LM
A. INI1IAL CCN1AC1 WI1n-1nL CnILD refers Lo Lhe
apprehenslon or Laklng lnLo cusLody of a chlld ln
confllcL wlLh Lhe law by law enforcemenL offlcers or
prlvaLe clLlzens. lL lncludes Lhe Llme when Lhe chlld
alleged Lo be ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law recelves a
subpoena under SecLlon 3(b) of 8ule 112 of Lhe 8evlsed
8ules of Crlmlnal rocedure or summons under SecLlon
6(a) or SecLlon 9(b) of Lhe same 8ule ln cases LhaL do
noL requlre prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon or where Lhere ls
no necesslLy Lo place Lhe chlld alleged Lo be ln confllcL
wlLh Lhe law under lmmedlaLe cusLody.

8. DIVLkSICN refers Lo an alLernaLlve, chlld-approprlaLe
process of deLermlnlng Lhe responslblllLy and
LreaLmenL of a chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law on Lhe basls
of hls/her soclal, culLural, economlc, psychologlcal or
educaLlonal background wlLhouL resorLlng Lo formal
courL proceedlngs

DIVLkSICN kCGkAM refers Lo Lhe program LhaL Lhe chlld
ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law ls requlred Lo undergo afLer he/she
ls found responslble for an offense wlLhouL resorLlng Lo
formal courL proceedlngs.

1he followlng chlldren ln confllcL wlLh law shall undergo
dlverslon programs:
a. Where Lhe lmposable penalLy for Lhe crlme
commlLLee ls noL more Lhan slx (6) years
lmprlsonmenL, or
b. ln vlcLlmless crlmes where Lhe lmposable penalLy ls
noL more Lhan slx (6) years lmprlsonmenL
8uL where Lhe lmposable penalLy for Lhe
crlme commlLLed exceeds slx (6) years
lmprlsonmenL, dlverslon measures may be
resorLed Lo only by Lhe courL

C. kCSLCU1ICN
1he prosecuLor shall conducL a prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon ln
Lhe followlng lnsLances:
a. when Lhe chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law does noL
quallfy for dlverslon,
b. when Lhe chlld, hls/her parenLs or guardlan does
noL agree Lo dlverslon as speclfled ln SecLlons 27
and 28,
c. when conslderlng Lhe assessmenL and
recommendaLlon of Lhe soclal worker, Lhe
prosecuLor deLermlnes LhaL dlverslon ls noL
approprlaLe for Lhe chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law

upon servlng Lhe subpoena and Lhe affldavlL of complalnL,
Lhe prosecuLor shall noLlfy Lhe ubllc ALLorney's Cfflce
(AC) of such servlce, as well as Lhe personal lnformaLlon,
and place of deLenLlon of Lhe chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law.
upon deLermlnaLlon of probable cause by Lhe prosecuLor,
Lhe lnformaLlon agalnsL Lhe chlld shall be flled before Lhe
lamlly CourL wlLhln forLy-flve (4S) days from Lhe sLarL of Lhe
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon.

D. CCUk1 kCCLLDINGS
1. Chlldren deLalned ln a ?ouLh ueLenLlon CenLer
pendlng Lrlal may be released on ball or
recognlzance
2. Where Lhe maxlmum penalLy lmposed by law for
Lhe offense wlLh whlch Lhe chlld ln confllcL wlLh
Lhe law ls charged ls lmprlsonmenL of noL more
Lhan Lwelve (12) years, regardless of Lhe flne or
flne alone regardless of Lhe amounL, and before
arralgnmenL of Lhe chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law,
Lhe courL shall deLermlne wheLher or noL dlverslon
ls approprlaLe
3. When Lhe accused, who was a chlld aL Lhe Llme of
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense, ls found gullLy, Lhe
courL shall:
a. ueLermlne and ascerLaln any clvll llablllLy
b. lace Lhe chlld under suspended senLence
wlLhouL need of appllcaLlon (l.e.,
auLomaLlcally), lnsLead of pronounclng
[udgmenL of convlcLlon


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 79 of 129
1he auLomaLlc suspenslon applles even lf accused
ls already of legal age aL Lhe Llme of
pronouncemenL of gullL

L. kLnA8ILI1A1ICN AND kLIN1LGkA1ICN
no chlld shall be recelved ln any rehablllLaLlon or Lralnlng
faclllLy wlLhouL a valld order lssued by Lhe courL afLer a
hearlng for Lhe purpose

IN1LkVLN1ICN refers Lo a serles of acLlvlLles whlch are
deslgned Lo address lssues LhaL caused Lhe chlld Lo commlL
an offense.

kLS1CkA1IVL IUS1ICL refers Lo a prlnclple whlch requlres a
process of resolvlng confllcLs wlLh Lhe maxlmum
lnvolvemenL of Lhe vlcLlm, Lhe offender and Lhe communlLy.

CU1n kLnA8ILI1A1ICN CLN1Lk refers Lo a 24-hour
resldenLlal care faclllLy managed by Lhe ueparLmenL of
Soclal Welfare and uevelopmenL (uSWu), LCus, llcensed
and/or accredlLed nCCs monlLored by Lhe uSWu, whlch
provldes care, LreaLmenL and rehablllLaLlon servlces for
chlldren ln confllcL wlLh Lhe law. 8ehablllLaLlon servlces are
provlded under Lhe guldance of a Lralned sLaff where
resldenLs are cared for under a sLrucLured LherapeuLlc
envlronmenL wlLh Lhe end vlew of relnLegraLlng Lhem lnLo
Lhelr famllles and communlLles as soclally funcLlonlng
lndlvlduals. hyslcal moblllLy of resldenLs of sald cenLers
may be resLrlcLed pendlng courL dlsposlLlon of Lhe charges
agalnsL Lhem.

AGL AND DL1LkMINA1ICN
AGL CkIMINAL kLSCNSI8ILI1
< 1S years (less Lhan or
equal Lo 1S years)
AbsoluLe lrresponslblllLy, exempLlng
clrcumsLance
>1S buL <18 (more Lhan
or equal Lo 1S buL less
Lhan or equal Lo 18
years)
CondlLlonal responslblllLy
a. WlLhouL dlscernmenL -
noL crlmlnally llable,
sub[ecL Lo an lnLervenLlon
program
b. WlLh dlscernmenL -
crlmlnally llable
Mlnor dellnquenL SenLence ls suspended
>18 buL <70 (more Lhan
or equal Lo 18 buL less
Lhan or equal Lo 70
years)
lull responslblllLy
>70 (more Lhan or equal
Lo 70 years)
MlLlgaLed responslblllLy, no
lmposlLlon of deaLh penalLy,
execuLlon of deaLh senLence may be
suspended and commuLed



.D 603
Ch||d and outh We|fare Code

UNISnA8LL AC1S
Crlmlnal llablllLy shall aLLach Lo any parenL who:
1. Conceals or abandons Lhe chlld wlLh lnLenL Lo
make such chlld lose hls clvll sLaLus.
2. Abandons Lhe chlld under such clrcumsLances as Lo
deprlve hlm of Lhe love, care and proLecLlon he
needs.
3. Sells or abandons Lhe chlld Lo anoLher person for
valuable conslderaLlon.
4. neglecLs Lhe chlld by noL glvlng hlm Lhe educaLlon
whlch Lhe famlly's sLaLlon ln llfe and flnanclal
condlLlons permlL.
S. lalls or refuses, wlLhouL [usLlflable grounds, Lo
enroll Lhe chlld as requlred by ArLlcle 72.
6. Causes, abaLes, or permlLs Lhe Lruancy of Lhe chlld
from Lhe school where he ls enrolled. "1ruancy" as
here used means absence wlLhouL cause for more
Lhan LwenLy schooldays, noL necessarlly
consecuLlve.
7. lL shall be Lhe duLy of Lhe Leacher ln charge Lo
reporL Lo Lhe parenLs Lhe absences of Lhe chlld Lhe
momenL Lhese exceed flve schooldays.
8. lmproperly explolLs Lhe chlld by uslng hlm, dlrecLly
or lndlrecLly, such as for purposes of begglng and
oLher acLs whlch are lnlmlcal Lo hls lnLeresL and
welfare.
9. lnfllcLs cruel and unusual punlshmenL upon Lhe
chlld or dellberaLely sub[ecLs hlm Lo lndlgnaLlon
and oLher excesslve chasLlsemenL LhaL embarrass
or humlllaLe hlm.
10. Causes or encourages Lhe chlld Lo lead an lmmoral
or dlssoluLe llfe.
11. ermlLs Lhe chlld Lo possess, handle or carry a
deadly weapon, regardless of lLs ownershlp.
12. Allows or requlres Lhe chlld Lo drlve wlLhouL a
llcense or wlLh a llcense whlch Lhe parenL knows Lo
have been lllegally procured. lf Lhe moLor vehlcle
drlven by Lhe chlld belongs Lo Lhe parenL, lL shall
be presumed LhaL he permlLLed or ordered Lhe
chlld Lo drlve.


LND CI DISCUSSICN CN 1CIC
8. CkIMLS AGAINS1 LkSCNS









CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 80 of 129
=======================================
9. Cr|mes Aga|nst ersona| ||berty and
Secur|ty
=======================================
1CICS UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US:
Chapter 1: Cr|mes aga|nst L|berty
Sec. 1 - I||ega| detent|on
Sec. 2 - k|dnapp|ng of m|nors
Chapter 2: Cr|mes aga|nst Secur|ty
Sec. 1 - Abandonment of he|p|ess persons
and exp|o|tat|on of m|nors
Sec. 2 - 1respass to dwe|||ng
Sec. 3 - 1hreats and Coerc|on
Chapter 3: D|scovery and keve|at|on of Secrets
k.A. 9372
k.A. 4200
k.A. 9208
================================================
Chapter 1: Cr|mes aga|nst L|berty
================================================

SLC1ICN 1. - ILLLGAL DL1LN1ICN

Ak1ICLL 267. kIDNAING AND SLkICUS ILLLGAL
DL1LN1ICN

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a privote |nd|v|dua|,
2. 1haL he k|dnaps or deta|ns another, or ln any oLher
manner deprlves Lhe laLLer of llberLy,
3. 1haL Lhe acL of deLenLlon or kldnapplng musL be |||ega|,
and
4. 1haL ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense, any of Lhe
fo||ow|ng c|rcumstances are presenL (deLenLlon
becomes serlous):
a. LhaL Lhe kldnapplng/deLenLlon lasLs for more than
3 days,
b. commlLLed by s|mu|at|ng pub||c author|ty,
c. LhaL any ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ur|es are |nf||cted
upon Lhe person kldnapped or deLalned or LhreaLs
Lo klll hlm are made, or
d. LhaL Lhe person kldnapped or deLalned ls a m|nor
(except lf poteot ls tbe offeoJet), female or a publlc
offlcer.
noLe: lf any of Lhese are presenL, purpose of
deLenLlon ls lmmaLerlal


DLA1n ls lmposed ln Lhe followlng lnsLances: [deaLh penalLy
suspended]
1. lf kldnapplng ls commlLLed for Lhe purpose of exLorLlng
ransom elLher from Lhe vlcLlm or from any oLher
person, even lf none of Lhe aforemenLloned
clrcumsLances are presenL ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
offense, and
2. when Lhe vlcLlm ls kllled or dles as a consequence of
Lhe deLenLlon or ls raped or ls sub[ecLed Lo LorLure or
dehumanlzlng acLs.

NC1LS:
lL ls Lrue LhaL for kldnapplng Lo Lake place, lL ls not
necessary LhaL Lhe vlcLlm be placed ln an enclosure,
nelLher ls lL necessary LhaL Lhe deLenLlon be prolonged
or permanenL. Powever, Lhe essence of kldnapplng ls
Lhe acLual deprlvaLlon of Lhe vlcLlm's llberLy coupled
wlLh lndublLable proof of Lhe lnLenL of Lhe accused Lo
effecL such deprlvaLlon
3S
.
1he vlcLlm's lack of consenL ls also a fundamenLal
elemenL of kldnapplng and serlous lllegal deLenLlon.
1he lnvolunLarlness of Lhe selzure and deLenLlon ls Lhe
very essence of Lhe crlme. AlLhough Lhe vlcLlm may
have lncepLually consenLed Lo go wlLh Lhe offender Lo a
place buL Lhe vlcLlm ls LhereafLer prevenLed, wlLh Lhe
use of force, from leavlng Lhe place where he was
broughL Lo wlLh hls consenL and ls deLalned agalnsL hls
wlll, Lhe offender ls gullLy of kldnapplng and serlous
lllegal deLenLlon
36
.
AcLual demand for ransom ls not necessary
When deLenLlon ls for purpose of exLorLlng ransom, lL's
noL necessary LhaL one or any of Lhe four clrcumsLances
enumeraLed ln (4) are presenL
LssenLlal LhaL Lhere be acLual conflnemenL or
resLrlcLlon of Lhe person of Lhe offended parLy
ueLenLlon ls lllegal when noL ordered by compeLenL
auLhorlLy or noL permlLLed by law
ueLenLlon for more Lhan 3 days noL necessary when
any of Lhe oLher clrcumsances are presenL
Speclal complex crlme of kldnapplng wlLh murder or
homlclde - where Lhe person kldnapped ls kllled ln Lhe
course of Lhe deLenLlon regardless of wheLher Lhe
kllllng was purposely soughL or was erely an
afLerLhough
When murder and noL kldnapplng - when Lhe vlcLlm ls
Laken from one place Lo anoLher solely for Lhe purpose
of klllng hlm, Lhe crlme commlLLed ls murder
lf rlmary and ulLlmaLe purpose ls Lo klll, and
deLenLlon was only lncldenLal
Speclflc lnLenL ls deLermlnaLlve of wheLher Lhe crlme
comlLLed ls murder or kldnapplng

J5
leople v. Obeso, 160 lbll. 625 (200J)
J6
leople v. llcktell C.k. No. 120109 (200J)


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 81 of 129
MusL be alleged ln lnformaLlon and proven by
prosecuLlon

ILLLGAL DL1LN1ICN Ak8I1kAk DL1LN1ICN
CommlLLed by a pr|vate
lndlvldual who unlawfully
kldnaps, deLalns or
oLherwlse deprlves a
person of llberLy.
CommlLLed by a pub||c
offlcer or employee who
has duLy under law Lo
deLaln a person who
deLalns a person wlLhouL
legal ground
Crlme ls agalnsL personal
llberLy and securlLy
Crlme agalnsL Lhe
fundamenLal law of Lhe
SLaLe

PCWLvL8, lf such publlc offlcer has no duLy Lo deLaln a
person (e.g. sanlLary lnspecLor or clerk), and he deLalns a
person, he ls llable under Lhls arLlcle

Ak1. 268. SLIGn1 ILLLGAL DL1LN1ICN

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a privote person,
2. 1haL he k|dnaps or deta|ns anoLher or ln any oLher
manner deprlves Lhe llberLy or he furnlshes Lhe place
for Lhe perpeLuaLlon of Lhe deLenLlon,
3. 1haL Lhe acL of deLenLlon or kldnapplng musL be |||ega|,
4. 1haL Lhe crlme ls commlLLed w|thout Lhe aLLendance of
any of Lhe c|rcumstances enumeraLed ln ArL. 267.

NC1L: lf Lhe parLlclpaLlon ls Lo furnlsh Lhe place for Lhe
crlme, he ls ralsed Lo a real co-prlnclpal. 8uL lf Lhe
cooperaLlon ls by any oLher acL Lhan furnlshlng Lhe place,
penalLy ls one degree lower.

kIVILLGLD MI1IGA1ING CIkCUMS1ANCL (VCLUN1Ak
kLLLASL):
lf Lhe offender:
1. volunLarlly releases Lhe person so kldnapped or
deLalned wlLhln 3 days from Lhe commencemenL of Lhe
deLenLlon,
2. wlLhouL havlng aLLalned Lhe purpose lnLended, and
3. before Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of crlmlnal proceedlngs agalnsL
hlm.

NC1L:
1hree requ|s|tes must concur
MusL be shown by Lhe offender LhaL he was ln a
poslLlon Lo prolong Lhe deLenLlon for more Lhan 3 days
and yeL he released Lhe person deLalned w/ln LhaL Llme
volunLary release ls noL consldered prlvlleged
mlLlgaLlng lf Lhe vlcLlm ls a woman (consldered serlous
lllegal deLenLlon)



Ak1. 269. UNLAWIUL AkkLS1

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender arrests or deta|ns another person,
2. 1haL Lhe purpose of Lhe offender ls to de||ver h|m to
the proper author|t|es, and
3. 1haL Lhe arresL or deLenLlon |s not author|zed by |aw or
there |s no reasonab|e ground therefor.

NC1L:
Cffender ls any person. LlLher a publlc offlcer or prlvaLe
lndlvldual may be llable.
- ubllc offlcer elLher has no auLhorlLy Lo arresL or
deLaln a person or has noL acLed ln hls offlclal
capaclLy
ArresL/ deLenLlon refers Lo warranLless arresLs.

DLLA IN 1nL DLLIVLk
CI DL1AINLD LkSCNS
1C 1nL kCLk IUDICIAL
AU1nCkI1ILS (Ak1 12S)
UNLAWIUL AkkLS1
Lhe deLenLlon ls for some
legal ground
Lhe deLenLlon ls noL
auLhorlzed by law.

Ak8I1kAk DL1LN1ICN UNLAWIUL AkkLS1
Lhe deLenLlon ls for some
legal ground
Lhe deLenLlon ls noL
auLhorlzed by law.

SLC1ICN 2. - kIDNAING CI MINCkS

Ak1. 270. kIDNAING AND IAILUkL 1C kL1UkN A MINCk

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls entrusted w|th the custody of a
mlnor person , and
2. 1haL he de||berate|y fa||s Lo resLore Lhe sald mlnor Lo
hls parenLs.

NC1L: Lhls may also be commlLLed by Lhe moLher or faLher
of Lhe chlld. When commlLLed by a parenL, penalLy ls arresLo
mayor.
LssenLlal elemenL whlch quallfles Lhe crlme: offender ls
enLrusLed wlLh Lhe cusLody of Lhe mlnor

kIDNAING & IAILUkL
1C kL1UkN A MINCk
(Ak1. 270)
kIDNAING AND
SLkICUS ILLLGAL
DL1LN1ICN (Ak1. 267)
unlshes Lhe dellberaLe
fallure by Lhe person
havlng Lhe cusLody of Lhe
mlnor Lo resLore Lhe mlnor
Lo parenLs/guardlan
Cffender ls noL enLrusLed
wlLh Lhe cusLody of Lhe
vlcLlm




CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 82 of 129
Ak1. 271. INDUCING A MINCk 1C A8ANDCN nIS nCML

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe mlnor |s ||v|ng |n the home of hls parenLs or
guardlans or Lhe person enLrusLed wlLh hls cusLody, and
2. 1haL Lhe offender |nduces a m|nor to abandon such
home.

NC1L:
lnducemenL musL be acLual, commlLLed wlLh crlmlnal
lnLenL and deLermlned by a wlll Lo cause damage.
1he mlnor should noL leave hls home of hls own free
wlll.
MlLlgaLed lf commlLLed by Lhe faLher or moLher of Lhe
vlcLlm.
Lo lnduce" = Lo lnfluence, Lo prevall on, Lo move by
persuaslon, Lo lnclLe by moLlves
1he mlnor need noL acLually abandon hls home or
home of guardlan. Mere commlsslon of any acL whlch
Lends Lo lnfluence, persuade or prevall on a mlnor Lo
abandon hls home ls whaL consLlLuLes a crlme.
MlLlgaLed lf commlLLed by Lhe faLher or moLher of Lhe
vlcLlm. - applles Lo ArLs. 270 and 271

SLC1ICN 3. - SLAVLk AND SLkVI1UDL

Ak1. 272. SLAVLk

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender purchases, se||s, k|dnaps or deta|ns
a human be|ng, and
2. 1haL Lhe purpose of Lhe offender ls Lo ens|ave such
human belng.

UALIIING CIkCUMS1ANCL - lf Lhe purpose ls some
lmmoral Lrafflc (x. rosLlLuLlon).

NC1L: purpose musL be Lo ens|ave Lhe vlcLlm, oLherwlse, lL
ls kldnapplng or lllegal deLenLlon

SLAVLk - provldlng servlces w/o remuneraLlon
whaLsoever
37


Ak1. 273. LxLCI1A1ICN CI CnILD LA8Ck

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender reta|ns a m|nor ln hls servlce,
2. 1haL lL ls aga|nst the w||| of Lhe mlnor, and
3. 1haL lL ls under the pretext of re|mburs|ng hlmself of a
debt |ncurred by an ascendanL, guardlan or person
enLrusLed wlLh Lhe cusLody of such mlnor.


37
keyes v. AlojoJo, 16 lbll 199

NC1L: lndebLedness ls noL a ground for deLenLlon.

Art. 274. Serv|ces rendered under compu|s|on |n payment
of debt

L|ements:
1. 1haL Lhe offender compe|s a debtor to work for hlm,
elLher as household servanL or farm laborer,
2. 1haL lL ls aga|nst the debtor's wlll, and
3. 1haL Lhe purpose |s to requ|re or enforce the payment
of a debL.

nC1L: uebLor-CredlLor relaLlonshlp musL exlsL oLherwlse,
crlme commlLLed ls coerclon

SLkVICLS kLNDLkLD
UNDLk CCMUSICN IN
AMLN1 CI DL81
(Art. 274)
LxLCI1A1ICN CI
CnILD LA8Ck
(Art. 273)
uoes noL dlsLlngulsh
wheLher Lhe vlcLlm ls a
mlnor or noL
vlcLlm ls a mlnor
uebLor ls compelled Lo
work for offender
Mlnor ls compelled Lo
render servlces for debL of
parenL/guardlan
LlmlLed Lo household and
farm work.
Servlce noL llmlLed Lo
household and farm work

================================================
Chapter 2: Cr|mes aga|nst secur|ty
================================================
SLC1ICN 1. - A8ANDCNMLN1 CI nLLLLSS LkSCNS
AND LxLCI1A1ICN CI MINCkS

Ak1. 27S. A8ANDCNMLN1 CI LkSCN IN DANGLk AND
A8ANDCNMLN1 CI CNL'S CWN VIC1IM

AC1S UNISnA8LL:
1. 8y falllng Lo render asslsLance Lo any person whom Lhe
offender flnds ln an unlnhablLed place wounded or ln
danger of dylng, when he can render such asslsLance
wlLhouL deLrlmenL Lo hlmself, ooless socb omlssloo sboll
coostltote o mote setloos offeose,

LLLMLN1S:
a. 1haL place ls not |nhab|ted.
b. 1he accused found Lhere a person wounded or |n
danger of dy|ng.
c. 1he accused can render ass|stance wlLhouL
deLrlmenL Lo hlmself.
d. 1he accused fa||s Lo render asslsLance.



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 83 of 129
2. 8y fa|||ng to he|p or render asslsLance Lo anoLher whom
Lhe offender has occidento//y wounded or |n[ured,
3. 8y fa|||ng to de||ver a ch||d under 7 whom Lhe offender
has found abandoned, Lo Lhe auLhorlLles or Lo hls
famlly, or by falllng Lo Lake hlm Lo a safe place. (may be
applled Lo a losL chlld).

Ak1. 276. A8ANDCNING A MINCk

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender has Lhe custody of a chlld,
2. 1haL Lhe chlld ls under 7 years of age,
3. 1haL he abandons such chlld, and
4. 1haL he has no |ntent to k||| the ch||d when Lhe laLLer ls
abandoned.

NC1L:
AbandonmenL musL be consclous, dellberaLe, and
permanenL.
Cuallfylng clrcumsLances:
a. deaLh of Lhe mlnor, or
b. llfe was ln danger because of Lhe abandonmenL.
arenL gullLy of abandonlng Lhelr chlldren shall be
deprlved of parenLal auLhorlLy.
lnLenL Lo klll cannoL be presumed from Lhe deaLh of Lhe
chlld
- Such presumpLlon applles only Lo crlmes
agalnsL persons nC1 Lo crlmes agalnsL securlLy

Ak1. 277. A8ANDCNMLN1 CI MINCk 8 LkSCN
LN1kUS1LD WI1n nIS CUS1CD, INDIIILkLNCL CI
AkLN1S

AC1S UNISnA8LL:
1. 8y de||ver|ng a m|nor to a pub||c |nst|tut|on or oLher
persons w]o consent of Lhe one who entrusted such
mlnor Lo Lhe care of Lhe offender or, ln Lhe absence of
LhaL one, wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe proper auLhorlLles,

LLLMLN1S:
a. Cffender has charge of Lhe rearlng or educaLlon of
a mlnor,
1o rear means Lo brlng Lo maLurlLy by educaLlng,
nourlshlng, eLc.
b. Pe dellvers sald mlnor Lo a publlc lnsLlLuLlon or
oLher persons., and
c. 1haL Lhe one who enLrusLed such chlld Lo Lhe
offender has noL consenLed Lo such acL, or lf Lhe
one who enLrusLed such chlld Lo Lhe offender ls
absenL, Lhe proper auLhorlLles have noL consenLed
Lo lL.
2. 8y neg|ect|ng h|s ch||dren by not g|v|ng them
educat|on whlch Lhelr sLaLlon ln llfe requlres and
flnanclal condlLlon permlLs,

LLLMLN1S:
a. 1haL Lhe offender ls a parenL,
b. 1haL he neglecLs hls chlldren by noL glvlng Lhem
educaLlon, and
c. 1haL hls sLaLlon ln llfe requlres such educaLlon and
hls flnanclal condlLlon permlLs lL.

NC1L:
CbllgaLlon Lo educaLe chlldren LermlnaLes lf moLher
and chlldren refuse wlLhouL good reason Lo llve wlLh
accused.
lallure Lo glve educaLlon musL be due Lo dellberaLe
deslre Lo evade such obllgaLlon.

A8ANDCNMLN1 CI MINCk
8 LkSCN LN1kUS1LD
WI1n nIS CUS1CD,
INDIIILkLNCL CI AkLN1S
(Ak1. 277)
A8ANDCNMLN1 CI MINCk
(Ak1. 276)
CusLody of offender ls
speclflc - for rearlng or
educaLlon of mlnor
CusLody sLaLed ln general
Lerms
Mlnor - under 18 years of
age
Mlnor - under 7 years of
age
Mlnor ls dellvered Lo a
publlc lnsLlLuLlon or oLher
person
Mlnor ls abandoned ln such
a way Lo deprlve hlm of
care and proLecLlon

Ak1ICLL 278. LxLCI1A1ICN CI MINCkS

AC1S UNISnA8LL:
1. 8y causlng any boy or glrl under 16 Lo perform any
dangerous feaL of balanclng, physlcal sLrengLh or
conLorLlon, Lhe offender belng any person.
2. 8y employlng chlldren under 16 who are noL Lhe
chlldren or descendanLs of Lhe offender ln exhlblLlons
of acrobaL, gymnasL, rope-walker, dlver, or wlld-anlmal
Lamer or clrcus manager or engaged ln a slmllar calllng.
3. 8y employlng any descendanL under 12 ln dangerous
exhlblLlons enumeraLed ln Lhe nexL precedlng
paragraph, Lhe offender belng engaged ln any of sald
calllngs.
4. 8y dellverlng a chlld under 16 graLulLously Lo any
person followlng any of Lhe calllngs enumeraLed ln
paragraph 2 or Lo any hablLual vagranL or beggar, Lhe
offender belng an ascendanL, guardlan, Leacher or
person enLrusLed ln any capaclLy wlLh Lhe care of such
chlld.
S. 8y lnduclng any chlld under 16 Lo abandon Lhe home of
lLs ascendanLs, guardlans, curaLors or Leachers Lo follow
any person engaged ln any of Lhe calllngs menLloned ln
paragraph 2 or Lo accompany any hablLual vagranL or
beggar, Lhe offender belng any person.



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 84 of 129
LxLCI1A1ICN CI
MINCkS
(Ak1. 278, Ak S)
INDUCING A MINCk 1C
A8ANDCN nIS nCML
(Ak1. 271)
urpose of lnduclng a
mlnor Lo abandon hls home
ls Lo follow any person
engaged ln Lhe calllngs
menLloned
no such purpose
vlcLlm ls under 16 years of
age
vlcLlm ls under 18

UALIIING CIkCUMS1ANCL: lf Lhe dellvery of Lhe chlld Lo
any person followlng any of Lhe calllngs of acrobaL, rope-
walker, dlver or wlld-anlmal Lralner or clrcus manager or Lo
any hablLual vagranL of beggar ls made ln conslderaLlon of
any prlce, compensaLlon or promlse.
Cffender shall be deprlved of parenLal auLhorlLy or
guardlanshlp
LxplolLaLlon of mlnor musL be of such a naLure as
Lo endanger hls llfe or safeLy

Art. 279. Add|t|ona| pena|t|es for other offenses

1he offender ls llable noL only for Lhe abandonmenL or
explolLaLlon buL also for all lLs consequences. lf as a resulL,
physlcal ln[urles or deaLh resulLed, anoLher crlme ls
commlLLed by auLhorlLy of ArLlcle 279.

SLC1ICN 2. - 1kLSASS 1C DWLLLING

Ak1. 280. UALIIILD 1kLSASS 1C DWLLLING

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pr|vate person,
2. 1haL he enters the dwe|||ng of anoLher, and
3. 1haL such enLrance ls aga|nst the |atter's w|||.

UALIIING CIkCUMS1ANCL: lf Lhe offense ls commlLLed
by means of vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon.

NC1L:
1here musL be an opposlLlon on Lhe parL of Lhe owner
of Lhe house Lo Lhe enLry of Lhe accused.
Mere absenL of hls consenL or permlsslon ls noL
enough.
rohlblLlon may be express or lmplled
uwelllng: any bulldlng or sLrucLure excluslvely devoLed
for resL and comforL, depends upon use, maybe a
room, lmplled prohlblLlon dependlng on clrcumsLances
lmplled prohlblLlon ls presenL conslderlng Lhe followlng
slLuaLlon. x. lelony was commlLLed laLe aL nlghL and
everyone's asleep or enLrance was made Lhrough Lhe
wlndow.
rohlblLlon musL exlsL prlor Lo or aL Lhe Llme of
enLrance
rohlblLlon ls noL necessary when vlolence or
lnLlmldaLlon ls employed by Lhe offender.
- vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon may Lake place
lmmedlaLely afLer Lhe enLrance
rohlblLlon ls noL necessary when vlolence or
lnLlmldaLlon ls employed by Lhe offender.
When Lhere ls no overL acL of Lhe crlme lnLended Lo be
commlLLed (x. LhefL), Lhe crlme ls Lrespass Lo dwelllng.
1respass moy be commltteJ eveo by tbe owoet of Lhe
dwelllng agalnsL Lhe acLual occupanL Lhereof.
lf Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer, Lhe crlme commlLLed
ls vlolaLlon of domlclle under ArL. 128

NC1 ALICA8LL 1C:
1. Where Lhe enLrance ls for Lhe purpose of prevenLlng
harm Lo hlmself, Lhe occupanLs or a Lhlrd person.
2. Where Lhe purpose ls Lo render some servlce Lo
humanlLy or [usLlce.
3. When Lhe accused enLered Lhe dwelllng Lhrough Lhe
wlndow, he had no lnLenL Lo klll any person lnslde. Pls
lnLenLlon Lo klll came Lo hls mlnd when he was belng
arresLed by Lhe occupanLs Lhereof. Pence, Lhe crlme of
Lrespass Lo dwelllng ls a separaLe and dlsLlncL offense
from frusLraLed homlcldeA.

Ak1. 281. C1nLk ICkMS CI 1kLSASS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender enters the c|osed prem|ses or Lhe
fenced esLaLe of another,
kLMISLS - slgnlfles a dlsLlncL and deflnlLe locallLy
whlch ls f|xed
2. 1haL Lhe enLrance ls made whlle elLher of Lhem ls
uninhobited,
3. 1haL Lhe proh|b|t|on Lo enLer be man|fest, and
4. 1haL Lhe Lrespasser has not secured the perm|ss|on of
Lhe owner or Lhe careLaker Lhereof.

UALIIILD 1kLSASS 1C
DWLLLING (Ak1. 280)
C1nLk ICkMS CI
1kLSASS (Ak1. 281)
Cffender ls a prlvaLe
person
Cffender ls any form of
person
1he offender enLers a
dwelllng house
Cffender enLers closed
premlses or fenced esLaLe
lnhablLed unlnhablLed
AcL consLlLuLlng Lhe crlme
ls enLerlng Lhe dwelllng
agalnsL wlll of owner
LnLerlng of closed premlses
wlLhouL permlsslon
rohlblLlon from enLerlng
may be express or lmplled
rohlblLlon musL be
manlfesL

J8
leople v. MeJloo, 59 lbll. 1J1


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 8S of 129

SLC1ICN 3. - 1nkLA1S AND CCLkCICN

Ak1. 282. GkAVL 1nkLA1S

AC1S UNISnA8LL:
1. 8y threaten|ng another wlLh Lhe lnfllcLlon upon hls
person, honor or properLy or LhaL of hls famlly of any
wrong omoootloq to o ctlme and JemooJloq mooey ot
lmposloq ooy otbet cooJltloo, even Lhough noL
unlawful and Lhe offender atta|ned h|s purpose.
2. 8y maklng such LhreaL w|thout Lhe offender atta|n|ng
h|s purpose.
3. 8y LhreaLenlng anoLher wlLh Lhe lnfllcLlon upon hls
person, honor or properLy or LhaL of hls famlly of any
wrong amounLlng Lo a crlme, Lhe threat not be|ng
sub[ect to a cond|t|on.

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 NC. 1:
4. 1haL Lhe offender LhreaLens anoLher person wlLh Lhe
lnfllcLlon upon Lhe laLLer's person, honor or properLy,
or upon Lhe laLLer's famlly, of any wrong
S. 1he wrong amounLs Lo a crlme
6. 1here ls demand for money of LhaL any oLher condlLlon
ls lmposed even lf noL unlawful
7. 1haL Lhe offender aLLalns hls purpose

LLLMLN1S CI AC1 NC. 3:
1. 1haL Lhe offender LhreaLens anoLher person wlLh Lhe
lnfllcLlon upon Lhe laLLer's person, honor or properLy,
or upon Lhe laLLer's famlly, of any wrong
2. 1he wrong amounLs Lo a crlme
3. 1he LhreaL ls noL sub[ecL Lo a condlLlon

NC1L:
AggravaLlng clrcumsLances: (1) lf made ln wrlLlng, or (2)
made Lhrough a mlddleman.
1he crlme ls frusLraLed lf Lhe tbteot wos oot tecelveJ by
Lhe person belng LhreaLened.
ConsummaLed as soon as Lhe LhreaLs come Lo Lhe
knowledge of Lhe person LhreaLened
1hreaL musL noL made ln heaL of anger, because such
LhreaL would be punlshed as CLher LlghL 1hreaLs"
Crave LhreaLs may be commlLLed by lndlrecL challenge
Lo a gun flghL, even lf complalnanL was absenL when
challenge was made, lL ls sufflclenL LhaL LhreaLs came Lo
knowledge of offended parLy
1hreaLs made ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe commlsslon of
oLher crlmes are absorbed by Lhe laLLer
1he offender ln grave LhreaLs does noL demand Lhe
dellvery on Lhe spoL of Lhe money or oLher personal
properLy asked by hlm
1haL's robbery by lnLlmldaLlon
LssenLlal LhaL Lhere be lnLlmldaLlon: LhaL Lhere's a
promlse of some fuLure harm or ln[ury
AcL LhreaLened Lo be done musL be wrong

Ak1. 283. LIGn1 1nkLA1S

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender makes a threat to comm|t a wrong,
2. 1haL Lhe wrong does not coostltote o ctlme,
3. 1haL Lhere ls a demand for money or LhaL oLher
cond|t|on ls lmposed, even Lhough noL unlawful.
4. 1haL Lhe offender has e|ther atta|ned or not atta|ned
hls purpose

NC1L:
ln llghL LhreaLs, Lhe wrong LhreaLened does not amounL
Lo a crlme.
8equlres LhaL Lhere be a demand of money or LhaL
oLher condlLlon be lmposed
8|ackma|||ng may be punlshed under Lhls provlslon.

Ak1. 284. 8CND ICk GCCD 8LnAVICUk

1he person maklng Lhe LhreaLs under Lhe 2 precedlng
arLlcles (grave and llghL LhreaLs) may also be requlred
by Lhe courL Lo glve ball condlLloned upon Lhe promlse
noL Lo molesL Lhe person LhreaLened.

Ak1. 284 Ak1. 3S
8ond for good behavlor 8ond Lo keep Lhe peace
Cnly for grave LhreaLs and
llghL LhreaLs
AppllcaLlon noL Lo
parLlcular cases onlL
lL ls an addlLlonal penalLy ulsLlncL penalLy
lf he shall falll Lo glve ball,
he shall be senLenced Lo
desLlerro
lf he falles Lo glve Lhe
bond, he shall be deLalned
for a perlod noL exceedlng
6 monLhs lf prosecuLed for
grave or less grave felony
or 30 days lf prosecuLed for
llghL felony

Ak1. 28S. C1nLk LIGn1 1nkLA1S

AC1S UNISnA8LL:
1. 8y LhreaLenlng anoLher wlLh a weapon (even lf Lhere's
no quarral), or by drawlng a weapon ln a quarrel, unless
lL be ln lawful self-defense.
2. 8y orally LhreaLenlng anoLher, ln Lhe heaL of anger, wlLh
some harm consLlLuLlng a crlme, wlLhouL perslsLlng ln
Lhe ldea lnvolved ln Lhe LhreaL.
3. 8y orally LhreaLenlng anoLher wlLh harm noL
consLlLuLlng a felony.




CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 86 of 129
NC1L:
no demand for money or condlLlon lnvolved
1hreaL ls noL dellberaLe
1haL whlch ordlnarlly are grave LhreaLs may be
consldered under Lhls arLlcle lf made ln Lhe heaL of
anger
Where LhreaLs are dlrecLed Lo a person who's absenL
and uLLered ln a Lemporary flL of anger, Lhe offense ls
only llghL LhreaLs

Ak1. 286. GkAVL CCLkCICNS

1WC WAS CI CCMMI11ING GkAVL CCLkCICN
1. 8y prevenLlng anoLher by means of vlolence, LhreaLs or
lnLlmldaLlon, from dolng someLhlng noL prohlblLed by
law.
2. 8y compelllng anoLher by means of vlolence, LhreaLs or
lnLlmldaLlon Lo do someLhlng agalnsL hls wlll wheLher lL
be rlghL or wrong.

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL a person
a. prevenLed anoLher from dolng someLhlng noL
prohlblLed by law or
b. compelled anoLher hlm Lo do someLhlng agalnsL
hls wlll, be lL rlghL or wrong
2. LhaL Lhe prevenLlon or compulslon ls effecLed by
vlolence, LhreaLs, or lnLlmldaLlon
3. WlLhouL auLhorlLy of law or noL ln Lhe exerclse of any
lawful rlghL

WnLN kLVLN1ING NC1 CCNSIDLkLD CCLkCICN:
1. When a publlc offlcer prevenLs Lhe ceremonles of a
rellglous group under ArL. 132
2. When a person prevenLs Lhe meeLlng of a leglslaLlve
assembly under ArL. 143
3. When a person prevenLs a member of Congress from
aLLendlng meeLlngs, expresslng hls oplnlons or casLlng
hls voLe Lhrough Lhe use of force or lnLlmldaLlon

WnLN CCMLLLING NC1 CCLkCICN:
1. When a publlc offlcer compels a person Lo change hls
resldence under ArL. 127
2. When a person kldnaps hls debLor Lo compel hlm Lo pay
under ArL. 267

AGGkAVA1ING CIkCUMS1ANCLS:
1. vlolaLlon of Lhe exerclse of Lhe rlghL of suffrage
2. Compelllng anoLher Lo perform a rellglous acL or
3. revenLlng anoLher from exerclslng such rlghL or from
dolng such acL (as amended by 8A. 7890).


NC1L: 1he Lhlng prevenLed from execuLlon musL noL be
prohlblLed by law. CLherwlse, Lhere wlll be no coerclon.
Cwner of a Lhlng has no rlghL Lo prevenL
lnLerference when such lnLerference ls necessary
Lo averL greaLer damage
Coerclon ls consummaLed even lf Lhe offended
parLy dld noL accede Lo Lhe purpose of Lhe
coerclon
GkAVL CCLkCICN ILLLGAL DL1LN1ICN
lnLenL Lo deprlve Lhe
offended parLy of hls
llberLy ls noL clear
lnLenL Lo deprlve llberLy
presenL

GkAVL CCLkCICN MAL1kLA1MLN1 CI
kISCNLkS
lf Lhe offended parLy ls
nC1 a prlsoner,
exLracLlng lnformaLlon,
uslng force or
lnLlmldaLlon ls coerclon
lf Lhe offended parLy ls a
prlsoner, exLracLlng
lnformaLlon, uslng force or
lnLlmldaLlon ls
malLreaLmenL

GkAVL CCLkCICN UNIUS1 VLxA1ICN
AcL of prevenLlng by force
was made aL Lhe Llme Lhe
offended parLy was dolng
or abouL Lo do Lhe acL
prevenLed
AcL of prevenLlng by force
was already done when
Lhe vlolence was exerLed

Ak1. 287. LIGn1 CCLkCICNS

LLLMLN1S CI Ak. 1:
1. 1haL Lhe offender musL be a cred|tor of the offended
parLy,
2. 1haL he se|zes anyLhlng belonglng Lo hls debLor,
3. 1haL Lhe selzure of Lhe Lhlng be accompllshed by means
of v|o|ence or a d|sp|ay of mater|a| force produclng
lnLlmldaLlon, and
4. 1haL Lhe purpose of Lhe offender ls Lo app|y the same
to the paymenL of Lhe debL.

LLLMLN1S CI Ak. 2 (UNIUS1 VLxA1ICN)
Any oLher coerclon or un[usL vexaLlon
aragraph 2 of ArL. 287 covers oojost vexotloo. lL
lncludes any human conducL whlch, alLhough noL
producLlve of some physlcal or maLerlal harm would,
however, un[usLly annoy or vex an lnnocenL person.
LlghL coerclon under Lhe 1sL paragraph of Lhls arLlcle
wlll only be un[usL vexaLlon lf Lhe 3rd elemenL
(employlng vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon) ls absenL.





CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 87 of 129
Ak1. 288. C1nLk SIMILAk CCLkCICNS - (CCMULSCk
UkCnASL CI MLkCnANDISL AND AMLN1 CI WAGLS
8 MLANS CI 1CkLNS)

AC1S UNISnA8LL:
1. 8y forc|ng or compe|||ng, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, or
knowlngly permlLLlng Lhe forclng or compelllng of Lhe
|aborer or emp|oyee of the offender to purchase
merchand|se or commod|t|es of any klnd from hlm.
2. 8y pay|ng the wages due h|s |aborer or emp|oyee by
means of Lokens or ob[ecLs oLher Lhan Lhe legal Lender
currency of Lhe hlllpplnes, unless expressly requesLed
by such laborer or employee.

LLLMLN1S CI NC. 1:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls any person, agenL or offlcer of any
assoclaLlon or corporaLlon.
2. 1haL he or such flrm or corporaLlon has employed
laborers or employees
3. 1haL he forces or compels, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, or
knowlngly permlLs Lo be forced or compelled, any of hls
or lLs laborers or employees Lo purchase merchandlse
or commodlLles of any klnd from hlm or from sald flrm
or corporaLlon.

LLLMLN1S CI NC. 2:
1. 1haL Lhe offender pays Lhe wages due a laborer or
employee employed by hlm by means of Lokens or
ob[ecLs
2. 1haL Lhose Lokens or ob[ecLs are oLher Lhan Lhe legal
Lender currency of Lhe hlllpplnes.
3. 1haL such employee or laborer does noL expressly
requesL LhaL he be pald by means of Lokens or ob[ecLs.

Ak1. 289. ICkMA1ICN, MAIN1LNANCL, AND kCnI8I1ICN
CI CCM8INA1ICN CI CAI1AL Ck LA8Ck 1nkCUGn
VICLLNCL Ck 1nkLA1S

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender employs vlolence or LhreaLs, ln such a
degree as Lo compel or force Lhe laborers or employers
ln Lhe free and legal exerclse of Lhelr lndusLry or work,
and
2. 1haL Lhe purpose ls Lo organlze, malnLaln or prevenL
coallLlons of caplLal or labor, sLrlke of laborers or
lockouL of employees.
3. 1he acL shall noL consLlLuLe a more serlous offense.

NC1L: peaceful plckeLlng ls noL prohlblLed, musL be
conflned sLrlcLly and ln good falLh Lo galnlng
lnformaLlon and Lo peaceful persuaslon and argumenL
- employlng vlolence or maklng LhreaLs by plckeLers
may make Lhem llable for coerclon

================================================
Chapter 3: D|scovery and reve|at|on of secrets
================================================

Ak1. 290. DISCCVLkING SLCkL1S 1nkCUGn SLI2UkL CI
CCkkLSCNDLNCL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pr|vate |nd|v|dua| or even a
publlc offlcer noL ln Lhe exerclse of hls offlclal funcLlon,
2. 1haL he se|zes the papers or leLLers of anoLher,
3. 1haL the purpose |s to d|scover the secrets of such
anoLher person, and
4. 1haL offender ls |nformed of the contents or Lhe papers
or leLLers selzed.

NC1L:
SLI2L - Lo place ln Lhe conLrol of someone a Lhlng or Lo glve
hlm Lhe possesslon Lhereof and lL ls nC1 necessary LhaL ln
Lhe acL, Lhere be force or vlolence.
1hls arLlcle ls noL appllcable Lo parenLs wlLh respecL Lo
Lhelr mlnor chlldren or Lo spouses wlLh respecL Lo Lhe
papers or leLLers of elLher of Lhem.
ConLenLs of Lhe correspondence oeeJ oot be sectet.
1he purpose of the offender preva||s.
Cuallfylng clrcumsLance: When Lhe offender reveals Lhe
conLenLs of such papers or leLLers Lo a 3rd person.
1hls arLlcle does noL requlre LhaL Lhe offended parLy be
pre[udlced.

DISCCVLkING SLCkL1S
1nkCUGn SLI2UkL CI
CCkkLSCNDLNCL
(Ak1. 290)
U8LIC CIIICLk
kLVLALING SLCkL1S CI
kIVA1L INDIVIDUAL
(Ak1. 230)
rlvaLe lndlvldual who
selzes Lhe papers or
leLLers of anoLher Lo
dlscover Lhe laLLer's
secreLs.
ubllc offlcer comes Lo
know of secreL of any
prlvaLe lndlvldual by
reason of hls offlce.
noL necessary LhaL Lhere
be a secreL
ubllc offlcer comes Lo
know of secreL of any
prlvaLe lndlvldual by
reason of hls offlce.
lf Lhere was, noL
necessary Lo be revealed
8eveals secreL wlLhouL
[usLlflable means

Ak1. 291. kLVLALING SLCkL1S WI1n A8USL CI CIIICL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a manager, emp|oyee or servanL,
2. 1haL he |earns the secrets of h|s pr|nc|pa| or masLer ln
such capaclLy, and
3. 1haL he revea|s such secrets.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 88 of 129

NC1L: uamage ls noL requlred by Lhls arLlcle. SecreL musL be
learned by reason of Lhelr employmenL

Ak1. 292. kLVLLA1ICN CI INDUS1kIAL SLCkL1S

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a person |n charge, employee or
workman of a manufacLurlng or lndusLrlal
esLabllshmenL,
2. 1haL Lhe manufacLurlng or lndusLrlal esLabllshmenL has
a secret of the |ndustry whlch Lhe offender has
learned,
3. 1haL Lhe offender revea|s such secrets, and
4. 1haL prejudice |s caused Lo Lhe owner.

NC1L:
re[udlce ls an essenLlal elemenL of Lhls offense.
1he revelaLlon of Lhe secreL mlghL be made afLer Lhe
employee or workman had ceased Lo be connecL
connecLed wlLh Lhe esLabllshmenL.

k.A. 4200
AN1I-WIkL 1AING AC1

LkSCNS LIA8LL:
1. Any person, not be|ng author|zed by o// the part|es Lo
any prlvaLe communlcaLlon or spoken word:
a. taps any wlre or cable, or
b. uses any oLher dev|ce or arrangemenL, Lo secreLly
overhear, lnLercepL, or record such communlcaLlon
or spoken word by uslng a devlce commonly
known as a dlcLaphone or dlcLagraph or walkle-
Lalkle or Lape recorder, or however oLherwlse
descrlbed.

2. Any person, wheLher or noL a parLlclpanL ln Lhe above-
menLloned acLs:
a. know|ng|y possesses any Lape record, wlre record,
dlsc record, or any oLher such record or coples
Lhereof of any communlcaLlon or spoken word, or
b. rep|ays Lhe same for any oLher person/s, or
c. commun|cates the contents Lhereof, elLher
verbally or ln wrlLlng, Lo any oLher person, or
d. furn|shes transcr|pt|ons Lhereof, wheLher
compleLe or parLlal, Lo any oLher person.

A peoce offlcet is exempt from /iobi/ity lf bls octs wete
Jooe ooJet lowfol otJet of tbe coott. Powever, he can
only use Lhe recordlng for Lhe case for whlch lL was
valldly requesLed.
lnformaLlon obLalned ln vlolaLlon of Lhe AcL ls
lnadmlsslble ln evldence ln any hearlng or lnvesLlgaLlon.
An extension phone ls not one of those proh|b|ted
under 8.A. 4200. 1here musL be elLher a physlcal
lnLerrupLlon Lhrough Lhe wlreLap or Lhe dellberaLe
lnsLallaLlon of a devlce or arrangemenL ln order Lo
overhear, lnLercepL or record Lhe spoken words.


k.A. 9372
nUMAN SLCUkI1 AC1 2007

SUkVLILLANCL CI SUSLC1S (Sec. 7)
1he provlslons of 8epubllc AcL no. 4200 (AnLl-wlre
1applng Law) Lo Lhe conLrary noLwlLhsLandlng, a pollce
or law enforcemenL offlclal and Lhe members of hls
Leam may, upon a wr|tten order of the Court of
Appea|s, ||sten to, |ntercept and record, w|th the use
of any mode, form, k|nd or type of e|ectron|c or other
surve|||ance equ|pment or |ntercept|ng and track|ng
dev|ces, or w|th the use of any other su|tab|e ways
and means for that purpose, any communlcaLlon,
message, conversaLlon, dlscusslon, or spoken or wrlLLen
words beLween members of a [ud|c|a||y dec|ared and
out|awed terror|st organ|zat|on, assoc|at|on, or group
of persons or of any person charged w|th or suspected
of the cr|me of terror|sm or consp|racy to comm|t
terror|sm.
rovlded, 1haL survelllance, lnLercepLlon and recordlng
of communlcaLlons beLween lawyers and cllenLs,
docLors and paLlenLs, [ournallsLs and Lhelr sources and
confldenLlal buslness correspondence shall noL be
auLhorlzed

kLS1kIC1ICN CI 1kAVLL (Sec. 26)
ln cases where ev|dence of gu||t |s not strong, and the
person charged w|th the cr|me of terror|sm or
consp|racy to comm|t terror|sm |s ent|t|ed to ba|| and |s
granted the same, Lhe courL, upon appllcaLlon by Lhe
prosecuLor, shall llmlL Lhe rlghL of Lravel of Lhe accused
Lo wlLhln Lhe munlclpallLy or clLy where he resldes or
where Lhe case ls pendlng, ln Lhe lnLeresL of naLlonal
securlLy and publlc safeLy, conslsLenL wlLh ArLlcle lll,
SecLlon 6 of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon.
1ravel ouLslde of sald munlclpallLy or clLy, wlLhouL Lhe
auLhorlzaLlon of Lhe courL, shall be deemed a vlolaLlon
of Lhe Lerms and condlLlons of hls ball, whlch shall Lhen
be forfelLed as provlded under Lhe 8ules of CourL.
Pe or she may also be placed under house arresL by
order of Lhe courL aL hls or her usual place of resldence.
Whlle under house arresL, he or she may noL use
Lelephones, cellphones, e-malls, compuLers, Lhe lnLerneL
or oLher means of communlcaLlons wlLh people ouLslde
Lhe resldence unLll oLherwlse ordered by Lhe courL.
1he resLrlcLlons abovemenLloned shall be LermlnaLed
upon Lhe acqulLLal of Lhe accused or of Lhe dlsmlssal of
Lhe case flled agalnsL hlm or earller upon Lhe dlscreLlon


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 89 of 129
of Lhe courL on moLlon of Lhe prosecuLor or of Lhe
accused.

LxAMINA1ICN CI 8ANk DLCSI1S AND DCCUMLN1S:
1. IUDICIAL AU1nCkI2A1ICN (Sec. 27)
1he provlslons of 8epubllc AcL no. 140S as amended, Lo
Lhe conLrary noLwlLhsLandlng, Lhe [ust|ces of the Court
of Appea|s des|gnated as a spec|a| court Lo handle anLl-
Lerrorlsm cases afLer saLlsfylng Lhemselves of Lhe
exlsLence of probable cause ln a hearlng called for LhaL
purpose LhaL
(1) a person charged wlLh or suspecLed of Lhe crlme of
Lerrorlsm or consplracy Lo commlL Lerrorlsm
(2) of a [udlclally declared and ouLlawed LerrorlsL
organlzaLlon, assoclaLlon, or group of persons, and
(3) of a member of such [udlclally declared and ouLlawed
organlzaLlon, assoclaLlon, or group of persons
May auLhorlze ln wrlLlng any pollce or law enforcemenL
offlcer and Lhe members of hls/her Leam duly
auLhorlzed ln wrlLlng by Lhe anLl-Lerrorlsm councll Lo:
(a) examlne, or cause Lhe examlnaLlon of, Lhe deposlLs,
placemenLs, LrusL accounLs, asseLs and records ln a bank or
flnanclal lnsLlLuLlon, and
(b) gaLher or cause Lhe gaLherlng of any relevanL
lnformaLlon abouL such deposlLs, placemenLs, LrusL
accounLs, asseLs, and records from a bank or flnanclal
lnsLlLuLlon. Lhe bank or flnanclal lnsLlLuLlon concerned shall
noL refuse Lo allow such examlnaLlon or Lo provlde Lhe
deslred lnformaLlon, when so ordered by and served wlLh
Lhe wrlLLen order of Lhe CourL of Appeals

2. ALICA1ICN (SLC. 28)
1he wrlLLen order of Lhe CourL of Appeals auLhorlzlng
Lhe examlnaLlon of bank deposlLs, placemenLs, LrusL
accounLs, asseLs, and records:
(1) of a person charged wlLh or suspecLed of Lhe crlme of
Lerrorlsm or consplracy Lo commlL Lerrorlsm,
(2) of any [udlclally declared and ouLlawed LerrorlsL
organlzaLlon, assoclaLlon, or group of persons, or
(3) of any member of such organlzaLlon, assoclaLlon, or
group of persons ln a bank or flnanclal lnsLlLuLlon, and Lhe
gaLherlng of any relevanL lnformaLlon abouL Lhe same from
sald bank or flnanclal lnsLlLuLlon,
shall only be granLed by Lhe auLhorlzlng dlvlslon of Lhe
CourL of Appeals upon an ex parLe appllcaLlon Lo LhaL
effecL of a pollce or of a law enforcemenL offlclal who
has been duly auLhorlzed ln wrlLlng Lo flle such ex parLe
appllcaLlon by Lhe AnLl-1errorlsm Councll creaLed ln
SecLlon S3 of Lhls AcL Lo flle such ex parLe appllcaLlon,
and upon examlnaLlon under oaLh or afflrmaLlon of Lhe
appllcanL and Lhe wlLnesses he may produce Lo esLabllsh
Lhe facLs LhaL wlll [usLlfy Lhe need and urgency of
examlnlng and freezlng Lhe bank deposlLs, placemenLs,
LrusL accounLs, asseLs, and records:
(1) of Lhe person charged wlLh or suspecLed of Lhe crlme of
Lerrorlsm or consplracy Lo commlL Lerrorlsm,
(2) of a [udlclally declared and ouLlawed LerrorlsL
organlzaLlon, assoclaLlon or group of persons, or
(3) of any member of such organlzaLlon, assoclaLlon, or
group of persons.

UNAU1nCkI2LD kLVLLA1ICN CI CLASSIIILD MA1LkIALS
(Sec. 46)
Any person, pollce or law enforcemenL agenL, [udlclal
offlcer or clvll servanL who, noL belng auLhorlzed by Lhe
CourL of Appeals Lo do so, reveals ln any manner or form
any classlfled lnformaLlon under Lhls AcL.

k.A. 9208
AN1I-1kAIIICkING IN LkSCNS AC1 CI 2003

Sect|on 4. 4cts of 1roffickinq in Persons. - lL shall be
unlawful for any person, naLural or [urldlcal, Lo commlL any
of Lhe followlng acLs:
(a) 1o recrulL, LransporL, Lransfer, harbor, provlde, or recelve
a person by any means, lncludlng Lhose done under Lhe
preLexL of domesLlc or overseas employmenL or Lralnlng or
apprenLlceshlp, for Lhe purpose of prosLlLuLlon,
pornography, sexual explolLaLlon, forced labor, slavery,
lnvolunLary servlLude or debL bondage,

(b) 1o lnLroduce or maLch for money, proflL, or maLerlal,
economlc or oLher conslderaLlon, any person or, as provlded
for under 8epubllc AcL no. 69SS, any llllplno woman Lo a
forelgn naLlonal, for marrlage for Lhe purpose of acqulrlng,
buylng, offerlng, selllng or Lradlng hlm/her Lo engage ln
prosLlLuLlon, pornography, sexual explolLaLlon, forced labor,
slavery, lnvolunLary servlLude or debL bondage,

(c) 1o offer or conLracL marrlage, real or slmulaLed, for Lhe
purpose of acqulrlng, buylng, offerlng, selllng, or Lradlng
Lhem Lo engage ln prosLlLuLlon, pornography, sexual
explolLaLlon, forced labor or slavery, lnvolunLary servlLude
or debL bondage,

(d) 1o underLake or organlze Lours and Lravel plans
conslsLlng of Lourlsm packages or acLlvlLles for Lhe purpose
of uLlllzlng and offerlng persons for prosLlLuLlon,
pornography or sexual explolLaLlon,

(e) 1o malnLaln or hlre a person Lo engage ln prosLlLuLlon or
pornography,

(f) 1o adopL or faclllLaLe Lhe adopLlon of persons for Lhe
purpose of prosLlLuLlon, pornography, sexual explolLaLlon,
forced labor, slavery, lnvolunLary servlLude or debL
bondage,


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 90 of 129

(g) 1o recrulL, hlre, adopL, LransporL or abducL a person, by
means of LhreaL or use of force, fraud, decelL, vlolence,
coerclon, or lnLlmldaLlon for Lhe purpose of removal or sale
of organs of sald person, and

(h) 1o recrulL, LransporL or adopL a chlld Lo engage ln armed
acLlvlLles ln Lhe hlllpplnes or abroad.

Sect|on S. 4cts thot Promote 1roffickinq in Persons. - 1he
followlng acLs whlch promoLe or faclllLaLe Lrafflcklng ln
persons, shall be unlawful:

(a) 1o knowlngly lease or sublease, use or allow Lo be used
any house, bulldlng or esLabllshmenL for Lhe purpose of
promoLlng Lrafflcklng ln persons,

(b) 1o produce, prlnL and lssue or dlsLrlbuLe unlssued,
Lampered or fake counsellng cerLlflcaLes, reglsLraLlon
sLlckers and cerLlflcaLes of any governmenL agency whlch
lssues Lhese cerLlflcaLes and sLlckers as proof of compllance
wlLh governmenL regulaLory and pre-deparLure
requlremenLs for Lhe purpose of promoLlng Lrafflcklng ln
persons,

(c) 1o adverLlse, publlsh, prlnL, broadcasL or dlsLrlbuLe, or
cause Lhe adverLlsemenL, publlcaLlon, prlnLlng, broadcasLlng
or dlsLrlbuLlon by any means, lncludlng Lhe use of
lnformaLlon Lechnology and Lhe lnLerneL, of any brochure,
flyer, or any propaganda maLerlal LhaL promoLes Lrafflcklng
ln persons,

(d) 1o asslsL ln Lhe conducL of mlsrepresenLaLlon or fraud for
purposes of faclllLaLlng Lhe acqulslLlon of clearances and
necessary exlL documenLs from governmenL agencles LhaL
are mandaLed Lo provlde pre-deparLure reglsLraLlon and
servlces for deparLlng persons for Lhe purpose of promoLlng
Lrafflcklng ln persons,

(e) 1o faclllLaLe, asslsL or help ln Lhe exlL and enLry of
persons from/Lo Lhe counLry aL lnLernaLlonal and local
alrporLs, LerrlLorlal boundarles and seaporLs who are ln
possesslon of unlssued, Lampered or fraudulenL Lravel
documenLs for Lhe purpose of promoLlng Lrafflcklng ln
persons,

(f) 1o conflscaLe, conceal, or desLroy Lhe passporL, Lravel
documenLs, or personal documenLs or belonglngs of
Lrafflcked persons ln furLherance of Lrafflcklng or Lo prevenL
Lhem from leavlng Lhe counLry or seeklng redress from Lhe
governmenL or approprlaLe agencles, and

(g) 1o knowlngly beneflL from, flnanclal or oLherwlse, or
make use of, Lhe labor or servlces of a person held Lo a
condlLlon of lnvolunLary servlLude, forced labor, or slavery.

Sect|on 6. uo/ified 1roffickinq in Persons. - 1he followlng
are consldered as quallfled Lrafflcklng:

(a) When Lhe Lrafflcked person ls a chlld,

(b) When Lhe adopLlon ls effecLed Lhrough 8epubllc AcL no.
8043, oLherwlse known as Lhe "lnLer-CounLry AdopLlon AcL
of 199S" and sald adopLlon ls for Lhe purpose of
prosLlLuLlon, pornography, sexual explolLaLlon, forced labor,
slavery, lnvolunLary servlLude or debL bondage,

(c) When Lhe crlme ls commlLLed by a syndlcaLe, or ln large
scale. 1rafflcklng ls deemed commlLLed by a syndlcaLe lf
carrled ouL by a group of Lhree (3) or more persons
consplrlng or confederaLlng wlLh one anoLher. lL ls deemed
commlLLed ln large scale lf commlLLed agalnsL Lhree (3) or
more persons, lndlvldually or as a group,

(d) When Lhe offender ls an ascendanL, parenL, slbllng,
guardlan or a person who exerclses auLhorlLy over Lhe
Lrafflcked person or when Lhe offense ls commlLLed by a
publlc offlcer or employee,

(e) When Lhe Lrafflcked person ls recrulLed Lo engage ln
prosLlLuLlon wlLh any member of Lhe mlllLary or law
enforcemenL agencles,

(f) When Lhe offender ls a member of Lhe mlllLary or law
enforcemenL agencles, and

(g) When by reason or on occaslon of Lhe acL of Lrafflcklng ln
persons, Lhe offended parLy dles, becomes lnsane, suffers
muLllaLlon or ls affllcLed wlLh Puman lmmunodeflclency
vlrus (Plv) or Lhe Acqulred lmmune ueflclency Syndrome
(AluS).

LND CI DISCUSSICN CN 1CIC
9. CkIMLS AGAINS1 LkSCNAL LI8Lk1 AND SLCUkI1

=====================================
10. Cr|mes Aga|nst roperty
=====================================
1CICS UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US:

Chapter 1: kobbery |n Genera|
Sec. 1 - kobbery w|th v|o|ence or
|nt|tm|dat|on of persons
Sec. 2 - kobbery by the use of force upon
th|ngs
Chapter 2: 8r|gandage


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 91 of 129
Chapter 3: 1heft
D 1612
Chapter 4: Usurpat|on
Chapter S: Cu|pab|e Inso|vency
Chapter 6: Sw|nd||ng and Cther Dece|ts
8 22
Chapter 7: Chatte| Mortgage
Chapter 8: Arson and Cther Cr|mes Invo|v|ng
Destruct|ons
D 1613
Chapter 9: Ma||c|ous M|sch|ef
Chapter 10: Lxempt|on from Cr|m|na| L|ab|||ty |n
Cr|mes aga|nst roperty
kA 6S39

================================================
Chapter 1: kobbery |n Genera|
================================================

kC88Lk ls Lhe Laklng of personal properLy belonglng Lo
anoLher, wlLh lnLenL Lo galn, by means of vlolence agalnsL, or
lnLlmldaLlon of any person, or uslng force upon anyLhlng.

Ak1ICLL 293. WnC AkL GUIL1 CI kC88Lk

LLLMLN1S
1. 1here musL be ersona| property be|ong|ng to another
2. Un|awfu| tak|ng of LhaL properLy
3. 1aklng was w|th Intent to ga|n (an|mus |ucrand|)
4. 1haL Lhere ls (a) vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of
person or (b) force upon anyLhlng

DIS1INC1ICNS 8L1WLLN LIILC1S CI LMLCMLN1 CI
VICLLNCL Ck IN1IMIDA1ICN AND USL CI ICkCL UCN
1nINGS
VICLLNCL AGAINS1 Ck
IN1IMIDA1ICN CI LkSCNS
ICkCL UCN AN1nING
wnN kO88kY
A|ways, whenever v|o|ence
aga|nst or |nt|m|dat|on of
any person |s present
Cnly when force ls used Lo
elLher:
a. enLer Lhe bulldlng, or
b. Lo break doors,
wardrobes, chesLs, or
any oLher klnd of
locked or sealed
furnlLure or recepLacle
lnslde Lhe bulldlng or
Lo force Lhem open
ouLslde afLer Laklng
Lhe same from bulldlng
845l5 Ol PN4L1Y
a. resu|t of the v|o|ence
used, and
b. ex|stence of
|nt|m|dat|on
Va|ue of persona| property
|s |mmater|a|
When commlLLed ln an
lnhablLed house, publlc
bulldlng, or edlflce devoLed
Lo rellglous worshlp:
a. value of Lhe properLy
Laken, and
b. wheLher or noL
offenders carry arms
When commlLLed ln an
unlnhablLed bulldlng:
- value of Lhe
properLy Laken

NC1LS:
1. unlawful Laklng ls compleLe when
a. WlLh vlolence/lnLlmldaLlon: properLy musL aL leasL
be ln Lhe possesslon of Lhe offender
b. WlLh force: properLy musL be Laken ouL of Lhe
bulldlng
2. lnLenL Lo galn ls presumed from unlawful Laklng and
musL concur wlLh personal properLy belonglng Lo
anoLher"
3. When vlolence/lnLlmldaLlon musL Lake place
a. Ceneral 8ule: before Laklng ls compleLe
b. LxcepLlon: when vlolence resulLs ln homlclde, rape,
lnLenLlonal muLllaLlon, or any of Lhe serlous
physlcal ln[urles under ArL. 263, par. 1 and 2 -
robbery wlll be complexed wlLh any of Lhose
crlmes, even lf Lhe Laklng was already compleLe
when Lhe vlolence was used by Lhe offender
4. LnLrance" as an elemenL
1. Ceneral rule: necessary
2. LxcepLlon:
A. when Lhe robbery ls commlLLed by bteokloq
wardrobes, chesLs, or any oLher klnd of locked
or sealed furnlLure or recepLacle lnslde an
lnhablLed house, a publlc bulldlng or an edlflce
devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp, or by tokloq
such furnlLure or ob[ecLs away Lo be broken or
forced open ouLslde [ArL. 299, subdlvlslon (b)],
and
8. when Lhe robbery ln an unlnhablLed bulldlng,
oLher Lhan a publlc bulldlng or edlflce devoLed
Lo rellglous worshlp, ls commlLLed by bteokloq
any wardrobe, chesL, or any sealed or closed
furnlLure or recepLacle, or by temovloq a
closed or sealed recepLacle even lf Lhe same
be broken open elsewhere [ArL. 302, par. 4
and S]
S. rohlblLlve arLlcles may be Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of
robbery
6. 1aklng need noL be lmmedlaLely afLer Lhe lnLlmldaLlon



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 92 of 129
SLC1ICN 1 - kC88Lk WI1n VICLLNCL AGAINS1 Ck
IN1IMIDA1ICN CI LkSCNS

Ak1 294. kC88Lk WI1n VICLLNCL AGAINS1 Ck
IN1IMIDA1ICN CI LkSCNS

AC1S UNISnA8LL
1. 8y reason or on occaslon of Lhe robbery, homlclde ls
commlLLed,
2. Accompanled w/ rape or lnLenLlonal muLllaLlon or
arson,
3. 8y reason or on occaslon of robbery, any of Lhe physlcal
ln[urles resulLlng ln lnsanlLy, lmbeclllLy, lmpoLency, or
bllndness ls lnfllcLed (ArL. 263, par. 1), or serlous
physlcal ln[urles resulLlng ln Lhe loss of Lhe use of
speech, or Lhe power Lo hear or Lo smell, or Lhe loss of
an eye, hand, fooL, arm, leg, or Lhe loss of Lhe use of
any such member or lncapaclLy for work ln w/c vlcLlm ls
hablLually engaged ls lnfllcLed (ArL. 263, par. 2),
4. Carrled Lo a degree clearly unnecessary for Lhe crlme,
S. ln Lhe course of lLs execuLlon, lnfllcLs upon any person
noL responslble for Lhe commlsslon of robbery any of
Lhe physlcal ln[urles resulLlng Lo deformlLy, loss of any
parL of Lhe body or Lhe use Lhereof, or lllness or
lncapaclLy for Lhe performance of Lhe work for > 90
days or > 30 days (ArL. 263, par. 3 and 4), or
6. uoes noL cause any serlous physlcal ln[urles deflned ln
ArL. 263, or employmenL of lnLlmldaLlon only.

NC1LS:
1. 1he crlme deflned ln Lhls arLlcle ls a speclal complex
crlme
2. Cn Lhe occaslon" and by reason" of Lhe robbery
means ln Lhe course" or because of" robbery

AkAGkAn 1: kC88Lk WI1n nCMICIDL
a. Pomlclde ls undersLood ln lLs generlc sense (l.e.,
lncludlng parrlclde and murder)
b. Pomlclde may precede or may occur afLer robbery, and
need noL be commlLLed ln Lhe place of robbery
c. PCWLvL8, lnLenL Lo Lake personal properLy belonglng
Lo anoLher wlLh lnLenL Lo galn musL precede Lhe kllllng
d. Any person" may be kllled, Lhe kllllng of a co-robber ls
sLlll covered
e. arLlclpaLlon and llablllLy
l. rlnclpals
All who parLlclpaLed as prlnclpals ln Lhe robbery
are prlnclpals ln robbery wlLh homlclde
alLhough Lhey dld noL acLually Lake parL ln
Lhe kllllng, unless lL clearly appears Lhey
endeavored Lo prevenL Lhe same
39


J9
leople v. cottozo, J12 5ckA 600 (2000), leople v. netoooJez, C.k. No.
1J9697, Iooe 15, 2001
ll. Accessory: necesslLy of knowledge
1here ls an lssue regardlng Lhe penalLy
lmposable agalnsL an accessory. WlLhouL
knowledge of Lhe kllllng commlLLed durlng
robbery. !urlsprudence
40
provldes LhaL such
an accessory could noL have prevenLed Lhe
same, hence, should be an accessory only Lo
Lhe crlme of slmple robbery, ArL. S3 of Lhe
8C provldes LhaL Lhe penalLy for an
accessory ls Lhe penalLy lower by Lwo
degrees Lhan LhaL prescrlbed by law for Lhe
consummaLed felony. Slnce robbery cannoL
be dlslnLegraLed from Lhe speclal complex
crlme of robbery wlLh homlclde, Lhere ls an
lssue on Lhe basls of such an accessory's
penalLy
f. ulsLlngulshed from Plghway 8obbery
ConvlcLlon for hlghway robbery requlres proof LhaL
several accused were organlzed for Lhe purpose of
commlLLlng lL lndlscrlmlnaLely

AkAGkAn 2: kC88Lk WI1n kAL
a. lL ls lmporLanL Lo deLermlne Lhe prlmary ob[ecLlve or
lnLenL of accused
b. lnLenL Lo galn from personal properLy of anoLher musL
precede Lhe rape
c. 8ape ls commlLLed on Lhe occaslon of robbery, even lf
commlLLed ln anoLher place wlLhln Lhe house
d. When rape and homlclde co-exlsL ln Lhe commlsslon of
robbery, rape ls consldered as an aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance only Lo 8obbery wlLh Pomlclde
e. 1here ls no 8obbery wlLh aLLempLed rape
f. AddlLlonal rapes commlLLed on Lhe same occaslon of
robbery wlll noL lncrease Lhe penalLy

AkAGkAn 4: kC88Lk WI1n UNNLCLSSAk VICLLNCL
AND IN1IMIDA1ICN
a. 1here are Lwo cases provlded:
l. When Lhe vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon was carrled Lo
a degree clearly unnecessary, or
ll. When physlcal ln[urles covered by sub. 3 and 4
of ArL. 263 were lnfllcLed upon any person noL
responslble for Lhe commlsslon of robbery
b. vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon ln Lhe flrsL case need noL be
presenL before or aL Lhe exacL momenL when Lhe ob[ecL
ls Laken
l. May be commlLLed aL any Llme before Lhe owner
ls flnally deprlved of hls properLy




10
leople v. uoble, 111 5ckA 1J1, leople v. AJtlooo y 5ooqoeso, 95 5ckA
107


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 93 of 129
AkAGkAn 6: kC88Lk WI1n VICLLNCL Ck
IN1IMIDA1ICN IN C1nLk CASLS
a. AcLs done, elLher by Lhelr own naLure or by reason of
Lhe clrcumsLances under whlch Lhey are execuLed, musL
lnsplre fear ln Lhe person agalnsL whom Lhey are
dlrecLed
l. ob[ecLlve frlghL (due Lo some acL on Lhe parL of
Lhe accused) and nC1 sub[ecLlve frlghL (fear
arlslng from Lhe mere LemperamenLal LlmldlLy of
Lhe offended parLy)

1nkLA1S 1C Lx1Ck1 MCNL DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM
kC88Lk 1nkU IN1IMIDA1ICN
1nkLA1S 1C Lx1Ck1
MCNL
kC88Lk 1nkU
IN1IMIDA1ICN
CondlLlonal or fuLure
lnLlmldaLlon
AcLual and lmmedlaLe
lnLlmldaLlon
lnLlmldaLlon may be
Lhrough an lnLermedlary
lnLlmldaLlon ls personal
lnLlmldaLlon may refer Lo
person, honor or properLy
of Lhe offended parLy
lnLlmldaLlon ls dlrecLed only
Lo Lhe offended parLy
Caln ls noL lmmedlaLe Caln ls lmmedlaLe

kC88Lk WI1n VICLLNCL DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM GkAVL
CCLkCICN
kC88Lk WI1n VICLLNCL GkAVL CCLkCICN
vlolence ls used
lnLenL Lo galn no lnLenL Lo galn

kC88Lk DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM 8kI8Lk
kC88Lk 8kI8Lk
1he owner of Lhe properLy
dldn'L commlL a crlme buL ls
lnLlmldaLed Lo deprlve hlm
of hls properLy
1he owner of Lhe properLy
has commlLLed a crlme and
glves money as way Lo avold
arresL or prosecuLlon
ueprlved of money Lhru
force or lnLlmldaLlon, nelLher
volunLary nor muLual
Clvlng of money ls ln a
sense volunLary
Lxamp|e: Accused, a sanlLary lnspecLor, demands paymenL
of an amounL wlLh LhreaLs of arresL and prosecuLlon
afLer lnspecLlon ln Lhe offended parLy's sLore. 1he
crlme commlLLed ls robbery because Lhe prlnclpal
dlsLlncLlon from brlbery ls Lhe volunLarlness of Lhe
LransacLlon on Lhe parL of Lhe owner of Lhe properLy
eop|e v. Irans|sco,[ 4S h||. 819]






Ak1.
29S. kC88Lk WI1n nSICAL INIUkILS, CCMMI11LD IN
AN UNINnA8I1LD LACL AND 8 A 8AND, Ck WI1n 1nL
USL CI IIkLAkM CN A S1kLL1, kCAD Ck ALLL
(UALIIILD kC88Lk)

INS1ANCLS UALIIING kC88Lk WI1n VICLLNCL
AGAINS1 Ck IN1IMIDA1ICN CI LkSCNS
1. ln an unlnhablLed place, or
2. by a band, or
3. by aLLacklng a movlng Lraln, sLreeL car, moLor vehlcle or
alrshlp, or
4. by enLerlng Lhe passenger's comparLmenLs ln a Lraln, or
ln any manner Laklng Lhe passengers Lhereof by
surprlse ln Lhe respecLlve conveyances, or
S. on a sLreeL, road, hlghway or alley and Lhe lnLlmldaLlon
ls made wlLh Lhe use of flrearms, wheLher llcensed or
unllcensed.

NC1L: 1hls arLlcle wlll noL apply Lo Lhe speclal complex
crlmes of robbery w/ homlclde, w/ rape, or w/ serlous
physlcal ln[urles under paragraph 1 of ArL. 263
musL be alleged ln Lhe lnformaLlon and proved durlng
Lrlal
cannoL be offseL by generlc mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances

Ak1. 296. DLIINI1ICN CI A 8AND AND LNAL1 INCUkkLD
8 MLM8LkS 1nLkLCI

kC88Lk IS DLLMLD CCMMI11LD 8 A 8AND:
When aL |east 4 armed malefacLors Lake parL

kLUISI1LS ICk LIA8ILI1 ICk 1nL AC1S CI 1nL C1nLk
MLM8LkS CI 1nL 8AND:
1. 1haL Lhe accused was a member of the band,
2. 1haL he was present at the comm|ss|on of a robbery by
LhaL band,
3. 1haL Lhe other members of the band comm|tted an
assau|t, and
4. 1haL he d|d not attempt to prevent Lhe assaulL.

NC1LS:
1. lf Lhe robbery and assaulL was commlLLed by a band
and or ln consplracy (even lf lL was for robbery only), all
parLlclpanLs are llable, unless:
a. 1he accused prevenLed Lhe assaulL or aLLempLed Lo
prevenL, or
b. 1he accused ls a prlnclpal by lnducemenL as Lo Lhe
commlsslon of robbery unLLSS he ordered such
kllllng or Lhe commlsslon of oLher crlmes
2. roof of consplracy ls noL necessary when four or more
armed persons commlLLed robbery
3. lf rape was commlLLed by one member of Lhe band w/o
Lhe knowledge of Lhe oLhers, he alone ls gullLy of
robbery wlLh rape


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 94 of 129

Ak1 297. A11LM1LD AND IkUS1kA1LD kC88Lk
CCMMI11LD UNDLk CLk1AIN CIkCUMS1ANCLS

A11LM1LD Ck IkUS1kA1LD kC88Lk WI1n nCMICIDL
1. 1he Lerm homlclde" ls used ln lLs generlc sense
2. 1he crlme ls a speclal complex crlme
3. ALLempLed or frusLraLed robbery wlLh serlous physlcal
ln[urles ls noL covered, lL ls under ArL. 48
4. 1here musL be overL acLs polnLlng Lo robbery

Ak1 298. LxLCU1ICN CI DLLDS 8 MLANS CI VICLLNCL
Ck IN1IMIDA1ICN

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender has lnLenL Lo defraud anoLher,
2. 1haL Lhe offender compels hlm Lo slgn, execuLe, or
dellver any publlc lnsLrumenL or documenL, and
3. 1haL Lhe compulslon ls by means of vlolence or
lnLlmldaLlon

1hls arLlcle ls noL appllcable lf Lhe documenL ls vold
ulsLlngulshed from grave coerclon
When Lhe offended parLy ls under obllgaLlon Lo slgn,
execuLe or dellver Lhe documenL under Lhe law or when
Lhere ls no lnLenL Lo defraud, lL ls grave coerclon

ubllc" descrlbes lnsLrumenL only, hence, arLlcle applles Lo
prlvaLe or commerclal documenLs

INS1kUMLN1 DCCUMLN1
A mere wrlLLen sLaLemenL Any wrlLLen sLaLemenL by
whlch a rlghL ls esLabllshed
or an obllgaLlon
exLlngulshed, a wrlLlng or
lnsLrumenL by whlch a facL
may be proven and afflrmed

SLC1ICN 2 - kC88Lk 8 1nL USL CI ICkCL UCN
1nINGS

1WC (2) INS1ANCLS:
1. Cffender enLered:
a. An lnhablLed house or publlc bulldlng or edlflce
devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp (ArL. 299), or
b. An unlnhablLed place or ln a prlvaLe bulldlng
(ArL. 302)
2. lf Lhere was no enLrance, Lhe offender broke a
wardrobe, chesL, or any oLher klnd of locked or closed
or sealed furnlLure or recepLacle ln Lhe house or
bulldlng, or he Look lL away Lo be broken or forced
open ouLslde

Ak1
299. kC88Lk IN AN INnA8I1LD nCUSL Ck U8LIC
8UILDING Ck LDIIICL DLVC1LD 1C WCkSnI

SU8DIVISICN (A)
A. LLLMLN1S
1. 1haL Lhe offender entered
a. an lnhablLed house, or
b. publlc bulldlng, or
c. edlflce devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp,
2. 1haL Lhe enLrance was effected by any of Lhe
followlng means:
a. 1hrough an openlng noL lnLended for enLrance
or egress,
b. 8y breaklng any wall, roof, or floor or breaklng
any door or wlndow,
c. 8y uslng false keys, plcklocks or slmllar Lools,
or
d. 8y uslng any flcLlLlous name or preLendlng Lhe
exerclse of publlc auLhorlLy, and
3. 1haL once lnslde Lhe bulldlng, Lhe offender took
persona| property be|ong|ng to another w|th
|ntent to ga|n.
8. 1here musL be lnLenLlon Lo Lake personal properLy ln
enLerlng Lhe bulldlng
C. 1he offender musL enLer Lhe bulldlng ln whlch Lhe
robbery was commlLLed (l.e., whole body of Lhe culprlL
musL be lnslde Lhe bulldlng)
u. loboblteJ boose ls any shelLer, shlp or vessel
consLlLuLlng Lhe dwelllng of one or more persons even
Lhough Lhe lnhablLanLs Lhereof are Lemporarlly absenL
Lherefrom when Lhe robbery ls commlLLed
L. lobllc bollJloq ls every bulldlng owned by Lhe
CovernmenL or belonglng Lo a prlvaLe person buL used
or renLed by Lhe CovernmenL, alLhough Lemporarlly
unoccupled by Lhe same
l. lolse keys are genulne keys sLolen from Lhe owner or
any keys oLher Lhan Lhose lnLended by Lhe owner for
use ln Lhe lock forclbly opened by Lhe offender (ArL.
30S)
C. llcklock or slmllot tools are Lhose speclally adopLed Lo
Lhe commlsslon of robbery (ArL. 304)
P. When Lhe false key ls used Lo open wardrobe or locked
recepLacle or drawer or lnslde door, lL ls only LhefL
l. uslng of flcLlLlous name or preLendlng Lhe exerclse of
publlc auLhorlLy musL be Lhe efflclenL cause of Lhe
openlng by Lhe offended parLy of Lhe door of hls house
Lo Lhe accused
!. 1he four means descrlbed musL be resorLed Lo by
offender Lo enLer, noL Lo geL ouL

SU8DIVISICN (8)
A. LLLMLN1S
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls lnslde a dwelllng house, publlc
bulldlng, or edlflce devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp,


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 9S of 129
regardless of Lhe clrcumsLances under whlch he
enLered lL, and
2. 1haL Lhe offender Lakes personal properLy
belonglng Lo anoLher wlLh lnLenL Lo galn, under
any of Lhe followlng clrcumsLances:
a. by Lhe breaklng of doors, wardrobes, chesLs,
or any oLher klnd of locked or sealed furnlLure
or recepLacle, or
b. by Laklng such furnlLure or ob[ecLs away Lo be
broken or forced open ouLslde Lhe place of
Lhe robbery.
8. LnLrance need noL be effecLed by any of Lhe means
menLloned ln subdlvlslon (a)
C. uoors" refer only Lo doors, llds, or openlng sheeLs" of
furnlLure or oLher porLable recepLacles - noL Lo lnslde
doors of house or bulldlng
u. When sealed box ls Laken ouL for Lhe purpose of
breaklng lL, crlme ls already consummaLed robbery.
1here ls no need Lo acLually open lL lnslde Lhe bulldlng
from where lL was Laken.
L. ulsLlngulshed from esLafa or LhefL
1. lf Lhe box was conflded lnLo Lhe cusLody of accused
and he Lakes Lhe money conLalned Lhereln, Lhe
crlme ls esLafa
2. lf Lhe box was found ouLslde of Lhe bulldlng and
Lhe accused forced lL open, Lhe crlme ls LhefL

Ak1 300. kC88Lk IN AN UNINnA8I1LD LACL AND 8 A
8AND

enalLy ln prevlous arLlcle wlll be Lhe maxlmum perlod lf:
1. 8obbery wlLh force upon Lhlngs - musL be commlLLed ln
an unlnhablLed place and by a band
Lhe lnhablLed house, publlc bulldlng, or edlflce
devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp MuS1 be locaLed ln
an unlnhablLed place
AS CCSLu 1C: 8obbery wlLh vlolence agalnsL or
lnLlmldaLlon of persons - musL be commlLLed ln an
unlnhablLed place or by a band

Ak1 301. WnA1 IS AN INnA8I1LD nCUSL, U8LIC
8UILDING, Ck 8UILDING DLCLAkLD 1C kLLIGICUS
WCkSnI AND 1nLIk DLLNDLNCILS

kLUISI1LS ICk DLLNDLNCILS
All lnLerlor courLs, corrals, warehouses, granarles or
enclosed places musL be:
1. Cont|guous Lo Lhe bulldlng,
2. Pavlng an |nter|or entrance connected LherewlLh, and
3. lormlng part of the who|e
place ls sLlll consldered lnhablLed even lf Lhe
occupanL ls absenL when robbery occured


Ak1. 302. kC88Lk IN AN UNINnA8I1LD LACL Ck IN A
kIVA1L 8UILDING

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender entered an un|nhab|ted p|ace or a
bu||d|ng whlch was noL a dwelllng house, noL a publlc
bulldlng, or noL an edlflce devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp,
2. 1haL any of Lhe followlng clrcumsLances was presenL:
a. 1haL enLrance was effecLed Lhrough an openlng
noL lnLended for enLrance or egress,
b. A wall, roof, floor, or ouLslde door or wlndow was
broken,
c. 1he enLrance was effecLed Lhrough Lhe use of false
keys, plcklocks or oLher slmllar Lools,
d. A door, wardrobe, chesL, or any sealed or closed
furnlLure or recepLacle was broken, or
e. A closed or sealed recepLacle was removed, even lf
Lhe same be broken open elsewhere, and
3. 1haL wlLh lnLenL Lo galn, Lhe offender Look Lherefrom
personal properLy belonglng Lo anoLher

NC1LS:
1. unlnhablLed place means an unlnhablLed bulldlng
2. 8ulldlng lncludes any klnd of sLrucLure for sLorage or
safekeeplng of personal properLy
3. 8obbery ln a sLore
a. ArL. 299 - lf Lhe sLore ls used as a dwelllng, or lf Lhe
sLore ls a dependency of an lnhablLed house wlLh
an lnLerlor enLrance connecLed LherewlLh
b. ArL. 302 - lf Lhe sLore ls noL used as a dwelllng
4. Laklng of mall maLLer or large caLLle ln any klnd of
robbery makes Lhe penalLy hlgher by one degree
S. penalLy ls based on value of properLy Laken

Ak1. 303. kC88Lk CI CLkLALS, IkUI1S, Ck IIkLWCCD IN
AN UNINnA8I1LD LACL Ck kIVA1L 8UILDING

NC1LS:
1. When Lhe robbery descrlbed ln ArLs. 299 and 302
conslsLs ln Lhe Laklng of cereals, frulLs, or flrewood, Lhe
penalLy ls one degree lower.
a. Cnly when robbery ls commlLLed by Lhe use of
force upon Lhlngs

2. 1he palay musL be kepL by Lhe owner as seedllng" or
Laken for LhaL purpose by Lhe robbers
a. uoes noL lnclude Laklng sacks of hulled rlce (blgas)
- falls under ArL. 302

Ak1. 304. CSSLSSICN CI ICkLCCkS Ck SIMILAk 1CCLS

LLLMLN1S
1. 1haL Lhe offender has |n h|s possess|on p|ck|ocks or
s|m||ar too|s,


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 96 of 129
2. 1haL such p|ck|ocks or s|m||ar too|s are spec|a||y
adopted Lo Lhe commlsslon of robbery, and
3. 1haL Lhe offender does not have |awfu| cause for such
possess|on
Actua| use of the p|ck|ocks or s|m||ar too|s |s not necessary
||ab|||ty of a |ocksm|th |s h|gher than that of a mere
possessor

Ak1. 30S. IALSL kLS

WnA1 CCNS1I1U1L
1. lcklocks or slmllar Lools,
2. Cenulne keys sLolen from Lhe owner, and
3. Any key oLher Lhan Lhose lnLended by owner for use ln
Lhe lock forclbly opened by Lhe offender.
If the key was entrusted to the offender and he used |t to
stea|, cr|me |s not robbery but theft.
ossess|on of fa|se keys |n (2) and (3) are not pun|shab|e

================================================
Chapter 2: 8r|gandage
================================================

Ak1. 306. WnC AkL 8kIGANDS - LNAL1

LLLMLN1S:

1. 1here are at |east 4 armed persons
2. 1hey formed a band of robbers
3. 1he purpose ls any of Lhe followlng:
a. Lo commlL robbery ln Lhe hlghway or
b. Lo kldnap persons for Lhe purpose of exLorLlon or
Lo obLaln ransom, or
c. Lo aLLaln by means of force and vlolence any oLher
purpose
NC1LS:
1. 1he exlsLence of any of Lhe purpose menLloned ls
sufflclenL (l.e., mere formaLlon) Lo convlcL
2. lf any of Lhe members carrles unllcensed flrearm, all are
presumed hlghway robbers or brlgands
3. Arms carrled need noL necessarlly be flrearms-as long
as Lhey are deadly weapons

8kIGANDAGL DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM kC88Lk 8 A 8AND
8kIGANDAGL kC88Lk 8 A 8AND
urposes are Lhose
enumeraLed above
urpose ls only Lo commlL
robbery, noL necessarlly ln
hlghway
AgreemenL Lo commlL
robbery noL llmlLed Lo one
AgreemenL ls Lo commlL
only a parLlcular robbery
occaslon
Mere formaLlon of a band ls
sufflclenL Lo convlcL
lL ls necessary Lo prove
acLual commlsslon of
robbery
8oLh requlre LhaL Lhe offenders form a band of robbers

1nINGS 1C kCVL:
1. LhaL Lhere ls an organlzaLlon of more Lhan 3 armed
persons formlng a band of robbers
2. LhaL Lhe purpose of Lhe band ls any of Lhose enumeraLed
3. LhaL Lhey wenL upon Lhe hlghway or roamed upon Lhe
counLry for LhaL purpose
4. LhaL Lhe accused ls a member of Lhe band

Ak1. 307. AIDING AND A8L11ING A 8AND CI 8kIGANDS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhere ls a band of br|gands,
2. 1haL Lhe offender knows the band Lo be of brlgands,
and
3. 1haL Lhe offender does any of Lhe followlng acLs:
a. he ln any manner alds, abeLs or proLecLs such band
of brlgands, or
b. he glves Lhem lnformaLlon of Lhe movemenLs of
Lhe pollce or oLher peace offlcers of Lhe
CovernmenL, or
c. he acqulres or recelves Lhe properLy Laken by such
brlgands.

kLSUM1ICN CI LAW AS 1C kNCWLLDGL
Any person performlng any of Lhe acLs provlded ln Lhls
arLlcle has performed Lhem knowlngly, unless Lhe
conLrary ls proven

================================================
Chapter 3: 1heft
================================================

Ak1. 308. WnC AkL LIA8LL ICk 1nLI1

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhere be tak|ng of persona| property,
2. 1haL sald property be|ongs to another,
3. 1haL Lhe Laklng be done w|th |ntent to ga|n,
4. 1haL Lhe Laklng be done w|thout the consent of the
owner, and
S. 1haL Lhe Laklng be accompllshed wlLhouL Lhe use of
vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of persons or force
upon Lhlngs.



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 97 of 129
LkSCNS LIA8LL
1. 1hose who:
a. wlLh lnLenL Lo galn,
b. buL wlLhouL vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of
persons nor force upon Lhlngs
c. Lake personal properLy of anoLher
d. wlLhouL Lhe laLLer's consenL.

2. 1hose who:
a. havlng found losL properLy,
b. fall Lo dellver Lhe same Lo Lhe local auLhorlLles or
lLs owner.
8eLenLlon of money/properLy found ls LhefL.
WhaL ls punlshed ls reLenLlon or fallure Lo
reLurn wlLh lnLenL Lo galn.
1he offender's knowledge of Lhe ldenLlLy of
Lhe owner of Lhe properLy ls noL requlred. Pls
knowledge LhaL Lhe ptopetty ls lost ls enough.

3. 1hose who:
a. afLer havlng mallclously damaged Lhe properLy of
anoLher,
b. remove or make use of Lhe frulLs or ob[ecL of Lhe
damage caused by Lhem.
kllllng Lhe caLLle of anoLher whlch desLroyed
hls(offender's) properLy and geLLlng meaL for
hlmself ls LhefL

4. 1hose who
a. enLer an enclosed esLaLe or a fleld where
b. Lrespass ls forbldden or whlch belongs Lo anoLher
and,
c. wlLhouL Lhe consenL of lLs owner, hunL, flsh or
gaLher frulLs, cereals or oLher farm producLs
llshlng should noL be ln Lhe flshpond or
flshery wlLhln Lhe fleld or esLaLe, oLherwlse, lL
ls quallfled LhefL under ArL. 310.

NC1LS:
1. unlawful Laklng consummaLes LhefL even ln Lhe
absence of Lhe opporLunlLy Lo dlspose of Lhe personal
properLy Laken. 1he presumed lnablllLy of Lhe
offenders Lo freely dlspose of Lhe sLolen properLy does
noL negaLe Lhe facL LhaL Lhe owners have already been
deprlved of Lhelr rlghL Lo possesslon upon Lhe
compleLlon of Lhe Laklng. eop|e v. V|||anueva, [G.k.
No. 160188, Iune 21, 2007], overLurnlng Lhe rullng ln
eople v. ulno, 4S C.C. 3446, 18 lebruary 1948, and
eople v. llores, C.A 62 C.C. 2644, 1964 holdlng LhaL
Lhe deLermlnaLlve facL of consummaLlon of LhefL ls Lhe
ablllLy of Lhe offender Lo dlspose freely of Lhe arLlcles
sLolen)

1aklng ls consummaLed Lhe momenL Lhe offender
has full possesslon of Lhe Lhlng even lf he dld noL
have an opporLunlLy Lo dlspose of Lhe same, lL
does noL requlre Lhe Laklng away or carrylng
away"
a. unless Lhe Lhlng Lo be Laken ls bulky", lL ls
consummaLed only when Lhe offender ls able
Lo place lL under hls conLrol and ln such a
slLuaLlon as he could dlspose of lL aL once, ln
Lhe case of bulky" goods, Lhe ablllLy Lo
dlspose freely ls resLrlcLed
41


2. 1he Laklng" musL be accompanled by Lhe lnLenLlon, aL
Lhe Llme of Lhe Laklng, of wlLhholdlng Lhe Lhlng wlLh
characLer of permanency
42


3. lnLenL Lo galn ls presumed from Lhe unlawful Laklng
a. LxcepL lf Lhe person Lakes Lhe Lhlng from anoLher
bellevlng ln good falLh Lo be hls own

4. ConsenL (of owner) conLemplaLed ln Lhe elemenL of
LhefL refers Lo consenL freely glven and noL merely
lmplled from sllence of Lhe owner
a. AllegaLlon of lack of consenL ls lndlspensable

DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM LS1AIA
1nLI1 LS1AIA
lf only maLerlal possesslon
(l.e. cusLody of ob[ecL) was
glven Lo Lhe accused and lL
ls acLually Laken by hlm wlLh
no lnLenL Lo reLurn
lf [urldlcal possesslon ls
Lransferred (Lx., by a
conLracL of ballmenL) Lo Lhe
accused and he Lakes Lhe
properLy wlLh lnLenL Lo galn

DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM kC88Lk
1nLI1 kC88Lk
lf vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon ls
commlLLed afLer Laklng ls
compleLe
lf vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon
commlLLed afLer Laklng ls
compleLe resulLs ln
homlclde, rape, lnLenLlonal
muLllaLlon, or serlous
physlcal ln[urles - as a
speclal complex crlme
lorce ls absorbed lorce ls employed Lo enLer
SufflclenL LhaL consenL on
Lhe parL of Lhe owner ls
lacklng
necessary LhaL Lhere should
be a Laklng agalnsL Lhe wlll
of Lhe owner

S. ln LhefL of losL properLy, lL ls necessary Lo prove:
a. 1lme of Lhe selzure of Lhe Lhlngs
b. 1haL lL was losL properLy belonglng Lo anoLher, and

11
leople v. llotes, c.A., 62 O.C 2611
12
leople v. klco, et ol. c.A., 50 O.C. J10J, leple v. Colooq, et ol. c.A., 1J
O.C. 577


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 98 of 129
c. 1haL Lhe accused havlng had Lhe opporLunlLy Lo
reLurn or dellver Lhe losL properLy Lo lLs owner or
Lo Lhe local auLhorlLles, refralned from dolng so
6. no frusLraLed LhefL
7. AcLual or real galn ls noL necessary, enough LhaL on
Laklng Lhe properLy, Lhe accused was acLuaLed by Lhe
deslre or lnLenL Lo galn
8. unless force upon Lhlngs ls used Lo enLer a bulldlng, lL ls
LhefL and noL robbery LxCL1 lL ls robbery when a
furnlLure, chesL, or oLher locked/sealed recepLacle ls
broken ln Lhe house or bulldlng or Laken Lherefrom and
broken ouLslde
9. When a person possesses parL of recenLly sLolen
properLy, he ls presumed Lo be Lhe Lhlef of all unless he
has a saLlsfacLory explanaLlon of hls possesslon
10. 1hefL ls nC1 a conLlnulng offense

Ak1 309. LNAL1ILS

8ASIS
1. 1he value and/or Lhe naLure of Lhe Lhlng Laken, or
2. 1he clrcumsLances or causes LhaL lmpelled Lhe culprlL Lo
commlL Lhe crlme
lf Lhere ls no evldence of Lhe value of Lhe properLy
sLolen, Lhe courL should:
a. lmpose Lhe mlnlmum penalLy lnvolvlng Lhe
value of S.00
b. Lake [udlclal noLlce of lLs value

Ak1 310. UALIIILD 1nLI1
CIkCUMS1ANCLS
1. lL ls commlLLed by a domest|c servant, or
2. CommlLLed wlLh grave abuse of conf|dence, or
3. 1he property sLolen ls a:
a. moLor vehlcle,
b. mall maLLer,
c. large caLLle,
d. coconuL from Lhe premlses of a planLaLlon
(wheLher sLlll ln Lhe Lree or deposlLed on Lhe
ground),
e. flsh from a flshpond or flshery
4. CommlLLed on Lhe occas|on of ca|am|t|es, veh|cu|ar
acc|dent and c|v|| d|sturbance.

NC1LS:
1. Crave abuse of confldence" necesslLaLes a hlgh degree
of confldence beLween Lhe offender and Lhe offended
parLy. (Lx. guesLs).
2. 1hefL ls quallfled lf lL ls commlLLed by one who has
access Lo Lhe place where sLolen properLy ls kepL. (Lx.
securlLy guards, Lellers)
3. 1hefL by laborer ls only slmple LhefL, noL all LhefL by
housemaLe ls quallfled LhefL
4. novaLlon Lheory applles only when Lhere's conLracLual
relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe accused and complalnanL
S. Large caLLle - anlmal musL be Laken allve

C1nLk CIkCUMS1ANCLS
1. 1hefL of moLor vehlcle
a. AnLl-Carnapplng AcL of 1972 (8.A. 6S39)
2. 1hefL of large caLLle
a. AnLl-CaLLle 8usLllng Law of 1974

Ak1 311. 1nLI1 CI 1nL kCLk1 CI 1nL NA1ICNAL
LI8kAk AND NA1ICNAL MUSLUM
lL has a flxed penalLy regardless of lLs value

.D. 1612 & I1S IMLLMLN1ING
kULLS AND kLGULA1ICNS
AN1I-ILNCING LAW
I. ILNCING
1. ILNCING - An acL, wlLh lnLenL Lo galn, of buylng,
selllng, recelvlng, possesslng, keeplng, or ln any oLher
manner deallng ln anyLhlng of value whlch a person
knows or should have known Lo be derlved from Lhe
proceeds of Lhe crlme of robbery or LhefL.
2. ILNCL - A person who commlLs Lhe acL of fenclng. A
fence who recelves sLolen properLy as above-provlded
ls noL an accessory buL a prlnclpal ln Lhe crlme deflned
ln and punlshed by Lhe AnLl-lenclng Law.

II. kLSUM1ICN CI ILNCING
Mere possesslon of any good, arLlcle, lLem, ob[ecL,
or anyLhlng of value whlch has been Lhe sub[ecL of
robbery or Lhlevery shall be prlma facle evldence of
fenclng.

III. DU1 1C C81AIN CLLAkANCL Ck LkMI1 1C SLLL (AS
AN LxCL1ICN)
a. All sLores, esLabllshmenLs or enLlLles deallng ln Lhe
buy and sell of any good, arLlcle lLem, ob[ecL of
anyLhlng of value,
b. 1he merchandlse was obLalned from an unllcensed
dealer or suppller,
c. 8efore offerlng Lhe same for sale Lo Lhe publlc, and
d. lrom Lhe sLaLlon commander of Lhe lnLegraLed
naLlonal ollce ln Lhe Lown or clLy where such
sLore, esLabllshmenL or enLlLy ls locaLed.
Any person who (a) falls Lo secure Lhe
clearance or permlL requlred by Lhls secLlon or
(b) vlolaLes any of Lhe provlslons of Lhe rules
and regulaLlons Lo be promulgaLed Lo carry
ouL Lhls secLlon, shall upon convlcLlon be
punlshed as a fence




CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 99 of 129
================================================
Chapter 4: Usurpat|on
================================================

Ak1. 312. CCCUA1ICN CI kLAL kCLk1 Ck
USUkA1ICN CI kLAL kIGn1S IN kCLk1

LLLMLN1S
1. 1haL Lhe offender
a. Lakes possesslon of any real properLy, or
b. usurps any real rlghLs ln properLy,
2. 1haL Lhe rea| property or rea| r|ghts be|ong to another,
3. 1haL v|o|ence aga|nst or |nt|m|dat|on of persons ls used
by the offender |n occupy|ng real properLy or
usurpat|on of real rlghLs ln properLy, and
4. 1haL Lhere ls |ntent to ga|n

DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM 1nLI1 Ck kC88Lk
USUkA1ICN 1nLI1 Ck kC88Lk
CccupaLlon or usurpaLlon 1aklng or asporLaLlon
lnvolves real properLy or real
rlghL
lnvolves personal properLy
lnLenL Lo galn

NC1LS:
1. vlolence/lnLlmldaLlon musL be Lhe means used ln
occupylng real properLy or usurplng real rlghL belonglng
Lo anoLher
2. Crlmlnal acLlon ls noL a bar Lo clvll acLlon for forclble
enLry

Art. 313. A|ter|ng boundar|es or |andmarks

LLLMLN1S
1. 1haL Lhere be boundary marks or monumenLs of Lowns,
provlnces, or esLaLes, or any oLher marks |ntended to
des|gnate the boundar|es of Lhe same, and
2. 1haL Lhe offender a|ters sald boundary marks.

Intent to ga|n or fraudu|ent |ntent |s not
necessary, mere a|terat|on |s suff|c|ent
AlLer has a general and lndeflnlLe meanlng, Lo
make dlfferenL wlLhouL changlng lnLo someLhlng
else

================================================
Chapter S: Cu|pab|e Inso|vency
================================================
Ak1. 314. IkAUDULLN1 INSCLVLNC

LLLMLN1S:
1. Cffender ls a debLor, LhaL ls, he has obllgaLlons due and
payable,
2. Cffender absconds wlLh hls properLy, and
3. 1haL Lhere be pre[udlce Lo hls credlLors.
Actua| pre[ud|ce |s requ|red, mere |ntent|on to
pre[ud|ce |s not suff|c|ent
o may |nvo|ve rea| property

INSCLVLNC LAW IkAUDULLN1 INSCLVLNC
1haL Lhe crlmlnal acL should
have been commlLLed afLer
Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of lnsolvency
proceedlngs, before Lhe Law
applles
no requlremenL, noL
necessary LhaL defendanL
should have been ad[udged
bankrupL or lnsolvenL

================================================
Chapter 6: Sw|nd||ng and Cther Dece|ts
================================================

Ak1. 31S. SWINDLING (LS1AIA)

LLLMLN1S, IN GLNLkAL
1. Accused defrauded another
a. by abuse of confldence, or
b. by means of decelL, and
2. 1haL damage or pre[ud|ce capab|e of pecun|ary
est|mat|on |s caused Lo Lhe offended parLy or Lhlrd
person.
1he elemenL of damage or pre[udlce may conslsL ln:
a. 1haL Lhe offended parLy belng deprlved of hls
money or properLy, as a resulL of Lhe defraudaLlon,
b. ulsLurbance ln properLy rlghLs, or
c. 1emporary pre[udlce

WAS CI CCMMI11ING LS1AIA
A. Lstafa W|th unfa|thfu|ness or abuse of conf|dence
1. A|ter|ng the substance
L|ements:
a. Cffender has an onerous ob||gat|on to de||ver
someLhlng of value,
b. 1haL he a|ters |ts substance, quant|ty, or
qua||ty, and
c. 1haL damage or pre[ud|ce |s caused Lo
anoLher.
when Lhere's no agreemenL as Lo Lhe
quallLy of Lhe Lhlng Lo be dellvered, Lhe
dellvery of Lhe Lhlng noL accepLable Lo
Lhe complalnanL ls noL esLafa
crlme may arlse even Lhough Lhe
obllgaLlon ls based on an lmmoral or
lllegal conslderaLlon




CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 100 of 129
2. 8y m|sappropr|at|on or convers|on
2.1. L|ements
a. 1haL money, goods, or oLher personal
properLy be recelved by Lhe offender |n trust,
or on comm|ss|on, or for adm|n|strat|on, or
under any oLher obllgaLlon lnvolvlng Lhe duty
to make de||very of, or to return, Lhe same,
b. 1haL Lhere be m|sappropr|at|on or convers|on
of such money or properLy by Lhe offender, or
den|a| on h|s part of such rece|pt,
c. 1haL such mlsapproprlaLlon or converslon or
denlal ls to the pre[ud|ce of another, and
d. 1haL Lhere ls a demand made by the offended
party Lo Lhe offender.

2.2. NC1LS:
a. !urldlcal possesslon (rlghL of possesslon
whlch may be seL up agalnsL lLs owner) ls
Lransferred
l. As opposed Lo (a) Lransfer of
maLerlal possesslon whlch resulLs
ln LhefL, or (b) Lransfer of
ownershlp whlch resulLs ln clvll
llablllLy only
ll. lL ls presumed LhaL Lhe possesslon
of, and LlLle Lo, Lhe Lhlng dellvered
remalns ln Lhe owner, when Lhe
dellvery of a chaLLel has noL Lhe
effecL of Lransferrlng Lhe [urldlcal
possesslon Lhereof, or LlLle LhereLo
lll. lncludes quasl-conLracLs and
cerLaln conLracLs of ballmenL
(deposlL, lease, commodaLum, buL
noL muLuum [loan of money])
lv. Crlmlnal llablllLy for esLafa ls noL
affecLed by subsequenL novaLlon
of conLracL afLer esLafa has already
been consummaLed or lncurred, or
afLer crlmlnal
lnformaLlon/complalnL has already
been flled

b. Second e|ement: 3 ways of commlLLlng
esLafa w/ abuse of confldence:
MlsapproprlaLlon, converslon, denlal
l. Misoppropriotion ls Lo Lake
someLhlng for one's own beneflL
ll. conversion ls Lo use or dlspose of
anoLher's properLy as lf lL were
one's own

c. 1h|rd e|ement: re[udlce refers Lo
anoLher" or any Lhlrd person and noL
merely Lo Lhe owner
l. A parLner may be llable for esLafa
lf he mlsapproprlaLes Lhe share of
anoLher parLner ln proflLs or lf he
recelves money/properLy for a
speclflc purpose and laLer
mlsapproprlaLes lL

d. Iourth e|ement: uemand ls noL requlred
by law, buL lL ls necessary Lo provlde
clrcumsLanLlal evldence, lf Lhere ls fallure
Lo accounL upon demand
uemand ls noL dlspensed wlLh even lf:
l. Lhe offender cannoL be locaLed,
8u1 ln eop|e v. V|||egas [S6 C.G.
11, 1938], lf Lhe offender ls ln
hldlng, lL ls a clear lndlcaLlon of a
premedlLaLed lnLenLlon Lo
abscond wlLh Lhe Lhlng recelved
and Lhe offender could noL have
complled wlLh Lhe demand even lf
made, hence, demand ls noL
necessary or
ll. Lhere was an agreemenL upon
speclflc Llme for dellvery or reLurn
of Lhe Lhlngs recelved,
8u1 ln eop|e v. L|brea [48 C.G.
S30S], lf Lhe recelpL slgned by Lhe
accused sLlpulaLed a speclfled daLe
for Lhe reLurn of Lhe Lhlng, such
speclfled daLe ls ln lLself a demand
dlspenslng wlLh Lhe need for a
subsequenL demand Lo be made

e. 1here ls no esLafa Lhrough negllgence

LS1AIA WI1n A8USL CI CCNIIDLNCL VS. 1nLI1
LS1AIA WI1n A8USL CI
CCNIIDLNCL
1nLI1
Cffender recelves Lhe Lhlng
from Lhe offended parLy
Cffender Lakes Lhe Lhlng
lf ln recelvlng Lhe Lhlng, Lhe
offender acqulred noL only
maLerlal buL also [urldlcal
possesslon of Lhe Lhlng
lf ln recelvlng Lhe Lhlng, Lhe
offender acqulred only
maLerlal or LranslLory
possesslon, whlle Lhe
[urldlcal possesslon remalns
wlLh Lhe offended parLy

1LS1 1C DIS1INGUISn LS1AIA IkCM 1nLI1: WheLher or
noL Lhe owner expecLs Lhe lmmedlaLe reLurn of Lhe Lhlng he
dellvered Lo Lhe accused:
a. lf yes, lL ls LhefL,
b. oLherwlse, lL ls esLafa,
unless Lhe offender ls a servanL, domesLlc, or
employee where cusLody ls only precarlous


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 101 of 129
and for a Lemporary purpose or for a shorL
perlod, hence, [urldlcal or consLrucLlve
possesslon remalns wlLh Lhe owner
(ConsLrucLlve possesslon ls when Lhe owner
sLlll has under hls conLrol and managemenL
and sub[ecL Lo hls dlsposlLlon Lhe Lhlng even lf
acLual physlcal possesslon ls already
Lransferred)

DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM MALVLkSA1ICN
LS1AIA WI1n A8USL CI
CCNIIDLNCL
MALVLkSA1ICN
Cffenders are enLrusLed wlLh funds or properLy
ConLlnulng offense
Always lnvolves prlvaLe
funds
lnvolves publlc funds or
properLy
Cffender ls a prlvaLe
lndlvldual, or a publlc offlcer
noL accounLable for publlc
funds
Cffender ls a publlc offlcer
accounLable for publlc funds
CommlLLed by
mlsapproprlaLlng,
converLlng, denylng havlng
recelved money
CommlLLed by
approprlaLlng, Laklng or
mlsapproprlaLlng or
consenLlng, or, Lhrough
abandonmenL or
negllgence, permlLLlng
anoLher Lo Lake

3. 8y tak|ng undue advantage of the s|gnature of the
offended party |n b|ank
3.1. L|ements
a. 1haL Lhe paper w|th the s|gnature of the
offended party be |n b|ank,
b. 1haL Lhe offended party shou|d have
de||vered |t to offender,
c. 1haL above Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe offended
parLy a documenL ls wr|tten by the
offender w|thout author|ty Lo do so, and
d. 1haL Lhe documenL so wrlLLen creates a
||ab|||ty of, or causes damage Lo, Lhe
offended parLy or any Lhlrd person.
3.2. lf Lhe paper wlLh slgnaLure ln blank was
sLolen, Lhe crlme ls falslflcaLlon lf Lhe offender
made lL appear LhaL Lhe vlcLlm parLlclpaLed ln
a LransacLlon when ln facL he dld noL so
parLlclpaLe.

8. 8y means of dece|t
1. L|ements
a. 1haL Lhere musL be a fa|se pretense,
fraudu|ent act or fraudu|ent means
b. 1haL such false preLense, fraudulenL acL or
fraudulenL means musL be made or executed
pr|or to or s|mu|taneous|y w|th the
comm|ss|on of the fraud,
c. 1haL Lhe offended party must have re||ed on
Lhe false preLense, fraudulenL acL, or
fraudulenL means, LhaL ls, he was |nduced to
part w|th h|s money or property because of
Lhe false preLense, fraudulenL acL, or
fraudulenL means, and
d. 1haL as a resulL Lhereof, Lhe offended party
suffered damage.

LS1AIA 8 MLANS CI
DLCLI1
1nLI1
lnvolves boLh maLerlal or
physlcal possesslon and
[urldlcal possesslon
lnvolves only maLerlal or
physlcal possesslon
Always lnvolves decelL May or may noL lnvolve
decelL


2. 1wo ways of comm|tt|ng:
a. 8y means of false preLense or fraudulenL acL,
or
b. 1hrough fraudulenL means

8.1. 8y means of fa|se pretense or fraudu|ent act
1. 8y uslng flcLlLlous name, or falsely preLendlng
Lo possess power, lnfluence, quallflcaLlons,
properLy, credlL, agency, buslness or
lmaglnary LransacLlons, or by means of oLher
slmllar decelLs
a. lL ls lndlspensable LhaL Lhe elemenL of
decelL (l.e., Lhe false sLaLemenL or
fraudulenL represenLaLlon) be made prlor
Lo, or aL leasL slmulLaneously wlLh, Lhe
dellvery of Lhe Lhlng such LhaL Lhe decelL
uses consLlLuLes Lhe very cause or Lhe
only moLlve whlch lnduces Lhe
complalnanL Lo parL wlLh Lhe Lhlng

2. 8y a|ter|ng Lhe quallLy, flneness, or welghL of
anyLhlng perLalnlng Lo hls arL or buslness

3. 8y pretend|ng to have br|bed any
CovernmenL employee, wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo
Lhe acLlon for calumny whlch Lhe offended
parLy may deem proper Lo brlng agalnsL Lhe
offender

4. 8y postdat|ng a check, or lssulng a check ln
paymenL of an obllgaLlon when Lhe offender
had no funds ln Lhe bank, or hls funds
deposlLed Lhereln were noL sufflclenL Lo cover
Lhe amounL of Lhe check


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 102 of 129
a. rlma facle evldence of decelL: fallure Lo
deposlL Lhe amounL necessary Lo cover
check wlLhln Lhree (3) days from recelpL
of noLlce from bank of dlshonor for
lnsufflclency of funds
b. 1he check lssued musL be genulne, and
noL falslfled, oLherwlse, lL ls esLafa by
means of false preLense or Lhrough
falslflcaLlon
c. 1he obllgaLlon covered by Lhe check musL
be conLracLed aL Lhe Llme of Lhe lssuance
and dellvery of Lhe check, oLherwlse (l.e.,
lf for a pre-exlslLlng obllgaLlon), Lhere ls
no esLafa
d. 1he accused musL be able Lo obLaln
someLhlng from Lhe offended parLy by
means of Lhe check - damage done
agalnsL Lhe offended parL
e. 1here ls no esLafa lf Lhe posLdaLed checks
are lssued and lnLended merely as a
securlLy

8CUNCING CnLCkS LAW (8.. 22) LUS
ADMINIS1kA1IVL CIkCULAk NC. 12-2000 kL: LNAL1
ICk VICLA1ICN CI 8.. 22 AND ADMINIS1kA1IVL
CIkCULAk NC. 13-3001 kL: CLASSIIICA1ICN CI AC 12-
2000

1WC WAS CI CCMMI11ING:
A. 8 kNCWINGL MAkING Ck DkAWING AND ISSUING
AN CnLCk WI1n INSUIIICILN1 IUNDS Ck CkLDI1

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL a person makes or draws and |ssues any
check,
2. 1haL Lhe check ls made or drawn and lssued to
app|y on account or for va|ue,
3. 1haL Lhe person who makes or draws and lssues Lhe
check knows at the t|me of |ssue that he does not
have suff|c|ent funds |n or cred|t w|th Lhe drawee
bank for Lhe paymenL of such check ln full upon lLs
presenLmenL,
4. 1haL Lhe check (a) ls subsequenLly dlshonored by
Lhe drawee bank for lnsufflclency of funds or credlL,
or (b) would have been dlshonored for Lhe same
reason had noL Lhe drawer, wlLhouL any valld
reason, ordered Lhe bank Lo sLop paymenL.

8. 8 IAILING 1C kLL SUIIICILN1 IUNDS IN Ck CkLDI1
WI1n 1nL DkAWLL 8ANk
LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL a person has suff|c|ent funds |n or cred|t w|th
Lhe drawee bank when he makes or draws and
lssues a check,
2. 1haL he fa||s to keep suff|c|ent funds or to ma|nta|n
a cred|t to cover Lhe full amounL of Lhe check lf
presenLed w|th|n a per|od of 90 days from the date
appear|ng Lhereon, and
3. 1haL Lhe check ls d|shonored by Lhe drawee bank.

NC1LS:
1. 1he gravamen of 8 22 ls Lhe lssuance of a check,
hence, Lhe acL ls molom ptoblbltom
2. lL ls no defense LhaL:
a. under Lhe flrsL way of vlolaLlng 822, Lhe
drawer ordered Lhe bank Lo sLop paymenL, lf
Lhe check would have been dlshonored for
lnsufflclenL funds had Lhe order noL been
made, unless Lhe order was made for a valld
reason (e.g. wrong payee)
b. under Lhe second way of vlolaLlng 822, Lhe
drawer had sufflclenL funds ln or credlL wlLh
Lhe drawee bank because Lhe drawer ls oughL
Lo keep sufflclenL funds or malnLaln a credlL Lo
cover Lhe check
3. ltlmo focle evldence of knowledge of lnsufflclency
of funds: when presenLed wlLhln 90 days from Lhe
daLe of Lhe check,
Lxcept: when Lhe maker or drawer (a) pays Lhe
holder Lhereof Lhe amounL due Lhereon, or (b)
makes arrangemenLs for paymenL ln full by Lhe
drawee of such check wlLhln flve (S) banklng days
afLer recelvlng noLlce of dlshonor
4. An acqulLLal or convlcLlon of Lhe drawer under Lhe
8evlsed enal Code ls noL a bar Lo hls prosecuLlon
or convlcLlon under 8 22, because Lhe laLLer law
requlres Lhe addlLlonal facL of Lhe drawer's
knowledge of lack of lnsufflclency of funds

SC ADMIN. CIkCULAk 12-2000:
1. 1he clrcular provldes LhaL ln a 822 convlcLlon, Lhe
[udge, ln hls dlscreLlon, may lmpose flne alone,
wlLhouL lmprlsonmenL.
2. 1he flne should be noL less Lhan buL nor more Lhan
double Lhe amounL of Lhe dlshonored checks.
J. 1he clrcular ls noL a penal law, hence Lhere ls no
reLroacLlvlLy ln favor of Lhe accused. 1he clrcular
applles only Lo cases pendlng aL lLs effecLlvlLy. [loyo
v. 6o/vet {200l)]
1. 1he clrcular merely lays down a rule of preference.
lL does noL amend 822. lL merely urges Lhe courLs
Lo Lake lnLo accounL noL only Lhe purpose of Lhe law
buL also Lhe clrcumsLances of Lhe accused-
wheLher he acLed ln good falLh or on clear mlsLake
of falLh wlLhouL LalnL of negllgence. 1hus,
lmprlsonmenL may sLlll be lmposed. [loyo vs.
6o/vet {200l)]




CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 103 of 129
DIS1INGUISnLD LS1AIA 8 CSDA1ING A CnLCk IkCM
8CUNCING CnLCkS LAW
LS1AIA 8
CS1DA1ING A CnLCk
[Ak1. 31S, Ak. 2(D)]
8CUNCING CnLCkS LAW
(8.. 22)
Cffender employed decelL no decelL employed, molom
ptoblbltom
ayee or person uslng recelvlng
Lhe check musL be
defrauded or damaged
(damage belng Lhe basls of
penalLy)
no damage necessary
uoes noL cover checks lssued
for a pre-exlsLlng
obllgaLlon
May be lssued Lo cover for
pre-exlsLlng obllgaLlon


S. 8y any of Lhe followlng octs commltteJ ot o botel,
loo, testootoot, bootJloq boose, loJqloq boose, ot
opottmeot house:
a. 8y obLalnlng food, refreshmenL or
accommodaLlon Lhereln wlLhouL paylng
Lherefor, wlLh lnLenL Lo defraud Lhe
proprleLor or manager Lhereof
b. 8y obLalnlng credlL Lhereln by Lhe use of any
false preLense
c. 8y abandonlng or surrepLlLlously removlng
any parL of hls baggage from Lhereln afLer
obLalnlng credlL, food, refreshmenL, or
accommodaLlon Lhereln, wlLhouL paylng
Lherefor

8.2. 1hrough fraudu|ent means
1. 8y lnduclng anoLher Lo slgn any documenL

LLLMLN1S:
a. 1haL Lhe offender |nduced the offended
party to s|gn a document
b. 1haL dece|t be emp|oyed Lo make hlm
slgn Lhe documenL
c. 1haL Lhe offended party persona||y
s|gned Lhe documenL
d. 1haL pre[ud|ce be caused

2. 8y resorLlng Lo some fraudu|ent pract|ce Lo
lnsure success ln a gamb||ng game
3. 8y remov|ng, concea||ng or destroy|ng
documents

LLLMLN1S:
a. 1haL Lhere be courL record, offlce flles,
documenLs or any oLher papers,
b. 1haL Lhe offender removed, concea|ed,
or destroyed any of Lhem
c. 1haL Lhe offender had |ntent to defraud
another

DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM IALSIIICA1ICN
LS1AIA 8 INDUCING
ANC1nLk 1C SIGN AN
DCCUMLN1
IALSIIICA1ICN
MlsrepresenLaLlons as Lo Lhe
characLer of Lhe documenLs
execuLed
Cffended parLy was wllllng
and ready from Lhe
beglnnlng Lo slgn Lhe
documenL, ln Lhe bellef lL
conLalned sLaLemenLs made
by hlm, buL Lhe offender, ln
preparlng Lhe documenL,
aLLrlbuLed sLaLemenLs
dlfferenL from Lhose made
by Lhe offended parLy

DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM MALICICUS MISCnILI
LS1AIA 8 DLS1kCING
DCCUMLN1S
[Ak1. 31S, Ak. 3(C)]
MALICICUS MISCnILI
(Ak1. 327)
lnLenL Lo defraud lnLenL Lo defraud ls noL
requlred

DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM INIIDLLI1 IN CUS1CD CI
DCCUMLN1S
LS1AIA 8 kLMCVING,
CCNCLALING, Ck
DLS1kCING
DCCUMLN1S [Ak1. 31S,
Ak. 3(C)]
INIIDLLI1 IN CUS1CD
(Ak1. 226)
Slmllar ln Lhe manner of commlLLlng Lhe offense
Cffender ls a prlvaLe
lndlvldual or even a publlc
offlcer who ls noL offlclally
enLrusLed wlLh Lhe
documenLs
Cffender ls a publlc offlcer
who ls offlclally enLrusLed
wlLh Lhe documenL
lnLenL Lo defraud lnLenL Lo defraud ls noL
requlred

Comp|ex cr|me of estafa and theft
lL ls commlLLed when LhefL ls employed as a necessary
means Lo commlL esLafa. eople vs. ?usay [60 hll. S98]
lllusLraLes: A owns pawnshop LlckeLs whlch he enLrusLed Lo
8 for safekeeplng. A forgoL abouL Lhe lncldenL and a week
laLer, C Look Lhe LlckeL from 8 and refused Lo reLurn lL
desplLe lnslsLenL demands made by 8. 1hen C redeemed
[ewels uslng Lhe LlckeL wlLhouL knowledge and consenL of A
and 8. C commlLLed LhefL, as a necessary means Lo commlL


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 104 of 129
esLafa - C Look Lhe LlckeL wlLh lnLenL Lo galn and wlLhouL Lhe
consenL of elLher A or 8, C Lhen used a flcLlLlous name Lo
redeem Lhe [ewels, Lhereby commlLLlng esLafa.

NC1L: uamage caused wlLhouL decelL or wlLhouL abuse of
confldence glves rlse only Lo clvll llablllLy

Ak1 316. C1nLk ICkMS CI SWINDLING
NC1L: 1here musL be acLual damage, noL merely lnLenL Lo
cause damage, ln vlew of Lhe basls of Lhe penalLy whlch ls
Lhe value of Lhe damage caused", as provlded ln Lhe
provlslon

1. 8 CCNVLING, SLLLING, LNCUM8LkING, Ck
MCk1GAGING AN kLAL kCLk1, kL1LNDING 1C
8L 1nL CWNLk CI 1nL SAML.

LLLMLN1S:
a. 1haL Lhe Lhlng be |mmovab|e, such as a parcel of
land or a bulldlng,
b. 1haL Lhe offender, who |s not the owner of sald
properLy, represented that he |s the owner
Lhereof,
c. 1haL Lhe offender should have executed an act of
ownersh|p (selllng, leaslng, encumberlng or
morLgaglng Lhe real properLy),
d. 1haL Lhe acL be made to the pre[ud|ce of the
owner or a th|rd person.

NC1L:
a. Clalm of ownershlp ls dlfferenL from preLense of
ownershlp: Lhe former cannoL be sald Lo have
preLended Lo be Lhe owner even lf hls clalm ls
defecLlve, hence, noL llable under Lhls arLlcle
b. ulsLlngulshed from esLafa by falsely preLendlng Lo
possess properLy

LS1AIA 8 SLLLING,
LNCUM8LkING, Ck
MCk1GAGING AN kLAL
kCLk1, kL1LNDING 1C
8L CWNLk
(Ak1. 316, Ak.1)
LS1AIA 8 IALSLL
kL1LNDING 1C
CSSLSS kCLk1
[Ak1. 31S, Ak. 2(A)]
lnvolves only real properLy lnvolves elLher personal or
real properLy
1he offender exerclses or
execuLes, as parL of Lhe false
represenLaLlon, some acL of
domlnlon or ownershlp over
Lhe properLy
Such exerclse or execuLlon
need noL be presenL


2. 8 DISCSING CI kLAL kCLk1 AS IkLL IkCM
LNCUM8kANCL, AL1nCUGn SUCn LNCUM8kANCL 8L
NC1 kLCCkDLD

LLLMLN1S:
a. 1haL Lhe Lhlng dlsposed of be rea| property,
b. 1haL Lhe offender knew that the rea| property was
encumbered, wheLher Lhe encumbrance ls
recorded or noL.
c. 1haL Lhere musL be express representat|on by the
offender LhaL Lhe rea| property |s free from
encumbrance, and
d. 1haL Lhe acL of dlsposlng of Lhe real properLy be
made to the damage of another.

NC1L:
a. 1he encumbrance musL be legally consLlLuLed,
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe provlslon alLhough such
encumbrance be noL recorded"
b. 1he offended arLy musL have been decelved, l.e.,
he would noL have granLed Lhe loan had he known
LhaL Lhe properLy was already encumbered
c. lf personal properLy ls lnvolved, apply ArL. 319

3. 8 WkCNGIULL 1AkING 8 1nL CWNLk CI nIS
LkSCNAL kCLk1 IkCM I1S LAWIUL CSSLSSCk

LLLMLN1S:
a. 1haL Lhe offender |s the owner of persona|
property,
b. 1haL sald personal properLy ls |n the |awfu|
possess|on of another,
c. 1haL Lhe offender wrongfu||y takes |t from lLs
lawful possessor, and
d. 1haL pre[ud|ce |s thereby caused to the possessor
or th|rd person.

NC1L:
a. 1he acL ls punlshable as LhefL when Lhe owner of a
properLy Look lL wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe lawful
possessor, Lhen charged Lhe possessor wlLh Lhe
value of Lhe properLy because Lhere ls lnLenL Lo
galn
b. Wrongful Laklng" does noL lnclude vlolence:
l. WlLh lnLenL Lo galn - robbery
ll. WlLhouL lnLenL Lo galn - grave coerclon
4. 8 LxLCU1ING A IIC1I1ICUS CCN1kAC1 1C 1nL
kLIUDICL CI ANC1nLk

DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM IkAUDULLN1 INSCLVLNC
LS1AIA 8 LxLCU1ING AN
IIC1I1ICUS CCN1kAC1
(Ak1. 316, Ak. 4)
IkAUDULLN1 INSCLVLNC
(Ak1. 316)
Cffender slmulaLes a 1he conveyance ls real and


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 10S of 129
conveyance of hls properLy made for a conslderaLlon

S. 8 ACCL1ING AN CCMLNSA1ICN ICk SLkVICLS
1hls crlme requlres fraud, oLherwlse, solotloo loJebltl
resulLs for whlch a clvll obllgaLlon arlses
lf Lhe money ln paymenL of a debL and dellvered Lo a
wrong person and refused or falled Lo reLurn Lhe
money Lo Lhe owner LhereafLer, lL ls esLafa by
denlal of recelpL of money, under ArL. 31S, 1(b)

6. 8 SLLLING Ck MCk1GAGING Ck LNCUM8LkING
kLAL kCLk1 Ck kCLk1ILS WI1n WnICn 1nL
CIILNDLk GUAkAN1LLD 1nL IULIILMLN1 CI nIS
C8LIGA1ICN AS SUkL1

LLLMLN1S:
a. 1haL Lhe offender |s a surety ln a bond glven
ln a crlmlnal or clvll acLlon,
b. 1haL he guaranLeed Lhe fulflllmenL of such
obllgaLlon w|th h|s rea| property or
propert|es,
c. 1haL he se||s, mortgages, or, |n any other
manner encumbers sald real properLy,
d. 1haL such sale, morLage or encumbrance ls
l. wlLhouL express auLhorlLy from Lhe
courL, or
ll. made before Lhe cancellaLlon of hls
bond, or
lll. before belng relleved from Lhe
obllgaLlon conLracLed by hlm.

Ak1. 317. SWINDLING A MINCk

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender takes advantage of the |nexper|ence
or emot|ons or fee||ngs of a mlnor,
2. 1haL he |nduces such m|nor
a. Lo assume an obllgaLlon, or
b. Lo glve release, or
c. Lo execuLe a Lransfer of any properLy rlghL,
3. 1haL Lhe conslderaLlon ls
a. some loan of money,
b. credlL or
c. oLher personal properLy, and
4. 1haL Lhe LransacLlon ls Lo Lhe deLrlmenL of such mlnor.

NC1LS:
1. It |s suff|c|ent that the offender takes advantage of the
|nexper|ence or emot|ons of the m|nor
2. AcLual proof of decelL or mlsrepresenLaLlon ls noL
necessary
3. 8eal properLy ls noL lncluded



Ak1.
318. C1nLk DLCLI1S

UNISnA8LL AC1S
1. 8y defraudlng or damaglng anoLher by any oLher decelL
noL menLloned ln precedlng arLlcles, and
2. 8y lnLerpreLaLlng dreams, maklng forecasLs, forLune-
Lelllng, or by Laklng advanLage of Lhe credullLy of Lhe
publlc ln any oLher slmllar manner for proflL or galn.

NC1L: uamage Lo Lhe offended parLy ls requlred
SCCL - any oLher klnd of concelvable decelL may fall under
Lhls arLlcle

================================================
Chapter 7: Chatte| Mortgage
================================================

Ak1. 319. kLMCVAL, SALL Ck LLDGL CI MCk1GAGLD
kCLk1

AC1S UNISnA8LL
1. kNCWINGL kLMCVING MCk1GAGLD LkSCNAL
kCLk1
1.1. LLLMLN1S:
a. 1haL personal properLy ls mortgaged under
the Chatte| Mortage Law,
b. 1haL Lhe offender knows LhaL such properLy ls
so morLgaged,
c. 1haL he removes such morLgaged personal Lo
any provlnce or clLy oLher Lhan Lhe one ln
whlch lL was locaLed aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe morLgage,
d. 1haL Lhe remova| |s permanent, and
e. 1haL Lhere ls no wr|tten consent of Lhe
morLgagee or hls execuLors, admlnlsLraLor or
asslgnees Lo such removal.

NC1L:
a. 1he offender need noL be Lhe morLgagor, lL
may be any person"
b. urpose ls Lo proLecL morLgagee who should
be able Lo have a ready access Lo, and easy
reach of Lhe properLy sub[ecL of morLgage
c. ChaLLel morLgage musL be reglsLered
d. 8emoval musL be coupled wlLh lnLenL Lo
defraud
e. llllng a clvll acLlon for collecLlon lnsLead for
foreclosure of chaLLel morLgage relleves Lhe
accused of crlmlnal responslblllLy






CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 106 of 129
2. SLLLING Ck LLDGING LkSCNAL kCLk1 ALkLAD
LLDGLD
2.1 LLLMLN1S:
a. 1haL personal properLy ls already pledged
under Lhe Lerms of Lhe ChaLLel MorLgage Law,
b. 1haL Lhe offender, who ls Lhe morLgagor of
such properLy, sells or pledges Lhe same or
any parL Lhereof, and
c. 1haL Lhere ls no consenL of Lhe morLgagee
wrlLLen on Lhe back of Lhe morLgage and
noLed on Lhe record Lhereof ln Lhe offlce of
Lhe reglsLer of deeds

NC1L:
a. uamage Lo morLgagee ls noL essenLlal
l. lf damage accrues, lL may glve rlse Lo
esLafa by means of decelL

DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM LS1AIA 8 DISCSING CI
LNCUM8LkLD kCLk1 (Ak1. 316)
SLLLING Ck LLDGING
LkSCNAL kCLk1
ALkLAD LLDGLD
(Ak1. 319, Ak.2)
LS1AIA 8 DISCSING CI
LNCUM8LkLD kCLk1
(Ak1. 316, Ak. 2)
8oLh lnvolve Lhe selllng of morLgaged properLy
ersonal properLy ls
lnvolved (excepL lf house ls
sub[ecL Lo chaLLel morLgage)
8eal properLy ls lnvolved
CommlLLed by Lhe mere
fallure Lo obLaln Lhe
consenL of Lhe morLgagee ln
wrlLlng, even lf Lhe offender
should lnform Lhe
purchaser LhaL Lhe Lhlng
sold ls morLgaged
lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe real
properLy morLgaged be sold
as free, even Lhough Lhe
vendor may have obLalned
Lhe consenL of Lhe
morLgagee ln wrlLlng
ConsenL of morLgagee ls
maLerlal, knowledge as Lo
encumbrance ls no
ConsenL of morLgagee ls
lmmaLerlal
urpose ls Lo proLecL Lhe
morLgagee
urpose ls Lo proLecL Lhe
purchaser

==========================================
Chapter 8: Arson and Cther Cr|mes Invo|v|ng
Destruct|on
==========================================

AkSCN ls Lhe mallclous desLrucLlon of properLy by flre

1nkLL (3) CA1LGCkILS CI 1nL CkIML CI AkSCN
A. uesLrucLlve Arson (ArL. 320, as amended by 8.A. 76S9)
8. Slmple Arson (Sec. 1, .u. 1613)
C. CLher cases of arson (Sec. 3, .u. 1613)


Ak1. 320. DLS1kUC1IVL AkSCN (AS AMLNDLD 8 k.A
76S9)

1he penalLy of recluslon perpeLua Lo deaLh shall be
lmposed upon:
1. Any person who shall burn
a. Cne or more bulldlngs or edlflces, consequenL Lo
one slngle acL or slmulLaneous acLs of burnlng
b. 8ulldlng of publlc or prlvaLe ownershlp generally
open Lo publlc or where people usually gaLher or
congregaLe for a purpose, regardless of wheLher
Lhe offender had knowledge LhaL Lhere are persons
presenL or wheLher bulldlng ls lnhablLed or noL
c. 1raln or locomoLlve, shlp or vessel, alrshlp or
alrplane, for LransporLaLlon or conveyance, publlc
use, lelsure or enLerLalnmenL
d. 8ulldlng, facLory, warehouse and any
appurLenance LhereLo for servlce of publlc uLlllLles
e. Any bulldlng Lo conceal/desLroy lncrlmlnaLory
evldence, conceal bankrupLcy, defraud credlLors,
or collecL from lnsurance
f. Arsenal, mlllLary sLorehouse or powder facLory and
Lhe llke, archlves or general museum of Lhe
CovernmenL
g. Any facLory/sLorehouse of lnflammable or
exploslve maLerlals, ln an unlnhablLed place

2. 1wo (2) or more persons or a group of persons
a. lrrespecLlve of Lhe abovemenLloned quallfylng
clrcumsLances, and
b. 8egardless of wheLher Lhe purpose ls merely Lo
burn or desLroy or as an overL acL Lo commlL
anoLher vlolaLlon of law

1nkLL (3) S1AGLS
1. Attempted: offender commences Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe crlme dlrecLly by overL acLs buL he does noL
perform all acLs of execuLlon (l.e., was noL able Lo llghL
flre) due Lo Llmely lnLervenLlon of anoLher. lL ls noL
necessary LhaL Lhere be a flre (e.g., placlng rags soaked
ln gasollne beslde Lhe wooden wall of bulldlng)

2. Irustrated: offender was able Lo llghL flre, buL no parL
of Lhe bulldlng burned

3. Consummated: offender was able Lo llghL flre and Lo
burn aL leasL a parL of bulldlng (e.g., charrlng of Lhe
wood whereby Lhe flber of Lhe wood ls desLroyed),
LxcepL when Lhe conLenLs of a bulldlng was seL on flre,
no parL of Lhe bulldlng need be burned




CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 107 of 129
.D. 1613
AN1I-AkSCN LAW

.u. 1613 expressly repealed or amended ArLs. 320-326(8),
.u. 1744 Lhen revlved ArL. 320, 8.A. 76S9 amended Lhe
provlslons of ArL. 320, Lhe provlslons of .u. 1613
lnconslsLenL wlLh 8.A. 76S9 ls repealed

A. SIMLL AkSCN (under Sec. 1) pun|shab|e by Prision
Moyor agalnsL:
1. Any person who burns or seLs flre Lo Lhe properLy of
anoLher
2. Any person who seLs flre Lo hls own properLy under
clrcumsLances whlch expose to danger the ||fe or
property of another

8. C1nLk CASLS CI AkSCN (under Sec. 3) pun|shab|e by
kec/usion 1emporo/ to kec/usion Perpetuo, lf properLy
burned be any of:
1. Any bulldlng used as offlces of Lhe governmenL or
any of lLs agencles
2. Any lnhablLed house or dwelllng,
lL ls noL requlred LhaL Lhe house be occupled by
one or more persons and Lhe offender knew lL
when Lhe house was burned
3. Any lndusLrlal esLabllshmenL, shlpyard, oll well or
mlne shafL, plaLform or Lunnel,
4. Any planLaLlon, farm, pasLureland, growlng crop,
graln fleld, orchard, bamboo grove or foresL,
S. Any rlce mlll, sugar mlll, cane mlll or mlll cenLral,
and
6. Any rallway or bus sLaLlon, alrporL, wharf or
warehouse.

SLCIAL AGGkAVA1ING clrcumsLances ln arson (penalLy
lmposed ln maxlmum perlod):
1. lf commlLLed wlLh |ntent to ga|n,
2. lf commlLLed for Lhe benef|t of another,
3. lf Lhe offender ls moLlvaLed by sp|te or hatred Lowards
Lhe owner or occupanL of Lhe properLy burned, or
4. lf commlLLed by a synd|cate.

PklM4 l4cl LVIDLNCL CI GUIL1
1. lf Lhe flre sLarLed slmulLaneously ln more Lhan one parL
of Lhe bulldlng or esLabllshmenL
2. lf subsLanLlal amounL of flammable subsLances or
maLerlals are sLored wlLhln Lhe bulldlng noL of Lhe
offender nor for household use
3. lf gasollne, kerosene, peLroleum or oLher flammable or
combusLlble subsLances or maLerlals soaked LherewlLh
or conLalners Lhereof, or any mechanlcal, elecLrlcal,
chemlcal, or elecLronlc conLrlvance deslgned Lo sLarL a
flre, or ashes or Lraces of any of Lhe foregolng are found
ln Lhe rulns or premlses of Lhe burned bulldlng or
properLy
4. lf Lhe bulldlng or properLy ls lnsured for subsLanLlally
more Lhan lLs acLual value aL Lhe Llme of Lhe lssuance of
Lhls pollcy
S. lf durlng Lhe llfeLlme of Lhe correspondlng flre lnsurance
pollcy more Lhan Lwo flres have occurred ln Lhe same or
oLher premlses owned or under conLrol of Lhe offender
and/or lnsured
6. lf shorLly before Lhe flre, a subsLanLlal porLlon of Lhe
effecLs lnsured and sLored ln a bulldlng or properLy had
been wlLhdrawn from Lhe premlses excepL ln Lhe
ordlnary course of buslness
7. lf a demand for money or oLher valuable conslderaLlon
was made before Lhe flre ln exchange for Lhe deslsLance
of Lhe offender or for Lhe safeLy of Lhe person or
properLy of Lhe vlcLlm

WnLkL 8C1n 8UkNING AND DLA1n CCCUk
1o deLermlne whaL crlme/s was/were perpeLraLed, lL ls
lmporLanL Lo ascerta|n the ma|n ob[ect|ve of Lhe malefacLor,
whlch may be:
a. Lhe burnlng of Lhe bulldlng or edlflce, and deaLh resulLs
by reason or on Lhe occaslon of arson - Lhe crlme ls
slmply arson, and Lhe resulLlng homlclde ls absorbed,
b. Lo klll a parLlcular person
l. who may be ln a bulldlng or edlflce, and flre ls
resorLed Lo as Lhe means to accomp||sh such goal
- Lhe crlme ls murder only,
ll. and ln facL Lhe offender has already done so, buL
flre ls resorLed Lo as a means to cover up Lhe
kllllng - Lhen Lhere are Lwo separaLe and dlsLlncL
crlmes commlLLed, (1) homlclde/murder and (2)
arson.

CCNSIkAC 1C CCMMI1 AkSCN
enalLy of ptlsloo moyot ln lLs mlnlmum perlod


================================================
Chapter 9: Ma||c|ous M|sch|ef
================================================
MALICICUS MISCnILI ls Lhe wllful damaglng of anoLher's
properLy for Lhe sake of causlng damage due Lo haLe,
revenge, or oLher evll moLlve

Ak1. 327. WnC AkL LIA8LL ICk MALICICUS MISCnILI

LLLMLN1S CI MALICICUS MISCnILI
1. 1haL Lhe offender de||berate|y caused damage Lo Lhe
properLy of anoLher,
2. 1haL such acL does not consLlLuLe arson or oLher crlmes
lnvolvlng desLrucLlon, and
3. 1haL Lhe acL of damaglng anoLher's properLy be
commlLLed mere|y for the sake of damag|ng |t



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 108 of 129
NC1L:
1. 1here ls no mallclous mlschlef Lhrough negllgence
because under Lhe flrsL elemenL, Lhe offender should
acL under Lhe lmpulse of speclflc deslre Lo lnfllcL ln[ury
Lo anoLher
2. resupposes haLe, revenge, or oLher evll moLlve of Lhe
offender or Lhe mere pleasure of desLroylng
3. uamage lncludes noL only loss buL also dlmlnuLlon (e.g.
defaclng anoLher's house)
4. lf Lhere's no mallce, as when damage resulLed from a
crlme or only lncldenLal Lo Lhe commlsslon of anoLher
crlme, Lhere's only clvll llablllLy
S. lnLenL Lo galn by removlng or maklng use of Lhe frulLs
or ob[ecLs afLer damaglng Lhe properLy makes lL LhefL

Ak1. 328. SLCIAL CASLS CI MALICICUS MISCnILI

UALIIILD MALICICUS MISCnILI:
1. Causlng damage Lo obstruct performance of pub||c
funct|ons.
2. uslng po|sonous or corros|ve subsLance.
3. Spreadlng |nfect|on or conLaglon among catt|e.
4. uamage Lo properLy of Notloool Moseom ot Notloool
llbtoty, or Lo any archlve or reglsLry, waLerworks, road,
promenade, or any oLher Lhlng used ln common by Lhe
publlc.

1
st
CASL CI UALIIILD MALICICUS MISCnILI
DIS1INGUISnLD IkCM SLDI1ICN
AlLhough boLh lnvolve Lhe lnLenL Lo obsLrucL Lhe
performance of publlc funcLlons, Lhe elemenL of publlc and
LumulLuous uprlslng ls noL presenL ln Lhls arLlcle.

Ak1. 329. C1nLk MISCnILIS

8ASIS CI LNAL1
Mlschlefs noL lncluded ln ArL. 328 are punlshed accordlng Lo
Lhe value of Lhe damage caused. Lven lf Lhe amounL cannoL
be esLlmaLed, Lhe penalLy of arresLo menor or flne noL
exceedlng 200 ls flxed by law. Lxample: scaLLerlng human
excremenL ln publlc bulldlng, kllllng of cow as an acL of
revenge (value of damage cannoL be esLlmaLed), a servanL
who released blrd from cage as acL of haLe agalnsL owner
(value of Lhe blrd as basls)

Ak1. 330. DAMAGL AND C8S1kUC1ICN 1C MLANS CI
CCMMUNICA1ICN

nC1L:
1. lL ls commlLLed by damaglng any rallway, Lelegraph, or
Lelephone llnes
a. Lelegraph or Lelephone llnes musL perLaln Lo a
rallway sysLem
2. Any derallmenL of cars, colllslon, or oLher accldenL
whlch was a resulL of Lhe damage done shall cause for a
hlgher lmposable penalLy.
3. 1he ob[ecL ls Lo merely cause damage, as opposed Lo
Crlmes lnvolvlng uesLrucLlon (ArL. 324), where Lhe
ob[ecL ls Lo cause desLrucLlon
4. When person or persons are kllled
a. lf Lhere ls no lnLenL Lo klll, lL ls Lhe complexed
crlme of damage Lo means of communlcaLlon wlLh
homlclde (ln relaLlon Lo ArL. 48)
b. lf Lhere ls lnLenL Lo klll, and damaglng Lhe rallways
was used Lo accompllsh Lhe crlmlnal purpose, lL ls
murder

Ak1. 331. DLS1kCING Ck DAMAGING S1A1ULS, U8LIC
MCNUMLN1S, Ck AIN1INGS

===============================================
Chapter 10: Lxempt|ons from Cr|m|na| L|ab|||ty |n
Cr|mes aga|nst roperty
===============================================
Ak1. 332. LkSCNS LxLM1 IkCM CkIMINAL LIA8ILI1

NC1L:
A. CkIMLS INVCLVLD IN 1nL LxLM1ICN (1LM)
1. 1hefL,
2. Swlndllng (esLafa), and
3. Mallclous mlschlef

8. LkSCNS LxLM1LD
1. Spouses, ascendanLs and descendanLs, or relaLlves
by afflnlLy ln Lhe same llne.
2. 1he wldowed spouse wlLh respecL Lo Lhe properLy
whlch belonged Lo Lhe deceased spouse before Lhe
same passed lnLo Lhe possesslon of anoLher.
3. 8roLhers and slsLers and broLhers-ln-law and
slsLers-ln-law, lf llvlng LogeLher aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme

C. SLepfaLher/moLher, adopLed faLher/moLher, naLural
chlldren, common-law spouse, concublne, paramour
lncluded

u. uoes noL apply Lo sLrangers parLlclpaLlng ln Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme

L. uoes noL apply Lo robbery or esLafa Lhrough
falslflcaLlon

l. 1here ls only clvll llablllLy

C. Appllcable on Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe offended
parLy and Lhe offender only


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 109 of 129
P. 8eason: presumed co-ownershlp of Lhe properLy
beLween Lhe parLles

k.A. 6S39
AN1I-CAkNAING AC1 CI 1972

CAkNAING ls Lhe Laklng, wlLh lnLenL Lo galn, of a moLor
vehlcle belonglng Lo anoLher wlLhouL Lhe laLLer's consenL, or
by means of vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of persons, or
by uslng force upon Lhlngs.

MC1Ck VLnICLL ls any vehlcle propelled by any power
oLher Lhan muscular power uslng Lhe publlc hlghways, buL
excepLlng road rollers, Lrolley cars, sLreeL-sweepers,
sprlnklers, lawn mowers, bulldozers, graders, fork-llfLs,
amphlblan Lrucks, and cranes lf noL used on publlc
hlghways, vehlcles, whlch run only on ralls or Lracks, and
LracLors, Lrallers and LracLlon englnes of all klnds used
excluslvely for agrlculLural purposes. 1rallers havlng any
number of wheels, when propelled or lnLended Lo be
propelled by aLLachmenL Lo a moLor vehlcle, shall be
classlfled as separaLe moLor vehlcle wlLh no power raLlng.

DLIACING Ck 1AMLkING WI1n a serlal number ls Lhe
eraslng, scraLchlng, alLerlng or changlng of Lhe orlglnal
facLory-lnscrlbed serlal number on Lhe moLor vehlcle
englne, englne block or chassls of any moLor vehlcle.
Whenever any moLor vehlcle ls found Lo have a serlal
number on lLs moLor englne, englne block or chassls whlch
ls dlfferenL from LhaL whlch ls llsLed ln Lhe records of Lhe
8ureau of CusLoms for moLor vehlcles lmporLed lnLo Lhe
hlllpplnes, LhaL moLor vehlcle shall be consldered Lo have a
defaced or Lampered wlLh serlal number.

kLAIN1ING ls changlng Lhe color of a moLor vehlcle by
means of palnLlng. 1here ls repalnLlng whenever Lhe new
color of a moLor vehlcle ls dlfferenL from lLs color as
reglsLered ln Lhe Land 1ransporLaLlon Commlsslon.

8CD-8UILDING ls a [ob underLaken on a moLor vehlcle ln
order Lo replace lLs enLlre body wlLh a new body.

kLMCDLLING ls Lhe lnLroducLlon of some changes ln Lhe
shape or form of Lhe body of Lhe moLor vehlcle.lowpbl1'

DISMAN1LING ls Lhe Learlng aparL, plece by plece or parL by
parL, of a moLor vehlcle.

CVLknAULING ls Lhe cleanlng or repalrlng of Lhe whole
englne of a moLor vehlcle by separaLlng Lhe moLor englne
and lLs parLs from Lhe body of Lhe moLor vehlcle.

kLGIS1kA1ICN kLUIkLMLN1S
1. Lvery owner or possessor of unreglsLered moLor vehlcle
or parLs Lhereof ln knock down condlLlon shall, wlLhln
one year afLer Lhe approval of Lhls AcL and ln hls name
or ln Lhe name of Lhe real owner, reglsLer wlLh Lhe
Land 1ransporLaLlon Commlsslon (now Land
1ransporLaLlon Commlsslon or L1C)
a. Lhe moLor vehlcle englne,
b. englne block and
c. chassls,
1hereafLer, lf noL reglsLered, Lhose shall be consldered
as unLaxed lmporLaLlon or comlng from an lllegal
source or carnapped, and shall be conflscaLed ln favor
of Lhe CovernmenL
2. All owners of moLor vehlcles ln all clLles and
munlclpallLles are requlred Lo reglsLer Lhelr cars wlLh
Lhe local pollce wlLhouL paylng any charges
3. Lvery sale, Lransfer, conveyance, subsLlLuLlon or
replacemenL of a moLor vehlcle englne, englne block or
chassls of a moLor vehlcle shall be reglsLered wlLh Lhe
L1C.

MoLor vehlcles assembled and rebullL or repalred by
replacemenL wlLh moLor vehlcle englnes, englne blocks
and chassls noL reglsLered shall noL be lssued
cerLlflcaLes of reglsLraLlon and shall be consldered as
unLaxed lmporLed moLor vehlcles or moLor vehlcles
carnapped or proceedlng from lllegal sources
4. Crlglnal reglsLraLlon of a moLor vehlcle (wheLher newly
assembled or rebullL or acqulred from a reglsLered
owner)
a. 1he person seeklng Lo reglsLer shall, wlLhln one
week afLer Lhe compleLlon of Lhe assembly or
rebulldlng [ob or Lhe acqulslLlon Lhereof from Lhe
reglsLered owner, apply Lo Lhe hlllpplne
ConsLabulary (now hlllpplne naLlonal ollce or
n) for clearance of Lhe moLor vehlcle for
reglsLraLlon wlLh Lhe L1C
b. 1he n shall verlfy wheLher or noL Lhe moLor
vehlcle or lLs numbered parLs are ln Lhe llsL of
carnapped moLor vehlcles or sLolen moLor vehlcle
parLs, lf noL lncluded, shall forLhwlLh lssue Lhe
cerLlflcaLe of clearance
c. 1he L1C shall, upon presenLaLlon of Lhe cerLlflcaLe
and afLer verlflcaLlon of Lhe reglsLraLlon ln Lhe
permanenL reglsLry, reglsLer Lhe moLor vehlcle ln
accordance wlLh exlsLlng laws, rules and
regulaLlons

LkMANLN1 kLGIS1k
1he L1C shall keep a permanenL reglsLry of moLor vehlcle
englnes, englne blocks and chassls of all moLor vehlcles wlLh
parLlculars.

Coples of Lhe reglsLry and of all enLrles made Lhereon shall
be furnlshed Lhe n and all L1C reglonal, provlnclal and
clLy branch offlces


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 110 of 129

DU1 CI CCLLLC1Ck CI CUS1CMS
WlLhln seven days afLer Lhe arrlval of Lhe lmporLed moLor
vehlcle or any of lLs parLs enumeraLed, Lhe CollecLor shall:
a. make a reporL of Lhe shlpmenL Lo Lhe Land
1ransporLaLlon Commlsslon, speclfylng Lhe make, Lype
and serlal numbers, lf any, of Lhe moLor vehlcle englne,
englne block and chassls or body
b. sLaLlng Lhe names and addresses of Lhe owner or
conslgnee Lhereof.

lf Lhe moLor vehlcle englne, englne block, chassls or
body does noL bear any serlal number, Lhe CollecLor of
CusLoms concerned shall hold Lhe moLor vehlcle
englne, englne block, chassls or body unLll lL ls
numbered by Lhe L1C.

DU1 CI IMCk1LkS, DIS1kI8U1CkS, AND SLLLLkS
keep a permanenL record of hls sLocks
o sLaLlng Lhereln Lhelr Lype, make and serlal
numbers, and Lhe names and addresses of Lhe
persons from whom Lhey were acqulred and
Lhe names and addresses of Lhe persons Lo
whom Lhey were sold
render an accuraLe monLhly reporL of hls LransacLlons
ln moLor vehlcles Lo Lhe Land 1ransporLaLlon
Commlsslon.

CLLkANCL AND LkMI1
Any person who shall underLake Lo assemble or rebulld or
cause Lhe assembly or rebulldlng of a moLor vehlcle shall
flrsL secure a cerLlflcaLe of clearance from Lhe hlllpplne
ConsLabulary:

ltovlJeJ, 1haL no such permlL shall be lssued unless Lhe
appllcanL shall presenL a sLaLemenL under oaLh conLalnlng
Lhe Lype, make and serlal numbers of Lhe englne, chassls
and body, lf any, and Lhe compleLe llsL of Lhe spare parLs of
Lhe moLor vehlcle Lo be assembled or rebullL LogeLher wlLh
Lhe names and addresses of Lhe sources Lhereof.

ln Lhe case of moLor vehlcle englnes Lo be mounLed on
moLor boaLs, moLor bancas and oLher llghL waLer vessels,
Lhe appllcanL shall secure a permlL from Lhe hlllpplne CoasL
Cuard, whlch offlce shall ln Lurn furnlsh Lhe L1C Lhe
perLlnenL daLa concernlng Lhe moLor vehlcle englnes
lncludlng Lhelr Lype, make and serlal numbers.

Any person who owns or operaLes lnLer-lsland shlpplng or
any waLer LransporLaLlon wlLh launches, boaLs, vessels or
shlps shall w|th|n seven days submlL a reporL Lo Lhe
hlllpplne ConsLabulary on all moLor vehlcle, moLor vehlcle
englnes, englne blocks, chassls or bodles LransporLed by lL
for Lhe moLor vehlcle, moLor vehlcle englne, englne block,
chassls or body to be looJeJ oo bootJ tbe looocb, boot
vessel ot sblp.

UNISnA8LL AC1S
lL shall be unlawful for any person Lo deface or oLherwlse
Lamper wlLh Lhe orlglnal or reglsLered serlal number of
moLor vehlcle englnes, englne blocks and chassls.


LNAL kCVISICNS
a. Any person (ln case of a [urldlcal person, presldenL or
secreLary and/or members of Lhe board of dlrecLors or
any of lLs offlcers and employees who may have
dlrecLly parLlclpaLed ln Lhe vlolaLlon) who vlolaLes any
provlslons of Lhls AcL
punlshed wlLh lmprlsonmenL for noL less Lhan
Lwo years nor more Lhan slx years and a flne
equal ln amounL Lo Lhe acqulslLlon cosL of Lhe
moLor vehlcle, moLor vehlcle englne or any
oLher parL lnvolved ln Lhe vlolaLlon
b. Any governmenL offlclal or employee who dlrecLly
commlLs Lhe unlawful acLs deflned ln Lhls AcL or ls gullLy
of gross negllgence of duLy or connlves wlLh or permlLs
Lhe commlsslon of any of Lhe sald unlawful acL:
ln addlLlon Lo Lhe penalLy prescrlbed ln Lhe
precedlng paragraph, be dlsmlssed from Lhe
servlce wlLh pre[udlce Lo hls relnsLaLemenL
and wlLh dlsquallflcaLlon from voLlng or belng
voLed for ln any elecLlon and from
appolnLmenL Lo any publlc offlce

LNAL1 ICk CAkNAING
Any person who ls found gullLy of carnapplng shall,
lrrespecLlve of Lhe value of moLor vehlcle Laken, be
punlshed:
a. by lmprlsonmenL for noL less Lhan 14 years and 8
monLhs and noL more Lhan 17 years and 4 monLhs,
when Lhe carnapplng ls commlLLed wlLhouL
vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon of persons, or force upon
Lhlngs,
b. by lmprlsonmenL for noL less Lhan 17 years and 4
monLhs and noL more Lhan 30 years, when Lhe
carnapplng ls commlLLed by means of vlolence
agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of any person, or force
upon Lhlngs, and
c. Lhe penalLy of llfe lmprlsonmenL Lo deaLh shall be
lmposed when Lhe owner, drlver or occupanL of
Lhe carnapped moLor vehlcle ls kllled ln Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe carnapplng


LND CI DISCUSSICN CN 1CIC
10. CkIMLS AGAINS1 kCLk1




CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 111 of 129
=======================================
11. Cr|mes Aga|nst Chast|ty
=======================================
1CICS UNDLk 1nL SLLA8US:

Chapter 1: Adu|tery and Concub|nage
Chapter 2: kape and Acts of Lasc|v|ousness
Chapter 3: Seduct|on, Corrupt|on of M|nors and
Wh|te S|ave 1rade
Chapter 4: Abduct|on
Chapter S: rov|s|ons ke|at|ve to the reced|ng
Chapters of 1|t|e 11
k.A. 999S
k.A. 7610, AS AMLNDLD
k.A. 9262
k.A. 7877

=================================================
Chapter 1: Adu|tery and Concub|nage
=================================================

Ak1. 333. WnC AkL GUIL1 CI ADUL1Lk

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe woman |s marr|ed (even lf marrlage ls
subsequenLly declared vold),
2. 1haL she has sexual |ntercourse w|th a man not her
husband, and
3. 1haL as regards Lhe man wlLh whom she has sexual
lnLercourse, he must know her to be marr|ed.

NC1L:
Carnal knowledge may be proved by clrcumsLanLlal
evldence.
Lach sexual lnLercourse consLlLuLes a crlme of adulLery.
It |s not a cont|nu|ng offense. Any acL of lnfldellLy
subsequenL Lo condonaLlon consLlLuLes a new offense
LhaL ls sub[ecL Lo crlmlnal prosecuLlon.
1he offended parLy musL be legally marrled Lo Lhe
offender aL Lhe Llme of flllng Lhe complalnL.
- 8uL even lf subsequenLly declared vold, Lhere's sLlll
adulLery when Lhe adulLerous acL ls commlLLed
before Lhe marrlage ls [udlclally declared null and
vold ln a flnal [udgmenL.
AcqulLLal of one defendanL does noL operaLe as
acqulLLal of Lhe oLher.
ueaLh of Lhe offended parLy wlll noL LermlnaLe Lhe
proceedlngs. Powever, lf Lhey dle before a complalnL ls
flled, Lhen Lhe case cannoL go on.

MI1IGA1ING CIkCUMS1ANCLS IN ADUL1Lk
AdulLery ls mlLlgaLed lf Lhe adulLerous wlfe was
abandoned wlLhouL [usLlflcaLlon by hls spouse.
- 8oth the w|fe and her paramour are enLlLled Lo
Lhls mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance.
43

Sheer necesslLy, as when a woman was lefL helpless by
her husband (alLhough [usLlfled for lL was ln response
Lo a duLy) and ln such a greaL need LhaL she found
herself ln Lhe predlcamenL of commlLLlng adulLery for
Lhe sake of her chlldren, mlLlgaLes her llablllLy.
44


AkDCN 8 1nL CIILNDLD Ak1
Lxpress/ lmplled pardon bars prosecuLlon for adulLery.
Sexual lnLercourse wlLh Lhe offendlng spouse
subsequenL Lo Lhe adulLerous conducL consLlLuLes an
|mp||ed pardon.

kLUIkLMLN1S ICk AkDCN 1C 8L LIILC1IVL (Ak1. 344):
1. 1he pardon musL come before Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of Lhe
crlmlnal prosecuLlon, and
2. 8oLh offenders musL be pardoned by offended parLy.

CCNSLN1 IS A CAUSL ICk DISMISSAL CI CCMLAIN1
- rlor consenL ls as effecLlve as subsequenL consenL Lo
bar Lhe offended parLy from prosecuLlng Lhe offense.
- When consenL ls glven, wheLher expressed or lmplled,
husband can no longer lnsLlLuLe Lhe crlmlnal complalnL.

WnLN IS 1nLkL CCNSLN1?
1. When Lhe husband does noL lnLerfere wlLh hls wlfe's
adulLerous relaLlonshlp or has falled Lo asserL hls rlghLs.
2. When Lhe spouses slgn an agreemenL LhaL Lhey may geL
any maLe and llve as husband and wlfe wlLhouL any
lnLerference.

Ak1. 334. CCNCU8INAGL

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1he man must be marr|ed (even lf Lhe marrlage may be
subsequenLly declared vold),
2. 1haL he commlLLed any of Lhe followlng acLs:
a. keeplng a mlsLress ln Lhe conjuqo/ dwe//inq,
b. Pavlng sexual |ntercourse under scanda|ous
c|rcumstances wlLh a woman who ls noL hls wlfe,
c. Cohab|t|ng wlLh her ln any oLher place,
3. 1haL as regards Lhe woman, she must know h|m to be
marr|ed.





1J
leople v. Avelloo, c.A., 10 O.C., 5opp. 11, 191
11
leople v. Albetto, et ol., c.A., 17 O.C. 21J8



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 112 of 129
DLIINI1ICN CI 1LkMS
1. CCNIUGAL DWLLLING means Lhe home of Lhe husband
and wlfe even lf Lhe wlfe happens Lo be Lemporarlly
absenL on any accounL.
2. SCANDAL conslsLs ln any reprehenslble word/deed LhaL
offends publlc consclence, redounds Lo Lhe deLrlmenL
of Lhe feellngs of honesL persons, and glves occaslon Lo
Lhe nelghbors' splrlLual damage and ruln.
3. CCnA8I1 means Lo dwell LogeLher, ln Lhe manner of
husband and wlfe, for some perlod of Llme, as
dlsLlngulshed from occaslonal, LranslenL lnLervlews for
unlawful lnLercourse.
4. MIS1kLSS - lL ls necessary LhaL Lhe woman ls Laken by
Lhe accused lnLo Lhe con[ugal dwelllng as a concublne.

NC1L:
eople ln Lhe vlclnlLy are Lhe besL wlLnesses Lo prove
scandalous clrcumsLances.
AdulLery ls more severely punlshed Lhan concublnage.
unllke adulLery, concub|nage |s a cont|nu|ng cr|me.

Ak1. 33S. WnLN AND nCW kAL IS CCMMI11LD

NC1L: ArL. 33S has been repealed by 8.A. no. 83S3 (AnLl-
8ape Law of 1997).

================================================
Chapter 2: kape and Acts of Lasc|v|ousness
================================================

Ak1ICLL 336. AC1S CI LASCIVICUSNLSS

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender commlLs any act of |asc|v|ousness or
|ewdness,
2. 1haL Lhe acL of lasclvlousness ls commlLLed aga|nst a
person of e|ther sex, and
3. 1haL lL ls done under any of Lhe followlng
c|rcumstances:
a. by uslng force or |nt|m|dat|on, or
b. when Lhe offended party |s depr|ved of reason or
oLherwlse unconsc|ous, or
c. by means of fraudu|ent mach|nat|on or grave
abuse of author|ty, or
d. when Lhe offended party |s under 12 years of age
or ls demented.

LLWD - ls deflned as obscene, lusLful lndecenL or lecherous.
lL slgnlfles Lhe form of lmmorallLy whlch has relaLlon Lo
moral lmpurlLy, or LhaL whlch ls carrled on a wanLon
manner.




NC A11LM1LD Ck IkUS1kA1LD AC1S CI
LASCIVICUSNLSS
lrom Lhe sLandpolnL of law, Lhere can be no frusLraLlon of
acLs of lasclvlousness. no maLLer how far Lhe offender may
have gone Lowards Lhe reallzaLlon of hls purpose, lf hls
parLlclpaLlon amounLs Lo performlng all acLs of execuLlon,
Lhe felony ls necessarlly produced as a consequence.

AC1S CI LASCIVICUSNLSS UNIUS1 VLxA1ICN
1here ls lewd deslgn whlch
may be lnferred from Lhe
clrcumsLances surroundlng
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme
such as Lhe place, Llme,
oLher people's presence and
Lhe acLs complalned of.
1he elemenL of lewd deslgn
ls noL presenL.
e.g. Lhe alleged lasclvlous
acL was a mere lncldenL of
Lhe embrace or Lhe acL was
[usL commlLLed merely Lo
saLlsfy a sllly whlm.
AC1S CI LASCIVICUSNLSS A11LM1LD kAL
Cffender's lasclvlous acLs do
noL lndlcaLe lnLenL Lo have
sexual lnLercourse.
AcLs performed by offender
clearly lndlcaLe LhaL hls
purpose was Lo lle wlLh Lhe
offended parLy.
1he lasclvlous acLs are Lhe
flnal ob[ecLlve soughL by Lhe
offender.
1he lasclvlous acLs are buL
preparaLory acLs Lo Lhe
commlsslon of rape.
Manner of commlsslon ls Lhe same
1he performance of lasclvlous characLer ls common Lo boLh
Cffended parLy ls a person of elLher sex

AC1S CI LASCIVICUSNLSS GkAVL CCLkCICN
1he compulslon ls lncluded
ln Lhe consLrucLlve elemenL
of force.
1he compulslon ls Lhe very
acL consLlLuLlng Lhe offense
of grave coerclon.

AC1S CI LASCIVICUSNLSS A8USLS AGAINS1 CnAS1I1
(Ak1. 246)
1he offender ls, ln a ma[orlLy
of cases, a prlvaLe lndlvldual.
1he offender ls a publlc
offlcer
lL ls necessary LhaL some
acLual acL of lasclvlousness
should have been execuLed.
A mere lmmoral or lndecenL
proposal made earnesLly &
perslsLenLly ls sufflclenL.

CASLS CN AC1S CI LASCIVICUSNLSS
1. ln Lhe absence of convlnclng proof LhaL Lhe penls had
slld lnLo Lhe female organ, rape was noL commlLLed.
Where Lhe vlcLlm merely sLaLed LhaL she was carrled
around Lhe sala wlLh appellanL's penls "Louchlng" her
vaglna, lL would noL be rlghL Lo conclude LhaL Lhe acL of
Lhe penls "Louchlng" Lhe vaglna was an enLry or
peneLraLlon, even sllghLly, of Lhe labla ma[ora or Lhe
labla mlnora of Lhe pudendum. 1he appellanL ls gullLy
of acLs of lasclvlousness and noL rape.
4S


15
leople v. lolmo, C.k. No. 118869-71, uecembet 11, 200J


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 113 of 129
2. 1he appellanL's acL of dlrecLlng Analyn Lo remove her
lower apparel consLlLuLes an acL of lasclvlousness under
ArLlcle 336 of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code, and noL rape.
46


=================================================
Chapter 3: Seduct|on, Corrupt|on of M|nors and
Wh|te S|ave 1rade
================================================

SLDUC1ICN - LnLlclng a woman Lo unlawful sexual
lnLercourse by promlse of marrlage or by oLher means of
persuaslon wlLhouL Lhe use of force.

Ak1. 337. UALIIILD SLDUC1ICN

2 CLASSLS CI UALIIILD SLDUC1ICN:
1. SeducLlon of a vlrgln over 12 and under 18 years of age
by cerLaln persons, such as a person ln auLhorlLy, prlesL,
Leacher, eLc., and
2. SeducLlon of a slsLer by her broLher, or seducLlon of a
descendanL by her ascendanL, regardless of her age or
repuLaLlon. (lncesLuous SeducLlon)

LLLMLN1S CI u4Llllu 5uuc1lON Ol 4 vlk6lN:
1. 1haL Lhe offended parLy ls a vlrgln, whlch ls presumed lf
she ls unmarrled and of good repuLaLlon,
2. 1haL she musL be over 12 and under 18 years of age,
3. 1haL Lhe offender has sexual lnLercourse wlLh her, and
4. 1haL Lhere ls abuse of auLhorlLy, confldence or
relaLlonshlp on Lhe parL of Lhe offender (person
enLrusLed wlLh educaLlon or cusLody of vlcLlm, person
ln publlc auLhorlLy, prlesL, servanL).

LkSCNS LIA8LL:

A8USLD
AU1nCkI1
A8USLD
CCNIIDLNCL
A8USLD
kLLA1ICNSnI
1. ubllc auLhorlLy
2. Cuardlan
3. 1eacher
4. erson who ln
any capaclLy ls
enLrusLed wlLh
Lhe educaLlon
or cusLody of
Lhe woman
seduced.
1. rlesL
2. Pouse servanL
3. uomesLlc
(erson llvlng
ln Lhe same
roof, may be
Lemporary or
permanenL, as
long as ln Lhe
same house.)
1. 8roLher who
seduced hls slsLer.
2. AscendanL who
seduced hls
descendanL.

1helr relaLlonshlp
musL be by
consangulnlLy buL
need noL be
leglLlmaLe.
nC1L:
enalLy for quallfled seducLlon of a slsLer or descendanL
ls hlgher Lhan quallfled seducLlon of a vlrgln.

16
leople v. Apoloo, C.k. No. 1J9181, Octobet 27, 200J
uecelL ls noL an elemenL of quallfled seducLlon buL lL ls
an elemenL of slmple seducLlon.
ln Abuse of Confldence, acLs are punlshed because of
Lhe characLer of Lhe person commlLLlng Lhe same, and
excess of power or abuse of confldence.
A vlrgln ls a vlrLuous woman of good repuLaLlon.
- 1he offended parLy need noL be vlrgln ln Lhe case
of lncesLuous seducLlon.
Accused charged wlLh rape cannoL be convlcLed of
quallfled seducLlon under Lhe same lnformaLlon.
- lf any of Lhe clrcumsLances ln Lhe crlme of rape ls
presenL, Lhen crlme ls noL Lo be punlshed under
Lhls arLlcle.
lf no sexual lnLercourse, Lhe crlme would only be acLs of
lasclvlousness.

Ak1. 338. SIMLL SLDUC1ICN

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offended parLy ls over 12 & under 18 y/o,
2. 1haL she musL be of good repuLaLlon, slngle or wldow,
3. 1haL Lhe offender has sexual lnLercourse wlLh her, and
4. 1haL lL ls commlLLed by means of decelL.


NC1LS:
vlrglnlLy of Lhe vlcLlm ls noL requlred.
uecelL generally Lakes Lhe form of an unfulfllled
promlse Lo marry.
1here ls no conLlnulng offense of seducLlon.
lf Lhere ls no sexual lnLercourse, Lhe crlme commlLLed ls
only acLs of lasclvlousness.
1he man may be wllllng and ready Lo marry Lhe glrl buL
slmple seducLlon ls sLlll commlLLed when Lhe man
knows LhaL Lhe offended parLy cannoL legally consenL
Lo marrlage because of her mlnorlLy.

1nL ICLLCWING DC NC1 CCNS1I1U1L DLCLI1:
romlse of maLerlal Lhlngs.
romlse of marrlage by a marrled man, whom Lhe
vlcLlm knew Lo be marrled.
romlse of marrlage afLer sexual lnLercourse.

Ak1. 339. AC1S CI LASCIVICUSNLSS WI1n 1nL CCNSLN1
CI 1nL CIILNDLD Ak1

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offender commlLs acLs of lasclvlousness or
lewdness,
2. 1haL Lhe acLs are commlLLed upon a woman who ls a
vlrgln or slngle or a wldow of good repuLaLlon, under 18
years of age buL over 12 years, or a slsLer or descendanL
regardless of her repuLaLlon or age.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 114 of 129
3. 1haL Lhe offender accompllshes Lhe acLs by abuse of
auLhorlLy, confldence, relaLlonshlp, or decelL.

NC1LS:
A male cannoL be Lhe offended parLy.
lL ls necessary LhaL Lhe crlme be commlLLed under
clrcumsLances whlch would make lL quallfled or slmple
seducLlon had Lhere been sexual lnLercourse.
ConsenL ls obLalned by abuse of auLhorlLy, confldence,
or relaLlonshlp, or by means of decelL.

AC1S CI LASCIVICUSNLSS
WI1n CCNSLN1 CI
CIILNDLD Ak1
(Ak1. 339)
AC1S CI
LASCIVICUSNLSS
(Ak1. 336)
AcLs are commlLLed under
clrcumsLances whlch, had Lhere
been carnal knowledge, would
amounL Lo elLher quallfled or
slmple seducLlon.

*1here may be consenL, buL
Lhere ls abuse of auLhorlLy,
relaLlonshlp, confldence, or
decelL.
AcLs are commlLLed
under clrcumsLances
whlch, had Lhere been
carnal knowledge, would
amounL Lo rape.


Ak1. 340. CCkkU1ICN CI MINCkS

NC1LS:
1he acL punlshable ls Lhe promoLlon or faclllLaLlng Lhe
prosLlLuLlon or corrupLlon of persons under age (under
18) Lo saLlsfy Lhe lusL of anoLher.
A mere proposal wlll consummaLe Lhe offense. lL ls noL
necessary LhaL Lhe unchasLe acLs shall have been done
Lo Lhe mlnor.
vlcLlm musL be of good repuLaLlon, noL a prosLlLuLe or a
corrupLed person.

k.A. 7610 UNISnLS CnILD kCS1I1U1ICN CCMMI11LD
8:
1. 1hose who engage ln or promoLe, faclllLaLe or lnduce
chlld prosLlLuLlon whlch lnclude Lhe followlng:
a. AcLlng as a procurer of a chlld prosLlLuLe,
b. lnduclng a person Lo be a cllenL of a chlld
prosLlLuLe by means of wrlLLen or oral
adverLlsemenLs or oLher slmllar means,
c. 1aklng advanLage of lnfluence or relaLlonshlp Lo
procure a chlld as a prosLlLuLe,
d. 1hreaLenlng or uslng vlolence Lowards a chlld Lo
engage hlm as a prosLlLuLe,
e. Clvlng moneLary conslderaLlon, goods or oLher
pecunlary beneflL Lo a chlld wlLh Lhe lnLenL Lo
engage such chlld ln prosLlLuLlon.
2. 1hose who commlL Lhe acL of sexual lnLercourse or
lasclvlous conducL wlLh a chlld explolLed ln prosLlLuLlon
or sub[ecLed Lo oLher sexual abuse,
3. 1hose who derlve proflL or advanLage Lherefrom.
- eg. manager/owner of Lhe esLabllshmenL where
chlld prosLlLuLlon Lakes place,
4. Any person, noL belng a relaLlve of Lhe chlld, ls found
alone wlLh Lhe sald chlld ln a hldden or secluded area
under clrcumsLances whlch lead a reasonable person Lo
belleve LhaL Lhe chlld ls abouL Lo be explolLed ln
prosLlLuLlon and oLher sexual abuse, and
S. Any person who recelves servlces from a chlld ln a
sauna parlor or baLh, massage cllnlc, healLh club, and
oLher slmllar esLabllshmenLs.

CnILD 1kAIIICkING - lL ls Lhe acL of buylng and selllng a
chlld for money, or for any oLher conslderaLlon, or barLer.

Ak1. 341. WnI1L SLAVL 1kADL

AC1S LNALI2LD:
1. Lngaglng ln Lhe buslness of prosLlLuLlon,
2. roflLlng by prosLlLuLlon, and
3. LnllsLlng Lhe servlce of women for Lhe purpose of
prosLlLuLlon.

NC1L:
Cne of Lhose above-menLloned acLs ls sufflclenL Lo
consLlLuLe Lhe offense
PablLuallLy ls noL a necessary elemenL of Lhls crlme.
Cffender need noL be owner of house and need noL be
presenL aL Llme of rald, lL sufflces LhaL he malnLalns or
engages ln buslness
under any preLexL" - lf Lhe real purpose ls
prosLlLuLlon, lL does noL maLLer lf one engages Lhe
servlces of a woman osLenslbly as mald, for example.

==========================================
Chapter 4: Abduct|on
================================================

A8DUC1ICN - 1he Laklng away of a woman from her house
or Lhe place where she may be for Lhe purpose of carrylng
her Lo anoLher place, wlLh Lhe lnLenL Lo marry or Lo corrupL
her.

Ak1. 342. ICkCI8LL A8DUC1ICN

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe person abducLed ls any woman, regardless of
her age, clvll sLaLus, or repuLaLlon,
2. 1haL Lhe abducLlon ls agalnsL her wlll, and
3. 1haL Lhe abducLlon ls wlLh lewd deslgns.



CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 11S of 129
nC1LS:
lf chlld ls under 12 years, Lhe crlme ls forclble abducLlon
even lf she volunLarlly goes wlLh her abducLor.
1aklng away musL be agalnsL Lhe wlll of Lhe woman.
1hls may be accompllshed by means of decelL flrsL and
Lhen by means of vlolence and lnLlmldaLlon.
AcLual lnLercourse ls noL necessary. Lewd deslgns may
be shown by conducL of Lhe accused. lnLenL Lo seduce
Lhe glrl ls sufflclenL. Lewd deslgn ls presenL ln a hurrled
marrlage ceremony by force where Lhe marrlage ls
merely an arLlflce by whlch Lhe accused soughL Lo
escape Lhe crlmlnal consequences of hls acLs.
1he husband may noL be held llable for Lhe abducLlon
of hls wlfe as lewd deslgn ls wanLlng.
lf Lhere are several defendanLs, lL ls enough LhaL one of
Lhem had lewd deslgns and Lhe oLhers knew abouL lL.
naLure of crlme: agalnsL llberLy, honor and repuLaLlon,
and publlc order.
1here musL be only one complex crlme of forclble
abducLlon wlLh rape. SubsequenL rapes commlLLed
should be consldered lndependenL of Lhe abducLlon.
ConvlcLlon of AcLs of Lasclvlousness ls noL a bar Lo
convlcLlon of forclble abducLlon.

ICkCI8LL A8DUC1ICN V. GkAVL CCLkCICN V.
kIDNAING
1. resence of lewd deslgn makes lL forclble abducLlon.
2. When Lhere ls no lewd deslgn, lL ls coerclon, provlded
LhaL Lhere ls no deprlvaLlon of llberLy.
3. 1he crlme ls kldnapplng and serlous lllegal deLenLlon lf
Lhere was deprlvaLlon of llberLy wlLh no lewd deslgn.
4. lf Lhere was vlolenL Laklng of Lhe woman moLlvaLed by
lewd deslgn and Lhe vlcLlm was raped, Lhe crlme
commlLLed ls forclble abducLlon wlLh rape lnsLead of
kldnapplng wlLh rape. ALLempL Lo rape ls absorbed ln
Lhe crlme of forclble abducLlon.

ICkCI8LL A8DUC1ICN V. CCkkU1ICN CI MINCkS
1. lf Lhe mlnor was abducLed by Lhe accused wlLh lewd
deslgn on hls parL, he ls llable for forclble abducLlon.
2. lf Lhe purpose of abducLlon ls Lo lend her Lo llllclL
lnLercourse wlLh oLhers, Lhe crlme ls corrupLlon of
mlnors.

ICkCI8LL A8DUC1ICN V. kAL
1. lf Lhere was abducLlon buL Lhe reslsLance of Lhe woman
Lo Lhe alleged rape was noL Lenaclous, Lhe accused
would be gullLy only of abducLlon.
2. 8ape may absorb forclble abducLlon lf Lhe maln
ob[ecLlve was Lo rape Lhe vlcLlm.

CASL CN ICkCI8LL A8DUC1ICN
1. 1he CourL has prevlously ruled LhaL lf Lhe vlcLlm's
consenL was obLalned Lhrough decelL and Lhere was
Lherefore no valld consenL, Lhe crlme ls forclble
abducLlon, as Lhe decelL may be consldered as
consLrucLlve force. 1he second elemenL, lewd deslgn,
was esLabllshed by Lhe acLual rapes.
47


AGL AND kLU1A1ICN CI 1nL VIC1IM IS NC1 NLCLSSAk
IN:
1. 8ape
2. AcLs of lasclvlousness agalnsL Lhe wlll or wlLhouL Lhe
consenL of Lhe offended parLy
3. Cuallfled seducLlon of slsLer or descendanL
4. lorclble AbducLlon

Ak1. 343. CCNSLN1LD A8DUC1ICN

LLLMLN1S:
1. 1haL Lhe offended parLy musL be a v|rg|n (not
necessar||y |n a mater|a| sense, |nc|udes v|rtuous
woman of good reputat|on),
2. 1haL she musL be over 12 and under 18 years of age,
3. 1haL Lhe Laklng away of Lhe offended parLy musL be
w|th her consent, after so||c|tat|on or ca[o|ery from Lhe
offender, and
4. 1haL Lhe Laklng away of Lhe offended parLy musL be
w|th |ewd des|gns.

NC1L:
lf Lhe vlrgln ls under 12 years of age, Lhe crlme
commlLLed ls forclble abducLlon, even lf Lhe glrl
consenLed Lo Lhe elopemenL.
1he abducLlon of Lhe vlcLlm need noL be wlLh some
characLer of permanence.
vlcLlm need noL be Laken from her house. lL ls sufflclenL
LhaL Lhe abducLor was lnsLrumenLal Lo her escape.
kequ|res so||c|tat|on or ca[o|ery.
1here can be consenLed abducLlon wlLh rape

================================================
Chapter S: rov|s|ons re|at|ve to the preced|ng
chapter of 1|t|e L|even
================================================

Ak1. 344. kCSLCU1ICN CI ADUL1Lk, CCNCU8INAGL,
SLDUC1ICN, A8DUC1ICN, AND AC1S CI LASCIVICUSNLSS
1. AdulLery and concublnage musL be prosecuLed upon
comp|a|nt s|gned by the offended spouse.
2. SeducLlon, abducLlon, or acLs of lasclvlousness musL be
prosecuLed upon complalnL slgned by:
a. offended parLy,
b. by her parenLs,
c. grandparenLs, or

17
leople v. cotoooq, C.k. No. 118121-27, uecembet 11, 200J


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 116 of 129
d. legal guardlans
* ln Lhe order ln whlch Lhey are named above.

LIILC1 CI MAkkIAGL
GLNLkAL kULL: Marrlage ln good falLh of Lhe offender
wlLh Lhe offended parLy exLlngulshes Lhe crlmlnal
acLlon or remlLs Lhe penalLy already lmposed upon hlm.
1hls applles as well Lo accompllces and accessorles-
afLer-Lhe-facL.
LxCL1ICN: ln case of rape, marrlage exLlngulshes Lhe
crlmlnal acLlon only agalnsL Lhe prlnclpal buL noL Lo Lhe
accompllces and accessorles. 1hls rule also does noL
apply Lo parLles gullLy of concublnage and adulLery.

NC1L:
8ape ls now a crlme agalnsL persons, and Lhus, may be
prosecuLed de oflclo or upon complalnL of any person.
ln adulLery and concublnage, boLh offenders musL be
lncluded ln Lhe complalnL, even lf only one ls gullLy.
When Lhe offended parLy ls of age and ls ln compleLe
possesslon of her menLal and physlcal faculLles, she
alone can flle Lhe complalnL (applles Lo crlmes agalnsL
chasLlLy). ComplalnL musL be flled ln courL and noL ln
Lhe flscal.

AkDCN IN CkIMLS AGAINS1 CnAS1I1
Lxpress or |mp||ed pardon by Lhe offended parLy ls a
bar Lo prosecut|on for adu|tery or concub|nage.
Powever, pardon musL exLend Lo boLh offenders and
musL come before Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of Lhe crlmlnal acLlon.
Lxpress pardon by Lhe offended parLy or oLher persons
named ln Lhe law, as Lhe case may be, ls a bar Lo
prosecut|on for seduct|on, abduct|on, rape or acts of
|asc|v|ousness. ardon ln seducLlon musL also come
before Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of crlmlnal acLlon.

AkDCN 8 AkLN1S, GkANDAkLN1S Ck GUAkDIAN
MUS1 8L ACCCMANILD 8 1nL LxkLSS AkDCN CI 1nL
GIkL nLkSLLI
- ardon musL be granLed dlrecLly by Lhe offended parLy
and lL ls only when she ls dead or oLherwlse
lncapaclLaLed Lo granL lL, LhaL her parenLs, grandparenLs
or guardlan may do so for her.
48


Ak1. 34S. CIVIL LIA8ILI1 CI LkSCNS GUIL1 CI CkIMLS
AGAINS1 CnAS1I1.

LkSCN GUIL1 CI kAL, SLDUC1ICN Ck A8DUC1ICN,
SnALL ALSC 8L SLN1LNCLD:
1. 1o lndemnlfy Lhe offended woman.
2. 1o acknowledge Lhe offsprlng, unless Lhe law should
prevenL hlm from so dolng.

18
u.5. v. looo, 1 lbll. J60
3. ln every case Lo supporL Lhe offsprlng.

NC1LS:
1he adu|terer and concub|ne ln Lhe case provlded for ln
ArLlcles 333 and 334 may also be senLenced, ln Lhe
same proceedlng or ln a separaLe clvll proceedlng, Lo
lndemnlfy for damages caused Lo Lhe offended spouse.
1here ls no clvll llablllLy for AcLs of Lasclvlousness.
Moral damages may be awarded Lo Lhe offended parLy,
and her parenLs, for seducLlon, abducLlon, rape, oLher
lasclvlous acLs (ArL. 2219 Clvll Code).
ln mulLlple rapes by mulLlple offenders, all of Lhem
musL supporL offsprlng. no one may be made Lo
acknowledge hls offsprlng.
1he offender ln a rape case who ls marrled ls no longer
prohlblLed from acknowledglng hls offsprlng because
slnce Lhe chlld ls llleglLlmaLe, Lhe lamlly Code
auLomaLlcally confers parenLal auLhorlLy Lo Lhe moLher.
Pe can only be senLenced Lo lndemnlfy Lhe vlcLlm and
supporL hls offsprlng. AmounL and Lerms of supporL
should be deLermlned only afLer due noLlce & hearlng.
Cnly lndemnlLy ls allowed ln rape of a marrled woman.
1he defendanL cannoL be senLenced Lo acknowledge
and supporL Lhe offsprlng.

Ak1. 346. LIA8ILI1 CI ASCLNDAN1S, GUAkDIANS,
1LACnLkS, Ck C1nLk LkSCNS LN1kUS1LD WI1n
CUS1CD CI CIILNDLD Ak1

LkSCNS WnC CCCLkA1L AS ACCCMLICLS 8U1 AkL
UNISnLD AS kINCIALS IN kAL, SLDUC1ICN,
A8DUC1ICN, L1C:
1. AscendanLs,
2. Cuardlans,
3. CuraLors,
4. 1eachers, and
S. Any oLher person, who cooperaLes as accompllce wlLh
abuse of auLhorlLy or confldenLlal relaLlonshlp.

C1nLk INS1ANCL WnLN ACCCMLICL IS UNISnLD AS
kINCIAL:
SllghL lllegal deLenLlon


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 117 of 129
k.A. 999S
AN1I-nC1C AND VIDLC VCLUkISM AC1 2009

DLIINI1ICN CI 1LkMS (Sec. 3)
1. 8kCADCAS1 - Lo make publlc, by any means, a vlsual
lmage wlLh Lhe lnLenL LhaL lL be vlewed by a person or
persons.
2. CA1UkL WI1n kLSLC1 1C AN IMAGL - means Lo
vldeoLape, phoLograph, fllm, record by any means, or
broadcasL.
3. ILMALL 8kLAS1 - means any porLlon of Lhe female
breasL.
4. nC1C Ck VIDLC VCLUkISM - means Lhe act of
Laklng phoLo or v|deo coverage of a person or group of
persons performlng sexual act or any slmllar acLlvlLy or
of capLurlng an lmage of Lhe prlvaLe area of a person or
persons wlLhouL Lhe laLLer's consenL, under
clrcumsLances ln whlch such person/s has/have a
reasonable expecLaLlon of prlvacy, or Lhe act of selllng,
copylng, reproduclng, broadcasLlng, sharlng, showlng or
exhlblLlng Lhe phoLo or v|deo coverage or recordlngs of
such sexual act or slmllar acLlvlLy Lhrough vCu/uvu,
lnLerneL, cellular phones and slmllar means or devlce
wlLhouL Lhe wrlLLen consenL of Lhe person/s lnvolved,
noLwlLhsLandlng LhaL consenL Lo record or Lake phoLo
or v|deo coverage of same was glven by such persons.
S. kIVA1L AkLA CI A LkSCN - means Lhe naked or
undergarmenL clad genlLals, publlc area, buLLocks or
female breasL of an lndlvldual.
6. UNDLk CIkCUMS1ANCLS IN WnICn A LkSCN nAS A
kLASCNA8LL LxLC1A1ICN CI kIVAC - means bellef
LhaL he/she could dlsrobe ln prlvacy, wlLhouL belng
concerned LhaL an lmage or a prlvaLe area of Lhe person
was belng capLured, or clrcumsLances ln whlch a
reasonable person would belleve LhaL a prlvaLe area of
Lhe person would noL be vlslble Lo Lhe publlc,
regardless of wheLher LhaL person ls ln a publlc or
prlvaLe place.

kCnI8I1LD AC1S (Sec. 4)
1. 1o Lake phoLo or vldeo coverage of a person or group of
persons performlng sexual acL or any slmllar acLlvlLy or
Lo capLure an lmage of Lhe prlvaLe area of a person/s
such as Lhe naked or undergarmenL clad genlLals, publlc
area, buLLocks or female breasL wlLhouL Lhe consenL of
Lhe person/s lnvolved and under clrcumsLances ln
whlch Lhe person/s has/have a reasonable expecLaLlon
of prlvacy,
2. 1o copy or reproduce, or Lo cause Lo be copled or
reproduced, such phoLo or v|deo or recordlng of sexual
act or any slmllar acLlvlLy wlLh or wlLhouL conslderaLlon,
3. 1o sell or dlsLrlbuLe, or cause Lo be sold or dlsLrlbuLed,
such phoLo or v|deo or recordlng of sexual act, wheLher
lL be Lhe orlglnal copy or reproducLlon Lhereof, or
4. 1o publlsh or broadcasL, or cause Lo be publlshed or
broadcasL, wheLher ln prlnL or broadcasL medla, or
show or exhlblL Lhe phoLo or v|deo coverage or
recordlngs of such sexual act or any slmllar acLlvlLy
Lhrough vCu/uvu, lnLerneL, cellular phones and oLher
slmllar means or devlce.

NC1L:
1he prohlblLlon under paragraphs (2), (3) and (4) shall
apply noLwlLhsLandlng LhaL consenL Lo record or Lo Lake
a phoLo or vldeo coverage of Lhe same was glven by
such person/s. Any person who vlolaLes Lhese provlslon
shall be llable for phoLo or vldeo voyeurlsm as deflned
hereln.

LxLM1ICNS (Sec. 6)
- noLhlng conLalned ln Lhls Act, however, shall render lL
unlawful or punlshable for any peace offlcer, who ls
auLhorlzed by a wrlLLen order of Lhe courL, Lo use Lhe
record or any copy Lhereof as evldence ln any clvll,
crlmlnal lnvesLlgaLlon or Lrlal of Lhe crlme of phoLo or
v|deo voyeur|sm: rovlded, 1haL such wrlLLen order
shall only be lssued or granLed upon wrlLLen appllcaLlon
and Lhe examlnaLlon under oaLh or afflrmaLlon of Lhe
appllcanL and Lhe wlLnesses he/she may produce, and
upon showlng LhaL Lhere are reasonable grounds Lo
belleve LhaL phoLo or v|deo voyeur|sm has been
commlLLed or ls abouL Lo be commlLLed, and LhaL Lhe
evldence Lo be obLalned ls essenLlal Lo Lhe convlcLlon of
any person for, or Lo Lhe soluLlon or prevenLlon of such,
crlme.

INADMISSI8ILI1 CI LVIDLNCL (Sec. 7)
- Any record, phoLo or v|deo, or copy Lhereof, obLalned
or secured by any person ln vlolaLlon of Lhe precedlng
secLlons shall noL be admlsslble ln evldence ln any
[udlclal, quasl-[udlclal, leglslaLlve or admlnlsLraLlve
hearlng or lnvesLlgaLlon.

SLCIAL kC1LC1ICN CI CnILDkLN AGAINS1 CnILD
A8USL, LxLCI1A1ICN AND DISCkIMINA1ICN AC1 (k.A.
7610, AS AMLNDLD)

CnILD kCS1I1U1ICN AND C1nLk AC1S CI A8USL

UNISnA8LL AC1S
1. CnILD kCS1I1U1ICN AND C1nLk SLxUAL A8USL
(Sec. S)
WnC AkL LIA8LL:
a. 1hose who engage ln or promoLe, faclllLaLe or
lnduce chlld prosLlLuLlon whlch lnclude, buL are noL
llmlLed Lo, Lhe followlng:
l. AcLlng as a procurer of a chlld prosLlLuLe,
ll. lnduclng a person Lo be a cllenL of a chlld
prosLlLuLe by means of wrlLLen or oral


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 118 of 129
adverLlsemenLs or oLher slmllar means,
lll. 1aklng advanLage of lnfluence or relaLlonshlp
Lo procure a chlld as prosLlLuLe,
lv. 1hreaLenlng or uslng vlolence Lowards a chlld
Lo engage hlm as a prosLlLuLe, or
v. Clvlng moneLary conslderaLlon goods or oLher
pecunlary beneflL Lo a chlld wlLh lnLenL Lo
engage such chlld ln prosLlLuLlon.
b. 1hose who commlL Lhe acL of sexual lnLercourse or
lasclvlous conducL wlLh a chlld explolLed ln
prosLlLuLlon or sub[ecL Lo oLher sexual abuse,
rov|ded, 1hat when the v|ct|ms |s under 12 years
of age, the perpetrators sha|| be prosecuted
under Art. 33S, paragraph 3, for rape and Art. 336
of Act No. 381S, as amended, the kC, for rape or
|asc|v|ous conduct, as the case may be: rov|ded,
1hat the pena|ty for |asc|v|ous conduct when the
v|ct|m |s under 12 years of age sha|| be rec|us|on
tempora| |n |ts med|um per|od, and
c. 1hose who derlve proflL or advanLage Lherefrom,
wheLher as manager or owner of Lhe
esLabllshmenL where Lhe prosLlLuLlon Lakes place,
or of Lhe sauna, dlsco, bar, resorL, place of
enLerLalnmenL or esLabllshmenL servlng as a cover
or whlch engages ln prosLlLuLlon ln addlLlon Lo Lhe
acLlvlLy for whlch Lhe llcense has been lssued Lo
sald esLabllshmenL.

2. A11LM1 1C CCMMI1 CnILD kCS1I1U1ICN (Sec. 6)
a. 1here ls an aLLempL Lo commlL chlld prosLlLuLlon
under SecLlon S, paragraph (a) hereof when any
person who, noL belng a relaLlve of a chlld, ls found
alone wlLh Lhe sald chlld lnslde Lhe room or cublcle
of a house, an lnn, hoLel, moLel, penslon house,
aparLelle or oLher slmllar esLabllshmenLs, vessel,
vehlcle or any oLher hldden or secluded area under
clrcumsLances whlch would lead a reasonable
person Lo belleve LhaL Lhe chlld ls abouL Lo be
explolLed ln prosLlLuLlon and oLher sexual abuse.
b. 1here ls also an aLLempL Lo commlL chlld
prosLlLuLlon, under paragraph (b) of SecLlon S
hereof when any person ls recelvlng servlces from
a chlld ln a sauna parlor or baLh, massage cllnlc,
healLh club and oLher slmllar esLabllshmenLs.

3. CnILD 1kAIIICkING (Sec. 7)
Any person who shall engage ln Lradlng and deallng
wlLh chlldren lncludlng, buL noL llmlLed Lo, Lhe acL of
buylng and selllng of a chlld for money, or for any oLher
conslderaLlon, or barLer.

4. A11LM1 1C CCMMI1 CnILD 1kAIIICkING (Sec. 8)
1nLkL IS AN A11LM1 1C CCMMI1 CnILD
1kAIIICkING UNDLk SLC1ICN 7 CI 1nIS AC1:
a. When a chlld Lravels alone Lo a forelgn counLry
wlLhouL valld reason Lherefor and wlLhouL
clearance lssued by Lhe ueparLmenL of Soclal
Welfare and uevelopmenL or wrlLLen permlL or
[usLlflcaLlon from Lhe chlld's parenLs or legal
guardlan,
b. When a person, agency, esLabllshmenL or chlld-
carlng lnsLlLuLlon recrulLs women or couples Lo
bear chlldren for Lhe purpose of chlld Lrafflcklng,
c. When a docLor, hosplLal or cllnlc offlclal or
employee, nurse, mldwlfe, local clvll reglsLrar or
any oLher person slmulaLes blrLh for Lhe purpose
of chlld Lrafflcklng, or
d. When a person engages ln Lhe acL of flndlng
chlldren among low-lncome famllles, hosplLals,
cllnlcs, nurserles, day-care cenLers, or oLher chlld-
durlng lnsLlLuLlons who can be offered for Lhe
purpose of chlld Lrafflcklng.

CCMAkL kCSLCU1ICN ICk AC1S CI LASCIVICUSNLSS
UNDLk Ak1. 336 CI 1nL kC AND kA 7610, AS AMLNDLD
- under 8A 7610, Lhe penalLy for lasclvlous conducL
when Lhe vlcLlm ls under 12 years of age shall be
recluslon Lemporal ln lLs medlum perlod. Cn Lhe oLher
hand, ArL. 336 of Lhe 8C provldes a llghLer penalLy of
prlslon correcLlonal for acLs of lasclvlousness.

S. C8SCLNL U8LICA1ICNS AND INDLCLN1 SnCWS
Any person who shall hlre, employ, use, persuade,
lnduce or coerce a chlld Lo perform ln obscene
exhlblLlons and lndecenL shows, wheLher llve or ln
vldeo, or model ln obscene publlcaLlons or
pornographlc maLerlals or Lo sell or dlsLrlbuLe Lhe sald
maLerlals.

6. C1nLk AC1S CI NLGLLC1, A8USL, CkULL1 Ck
LxLCI1A1ICN AND C1nLk CCNDI1ICNS kLIUDICIAL
1C 1nL CnILD'S DLVLLCMLN1:
a. Any person who shall commlL any oLher acLs of
chlld abuse, cruelLy or explolLaLlon or Lo be
responslble for oLher condlLlons pre[udlclal Lo Lhe
chlld's developmenL lncludlng Lhose covered by
ArLlcle S9 of resldenLlal uecree no. 603, as
amended, buL noL covered by Lhe 8evlsed enal
Code, as amended.
b. Any person who shall keep or have ln hls company
a mlnor, 12 years or under or who ln 10 years or
more hls [unlor ln any publlc or prlvaLe place,
hoLel, moLel, beer [olnL, dlscoLheque, cabareL,
penslon house, sauna or massage parlor, beach
and/or oLher LourlsL resorL or slmllar places.
rovlded, 1haL Lhls provlslon shall noL apply Lo any
person who ls relaLed wlLhln Lhe fourLh degree of
consangulnlLy or afflnlLy or any bond recognlzed by
law, local cusLom and LradlLlon or acLs ln Lhe
performance of a soclal, moral or legal duLy.


CkIMINAL LAW kLVILWLk age 119 of 129
c. Any person who shall lnduce, dellver or offer a
mlnor Lo any one prohlblLed by Lhls AcL Lo keep or
have ln hls company a mlnor as provlded ln Lhe
precedlng paragraph.
d. Any person, owner, manager or one enLrusLed
wlLh Lhe operaLlon of any publlc or prlvaLe place of
accommodaLlon, wheLher for occupancy, food,
drlnk or oLherwlse, lncludlng resldenLlal places,
who allows any person Lo Lake along wlLh hlm Lo
such place or places any mlnor hereln descrlbed.
e. Any person who shall use, coerce, force or
lnLlmldaLe a sLreeL chlld or any oLher chlld Lo:
l. 8eg or use begglng as a means of llvlng,
ll. AcL as condulL or mlddlemen ln drug
Lrafflcklng or pushlng, or
lll. ConducL any lllegal acLlvlLles.

IUkISkUDLNCL
1. 1he lmplemenLlng rules elaboraLed on Lhls deflnlLlon
when lL deflned a ch||d" as one who |s be|ow 18 years
of age or over sa|d age who, upon evo/uotion of o
quo/ified physicion, psycho/oqist or psychiotrist, |s
found to be |ncapab|e of tak|ng care of herse|f fu||y
because of a phys|ca| or menta| d|sab|||ty or cond|t|on
or of proLecLlng herself from abuse.
49


2. under SecLlon S(b), ArLlcle lll of 8.A. 7610 ln relaLlon Lo
8.A. 83S3, lf Lhe vlcLlm of sexual abuse ls below 12 years of
age, Lhe offender should noL be prose