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Boiler feed water

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A boiler is a device for generating steam, which consists of two principal parts: the furnace, which provides heat, usually by burning a
fuel, and the boiler proper, a device in which the heat changes water into steam. The steam or hot fluid is then recirculated out of the
boiler for use in various processes in heating applications.
The water circuit of a water boiler can be summarized by the following pictures:
The boiler receives the feed water, which consists of
varying proportion of recovered condensed water
(return water) and fresh water, which has been
purified in varying degrees (make up water). The
make-up water is usually natural water either in its
raw state, or treated by some process before use.
eed-water composition therefore depends on the
!uality of the make-up water and the amount of
condensate returned to the boiler. The steam, which
escapes from the boiler, fre!uently contains li!uid
droplets and gases. The water remaining in li!uid
form at the bottom of the boiler picks up all the
foreign matter from the water that was converted to
steam. The impurities must be blown down by the
discharge of some of the water from the boiler to the
drains. The permissible percentage of blown down at
a plant is strictly limited by running costs and initial
outlay. The tendency is to reduce this percentage to
a very small figure.
Proper treatment of boiler feed water is an important part of operating and maintaining a boiler system. As steam is produced, dissolved
solids become concentrated and form deposits inside the boiler. This leads to poor heat transfer and reduces the efficiency of the boiler.
Dissolved gasses such as oxygen and carbon dioxide will react with the metals in the boiler system and lead to boiler corrosion. In
order to protect the boiler from these contaminants, they should be controlled or removed, trough external or internal treatment. or
more information chec! the boiler water treatment web page.
"n the following table you can find a list of the common boiler feed water contaminants, their effect and
their possible treatment.
ind extra information about the characteristics of boiler feed water.
IMPURITY RESULTING IN GOT RID OF BY COMMENTS
Soluble Gasses
Hyro!en Su"#h$e %H&S'
(ater s)e""s "$*e rotten
e!!s: Tastes +a, an $s
corros$-e to )ost )eta"s.
/erat$on, F$"trat$on, an
Ch"or$nat$on.
Foun )a$n"y $n
!roun0ater, an #o""ute
strea)s.
Car+on D$o1$e %CO&'
Corros$-e, 2or)s car+on$c
ac$ $n conensate.
Deaerat$on, neutra"$3at$on
0$th a"*a"$s.
F$")$n!, neutra"$3$n! a)$nes
use to #re-ent conensate
"$ne corros$on.
O1y!en %O&'
Corros$on an #$tt$n! o2
+o$"er tu+es.
Deaerat$on 4 che)$ca"
treat)ent 0$th %So$u)
Su"#h$te or Hyra3$ne'
P$tt$n! o2 +o$"er tu+es, an
tur+$ne +"aes, 2a$"ure o2
stea) "$nes, an 2$tt$n!s etc.
Suspended Solids
Se$)ent 4 Tur+$$ty S"u!e an sca"e carryo-er. C"ar$2$cat$on an 2$"trat$on.
To"erance o2 a##ro1. 5##)
)a1. 2or )ost a##"$cat$ons,
67##) 2or #ota+"e 0ater.
Or!an$c Matter Carryo-er, 2oa)$n!, e#os$ts
can c"o! #$#$n!, an cause
corros$on.
C"ar$2$cat$on8 2$"trat$on, an
che)$ca" treat)ent
Foun )ost"y $n sur2ace
0aters, cause +y rott$n!
-e!etat$on, an 2ar) run
o22s. Or!an$cs +rea* o0n to
2or) or!an$c ac$s. Resu"ts
$n "o0 o2 +o$"er 2ee90ater
#H, 0h$ch then attac*s +o$"er
tu+es. Inc"ues $ato)s,
)o"s, +acter$a" s"$)es,
$ron:)an!anese +acter$a.
Sus#ene #art$c"es co""ect
on the sur2ace o2 the 0ater
$n the +o$"er an rener
$22$cu"t the "$+erat$on o2
stea) +u++"es r$s$n! to that
sur2ace.. Foa)$n! can a"so
+e attr$+ute to 0aters
conta$n$n! car+onates $n
so"ut$on $n 0h$ch a "$!ht
2"occu"ent #rec$#$tate 0$"" +e
2or)e on the sur2ace o2 the
0ater. It $s usua""y trace to
an e1cess o2 so$u)
car+onate use $n treat)ent
2or so)e other $22$cu"ty
0here an$)a" or -e!eta+"e
o$" 2$ns $ts 0ay $nto the
+o$"er.
Dissolved Colloidal Solids
O$" 4 Grease Foa)$n!, e#os$ts $n +o$"er Coa!u"at$on 4 2$"trat$on
Enters +o$"er 0$th
conensate
Hardness, Ca"c$u) %Ca',
an Ma!nes$u) %M!'
Sca"e e#os$ts $n +o$"er,
$nh$+$ts heat trans2er, an
ther)a" e22$c$ency. In se-ere
cases can "ea to +o$"er tu+e
+urn thru, an 2a$"ure.
So2ten$n!, #"us $nterna"
treat)ent $n +o$"er.
For)s are +$car+onates,
su"#hates, ch"or$es, an
n$trates, $n that orer. So)e
ca"c$u) sa"ts are re-ers$+"y
so"u+"e. Ma!nes$u) reacts
0$th car+onates to 2or)
co)#ouns o2 "o0 so"u+$"$ty.
So$u), a"*a"$n$ty, NaOH,
NaHCO;, Na&CO;
Foa)$n!, car+onates 2or)
car+on$c ac$ $n stea),
causes conensate return
"$ne, an stea) tra#
corros$on, can cause
e)+r$tt"e)ent.
Deaerat$on o2 )a*e9u#
0ater an conensate
return. Ion e1chan!e8
e$on$3at$on, ac$ treat)ent
o2 )a*e9u# 0ater.
So$u) sa"ts are 2oun $n
)ost 0aters. They are -ery
so"u+"e, an cannot +e
re)o-e +y che)$ca"
#rec$#$tat$on.
Su"#hates %SO<'
Har sca"e $2 ca"c$u) $s
#resent
De$on$3at$on
To"erance "$)$ts are a+out
6779;77##) as CaCO;
Ch"or$es, %C"'
Pr$)$n!, $.e. une-en e"$-ery
o2 stea) 2ro) the +o$"er
%+e"ch$n!', carryo-er o2
0ater $n stea) "o0er$n!
stea) e22$c$ency, can e#os$t
as sa"ts on su#erheaters an
tur+$ne +"aes. Foa)$n! $2
#resent $n "ar!e a)ounts.
De$on$3at$on
Pr$)$n!, or the #assa!e o2
stea) 2ro) a +o$"er $n
=+e"ches=, $s cause +y the
concentrat$on so$u)
car+onate, so$u) su"#hate,
or so$u) ch"or$e $n
so"ut$on. So$u) su"#hate $s
2oun $n )any 0aters $n the
US/, an $n 0aters 0here
ca"c$u) or )a!nes$u) $s
#rec$#$tate 0$th soa ash.
Iron %Fe' an
Man!anese %Mn'
De#os$ts $n +o$"er, $n "ar!e
a)ounts can $nh$+$t heat
trans2er.
/erat$on, 2$"trat$on, $on
e1chan!e.
Most co))on 2or) $s 2errous
+$car+onate.
S$"$ca %S$'
Har sca"e $n +o$"ers an
coo"$n! syste)s: tur+$ne
+"ae e#os$ts.
De$on$3at$on8 "$)e soa
#rocess, hot9"$)e93eo"$te
treat)ent.
S$"$ca co)+$nes 0$th )any
e"e)ents to #rouce
s$"$cates. S$"$cates 2or) -ery
tenac$ous e#os$ts $n +o$"er
tu+$n!. >ery $22$cu"t to
re)o-e, o2ten on"y +y
2"ouro$c ac$s. Most cr$t$ca"
cons$erat$on $s -o"at$"e
carryo-er to tur+$ne
co)#onents.
Source: http://energyconcepts.tripod.com/energyconcepts/water_treatment.htm

The principal difficulties caused by water in boiler are:
#caling$
oaming and priming$
"orrosion.

Re2erences
%Water treatment handbook &ol. '-(, )egremont, '**'
Industrial water conditioning, +elts)earborn, '**'
htt#:::000.ther)$a$re.on.ca:+o$"er92ee.ht)"


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0opyright 1 '**2-(334 5enntech 6ater treatment 7 air purification -olding +.&.
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