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Dr. P. K.

Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 1 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012






Workshop

Design of Industrial Power Distribution Systems:
Shortcut Methods, Quick Estimation and Application Guidelines




Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India




January, 2012

Prof. P.K. Sen, PhD, PE, Fellow IEEE
Professor, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401

Senior Consultant
NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc.
Denver, Colorado 80033
pksen@neiengineering.com
303.339.6750

P.O Box 1265 Arvada, CO 80001
Phone (303) 431-7895 Fax (303) 431-1836
www.neiengineering.com


Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 2 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


Design of Industrial Power Distribution Systems:
Shortcut Methods, Quick Estimation and Application Guidelines

Dr. P.K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE
Professor of Electrical Engineering
Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401

This (multiple days) workshop has been designed for all practicing engineers (young or experienced), managers,
operation and plant maintenance personnel, advanced students interested in power and energy engineering career
and technical personnel interested in different aspects of Power Distribution Systems Design as applied to Electric
Power and Energy industry. The main objective of the workshop is to introduce the basic tools required and
utilized in designing industrial power distribution systems. The primary focus of this course is on the medium
voltage (MV) and low voltage (LV) power systems with some references to the sub-transmission system. It is
assumed that participants have some basic knowledge of fundamentals of electric power systems and electric
machinery. Practical experience is preferable, but not required. Emphasis is given on hand calculations and
estimations. Numerous real world design problems will be solved during the entire workshop. The workshop will
be divided into multiple modules. Extensive handouts will be provided at the workshop. This introductory
workshop is must for all power systems engineers, utility and no-utility alike, consulting firms, manufacturing and
process plant, and designed to facilitate in educating advanced students in power and energy engineering profession.

(Tentative) Course Outline

Day (Part) 1:
1) Logistics, Introduction, Background and Prerequisites, Expectations etc.
2) Scope of Electric Power Distribution Engineering and Characteristics of Power Distribution
Systems: Utility, Industrial and Commercial Users Perspective
3) Power System Fundamentals, Understanding Load and Key Design Tools:
3-Ph Power, Voltage-Current Calculations;
Active, Reactive Power, Apparent Power, Power Factor and Power Triangle;
Power Factor Correction and Shunt Capacitor Compensation;
Voltage Drop and Voltage Regulation
Load Characterization;
Understanding Electricity Bill;
Induction Motor Load, Torque-Speed Characteristics, Losses and Efficiency;
Selection of Plant Distribution Voltage;
Transformer Sizing; and
Motor Starting and Voltage Drop
4) Transformer Engineering, Basics and Procurement:
Equivalent Circuit and Design Fundamentals;
Performance Evaluation: Efficiency and Losses; % Impedance and Voltage Regulation;
Transformer Procurement, Specification Writing and Loss Evaluation; Testing;
Overloading, Life Assessment and Asset Management
5) Design of Industrial Power Distribution Systems and Problems:
Simplified Design Calculations, Transformer Sizing, Selection of Voltage;
Motor Starting;
One-line Diagram; Quick Cost Estimate

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 3 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


Day (Part) 2: (When Applicable)

1) Recap of Day 1, Questions and Answers
2) Induction Motor Performance and Procurement
Design Fundamentals, Equivalent Circuit and Performance Evaluation;
Torque-Speed Characteristics;
Motor Starting and Voltage Drop;
Variable Frequency Drive;
Testing, Specification and Applications Guidelines.
3) 3-Phase Fault (Short-Circuit) Calculations
Per-Unit Methods of Calculations;
Sub-transient Reactance;
Source Reactance;
Shortcut Methods of Calculations for Industrial Power Systems;
Fault Current Distributions.
4) Design of an Industrial Power Distribution System and Problems
Selection of Breakers and Switchgears;
Motor Control Center - Specification and Evaluation;
System Grounding;
Reliability, Safety and Design;
Quick Cost Estimate.
5) Protection Design Philosophy
6) Emergency Power and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
7) Design Problems: Simplified Calculations, Guidelines and Techniques


Day (Part) 3: (When Applicable)

1) Recap of Days 1 and 2, Questions and Answers
2) Power Systems Protection:
Symmetrical Components and Unsymmetrical Faults;
Instrument Transformers;
Grounding of Power Systems and Ground Fault Protection;
Utility Industry Interface;
Design of Protection Scheme;
Power Systems Protection:
o Transformer
o Induction Motor
o Distribution Feeder
3) Step-by-Step Procedure in Protection Coordination and Design
4) Case Studies and Design Problems



Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 4 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


Prof. Pankaj K. (PK) Sen, PhD, PE, Fellow IEEE
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, Colorado 80401




Dr. P.K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE has over 45 years of combined teaching, administrative, research, and
consulting engineering experience. Prior to joining Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado in
2000, Dr. Sen taught for 21 years at the University of Colorado, Colorado. His industrial experience
includes power plants and substation engineering design,
system & feasibility studies, protection and relaying, training
technical personnel at all level and solving various aspects of
power systems engineering application problems. He has
published over 140 technical papers on a variety of subjects
related to Power Systems, Protection / and Relaying, Electric
Machines, Renewable Energy and Energy Policy, Power
Quality, Engineering Education and Arc Flash and Safety.
Dr. Sen has supervised and mentored over 150 graduate
students (including non-traditional students, and practicing
engineers from the Utility Industries, Rural Electric
Companys, Consulting Engineers, and others). He is an IEEE
Fellow and a Registered Professional Engineer (Electrical) in
the State of Colorado. Currently Dr. Sen is a Professor of
Electrical Engineering and the Site Director for the
(Originally NSF funded) Industry University Cooperative
Research Center (IUCRC) Power Systems Engineering
Research Center (www.pserc.org) at Colorado School of
Mines, Golden, Colorado. His current research interests
include application problems (safety, protection, equipment life, energy economics, asset
management and policy issues, etc.) in power systems engineering, renewable energy applications
and distributed generation, and engineering education. Dr. Sen is a very active member of a number
of Professional Societies including IEEE PES & IAS, Rocky Mountain Electrical League (RMEL)
and has been instrumental in providing seminars, short courses, conduct workshops, and provide
training for technical personnel in the Rocky Mountain Region and nationwide (USA) and
internationally for the past 34 years.

Dr. Sen is known in the industry, locally, nationally and internationally for providing educational
opportunities for practicing engineers at all level, and for both undergraduate and graduate students.
He is an inspiring and prolific teacher with passion. He has authored numerous prize winning papers
at the IEEE Conferences and IAS Magazine.




Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 5 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


Design of Industrial Power Distribution Systems:
Shortcut Methods, Quick Estimation and Application Guidelines

Presentation Outline
Part 1
Introduction, and Scope of Electric Power Distribution Systems
Engineering









Characteristics of Power Distribution Systems: Utility and
Industrial/Commercial Users Perspective
Power System Fundamentals & Design Tools:
o (Review) 1-Phase and 3-Phase Power
o (Review) Power, Reactive Power, Power Factor
o Power Triangle
o Losses and Efficiency
Selection of Voltage
Power Factor Correction
Percentage Impedance, Voltage Regulation and % Voltage Drop
Understanding Electricity Bill
Transformer
o Procurement and Specification Writing
o Losses and Efficiency
o Bid Evaluation
o Application Guidelines
o Protection Basics
Quick Cost Estimate
Design Problems: Transformer Sizing, Power Factor Correction,
Voltage Drop and Voltage Regulation

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 6 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


Design of Industrial Power Distribution Systems:
Shortcut Methods, Quick Estimation and Application Guidelines


Presentation Outline
Part 2

Induction Motor: Characteristics, Performance
Evaluation, Specification
Quick and Simplified 3-Phase Short Circuit (Hand)
Calculations for Radial System
o Volt-Ampere Method
o Per-Unit Method
Power System Grounding
Application Guidelines -
o Motor Starting and Voltage Drop
o Sizing Transformers
o Capacitor Selection
o Simplified Transformer Protection Considerations
Conclusions, Questions and Answers







Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 7 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012



Design of Industrial Power Distribution Systems:
Shortcut Methods, Quick Estimation and Application Guidelines


Presentation Outline
Part 3

1) Recap of Day 1 and 2, Questions and Answers
2) Power Systems Protection
Symmetrical Components and Unsymmetrical Faults;
Instrument Transformers;
Grounding of Power Systems and Ground Fault Protection;
Utility Industry Interface;
Design of Protection Scheme;
Power Systems Protection:
o Transformer
o Induction Motor
o Distribution Feeder
3) Step-by-Step Procedure in Protection Coordination and
Design;
4) Case Studies












Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 8 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


Fault Contribution
Rotating Machines










Synchronous Machine
Direct-Axis Quantities:
Sub-Transient (x
d
, T
d
): ~ 3 Cycles**
Transient (x
d
, T
d
): ~ 0.6-1.0 Sec
Steady-State (x
d
)
** Normally Used in Fault Calculations
Typical Values 0.1 - 0.2 per-unit (Machine Base)
Induction Motor
Fault Contributions last usually 2-3
Cycles
Sub-transient Reactance varies typically
between 0.17 0.25 per-unit (Machine
Base)
If the starting current is 6.0 times the full-
load current, then the sub-transient
reactance is 1/6 = 0.167 pu.

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 9 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


Important!! Assume Zero
Source Reactance or Infinite
Bus always yields
Conservative Results in
Fault Calculations.
3-Phase Fault Calculations
(Design) Problem No. 3
Calculate the 3-Phase Fault Current at X

Total Fault Current @ x = 11,954 + 4,184 + 1,046 + 2,092 A
= 19,276 A
(= 3 13.8 19,276 = 460.7 MVA)

Assume: Finite Bus with 3-Ph Fault Level = 1,500 MVA @ 115 kV Bus
Source Reactance (X
s
) = 20 / 1,500 = 0.0133 pu
Fault Contribution by the Source = 1.0 / (0.0133 + 0.07) pu
= 12.00 pu = 12.0 x 836.8 A
= 10,045 A
Total Fault Current @ X = 10,045 + 4,184 + 1,046 + 2,092 A
= 17,367 A (Compared to 19,276 A)
A 418.4
13.8 3
10,000
I
b
= == =

= == =
1/0.1 = 10 pu
= 10 x 418.4 A = 4,184 A
Assume: 1 HP 1 kVA
A 209.2
13.8 3
5,000
I
b
= == =

= == =
1/0.1 = 10 pu
= 10 x 209.2 A = 2,092 A
A 836.8
13.8 3
20,000
I
b
= == =

= == =
1/0.07 = 14.3 pu
= 14.3 x 836.8 A
= 11,954 A
Assume: Infinite Bus
Source Reactance (X
s
) = 0

5,000 kVA
5,000 kVA
1/0.2 = 5 pu
= 5 x 209.2 A
= 1,046 A
0 A
A 209.2
13.8 3
5,000
I
b
= == =

= == =
1/0.07 = 14.3 pu
= 14.3 x 100.4 A
= 1,436 A
= 11,954x13.8/115 A

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 10 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


Important!! Assume Zero
Source Reactance or Infinite
Bus always yields Conservative
Results in Fault Calculations.
3-Phase Fault Calculations
(Design) Problem No. 4
Calculate the 3-Phase Fault Current at Y.
Total Fault Current @ Y = 1/0.06 = 16.7 pu
= 16.7 x 1,202 A = 20,047 A
(= 3 0.480 20.047 = 16.67 MVA)

Assuming Fault at X = 460.7 MVA (or 11,954 A)
Source Reactance (X
s
) = 1.0 MVA (Transf. Rating) / 460.7 MVA
= 0.0022 pu

Fault Current at Y = 1.0 / (0.0022 + 0.06) = 16.085 pu
= 16.085 x 1,202 A = 19,347 A
( = 16.08 MVA)

Assume: Infinite Bus
Source Reactance (X
s
) = 0

A 1,202
0.480 3
1,000
I
b
= == =

= == =
1/0.06 = 16.67 pu
= 16.67x1,202 A =
20,047 A
1/0.06 = 16.67 pu
= 16.67x41.9 A
= 698 A
499 A
93 A
71 A 35 A

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 11 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


3-Phase Fault Calculations
(Design) Practice Problem No. 7

For the given problem, calculate the fault currents at various locations (F
1
to F
4
)
using different assumptions, like using an infinite bus or neglect any other
impedance, etc. Please justify your assumptions.








Fault Calcula-
tions
Assumptions!
!
Fault Current
Values (A)
F
1
(a) 17,811
(b) 17,412
(c) 16,288
(d) 16,602
F
2
(e) 31,379
(f) 38,596
(g) ??
F
3
(h) 5,395
(i) ??
(j) 5,910
F
4
(k) 26,162
(l) 28,375

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 12 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012



Important!! Assume Zero
Source Reactance or Infinite
Bus always yields Optimistic
Results in Voltage Drop
Calculations. Source Reactance
(for minimum fault current or
highest value of X
s
) must be
considered, in doing the real
calculations.
Induction Motor Starting
Voltage Drop Calculation
(Design) Problem No. 5




Assume: Full-load Efficiency = 0.92 and Full-load Power Factor =
0.93 (lag)
Approximate Full-load Current = 363 A

Assume Full Voltage (Direct-on-Line) Starting Current (I
st
) = 6.0 x
I
FL
= 2,178 A @ 0.0 lagging power factor (conservative assumption)

% Voltage Drop = [ % r Cos % x Sin ] I
pu
(Loading)
(+) Lagging Power Factor


Assume: Infinite Bus
Source Reactance (X
s
) = 0


Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 13 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


(1) Assume: 1 HP 1 kVA, Constant Current
Model and 0.0 lag power factor, % Voltage
(Momentary) Drop = 28.8%

(2) Using Actual Efficiency and Power Factor in
calculating the full-load current, Constant
Current Model and 0.0 lag power factor,
% Voltage Drop = 25.12%

(3) Same as (2), but assuming a power factor (more
realistic) 0.25 lag,
% Voltage Drop = 24.4%

(4) Assume, 1 HP = 1 kVA and a Constant
Impedance Model and 0.0 lag power factor, %
Voltage (Momentary) Drop = 22.4%


All of the above simplified quick calculations (with various
assumptions) produce most likely an unacceptable voltage
drop (more than 20%) at the motor terminals. Since the
motor torque is proportional to the squared of the voltage
( T
m
V
2
), the starting torque will be drastically reduced
(e.g., for case (4) (V = 1.0 0.224 = 0.776), the torque will be
0.776
2
= 0.60 or 60% of the full-voltage starting torque).

So we have too much Voltage Drop!!

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 14 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012




(1) Increase the transformer size Doubling the transformer
size to 10 MVA will reduce the voltage drop (approximately)
by a factor of 2 (to 12-13%).

(2) Buy an induction motor (Code Letter D) with starting
current less than 6.0 times (say 4.0 4.5). This will reduce
the % voltage drop proportionately (to about 14-16%).

(3) Use reduced voltage starter (Autotransformer) or soft
start. This will reduce the % voltage drop to a real value
(much less than 10%, depending on the design). However,
care must be taken to ensure that adequate motor torque is
produced during starting.

(4) Reduction of the % reactance of transformer may be
utilized to enhance the problem. However, this will increase
the fault current values, and may increase the cost of
switchgear, and other associated equipment.
.
(5) Redesign the process requirements, when appropriate
and possible, to reduce the motor output.

(6) Using higher plant distribution voltage.

Ultimately, application requirements and cost will probably
dictate the solution.

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 15 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


Fundamentals of Power Distribution Systems Design:
Review, Simplified and Shortcut Calculations and Guidelines

Symmetrical Components Fundamentals


Any Unbalanced set of 3-Phase Vectors (or Phasors) having a Phase
Sequence (or Rotation), say abc can be replaced by (or resolved into)
three Component set of Vectors

(3) A set of Balanced 3-Phase Vectors (120
o
out-of-phase) having the same
phase sequence (or rotation) of the original set of vectors (abc),
called Positive Sequence.

(4) A set of Balanced 3-Phase Vectors (120
o
out-of-phase) having the same
opposite (or negative) phase sequence (or rotation) of the original set
of vectors (acb), called Negative Sequence, and

(5) A set of 3, 1-phase Vectors (same phase and magnitude), called Zero
Sequence.








a
b
c
a
1
b
1
c
1
a
2
b
2
c
2
a
0
b
0
c
0
a
2
b
2
c
2
Positive
Negative Zero
Phase Quantities Sequence Quantities

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 16 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012



Mathematically, say, for a set of three phase (phasor) currents (I
a
, I
b
and I
c
) and
the three sequence components of (phasor) currents (I
(a,b,c)1
, I
(a,b,c)2
and I
(a,b,c)0
):

I
a
= I
a1
+ I
a2
+ I
a0

I
b
= I
b1
+ I
b2
+ I
b0

I
c
= I
c1
+ I
c2
+ I
c0



Conversely, it can be shown by simple mathematical manipulation that the three
sequence components of currents (I
a1
, I
a2
, and I
a0
) for phase-a can be calculated:

I
a1
= 1/3 [ I
a
+ a I
b
+ a
2
I
c
]
I
a2
= 1/3 [ I
a
+ a
2
I
b
+ a I
c
]
I
a0
= 1/3 [ I
a
+ I
b
+ I
c
]

where, a is a unit vector defined by, a = 1.0 120
o
.


Simple Numerical Examples (Graphical and Analytical Solutions):

(1) I
a
= 3.0 0
o
, I
b
= 0 and I
c
= 0. [Incidentally, this happens when we have a
single-line-to-ground (an unsymmetrical) fault in power systems.]

(2) I
a
= 0, I
b
= 1.732 90
o
and I
c
= -1.732 90
o
. [Incidentally, this happens
when we have a line-to-line (another unsymmetrical) fault in power
systems.]

(3) Find (both graphically and analytically) all the (nine) sequence components
of currents [positive: (I
a1
, I
b1
, I
c1
), negative: (I
a2
, I
b2
, I
c2
) and zero: (I
a0
, I
b0
,
I
c0
) ] from the following set of three currents in a power system.
I
a
= 100 90
o
(A), I
b
= 200 0
o
(A) and I
c
= 300 - 90
o
(A)

(4) Calculate (both analytically and graphically) the phase currents (I
a
, I
b
, I
c
)
from the following sequence components of currents.
I
a1
= 10 0
o
(A), I
b2
= 20 120
o
(A), and I
c0
= 10 - 90
o
(A)



Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 17 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


Understanding the Physical Significance of (and other Basic Facts about) the
Sequence (components) Currents:

(1) Vector summation of the positive sequence currents = 0. (Three vectors,
equal in magnitude and 120
o
out-of-phase, and phase sequence, abc).
(2) Statement (1) is equally true for the negative sequence of currents.
(except the phase sequence is, acb).
(3) Vector summation of the three zero sequence currents (I
0
, same in
magnitude and phase) = 3I
0

(4) Any 3-phase power system under normal operating conditions is considered
to be the positive sequence network conditions, even though we do not
explicitly say so.
(5) Negative sequence network (or power system) conditions could be dealt
with in the same fashion as the positive sequence network, except for a
major difference: the voltage sources have a phase sequence opposite to the
positive sequence.
(6) Synchronous generators (or alternators) connected to the normal 3-phase
power network produces only positive sequence voltage (in an ideal
condition).
(7) Static devices connected in a 3-phase power network (like transformers,
transmission and distribution lines, capacitors, etc.) do not see any
difference between positive and a negative sequence quantities. However,
they behave completely differently for zero sequence quantities.
(8) For a balanced 3-phase conditions (like positive and negative sequence
conditions), neutral connections for Y-connections (transformer neutral,
loads, generator neutrals, etc.) is immaterial. The system doesnt see the
difference between grounded (any form) and ungrounded system, since
vector summation of three vectors 120
o
is zero. In case of currents, no
current flow through the neutral conductor or ground (Kirchoffs Current
Law).
(8) However, in case of zero sequence current, as an example, the current
flowing through the neutral (and/or ground) equals the 3 times the zero
sequence current (Kirchoffs Current Law). This can be seen from the
fundamental definition of zero sequence quantities.
(9) The sequence quantities are always line-to-neutral or line-to-ground (or
phase quantities).



Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 18 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


Sequence Networks (Thevenin Equivalent):

V
a1
= V
f
I
a1
Z
1
where, Z
1
is the positive sequence impedance

V
a2
= I
a2
Z
2
Z
2
is the negative sequence impedance
V
a0
= I
a0
Z
0
Z
0
is the zero sequence impedance

Note:

(1) Only positive sequence network has any voltage source for fault
calculations.
(2) For all practical conditions in power system, we assume (will be discussed
briefly in the class), Z
1
= Z
2

(3) Zero Sequence Impedance (Z
0
) is usually totally different and depends
on the grounding (or neutral) connections.
(4) Calculations of Z
1
(= Z
2
) is straight forward and is the same value used for
3-phase fault calculations.
(5) The sequence network used are always for Phase-a values and deals with
phase quantities.




Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 19 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


Symmetrical Components Fundamentals

Sequence Connections for Typical Two-Winding Transformer Banks


Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 20 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012




Reduced Sequence Networks where Z
1
, Z
2
and Z
0
are the Equivalent Impedances of the Network to the
Fault Point

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 21 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


System Grounding and Ground Fault
Protection
39
Delta - Wye Solidly Grounded
Transformer

System Grounding and Ground Fault
Protection
40
Delta Wye
Solidly Grounded
P
T
Z
S
Zero Sequence Bus
OS
I


Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 22 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


System Grounding and Ground Fault
Protection
44
Wye (Grounded)
Wye (Grounded)
Zero Sequence Bus
P S
I
OS
Z
T


System Grounding and Ground Fault
Protection
46
3-Winding Transformer
Wye (Grounded) - Delta - Wye (Grounded)
Zero Sequence Bus
P
T
S
I
OS OP
I
OT
I
Z
T
Z
P
Z
S
N


Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 23 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


Reduced Sequence Networks where Z
1
, Z
2
and Z
0
are the Equivalent Impedances of the Network to the
Fault Point

System Grounding and Ground Fault
Protection
37
Network Connections for Unsymmetrical Faults
Single-Line-to-
Ground Fault
Positive
Negative
Zero
Line-to-Line-
Fault
Line-to-Line-to-
Ground Fault



Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 24 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


Brain Tinker No.1

(1) A small industrial plant (receiving power at 12.47kV) has the following loads:
(a) 3 x 100 HP Induction Motors
(b) 2 x 50 HP Induction Motors, and
(c) 300 kW of lighting, heating and other small plant loads
Estimate the total plant load, typical running power factor, and size (specify) a
transformer. Discuss the protection philosophy for such a plant.






(2) A 3-phase transformer is rated at 5/7.5 MVA, 13.8 kV (Delta) 4.16 kV
(Grounded-Wye). Calculate (estimate) the full-load phase and line currents on
both high-side and low-side of the transformer at maximum loading. What will be
a typical % reactance and X/R ratio values? Also calculate the maximum available
fault current on the low-side of the transformer. Discuss the protection philosophy
for this transformer.






(3) What is the meaning of the following ANSI/IEEE device nos.?

a) Device No. 27 ___________________________

b) Device No. 51 ___________________________

c) Device No. 81 ___________________________

d) Device No. 87 ___________________________

e) Device No. 38 ___________________________



Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 25 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


(4) Put a check (x) in front of each factor affecting transformer protection:

________ Magnetizing Inrush Current

________ Load Tap Changer

________ No-Load Tap Changer

________ Transformer Voltage Level

________ Current Transformer (CT) Ratios

________ Transformer Winding Connections




(5) Draw a (typical) simple motor thermal load capability. How would you protect
a 200HP induction motor? Discuss the key information you must identify in
protecting the motor.

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 26 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


Brain Tinker No. 2

1) Draw a typical symmetrical short-circuit current supplied by a
synchronous generator. Identify and briefly discuss the key points in the
drawing. Also show the rms value of the current.


2) What causes the dc offset in a short-circuit current fed by a synchronous
generator?


3) What is the worst possible (theoretical maximum) dc offset one can expect in a
synchronous machine?


4) What is the difference between the interrupting (short-circuit capability)
current and closing and latching current in a circuit breaker?


5) Draw a typical symmetrical short circuit current supplied by an induction
motor. Discuss briefly why this is distinctly different from the synchronous
machine? What are typical sub-transient reactance values?


6) Identify some of the key parameters one should specify and check while
procuring a medium voltage power circuit breaker.


7) How do you define the total asymmetrical fault current? Draw and explain.


8) What are the typical sub-transient reactance values?
a. Large Alternators Steam or Gas Turbine (2-pole or 4-pole) _________
b. Large Alternators Hydro (Salient Pole, slow speed) _________
c. Large (MV) Induction Motors (say, 1000 HP and above) _________
d. Smaller (LV) Induction Motors (say, 50-200 HP) _________
e. Smaller (LV) Induction Motor (say, below, 50 HP) _________


Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 27 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012


9) Answer the following questions:
(a) What are the typical reactance and X/R values?
o 12.47 kV Overhead Distribution Lines ____________
o Small Distribution Transformers ____________
(Say, 500 kVA or less, 4.16 kV 480 V)
o Large Power Transformers ____________
(Say, 30/40/50 MVA, 230 kV-12.47 kV)
o 115 kV Overhead Transmission Line ____________
o 500 kV Overhead Transmission Line ____________

(b) What are the typical values (@ Rated Load Condition)?
o Efficiency of a 500 MVA Generator __________
o Efficiency of a 100 MVA Transformer __________
o Efficiency of a 5,000 HP Induction Motor __________
o Efficiency of a 5 HP Motor __________
o Operating Range of Power Factor for a Large Generator __________
o Voltage of a 3,000 HP Induction Motor __________
o HP Limit of Induction Motor for 480 V System __________

10) In a large distribution power system, 3-phase fault current reported by the
utility at the incoming 69 kV point is 24.5 kA rms symmetrical. Calculate the
source impedance in . Also calculate the source impedance in per-unit,
assume a base of 10 MVA.


11) Estimate the full-load current of a 50 HP induction motor.

12) What limits the output of a power transformer? Explain briefly.


13) What are instrument transformers? Why is it used in large scale power
systems?


14) Calculate the line and phase currents (both magnitude and phase angle) in a 2
MVA, 12.47 kV (Delta) 480 V (Wye) transformer. Assume the load is
purely resistive and the transformer is fully loaded. Use the load voltage as the
reference.

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 28 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012



More Brain Tinker

Identify True (T), False (F) or Unclear, Unknown or Subjected to
Conditions and Add Brief Comments, as Appropriate.

1) Protective relaying is utilized to protect major power equipment against the
maximum fault current (short-circuit) only.


2) Per-unit values of currents on both sides of a two-winding transformer are
same.


3) Protective relays always use both the current and voltage signals for its
operation.


4) Protective relaying costs about 30% of the major power equipment it is
protecting.


5) In order to do proper relay settings calculations in a large scale (utility
oriented) power system, it is essential that you should have both 3-phase and
single-line-to-ground faults (bolted) information available at appropriate
locations including the current distribution.

6) Some form of polarizing (current and/or voltage) is needed for all directional
relays.


7) In a three-phase power system (under normal operation), at any point in the
system, both positive- and zero-sequence voltages are zero.






Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 29 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012





8) To measure a 10,000A current in a normal power system application, we
need to use a CT. However, if the current is 100 A only, there is no need for
a CT.


9) To design a protective relaying scheme (during the conceptual design stage),
the three-line diagram and the AC, DC schematics, are absolutely essential.



10) In modern microprocessor based relaying scheme, auxiliary relays are not
used extensively to perform a variety of control functions and logic.


11) Modern day microprocessor relays perform more than relaying like event
recording, fault location detection, other control and monitoring functions.


12) In microprocessor based relays, for each function (defined by ANSI
Numbers), you need a separate relay.


13) Knowledge of polarity and phase-sequence is essential for proper relay
applications (selection).


14) In an ungrounded wye connected system, if one phase goes to ground, the
voltages of the other two phases goes up to the line voltages (with respect to
ground) of the system.







Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 30 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series
Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India
Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012



15) In an ungrounded wye-connected power system, the neutral is always at
ground potential.


16) In a delta-wye connected two-winding transformer, there is a phase-shift of
30
o
(for positive sequence) between the primary and secondary line
quantities (voltage and currents), and the standard ANSI connection
recommends the low-voltage quantities to lead the high-voltage quantities.


17) In a 3-phase power system, zero-sequence currents for all three phases are
same.



18) In a three-phase power system with a delta-wye (grounded) transformer,
zero-sequence current flows (confined) within the delta windings (in the
loop).



19) For all faults involving ground, there will always be (in general) some zero-
sequence current in line.



20) Transformers of all sizes are always protected by differential relay.