Você está na página 1de 9


1)Silverlight Technology
Microsoft Silverlight is a web application framework that provides functionalities similar to
those in Adobe Flash, integrating multimedia, graphics, animations and interactivity into a single
runtime environment. Initially released as a video streaming plugin, later versions brought
additional interactivity features and support for .NET languages and development tools. The
current version, .!, was released on "uly #, $!!#.
It is compatible with multiple web browser products used on (icrosoft )indows, *inu+ ,using
Novell (oonlight-, and (ac ./ 0 operating systems. (obile devices, starting with )indows
(obile 1 and /ymbian ,/eries 2!- phones, will likely become supported in $!&!.
A free
software implementation named (oonlight, developed by Novell in cooperation with (icrosoft,
is available to bring compatible functionality to *inu+, Free3/4 and other open source platform
/ilverlight provides a retained mode graphics system similar to )indows 5resentation
Foundation, and integrates multimedia, graphics, animations and interactivity into a single
runtime environment. In /ilverlight applications, user interfaces are declared in E+tensible
Application (arkup *anguage ,0A(*- and programmed using a subset of the .NET
Framework. 0A(* can be used for marking up the vector graphics and animations. Te+tual
content created with /ilverlight is searchable and inde+able by search engines as it is not
compiled, but represented as te+t ,0A(*-.
/ilverlight can also be used to create )indows
/idebar gadgets for )indows 7ista.
/ilverlight supports )indows (edia 7ideo ,)(7-, )indows (edia Audio ,)(A- and (5E9
*ayer III ,(5- media content
across all supported browsers without re:uiring )indows
(edia 5layer, the )indows (edia 5layer Active0 control or )indows (edia browser plugins.
3ecause )indows (edia 7ideo # is an implementation of the /ociety of (otion 5icture and
Television Engineers ,/(5TE- 7;<& standard, /ilverlight also supports 7;<& video, though still
only in an Advanced /ystems Format ,A/F- container format. Furthermore, the /oftware license
agreement says 7;<& is only licensed for the =personal and non<commercial use of a consumer=.
/ilverlight, since version , supports the playback of >.$26 video.
/ilverlight makes it
possible to dynamically load E+tensible (arkup *anguage ,0(*- content that can be
manipulated through a 4ocument .b@ect (odel ,4.(- interface, a techni:ue that is consistent
with conventional A@a+ techni:ues. /ilverlight e+poses a Downloader ob@ect which can be used
to download content, like scripts, media assets or other data, as may be re:uired by the
)ith version $, the programming logic can be written in any .NET language,
including some derivatives of common dynamic programming languages like IronAuby and
Cascading Style Sheets ,CSS- is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation
semantics ,that is, the look and formatting- of a document written in a markup language. Its most
common application is to style web pages written in >T(* and 0>T(*, but the language can
be applied to any kind of 0(* document, including /79 and 0B*.
;// is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content ,written in >T(* or a
similar markup language- from document presentation, including elements such as the layout,
colors, and fonts. This separation can improve content accessibility, provide more fle+ibility and
control in the specification of presentation characteristics, enable multiple pages to share
formatting, and reduce comple+ity and repetition in the structural content ,such as by allowing
for tableless web design-. ;// can also allow the same markup page to be presented in different
styles for different rendering methods, such as on<screen, in print, by voice ,when read out by a
speech<based browser or screen reader- and on 3raille<based, tactile devices. )hile the author of
a document typically links that document to a ;// style sheet, readers can use a different style
sheet, perhaps one on their own computer, to override the one the author has specified.
;// specifies a priority scheme to determine which style rules apply if more than one rule
matches against a particular element. In this so<called cascade, priorities or weights are
calculated and assigned to rules, so that the results are predictable.
The ;// specifications are maintained by the )orld )ide )eb ;onsortium ,);-. Internet
media type ,(I(E type- text/css is registered for use with ;// by AF; $&? ,(arch &##?-.
5rior to ;//, nearly all of the presentational attributes of >T(* documents were contained
within the >T(* markupC all font colors, background styles, element alignments, borders and
siDes had to be e+plicitly described, often repeatedly, within the >T(*. ;// allows authors to
move much of that information to a separate style sheet resulting in considerably simpler >T(*
>eadings ,h1 elements-, sub<headings ,h2-, sub<sub<headings ,h3-, etc., are defined structurally
using >T(*. In print and on the screen, choice of font, siDe, color and emphasis for these
elements is presentational.
5rior to ;//, document authors who wanted to assign such typographic characteristics to, say, all
h2 headings had to use the >T(* font and other presentational elements for each occurrence of
that heading type. The additional presentational markup in the >T(* made documents more
comple+, and generally more difficult to maintain. In ;//, presentation is separated from
structure. In print, ;// can define color, font, te+t alignment, siDe, borders, spacing, layout and
many other typographic characteristics. It can do so independently for on<screen and printed
views. ;// also defines non<visual styles such as the speed and emphasis with which te+t is read
out by aural te+t readers. The ); now considers the advantages of ;// for defining all aspects
of the presentation of >T(* pages to be superior to other methods. It has therefore deprecated
the use of all the original presentational >T(* markup.
Adobe Dreamweaver ,formerly Macromedia Dreamweaver- is a web development application
originally created by (acromedia, and is now developed by Adobe /ystems, which ac:uired
(acromedia in $!!8.
4reamweaver is available for both (ac and )indows operating systems. Aecent versions have
incorporated support for web technologies such as ;//, "ava/cript, and various server<side
scripting languages and frameworks including A/5, ;oldFusion, and 5>5.
Although a hybrid )E/I)E9 and code<based web design and development application,
4reamweaverFs )E/I)E9 mode can hide the >T(* code details of pages from the user,
making it possible for non<coders to create web pages and sites.
4reamweaver allows users to preview websites in locally<installed web browsers. It also has site
management tools such as FT5G/FT5 and )eb4A7 file transfer and synchroniDation features,
the ability to find and replace lines of te+t or code by search terms and regular e+pressions across
the entire site, and a templating feature that allows single<source update of shared code and
layout across entire sites without server<side includes or scripting. The behaviours panel also
enables use of basic "ava/cript without any coding knowledge, and integration with AdobeFs
/pry A"A0 framework offers easy access to dynamically<generated content and interfaces.
4reamweaver can use third<party =E+tensions= to e+tend core functionality of the application,
which any web developer can write ,largely in >T(* and "ava/cript-. 4reamweaver is
supported by a large community of e+tension developers who make e+tensions available ,both
commercial and free- for most web development tasks from simple rollover effects to full<
featured shopping carts.
4reamweaver, like other >T(* editors, edits files locally then uploads them to the remote web
server using FT5, /FT5, or )eb4A7. 4reamweaver ;/6 now supports the /ubversion ,/7N-
version control system.
The Global Positioning System ,GPS- is a B./. space<based global navigation satellite system.
It provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to worldwide users on a
continuous basis in all weather, day and night, anywhere on or near the Earth which has an
unobstructed view of four or more 95/ satellites.
95/ is made up of three segmentsH /pace, ;ontrol and Bser. The /pace /egment is composed of
$6 to $ satellites in (edium Earth .rbit and also includes the boosters re:uired to launch them
into orbit. The ;ontrol /egment is composed of a (aster ;ontrol /tation, an Alternate (aster
;ontrol /tation, and a host of dedicated and shared 9round Antennas and (onitor /tations. The
Bser /egment is composed of hundreds of thousands of B./. and allied military users of the
secure 95/ 5recise 5ositioning /ervice, and tens of millions of civil, commercial and scientific
users of the /tandard 5ositioning /ervice ,see 95/ navigation devices-. 95/ satellites broadcast
signals from space that 95/ receivers use to provide three<dimensional location ,latitude,
longitude, and altitude- plus precise time.
95/ has become a widely used aid to navigation worldwide, and a useful tool for map<making,
land surveying, commerce, scientific uses, tracking and surveillance, and hobbies such as
geocaching and waymarking. Also, the precise time reference is used in many applications
including the scientific study of earth:uakes and as a time synchroniDation source for cellular
network protocols.
95/ has become a mainstay of transportation systems worldwide, providing navigation for
aviation, ground, and maritime operations. 4isaster relief and emergency services depend upon
95/ for location and timing capabilities in their life<saving missions. The accurate timing that
95/ provides facilitates everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even
the control of power grids. Farmers, surveyors, geologists and countless others perform their
work more efficiently, safely, economically, and accurately using the free and open 95/ signals.
Basic concept of GPS
A 95/ receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by the 95/ satellites
high above the Earth. Each satellite continually transmits messages which include
the time the message was transmitted
precise orbital information (the ephemeris)
the general system health and rough orbits of all GPS satellites (the
The receiver utiliDes the messages it receives to determine the transit time of each message and
computes the distances to each satellite. These distances along with the satellitesF locations are
used with the possible aid of trilateration to compute the position of the receiver. This position is
then displayed, perhaps with a moving map display or latitude and longitudeC elevation
information may be included. (any 95/ units also show derived information such as direction
and speed, calculated from position changes.
Three satellites might seem enough to solve for position, since space has three dimensions and a
position on the EarthFs surface can be assumed. >owever, even a very small clock error
multiplied by the very large speed of light
Ithe speed at which satellite signals propagateI
results in a large positional error. Therefore receivers use four or more satellites to solve for the
receiverFs location and time. The very accurately computed time is effectively hidden by most
95/ applications, which use only the location. A few specialiDed 95/ applications do however
use the timeC these include time transfer, traffic signal timing, and synchroniDation of cell phone
base stations.
Although four satellites are re:uired for normal operation, fewer apply in special cases. If one
variable is already known, a receiver can determine its position using only three satellites. ,For
e+ample, a ship or plane may have known elevation.- /ome 95/ receivers may use additional
clues or assumptions ,such as reusing the last known altitude, dead reckoning, inertial
navigation, or including information from the vehicle computer- to give a degraded position
when fewer than four satellites are visible
(obile telephones, the &st generation of which were introduced in the mid<&#?!Fs, have been
constantly evolving since their inception. Today, over $3 mobile phones are in usage and around
?!J of the worldFs population is within reach of a mobile phone signal-. (obile phones have
traditionally been used for voice communications, but today can serve as the platform for a
variety of communication outputs << including data and video. 9 is the third<generation of
mobile phone technology standards. The typical services associated with 9 include wireless
voice telephony and broadband wireless data, all in a mobile environment. >owever, with the
capability for high<speed wireless data transfer, 9 has enhanced or made possible a myriad of
additional applications such as mobile video, secure mobile ecommerce, location<based services,
mobile gaming and audio on demand. For e+ample, using $.89 ,or a slightly better version of
second<generation wireless- a three<minute song takes between si+ and nine minutes to
download. Bsing 9, it can download in && to #! seconds.
There are currently almost &!! million 9 wireless subscribers worldwide. The B/, with over
$!! million mobile subscribers, crossed the &!J mark for 9 penetration for the first time in
$!!2, while "apan stayed in the lead with over 8!J of its subscribers using 9 phones. As 9
adoption accelerates, 9 carriers, handset manufacturing, infrastructure e:uipment makers,
semiconductor .E(Fs, and 9 application providers stand to gain. )ireless Internet /ervice
5roviders ,)I/5Fs-, carriers without the wherewithal or financial resources to upgrade their
networks, and companies that provide services which are standard under 9 ,i.e., email access-,
will be in a position to lose.
)hile the 9 market may be definitely gaining traction, the industry is rapidly approaching a
crossroads, where the needs of different market segments can vary substantially, and the potential
rewards ,and losses- for the different technology vendors and mobile communications operators
could be substantial.
International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000)', better known as 3G or
3rd Generation, is a family of standards for mobile telecommunications defned by
the International elecommunication !nion,
which includes GS% &'G&, !%S, and
('%)*+++ as well as '&( and ,i%)-. Ser.ices include wide/area wireless .oice
telephone, .ideo calls, and wireless data, all in a mobile en.ironment. (ompared to
*G and *.0G ser.ices, 1G allows simultaneous use of speech and data ser.ices and
higher data rates (up to #2.+ %bit3s on the downlink and 0.4 %bit3s on the uplink
with 5SP)6). hus, 1G networks enable network operators to o7er users a wider
range of more ad.anced ser.ices while achie.ing greater network capacity through
impro.ed spectral e8ciency.
&)# G
4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to 9 and $9
standards, with the aim to provide a wide range of data rates up to ultra<broadband ,gigabit<
speed- Internet access to mobile as well as stationary users. Although 69 is a broad term that has
had several different and more vague definitions, this article uses 69 to refer to IMT Advanced
,International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced-, as defined by ITB<A.
A 69 cellular system must have target peak data rates of up to appro+imately &!! (bitGs for high
mobility such as mobile access and up to appro+imately & 9bitGs for low mobility such as
nomadicGlocal wireless access, according to the ITB re:uirements. /calable bandwidths up to at
least 6! (>D should be provided.
A 69 system is e+pected to provide a comprehensive and
secure all<I5 based solution where facilities such as I5 telephony, ultra<broadband Internet
access, gaming services and >4T7 streamed multimedia may be provided to users.
%citation needed'
The pre<69 technology 955 *ong Term Evolution ,*TE- is often branded =69=, but the first
*TE release does not fully comply with the I(T<Advanced re:uirements. *TE has a theoretical
net bitrate capacity of up to &!! (bitGs in the downlink and 8! (bitGs in the uplink if a $! (>D
channel is used < and more if (ultiple<input multiple<output ,(I(.-, i.e. antenna arrays, are
used. (ost ma@or mobile carriers in the Bnited /tates and several worldwide carriers have
announced plans to convert their networks to *TE beginning in $!!#. The worldFs first publicly
available *TE<service was opened in the two /candinavian capitals /tockholm and .slo on the
&6 4ecember $!!#, and branded 69. The physical radio interface was at an early stage named
High Speed OFDM Packet Access ,>/.5A-, now named Evolved B(T/ Terrestrial Aadio
Access ,E<BTAA-.
*TE Advanced ,*ong<term<evolution Advanced- is a candidate for I(T<Advanced standard,
formally submitted by the 955 organiDation to ITB<T in the fall $!!#, and e+pected to be
released in $!&&. The target of 955 *TE Advanced is to reach and surpass the ITB
re:uirements. *TE Advanced should be compatible with first release *TE e:uipment, and should
share fre:uency bands with first release *TE.
The (obile )i(A0 ,IEEE ?!$.&2e<$!!8- mobile wireless broadband access ,()3A- standard
is sometimes branded 69, and offers peak data rates of &$? (bitGs downlink and 82 (bitGs
uplink over $! (>D wide channels. The IEEE ?!$.&2m evolution of ?!$.&2e is under
development, with the ob@ective to fulfill the I(T<Advanced criteria of &!!! (bitGs for
stationary reception and &!! (bitGs for mobile reception.
B(3 ,Bltra (obile 3roadband- was the brand name for a discontinued 69 pro@ect within the
955$ standardiDation group to improve the ;4(A$!!! mobile phone standard for ne+t
generation applications and re:uirements. In November $!!?, Kualcomm, B(3Fs lead sponsor,
announced it was ending development of the technology, favouring *TE instead.
The ob@ective
was to achieve data speeds over $18 (bitGs downstream and over 18 (bitGs upstream.
In all these suggestions for 69, the ;4(A spread spectrum radio technology used in 9 systems
and I/<#8 is abandoned and replaced by fre:uency<domain e:ualiDation schemes, for e+ample
multi<carrier transmission such as .F4(A. This is combined with (I(. ,i.e. multiple
antennas,(ultiple In (ultiple .ut--, dynamic channel allocation and channel<dependent
ASP.NET is a web application framework de.eloped and marketed by %icrosoft to
allow programmers to build dynamic web sites, web applications and web ser.ices.
It was frst released in 9anuary *++* with .ersion #.+ of the .:& ;ramework, and is
the successor to %icrosoft<s )cti.e Ser.er Pages ()SP) technology. )SP.:& is built
on the (ommon =anguage >untime ((=>), allowing programmers to write )SP.:&
code using any supported .:& language. he )SP.:& S?)P e@tension framework
allows )SP.:& components to process S?)P messages.
A/5.NET aims for performance benefits over other script<based technologies ,including ;lassic
A/5- by compiling the server<side code to one or more 4** files on the web server.
compilation happens automatically the first time a page is re:uested ,which means the developer
need not perform a separate compilation step for pages-. This feature provides the ease of
development offered by scripting languages with the performance benefits of a compiled binary.
>owever, the compilation might cause a noticeable but short delay to the web user when the
newly<edited page is first re:uested from the web server, but wonFt again unless the page
re:uested is updated further.
The A/50 and other resource files are placed in a virtual host on an Internet Information
/ervices server ,or other compatible A/5.NET serversC see .ther Implementations, below-. The
first time a client re:uests a page, the .NET framework parses and compiles the file,s- into a
.NET assembly and sends the responseC subse:uent re:uests are served from the 4** files. 3y
default A/5.NET will compile the entire site in batches of &!!! files upon first re:uest. If the
compilation delay is causing problems, the batch siDe or the compilation strategy may be
4evelopers can also choose to pre<compile their =codebehind= files before deployment, using
(/ 7isual /tudio, eliminating the need for @ust<in<time compilation in a production environment.
This also eliminates the need of having the source code on the web server.
Aa! ,shorthand for asynchronous "ava/cript and 0(*
- is a group of interrelated web
development techni:ues used on the client<side to create interactive web applications. )ith A@a+,
web applications can retrieve data from the server asynchronously in the background without
interfering with the display and behavior of the e+isting page. The use of A@a+ techni:ues has led
to an increase in interactive or dynamic interfaces on web pages.
4ata is usually retrieved
using the M!Http"e#uest ob@ect. 4espite the name, the use of 0(* is not actually re:uired,
nor do the re:uests need to be asynchronous.
*ike 4>T(* and *A(5, A@a+ is not a technology in itself, but a group of technologies. A@a+
uses a combination of >T(* and ;// to mark up and style information. The 4.( is accessed
with "ava/cript to dynamically display, and to allow the user to interact with, the information
presented. "ava/cript and the 0(*>ttpAe:uest ob@ect provide a method for e+changing data
asynchronously between browser and server to avoid full page reloads.
The term A$a% has come to represent a broad group of web technologies that can be used to
implement a web application that communicates with a server in the background, without
interfering with the current state of the page. In the article that coined the term A@a+,
"ames 9arrett e+plained that the following technologies are re:uiredH
5%= or -5%= and (SS for presentation
the 'ocument ?bAect %odel for dynamic display of and interaction with data
-%= and -S= for the interchange, and manipulation and display, of data,
the -%=5ttp>eBuest obAect for asynchronous communication
9a.aScript to bring these technologies together
/ince then, however, there have been a number of developments in the technologies used in an
A@a+ application, and the definition of the term A@a+. In particular, it has been noted thatH

9a.aScript is not the only client/side scripting language that can be used for
implementing an )Aa@ application. ?ther languages such as CDScript are also
capable of the reBuired functionality.
5owe.er 9a.aScript is the most
popular language for )Aa@ programming due to its inclusion in and
compatibility with the maAority of modern web browsers.

-%= is not reBuired for data interchange and therefore -S= is not reBuired
for the manipulation of data. 9a.aScript ?bAect :otation (9S?:) is often used
as an alternati.e format for data interchange,
although other formats such
as preformatted 5%= or plain te@t can also be used.
;lassic A@a+ involves writing ad hoc "ava/cript on the client. A simpler if cruder alternative is to
use standard "ava/cript libraries that can partially update a page, such as A/5.NetFs Bpdate5anel.
Tools such as Echo$ and LM enable fine grained control of a page from the server, using only
standard "ava/cript libraries.