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Political Ideologies

Ideology are sets of related ideas that modify one another, an organized set of ideas. It is also
about sets of ideas about politics, all of which is related to one another and that modify and
support each other.
Modern Ideologies
Liberalism
Liberalism as an ideology adheres to the concept that the highest good of society the
ability of the members of that society to develop their individual capacities to the fullest extent.
An ideology positing that the most important goal of politics is to help individuals develop their
capacities to the fullest. To this end, people should be regulated and aided by governments as
little as possible, so that they will learn from the experience of being responsible for their own
decisions. Liberalist believes that government is best which governs least.! They also adheres
that power is bad thing that should be limited as much as possible. "ower allows some people to
force choices on others, which files directly in the face of liberal principles. To a liberal, politics
should properly consist of public choices, in the ma#ing of which each person shares e$ually. As
many choices as possible should be #ept private %&hively, '(()*.
+emocracy is the appropriate system of government for liberalism, hence, democracy is a
system in which $ualified citizens vote at regular intervals to choose, among alternative
candidates, the people who will be in charge of setting the state,s policies. -obert +ahl denotes
that democracy is a system of government that meets three essential conditions. meaningful and
extensive competition among individuals and organized groups %especially political parties* for
all elective positions of government power excluding the use of force/ a highly inclusive level of
political participation in the selection of leaders and policies, at least through regular level of
civil and political liberties freedom of expression, freedom of the press, freedom to form and
0oin organizations sufficient to ensure the integrity of political competition and participation
%+iamond, et al., 1233*.
Two Kinds of Democracy:
1. +irect +emocracy 4 +emocracy is direct or pure when the people themselves discharge
the three powers of government wherein the will of the state is formulated or primary
assembly, rather than through the medium of delegates or representatives chosen to act
for them.
'. Indirect +emocracy 4 +emocracy is indirect (representative democracy) when the
people govern themselves through elected public official,s. This is one which the will of
the state is formulated and expressed through the agency of relatively small and select
body of persons chosen by the people to act as their representatives.
onservatism
5onservatism as an ideology positing that the most important goal of politics is to create
stable communities based on hierarchy of power in which leaders and followers have
reciprocal responsibilities and obligations. 6nli#e liberalism, conservatism is not suspicious
of power and does not see# to limit the power of the state. -ather, the point of conservatism
is that power should be in the hands of a traditional class of rulers. 5onservatives do not see
a powerful monarch or president as one who is in a position to treat people capriciously.
-ather, they see such an official as one who is in a position of awesome responsibility, with
generally little choice as to courses of action. 7urthermore, conservatism stresses the
responsibility of the powerful in a community to help the wea#, a position opposed to the
view of liberals that the wea# should be given responsibility for their own affairs.
!ocialism
&ocialism as an ideology adheres that society consists of classes %groups of people
similarly placed economically* constantly in conflict. To create a 0ust society in which
people are e$ual, the wor#ing class should ta#e over the state and direct all industries.
&ocialism retained the assumption of liberalism that all persons deserve e$ual treatment by
the state and should have e$ual opportunities to develop themselves/ but unli#e liberalism, it
did not posit that people could develop individually, and it was not suspicious as liberalism of
the concentration of power and of positive action by the state.
8arx based his social theory on the existing zeitgeist of his time. It was the era of
the Industrial revolution where 5apitalist eager to earn more, were abusive over the
laborers. 8arx believes that there was an existing class struggle in world society, a class
struggle between the elements of the means of production, 4 the 5apitalist, upon which he
termed as 9ourgeosie/ and the Laborers or the "roletariat.
8arx predicted that the continued oppression of the capitalist to the laborers would
result into a drastic measure to attain a change in the society. :e adheres in the concept of a
revolution to change the existing situation. This revolution is needed and would be carried
out by the "roletariats against the 5apitalist, a diplomatic resolution was not possible/ since
the 5apitalist will not allow a share in their leadership in the society with the "roletariat.
;nce, the revolution has been carried out, a new society will emerge, and will be headed by
the "roletariats. -eligion was considered by 8arx as the cause wea#ness of the people since
it teaches the people to be mee# and good, 8arx considers religion as the ;pium of
&ociety.!
To avoid the abuses and greediness of the people, 8arx introduces a #ind of society
upon which there is the abolition of private property and will be replaced by communal or
common ownership of material things by the people, this society will be in its preparatory
state of &ocialism to prepare the world for the global aspect of 5ommunism. 8arx believes
that his utopian society is only possible if it is a worldwide contexts, because communism
will not wor# if it is only compounded within the &tate.
"ascism
5ommonly #nown as Totalitarian of the right, is a totalitarian organization of government
and society by extremely rightist single party dictatorship which is intensely nationalist,
militarist and imperialist which emphasizes superiority of a particular race. 7ascism is not
entirely considered as an ideology but rather a political style. It uses innovative style in
campaigning, usually appealing to the nationalism of the people to rally support them. 7or
instance, :itler and the <A=I "arty appealed to the >erman populace by condemning the
Treaty of ?ersailles as the main culprit in >erman economic collapse after @orld @ar I. 9y
gaining the support of the people, ma#ing promises of Aryan mastery of the world, silencing
oppositions and creating a strong state geared for war, :itler and the <A=I "arty was able to
ta#e entire control of >ermany which resulted to @orld @ar II.
Presidential and Parliamentary #overnment:
Presidential

The president system of the government is the theoretical opposite of the parliamentary
form. Its basic framewor# is the theory of separation of powers. It is one in which the chief
executive has a status independent of and co4ordinate with the legislature and is not sub0ect
to the direction or control of the latter either for his continuance in office or in respect to the
manner in which he exercise his powers.
Parliamentary #overnment
This form of government is founded upon the theory of fusion of powers, not separation..
6nder this system the ultimate seat of governmental powers is the legislature called
"arliament, and the executive is subordinate and responsible to the legislature both with
respect to his tenure of office and the manner he exercises the powers of government