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Vaibhav Tiwari

B. Tech 2
nd
Year
SRM University, SRM Nagar
Kattankulathur 603203,
Kancheepuram District,
Chennai Tamilnadu










Summer Training Report


This is to certify that Vaibhav Tiwari (1041210250) student of
2011-2015 Batch of Electronics & Communication Branch in 2
nd

Year of SRM University, Kattankulathur , Chennai has
successfully completed his industrial training at Delhi Metro Rail
Corporation Ltd., Yamuna bank depot, New Delhi for six weeks
from 16
th
June to 15
st
July 2014. He has completed the whole
training as per the training report submitted by him.






Training In-charge
Delhi metro rail corporation Ltd.
Yamuna bank depot, New Delhi




TABLE OF CONTENT:-

1. Acknowledgement
2. About the company
3. SYSTEM OVERVIEW OF METRO
Braking system
Traction Power supply
C-VIS
HSVCB
SCMS
Energy storage
SCADA
Signaling system
Rolling stock
4. OB communication overview
Train radio system
TCMS
CCTV
ATO/ATP




Acknowledgement

Its a great pleasure to present this report of summer training in Delhi Metro
Rail Corporation (A Joint Venture of Govt. Of India and Govt. Of Delhi) in
partial fulfillment of B.Tech Programmed under
SRM University, SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur - 603 203,
Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu.

At the outset, I would like to express my immense gratitude to my training
guide, Mr. Amit Giri , guiding me right from the inception till the successful
completion of the training.
I am falling short of words for expressing my feelings of gratitude towards
him for extending their valuable guidance, through critical reviews of project
and the report and above all the moral support he had provided me with all
stages of this training.






ABOUT THE COMPANY

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) was established by the
Government of India and the Government of Delhi in March 1995 to
build a metro system in the capital.
The metro network consists five lines with total length of 125.67kms.
The metro has 80 stations and 28 are underground.
Construction work in progress for the phase-IV.

Finances and Funding
From government of India and government of Delhi contribute equal shares,
trough soft loan from Japan bank for international cooperation.
Revenue and Profits
Revenue from advertisements and property development, leasing out trains
stations for film shoots.
Security
Central industrial security force (CISF)
Closed circuit cameras
Dog squads
Emergency communication b/w passengers and driver.






DMRC NETWORK:-



SYSTEM OVERVIEW OF METRO:-

Braking system in Delhi Metro Train
Its normal braking actuated by train operator using TBC during normal
train operation.
Its a mixture of regenerative braking and electro pneumatic friction
brake
Traction Power supply to Delhi Metro Train
Power is supplied by 25 kv, 50 Hz ac through overhead catenary.
Power supply equipments
1. (C- VIS)- Cubicle type Vacuum Insulated Switchgear
2. (HSVCB)- High Speed Vacuum Circuit Breaker
3. (B-CHOP)- Energy Storage for Traction Power Supply System
4. (SCMS)- Stray Current Monitoring System
SCADA system for power supply and network equipment surveillance.

C-VIS (Cubicle type Vacuum Insulated Switchgear)
25 kV vacuum insulated switchgear in order to eliminate the risk of
greenhouse gas emission, to meet customer requirement such as
compact design and low maintenance.
CHARACTERISTIC
1. Dual Contact design (High reliability of interrupt and disconnect)
2. SF6 gas free -Vacuum Insulation
3. Compact design
4. Grease free
HSVCB (High speed vacuum circuit breaker)
Hitachi contributes the electric railroad system demanded to the safer
service through HSVCB which is unique to us.
Characteristics
1. Low noise
2. No arc emission
3. Very short time interruption
4. Low maintenance

Stray Current Monitoring System (SCMS)
This system provides evaluation of the stray current conditions of the track,
which facilitates early detection of insulation deficiencies and allows necessary
measures to be taken to prevent potential damages caused by stray current
corrosion
B-Chop (Energy Storage for Traction Power
Supply System)





SCADA (Supervisory control $ data acquisition)
SCADA is a software system which is in charge of surveillance and data
collection by personal computers.




Signaling system of Delhi metro
Signaling used on high density metro (or subway) routes is based on the same
principles as main line signaling. The line is divided into blocks and each block
is protected by a signal but, for metros, the blocks are shorter so that the
number of trains using the line can be increased. They are also usually
provided with some sort of automatic supervision to prevent a train passing a
stop signal.
ATO
1. Control all operation from acceleration to stopping.
2. Realize driverless operation.
ATC
1. Used for making high speed operation.
2. It detect train position and transmit signal to control unit.

Figure 1: Diagram showing simple Metro-style two-aspect signaling.
Originally, metro signaling was based on the simple 2-aspect (red/green)
system as shown above. Speeds are not high, so three-aspect signals were not
necessary and yellow signals were only put in as repeaters where sighting was
restricted.
Many metro routes are in tunnels and it has long been the practice of some
operators to provide a form of enforcement of signal observation by installing
additional equipment. This became known as automatic train protection (ATP).
It can be either mechanical or electronic.
The older, mechanical version is the train stop; the latter, electronic version
depends on the manufacturer. The train stop consists of a steel arm mounted
alongside the track and which is linked to the signal. If the signal shows a
green or proceeds aspect, the train stop is lowered and the train can pass
freely. If the signal is red the train stop is raised and, if the train attempts to
pass it, the arm strikes a "trip cock" on the train, applying the brakes and
preventing motoring.
Electronic ATP involves track to train transmission of signal aspects and
(sometimes) their associated speed limits. On-board equipment will check the
train's actual speed against the allowed speed and will slow or stop the train if
any section is entered at more than the allowed speed.
The Overlap
If a line is equipped with a simple ATP which automatically stops a train if it
passes a red signal, it will not prevent a collision with a train in front if this
train is standing immediately beyond the signal.

Figure 2: Diagram showing the need for a safe braking distance beyond a
stop signal.
There must be room for the train to brake to a stop - see the diagram above.
This is known as a "safe braking distance" and space is provided beyond each
signal to accommodate it. In reality, the signal is placed in rear of the entrance
to the block and the distance between it and the block is called the "overlap".
Signal overlaps are calculated to allow for the safe braking distance of the
trains using this route. Of course, lengths vary according to the site; gradient,
maximum train speed and train brake capacity are all used in the calculation.

Figure 3: Diagram showing a signal provided with an overlap. The overlap
in this example is calculated from the emergency braking distance required
by the train at that location.
This diagram (Figure 3) shows the arrangement of signals on a metro where
signals are equipped with train stops (a form of mechanical ATP) and each
signal has an overlap whose length is calculated on the safe braking distance
for that location. Signals are placed a safe braking distance in rear of the
entrances to blocks. Signal A2 shows the condition of Block A2, which is
occupied by Train 1. If Train 2 was to overrun Signal A2, the raised train stop
(shown here as a "T" at the base of the signal) would trip its emergency brake
and bring it to a stand within the overlap of Signal A2.






Track-Circuited Overlaps

Figure 4: Diagram showing a train standing in the signal overlap.
Nothing in the railway business is as simple as it seems and so it is with
overlaps. A line which uses overlaps and has close headways could have a
situation as shown above where the train in the overlap of Signal A121 has a
green signal showing behind it. Although it is protected by Signal A123
showing red, the driver of Train 2 may see the green signal A121 behind Train
1 and could "read through" or be confused under the "stop and proceed" rule.

Figure 5: Diagram of the track circuited overlap, sometimes known as a
"replacing track circuit".
So, where there is a possibility of a green signal being visible behind a train,
overlaps are track circuited as shown in Fig. 5. Although there is no train
occupying the block protected by Signal A121, the signal is showing a red
aspect because the train is occupying the overlap track circuit or "replacing"
track circuit, as it is sometimes called.
This will give rise to two red signals showing behind a train whilst the train is
in the overlap. The block now has two track circuits, the "Berth" track and the
"replacing" track.
Absolute Block

Figure 6: Schematic showing the principle of the Absolute Block system. Signal
A127 is clear because two blocks in advance of it is clear. A125 shows a
danger aspect because one of the blocks ahead of it is occupied by a train.
Many railways use an "Absolute Block" system, where a vacant block is always
maintained behind a train in order to ensure there is enough room for the
following train to be stopped if it passes the first stop (red) signal. In Figure 6,
in order for Signal A125 to show a proceed aspect (green), the two blocks
ahead of it must be clear, with Train 1 completely inside the block protected by
Signal A121.








ROLLING STOCK
The first wave of rolling stock was manufactured by a consortium comprising
Hyundai Rotem, Mitsubishi Corporation and Mitsubishi Electric Corporation.
Initial sets were built by ROTEM in South Korea, with later examples
completed in India by public sector undertaking Bharat Earth Movers Limited
(BEML). BEML is also responsible for the manufacturing coaches under
technology transfer agreement.
The air-conditioned trains consist of four 3.2m-wide, stainless steel,
lightweight, although eight is possible. The trains have automatic doors,
secondary air suspension and brakes controlled by microprocessor.
Delhi Metro has a fleet of 280 coaches, which DMRC runs as 70 trains every
day. Each train can accommodate about 1,500 people, 240 seated. Maximum
speed is 80km/h (50mph), with a 20-second dwell time at stations. Train
depots are located at Khyber Pass, Najafgarh, Shastri Park and Yamuna Bank.
In May 2011, BEML received a contract worth Rs9.2bn ($205m) from DMRC
to supply 136 intermediate metro cars. The delivery is expected to be
completed by December 2013.
In March 2008 Bombardier Transportation announced an 87m ($137m)
contract for 84 MOVIA metro cars, a follow-on to an order for 340 placed in
July 2007. The new vehicles are being deployed as part of the Phase II
expansion.
In September 2011, Bombardier received a $120m order for 76 additional
MOVIA metro cars. This was a follow-on contract to an order placed for 114
vehicles in the middle of 2010. Deliveries under the new order are expected to
be completed between the third quarter of 2012 and early 2013.
DMRC received the first MOVIA metro car from Germany in February 2009.
The first 36 vehicles will be manufactured in Gorlitz, Germany, and the
remaining 388 cars will be built at Bombardier's Indian manufacturing facility
in Savli, South Gujarat.
A Phase I broad gauge train, supplied by Hyundai Rotem-BEML.
A Phase II broad gauge train, supplied by Bombardier.
The Metro uses rolling stock of two different gauges. Phase I lines use
1,676 mm (5.499 ft) broad gauge rolling stock, while three Phase II lines use
1,435 mm (4.708 ft) standard gauge rolling stock. Trains are maintained at
seven depots at Khyber Pass and Sultanpur for the Yellow Line, Mundka for
the Green Line, Najafgarh and Yamuna Bank for the Blue Line, Shastri Park for
the Red Line and Sarita Vihar for the Violet Line.
Broad gauge
The broad gauge rolling stock is manufactured by two major suppliers. For the
Phase I, the rolling stock was supplied by a consortium of companies
comprising Hyundai Rotem, Mitsubishi Corporation, and MELCO. The coaches
were initially built in South Korea by ROTEM,
[116]
then in Bangalore by BEML
through a technology transfer arrangement. These trains consist of four 3.2-
metre (10 ft) wide stainless steel lightweight coaches with vestibules
permitting movement throughout their length and can carry up to 1500
passengers, with 50 seated and 330 standing passengers per coach. The
coaches are fully air conditioned, equipped with automatic doors,
microprocessor-controlled brakes and secondary air suspension, and are
capable of maintaining an average speed of 32 km/h (20 mph) over a distance
of 1.1 km (0.68 mi). The system is extensible up to eight coaches, and
platforms have been designed accordingly.
The rolling stock for Phase II is being supplied by Bombardier Transportation,
which has received an order for 614 cars worth approximately US$ 1100
million. While initial trains were made in Germany and Sweden, the
remainder will be built at Bombardier's factory in Savli, near Vadodara These
trains are a mix of four-car and six-car consists, capable of accommodating
1178 and 1792 commuters per train respectively. The coaches possess several
improved features like Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras with eight-
hour backup for added security, charging points in all coaches for cell phones
and laptops, improved air conditioning to provide a temperature of 25 degrees
Celsius even in packed conditions and heaters for winter.
Standard gauge
The standard gauge rolling stock is manufactured by BEML at its factory in
Bangalore. The trains are four-car consists with a capacity of 1506 commuters
per train, accommodating 50 seated and 292 standing passengers in each
coach. These trains will have CCTV cameras in and outside the coaches, power
supply connections inside coaches to charge mobiles and laptops, better
humidity control, microprocessor-controlled disc brakes, and will be capable
of maintaining an average speed of 34 km/h (21 mph) over a distance of
1.1 km (0.68 mi)
position. This prevents any kick from the pipe as it is disengaged. Closing the
angle cocks also has the effect of bleeding off the air trapped in the hose. The
angle cock has a special bleed hole for this purpose.
















OB COMMUNICATION
Train radio system
The train radio system is the main link for non-safety critical vehicle
communication. The system can handle both voice and data communication
in order to
Allow operation control center (00C) to read status information
from the vehicle.
Allow the driver to speak with OCC and/or depot.
Allow OCC to perform remote operation of the vehicle PIS.
Allow OCC to passively supervise cab activities, i.e. the current
voice/sound of the active cab

Train radio system component









Train radio system units in driving cab
The train driver will see five items, in the driving cab. that make up the train
radio system:
19" sub-rack. located behind the co-driver's seat
Train radio control panel (1RCP) mounted on the left hand
Components
DT car hifT-car
19 Trainborne rack 1
Radio centre/ bead (RCF-1) 1
Train radio control panel (TRCP) 1 -
Speaker 1 _
Handset 1
Antenna 1
Fist microphone 1 -
sidewall of the driver.
Radio control head (RCN) mounted on the left hand sidewall
of the driver.
Handset mounted on the console in front of the driver seat to be
used as default option for voice input.
Fist microphone mounted on the left hand sidewall of the
driver to be used as backup option for voice input.

Train Control and Management System (TCMS):-
The function of TCMS is to control and monitor on board
systems and sub systems connected to the train
communication network. The TCMS system incorporates
unit and train level functionality for the different
systems that has interlaces with the TCMS system. it is
a distributed and modular system.
The following functions/systems are supervised
/controlled by TCMS:-

Propulsion
Brakes
Auxiliary electric system
Train operation control
Doors
Passenger information system
ATP/ATO
Train radio
Air supply
Carbody fittings
Interior
Coupler
HVAC
Line voltage
Battery
Fire detection
CCTV



Units in TCMS
Unit
DT
CAR
M-
CAR
T-
CAR
CCU-0 Central computing unitoperational 1 1 1
CC;U-C Central cornputing unitcomfort 1
MOBAD Mode/Battery/Address unit 3
MIO-DX2 Modular digital input/output unit 2 1 1
MIO-DX3 Modular digital input/output unit 1 1 1
MIO-DX4 Modular digital input/output ur.: 1
AX Analogue input /output unit 1
MCG Mobile communication gateway 1
Antenna 1
Dual-
Band
Combiner
1
11M1 Human machine interface
2


TCMS software

Train diagnostic system (TDS) - uploader: Offers the user an
interface for uploading or reading the information stored in the
diagnostic system.
Maintenance of vehicle information and statistics (MAVIS):
It enables the maintenance staff to view and analyze the information
uploaded from the on-board TDS system.
Drivers control unit (DCU) term: It is a software tool for the maintenance
personnel.
Software is used to view analog and logical signals in real-time in a
graphical environment, to analyze the system status, to analyze the
operation-recording of signals, to enable test procedures through
buttons and scripts.
Version control arid download tool (MTVD): MTVD is a tool
mainly for the maintenance personnel.
CCTV System (Closed-Circuit Television):-
The main function of CCTV system is to record the events in the saloon
area & Platform.
Cameras are directly connected to the DVRs in the DT-car
It, other cars cameras are connected to remote units.
All images are streamed to the DVRs where they are stored.
The DVRs and remote units are connected to the TCMS via IP backbone.
The CCTV system via DVF-i will communicate with the TCMS via IP
backbone.
Live camera images can be viewed on monitors in both cabs.
System activation:
When the vehicle is activated, it performs a system start-up and supplies
power to the CCTV system.
After the system start-up, tile video system starts recording images.
System de-activation:
When there is no power, the CCTV system de-activates.




AUTOMATIC TRAIN PROTECTION
(ATP)/AUTOMATIC TRAIN OPERATION (ATO):-
Functions of AT0
To drive trains between stations and slop them with high precision.
To give consistent speed profile for at trains to improve both traffic
regularity and Line capacity.
ATO
ATP is the safety system which ensures that trains remain a safe distance a part
and have sufficient warning to allow them to stop without colliding with
another train. ATO (Automatic Train Operation) is the non-safety part of train
operation related to station stops and starts.
The basic requirement of ATO is to tell the train approaching a station where
to stop so that the complete train is in the platform. This is assuming that the
ATP has confirmed that the line is clear. The sequence operates as shown
below.



The train approaches the station under clear signals so it can do a normal run
in. When it reaches the first beacon - originally a looped cable, now usually a
fixed transponder - a station brake command is received by the train. The on
board computer calculates the braking curve to enable it to stop at the correct
point and, as the train runs in towards the platform, the curve is updated a
number of times (it varies from system to system) to ensure accuracy.
Modern systems require less wayside checking because of the dynamic and
more accurate on-board braking curve calculations. Now, modern
installations can achieve 0.15 meters stopping accuracy - 14 times better.
Metro Station Stops
ATO works well when the line is clear and station run-ins and run-outs are
unimpeded by the train ahead. However, ATO has to be capable of adapting to
congested conditions, so it has to be combined with ATP at stations when trains
are closely following each other. Metro operation at stations has always been
a particular challenge and, long before ATO appeared in the late 1960s,
systems were developed to minimize the impact when a train delayed too long
at a station.



To provide a frequent train service on a metro, dwell times at stations must be
kept to a minimum. In spite of the best endeavors of staff, trains sometimes
overstay their time at stations, so signaling was been developed to reduce the
impact on following trains. To see how this works, we begin with an example
(left) of a conventionally signaled station with a starting Signal A1 (green) and
a home Signal A2 (red) protecting a train (Train 1) standing in the station. We
can assume mechanical ATP (train stops) is provided so the overlap of Signal
A2 is a full speed braking distance in advance of the platform.
As Train 2 approaches, it slows when the driver sees the home Signal A2 at
danger. Even if Train 1 then starts and begins to leave the station, Signal A2
will remain at danger until Train 1 has cleared the overlap of Signal A1. Train
2 will have to stop at A2 but will then restart almost immediately when Signal
A2 clears. This causes a delay to Train 2 and it requires more energy to restart
the train. A way was found to allow the second train to keep moving. It is
called multi-home signaling.
Multi Home Signaling - Approach

Where multi-home signaling is installed at a station (left), it involves the
provision of more but shorter blocks, each with its own signal. The original
home signal in our example has become Signal A2A and, while Train 1 is in
the platform, it will remain at danger. However, Block A2 is broken up into
three smaller sub-blocks, A2A, A2B and A2C, each with its own signal. They
will also be at danger while Train 1 is in the platform. Train 2 is approaching
and beginning to brake so as to stop at Signal A2A.
When Train 1 begins to leave the station, it will clear sub-block A2A first and
signal A2A will then show green. Train 2 will have reduced speed somewhat
but can now begin its run in towards the platform.
Multi Home Signaling - Run In

At this next stage in the sequence, we can see (left) that Train 1 has now
cleared two sub-blocks, A2A and A2B, so two of the multi-home signals are
now clear. Note that the starting signal is now red as the train has entered the
next block A1. Train 2 is running towards the station at a reduced speed but it
has not had to stop.
When Train 1 clears the overlap of signal A1, the whole of block A2 is clear
and signal A2C clears to allow Train 2 an unobstructed run into the platform.
ATO/ATP Multi Home Signalling

Fixed block metro systems use multi-home signalling with ATO and ATP. A
series of sub-blocks are provided in the platform area. These impose reduced
speed braking curves on the incoming train and allow it to run towards the
platform as the preceding train departs, whilst keeping a safe braking distance
between them. Each curve represents a sub-block. Enforcement is carried out
by the ATP system monitoring the train speed. The station stop beacons still
give the train the data for the braking curve for the station stop but the train
will recalculate the curve to compensate for the lower speed imposed by the
ATP system.



ATO Docking and Starting
In addition to providing an automatic station stop, ATO will allow "docking"
for door operation and restarting from a station. If a "driver", more often
called a "train operator" nowadays, is provided, he may be given the job of
opening and closing the train doors at a station and restarting the train when
all doors are proved closed. Some systems are designed to prevent doors being
opened until the train is "docked" in the right place. Some systems even take
door operation away from the operator and give it to the ATO system so
additional equipment is provided as shown left.
When the train has stopped, it verifies that its brakes are applied and checks
that it has stopped within the door enabling loops. These loops verify the
position of the train relative to the platform and which side the doors should
open. Once all this is complete, the ATO will open the doors. After a set time,
predetermined or varied by the control centre as required, the ATO will close
the doors and automatically restart the train if the door closed proving circuit
is complete. Some systems have platform screen doors as well. ATO will also
provide a signal for these to open once it has completed the on-board
checking procedure. Although described here as an ATO function, door
enabling at stations is often incorporated as part of the ATP equipment because
it is regarded as a "vital" system and requires the same safety validation
processes as ATP.
Once door operation is completed, ATO will then accelerate the train to its
cruising speed, allow it to coast to the next station brake command beacon and
then brake into the next station, assuming no intervention by the ATP system
Functions of ATP
To prevent trains from running too fast.
To prevent collisions between trains and buffer stops.
To safeguard the movement of trains through points.
To maintain a safe distance between following trains on the same track.
Preventing the train to switch "mode" when not appropriate.

Automatic Train Protection

To adapt metro signaling to modern, electronic ATP, the overlaps are
incorporated into the block system. This is done by counting the block behind
an occupied block as the overlap. Thus, in a full, fixed block ATP system, there
will be two red signals and an unoccupied, or overlap block between trains to
provide the full safe braking distance, as shown here (click for full size view).
As an aside, remember that, although I have shown signals here, many ATP
equipped systems do not have visible line side signals because the signal
indications are transmitted directly to the driver's cab console (cab signaling).
On a line equipped with ATP as shown above, each block carries an electronic
speed code on top of its track circuit. If the train tries to enter a zero speed
block or an occupied block, or if it enters a section at a speed higher than that
authorized by the code, the on-board electronics will cause an emergency
brake application. It was a simple system with only three speed codes -
normal, caution and stop. Many systems built since are based on it but
improvements have been added.
ATP Speed Codes
A train on a line with a modern version of ATP needs two pieces of
information about the state of the line ahead - what speed can it do in this
block and what speed must it be doing by the time it enters the next block. This
speed data is picked up by antennae on the train. The data is coded by the
electronic equipment controlling the track circuitry and transmitted from the
rails. The code data consists of two parts, the authorised speed code for this
block and the target speed code for the next block. The diagram below shows
how this works.

In this example (left), a train in Block A5 approaching Signal A4 will receive a
40 over 40 code (40/40) to indicate a permitted speed of 40 km/h in this block
and a target speed of 40 km/h for the next. This is the normal speed data.
However, when it enters Block A4, the code will change to 40/25 because the
target speed must be 25 km/h when the train enters the next Block A3. When
the train enters Block A3, the code changes again to 25/0 because the next
block (A2) is the overlap block and is forbidden territory, so the speed must be
zero by the time train reaches the end of Block A3. If the train attempts to
enter Block A2, the on-board equipment will detect the zero speed code (0/0)
and will cause an emergency brake application. As mentioned above, Block A2
is acting as the overlap or safe braking distance behind the train occupying
Block A1.
Operating with ATP
Trains operating over a line equipped with ATP can be manually or
automatically driven. To allow manual driving, the ATP codes are displayed to
the driver on a panel in his cab. In our example below, he would begin
braking somewhere around the brake initiation point because he would see
the 40/25 code on his display and would know, from his knowledge of the
line, where he will have to stop. If signals are not provided, the signal positions
will normally be indicated by trackside block marker boards to show drivers
the entrances to blocks.

If the train is installed with automatic driving (ATO - Automatic Train
Operation), brake initiation for the reduced target speed can be by either a
track mounted electronic "patch" or "beacon" placed at the brake initiation
point or, more simply, by the change in the coded track circuit. Both systems
are used by different manufacturers but, in both, the train passes through a
series of "speed steps" to the signaled stop.
When the first train clears Block A1, the codes in Blocks A2, A3 and A4 will
change to the next speed up and any train passing through them will receive
immediately a new permitted speed and a new target speed for the next block.
This allows an instant response to changing conditions and helps to keep
trains moving.
Distance-to-Go
The next stage of ATP development was an attempt to eliminate the space lost
by the empty overlap block behind each train. If this could be eliminated, line
capacity could be increased by up to 20%, depending on block lengths and line
speed. In this diagram, the train in Block A1 causes a series of speed reduction
steps behind it so that, if a following train enters Block A6, it will get a reduced
target speed. As it continues towards the zero speed block A2, it gets a further
target speed reduction at each new block until it stops at the end of Block A3.
It will stop before entering Block A2, the overlap block. The braking curve is
shown here in brown as the "standard" braking curve.

To remove the overlap section, it is simply a question of moving the braking
curve forward by one block. The train will now be able to proceed a block
closer (A5 instead of A6) to the occupied block, before it gets a target speed
reduction. However, to get this close to the occupied block requires accurate
and constant checking of the braking by the train, so an on-board computer
calculates the braking curve required, based on the distance to go to the
stopping point and using a line map contained in the computer's memory. The
new curve is shown in blue in the diagram. A safety margin of 25 meters or so
is allowed for error so that the train will always stop before it reaches the
critical boundary between Blocks A2 and A1.
Speed Monitoring
Both the older, speed step method of electronic ATP and "distance-to-go"
require the train speed to be monitored. In Fig 8 above, we can see the
standard braking curve of the speed step system always remains inside the
profile of the speed steps. The train's ATP equipment only monitors the train's
speed against the permitted speed limit within that block. If the train goes
above that speed, an emergency brake application will be invoked. The
standard braking curve made by the train is not monitored.
For the distance-to-go system, the development of modern electronics has
allowed the brake curve to be monitored continuously so that the speed steps
become unnecessary. When it enters the first block with a speed restriction in
the code, the train is also told how far ahead the stopping point is. The on-
board computer knows where the train is now, using the line "map" embedded
in its memory, and it calculates the required braking curve accordingly. As the
train brakes, the computer checks the progress down the curve to check the
train never goes outside it. To ensure that the wheel revolutions used to count
the train's progression along the line have not drifted due to wear, skidding or
sliding, the on-board map of the line is updated regularly during the trip by
fixed, track-mounted beacons laid between the rails.
Operation with Distance-to-Go
Distance-to-go ATP has a number of advantages over the speed step system. As
we have seen, it can increase line capacity but also it can reduce the number of
track circuits required, since you don't need frequent changes of steps to keep
adjusting the braking distance.
The blocks are now just the spaces to be occupied by trains and are not used as
overlaps as well. Distance-to-go can be used for manual driving or automatic
operation.

Systems vary but often, several curves are provided for the train braking
profile. This example shows three: One is the normal curve within which the
train should brake, the second is a warning curve, which provides a warning
to the driver (an audio-visual alarm or a service break application depending
on the system) and the third is the emergency curve which will force an
emergency brake if the driver does not reduce speed to within the normal
curve.