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UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING


FME 532 FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY REPORT

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF COMPRESSIBLE FLOW THROUGH A
CONVERGENT-DIVERGENT NOZZLE



BY
OSORO GEORGE GECHUKI
F18/1868/2007



GROUP MEMBERS:
ROSE KIMATHI F18/23348/2008
NJOROGE JOHN F18/21648/2007
DUNCAN MAINA F18/23511/2008
MARK KARUE F18/10520/2003
SAMMY NGANGA F18/23561/2008
PETER OKELLO F18/2233/2008
HENRY NYANGAGA F18/23313/2008
MAURICIO MBINDYO F18/23427/2008
JOYCE KABERERE F18/23498/2008
MICHAEL MUKOLWE F18/2158/2008
HANNIBAL NJAGA F18/21776/2007
WASIM VELJI F18/23159/2008
BONIFACE SENVUA F18/1863/2007


NOTATION
- Flow area
- sonic velocity

- specific heat at constant pressure (6012 . )

- specific heat at constant volume (4296 . )


() - Fliegner (total) number
() - Fliegner (static) number
() - Fliegner (impulse) number
- Mach number
- Mass flow
- Total pressure
- Static pressure
- Volume of the receiver
- Entropy
- Total temperature
- Static temperature
- Velocity
- Distance along nozzle
- Ratio of specific heats (1.4 for air)
- Nozzle efficiency
= (

) - Gas constant (1716 . )



Subscripts
- inlet condition
- throat condition
- condition at channel or nozzle exit
- condition at nozzle exit
- isentropic condition
- initial condition
- final condition
- condition upstream of normal or multiple shocks
- condition downstream of normal or multiple shocks

INTRODUCTION:
The advent of the aerospace age emphasizes the study of aerodynamics of compressible fluid
flow for which many books [1,2,3] have been published for undergraduate and graduate
students. In this the basic assumptions is that the working fluid is an ideal gas at constant
specific heats and that the compressible flow is one-dimensional. Generally speaking at a point
element of fluid static pressure, static temperature, density and sonic velocity are
thermodynamic properties where as velocity and acceleration are dynamic properties of the
fluid element. Total pressure, total temperature, mass flow per unit area, Mach number etc.,
which in a general sense can be considered as fluid properties, are obtained by the combination
of thermodynamic and dynamic properties of the fluid element.
For the analysis of one-dimensional flow process the thermodynamic and the dynamic
properties when combined yield useful flow parameters. One such parameter is Fliegner
number which is a non-dimensional parameter. Although this number adds nothing new to the
theory of compressible flow it does greatly simplifies physical explanation, theoretical analysis
and experimental calculations.
The detailed deviations of this number and working equations are given later. Since it is
believed that only wall static pressures can be easily measured the simple experiment
described here may provide a useful method for understanding the compressible flow
phenomena. The experiment illustrates the basic principles of compressible fluid flow involving
area variation and shock waves.











THEORETICAL ANALYSIS
One-Dimensional Flow
Steady one-dimensional flow at constant specific heats may involve area variation, wall friction,
heating, cooling, mass injection, mass removal, etc. The thermodynamic and the dynamic fluid
properties for this general type of flow vary from plane to plane normal to the flow. However,
by definition, one-dimensional flow has constant fluid properties at any chosen plane.
Considering , , , , , , etc. as fluid properties at any plane, we have the following
equations:
Equation of state:
= (1)
equation of continuity:
= constant (2)
The total energy per unit mass at any plane is the sum of internal energy, flow work and kinetic
energy.
i.e.

2
2
=

2
2
= constant (3)
by definition, the sound velocity and Mach number respectively are
= ()
1
2
(4)
=


Equation (3) by eliminating becomes:
= (1 +
1
2

2
) (6)
The isentropic law when applied to the fluid properties at the plane, gives:

= (

)
1

(7)
Equations (1), (2), (6) and (7) can be combined to give:

1
(1 +
1
2

2
)

+1
2(1)
= () (8)

1
(1 +
1
2

2
)
1
2
= () (9)

( +
2
)
=

1(1 +
2
)
(1 +
1
2

2
)

+1
2(1)
= () (10)
Equations (8), (9) and (10) show that the Fliegner numbers are functions of Mach number and
ratio of specific heats only. In the case of adiabatic irreversible flow process, the Mach number
variation and total pressure distribution can be obtained from the wall static pressure
measurements. If it is assumed that the reference plane (

) at m,

and

has a sonic
velocity, then

= (1) = 1.281 (11)


Combining equations (11) and (9)
() =
(1)
(

)(

)
(12)
from which the Mach number is determined from the geometric area ratio (

) and the ratio of


wall static pressure to the reference total pressure. Combining equations (11) and (8)
(

) =
(1)
(

)()
(13)
where () is obtained from () in equation (12). Equation (13) gives the total pressure
ratio (

). Equations (12) and (13) are the basic equations for the experimental calculations in
this report.

NORMAL SHOCK EQUATIONS:
Normal shock equations can be simply derived by applying Fliegner numbers as follows:
From equation (2),

(14)
For adiabatic flow of a perfect gas,

(15)
From the momentum equations

2
=

2
(16)
Combining equations (14), (15), (16) and (10)
(

) = (

) (17)
which can be simplified to:

2
=
( 1)

2
+2
2

2
( 1)
(18)
Where

is supersonic and

is subsonic. From equation (16), the total pressure ratio across


the shock is

=
(

)
(

)
(19)
From equation (10), the static pressure ratio is:

=
(

)
(

)
(20)

DE LAVAL NOZZLE
It is well known (Ref. 7) that a de Laval nozzle has a properly contoured wall of converged-
divergent configuration in order to achieve a uniform subsonic flow at its exit. However, for
simplicity and economy, a two-dimensional nozzle of less that 15 semi-angle is satisfactory for
the present apparatus.
The Fliegner (total) number explains how to achieve supersonic flow in one-dimensional
isentropic nozzle by variation of area. Since , , ,

and are constant, () becomes a


function of flow area only. Fig. (1) shows that for subsonic flow, the area must be reduced for a
higher () to obtain a higher Mach number.
As a result, the subsonic flow accelerates in a convergent channel. On the other hand, for a
supersonic stream, the area must be increased to reduce (), in order to obtain a higher
Mach number. This means that supersonic flow accelerates in a divergent channel. The throat
of the nozzle has a minimum area to give a maximum Fliegner number as shown in Equation
(11). Equation (11) has to be satisfied in order to have a sonic throat for the de Laval nozzle.
Otherwise, the convergent-divergent channel becomes either a conventional venture for
subsonic flow or the convergent-divergent supersonic diffuser.
The area ratio for the one-dimensional isentropic de Laval nozzle is derived from Equations (8)
and (11);

=
(1)
()
(21)
The supersonic flow in the nozzle may be either continuous or intermittent depending on the
wind-tunnel design. In the continuous system, fluid is continuously supplied at a constant inlet
pressure continuously exhausted to a lower back pressure. In the intermittent system, the
supersonic flow is kept steady for a short duration only. For a simple intermittent system,
atmospheric air is drawn via a nozzle into a vacuum receiver. Water vapour in the air causes no
severe condensation shocks if the nozzle has a Mach number less than 1.85 (Ref. 8). Since the
continuous system is much more expensive than
the intermittent the latter is therefore economically more suitable for educational purposes.

APPARATUS:
The general layout of the apparatus is shown in the following sketch. The nozzle is formed by
sandwiching two 0.25 in brass plates between two perspex plates. Air from the atmosphere is
sucked through the passage so formed and into a receiver.
It should be noted the two end tubes of the multitube manometers are open to the
atmosphere and other tubes are connected from left to right to pressure taps number 2 to 13.
The number 12 pressure tap is located in the parallel section immediately downstream of the
nozzle and the number 13 is on the receiver. The static pressure taps number 2 to 11 are
spaced 0.18 in apart along the convergent-divergent part of the nozzle and the number 4
tapping is at the throat. The throat area of the nozzle is 0.038 in
2
.
The intake section of the nozzle has been calibrated so that it can be used as a type of
venturimeter to measure the flow going through the nozzle. The flow in the intake is assumed
effectively incompressible and hence the mass flow can be calculated by measuring pressure
drop. The area of the intake section is 0.25 in
2
and the discharge coefficient for this intake has
been found to be 0.92.
The flow through the nozzle is controlled by means of a manually operated by-pass value on the
receiver. As this value is opened air enters the receiver through it and raises the receiver
pressure thus changing the flow through the nozzle.
The temperature of the air downstream of the nozzle is measured by a thermometer in the
pipeline

To perform the experiment it is suggested that measurements be made for four values of the
receiver pressures. As mentioned before the receiver pressures is adjusted by controlling
manually operated value. All measurements should be taken when steady state conditions are
reached.
RESULTS
Atmospheric pressure : 24.45 inHg = 62.103cmHg
Room temperature : 23 = 296K

Press drop 37.6*0.2
= 7.52

cmH
2
O
37.6*0.2
= 7.52

cmH
2
O
19.5*0.2
= 3.9

cmH
2
O
9.2*0.2
= 1.84

cmH
2
O
Temp 25 25 26 27
Press. Tap
No.
Mano.
Reading
cms.Hg.
Static
Press.
cms.Hg
Mano.
Reading
cms.Hg.
Static
Press.
cms.Hg
Mano.
Reading
cms.Hg.
Static
Press.
cms.Hg
Mano.
Reading
cms.Hg.
Static
Press.
cms.Hg
1. Ref. Atm 0 62.103 0.76 61.343 17.53 44.573 20.57 41.533
2. 4.5 57.603 4.4 57.703 19.3 42.803 21.1 41.003
3. 13.97 48.133 14.22 47.883 22.86 39.243 21.84 40.263
4. 29.3 32.803 39.9 22.203 25.6 36.503 23.1 39.003
5. 37.59 24.513 37.59 24.513 25.4 36.703 23.11 38.993
6. 36 26.103 35.9 26.203 24.5 37.603 22.7 39.403
7. 40.13 21.873 40.13 21.973 23.88 38.223 22.6 39.503
8. 42.2 19.903 42.2 19.903 23.5 38.603 8.9 53.203
9. 33.02 29.083 33.02 29.083 22.86 39.243 22.09 40.013
10. 27.4 34.703 27.1 35.003 22.6 39.503 22.4 39.703
11. 25.14 36.963 24.89 37.213 22.35 39.753 21.84 40.263
12. 21.3 40.803 21.2 40.903 22 40.103 21.7 40.403
13. Reciever 21.08 41.023 21.08 41.023 21.84 40.263 21.84 40.263
14. Ref. Atm 0 62.103 0.5 61.603 17.2 44.903 20.1 42.003

TYPICAL CALCULATIONS:
Mass Flow rate:
The density of air is given by
=

0
=
0.62103 13600 9.81
287 296
= 0.975/
3

Hence mass flow rate =

x x x
Where

= 0.92, = 0.25 in
2

= density of air 0.975/
3

and = mean velocity
Note:
=
2x(press. drop)N m
2

kg m
3


. = 7.52 9.81 10
3
= 720.05/
2

=

2 720.05
0.975
= 38.432/
m = 0.92 x (0.975
kg
m
3
) x (1.629x10
4
m
2
) x (38.432
m
s
)
= 0.00561 kg/s
Assuming that friction losses in the convergent portion are negligible the mass flow for the
chocked condition is given by equation (8), where =

(room temperature)


(atmospheric pressure);

= 1 and

= 0.038 in
2
i.e. maximum mass flow rate:
= 1.281 x


From equation (12) the Mach number at various stations can be worked out. Similarly equation
(13) gives the variation of the total pressure ratio

1
(1 +
1
2

2
)
1
2
= ()
() =
0.005611005 296
0.018 0.25 0.0254 0.57603 13600 9.81
= 0.3495
() = 0.3495 =

1
(1 +
1
2

2
)
1
2
=
1.4
0.4
(1 +0.2
2
)
1
2

= 0.1574

0
=
(1)

()
=
1.281
0.018 0.25 0.0254 0.3495
0.038 0.0254
2
= 0.786
Experimental value:

0
=
57.603
62.103
= 0.927

1. Pressure drop = 7.52
2
, temperature is 25
Station
No.
Distance from Throat
X
Throat width (
2
)
Mach
No.
Theoretical
P
P
o
Experimental
P
P
o

2 0.00011 0.15904 0.778493 0.92754
3 0.000051 0.421881 0.650508 0.775051
4 0.000032 0.930573 0.443326 0.528203
5 0.000035 1.100225 0.331288 0.394715
6 0.000038 0.968582 0.352777 0.420318
7 0.000041 1.052129 0.295609 0.352205
8 0.000044 1.070303 0.268985 0.320484
9 0.000048 0.721311 0.393051 0.468303
10 0.000051 0.57661 0.469004 0.558797
11 0.000054 0.512861 0.499548 0.595189

2. Pressure drop = 7.52
2
, temperature is 25
Station
No.
Distance from Throat
X
Throat width (
2
)
Mach
No.
Theoretical
P
P
o
Experimental
P
P
o

2 0.00011 0.158765 0.779845 0.92915
3 0.000051 0.42401 0.647129 0.771026
4 0.000032 1.289909 0.300069 0.357519
5 0.000035 1.100225 0.331288 0.394715
6 0.000038 0.965388 0.354128 0.421928
7 0.000041 1.048072 0.296961 0.353815
8 0.000044 1.070303 0.268985 0.320484
9 0.000048 0.721311 0.393051 0.468303
10 0.000051 0.571955 0.473059 0.563628
11 0.000054 0.509578 0.502926 0.599214
3. Pressure drop = 3.90
2
, temperature is 26
Station
No.
Distance from Throat
X
Throat width (
2
)
Mach
No.
Theoretical
P
P
o
Experimental
P
P
o

2 0.00011 0.154158 0.803268 0.689226
3 0.000051 0.374023 0.736459 0.631902
4 0.000032 0.627997 0.685038 0.587782
5 0.000035 0.571402 0.688792 0.591002
6 0.000038 0.514253 0.705682 0.605494
7 0.000041 0.468982 0.717317 0.615478
8 0.000044 0.432559 0.724448 0.621596
9 0.000048 0.398234 0.736459 0.631902
10 0.000051 0.371625 0.741338 0.636088
11 0.000054 0.348139 0.74603 0.640114

4. Pressure drop = 1.84
2
, temperature is 27
Station
No.
Distance from Throat
X
Throat width (
2
)
Mach
No.
Theoretical
P
P
o
Experimental
P
P
o

2 0.00011 0.110662 1.120277 0.660242
3 0.000051 0.252276 1.100059 0.648326
4 0.000032 0.412371 1.065633 0.628037
5 0.000035 0.376023 1.06536 0.627876
6 0.000038 0.341916 1.076562 0.634478
7 0.000041 0.315354 1.079294 0.636088
8 0.000044 0.218535 1.453603 0.85669
9 0.000048 0.270521 1.093228 0.644301
10 0.000051 0.255789 1.084759 0.639309
11 0.000054 0.237605 1.100059 0.648326






DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
The density of air was determined to be 0.975
3
/. For each of the four conditions, mass
flow rates were determined. From this, Fliegner numbers were determined, and these were
used to determine Mach numbers and pressure ratios. These were tabulated as the theoretical

0
. Experimental

0
was determined from the ratio of static pressure to atmospheric pressure.
It is seen from the 4 tables above that the theoretical and experimental values are very
comparable.
The errors in the two values were all approximately 8%.
Possible sources of error made during the course of the experiment include possible errors in
reading manometers, and errors in assumptions made in developing the theoretical value of
pressure ratios

CONCLUSIONS
The objective of the experiment was to study the flow of compressible air through a
convergent-divergent nozzle. This was done via calculations of pressure ratios, both through
theoretical means and experimental means. The two sets of values were extremely
comparable, and so objectives can be said to have been met.

REFERENCES:
1. Shapiro, A. H. The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow. Vol. 1, Ronald
Press, 1953
2. Liepman, H.W Roshko, A. Elements of Gas dynamics. John Wiley, 1957.
3. Rotty, R.M. Introduction to Gas dynamics John Wiley, 1962.
4. Jamison, R.R., Hardell, D.L. The Compressible Flow of Fluids in Ducts. ARC RM 2031, 1945
5. Wu, J.H.T., Patel, R.P. A Simple Experiment for a DeLaval Nozzel and a Fanno Tube. McGill
University, Tech. Note 6204, 1962.
6. Wu, J.H.T., Molder, S Gasdynamics Tables. Mech. Eng. Res. Lab., McGill University
7. Foelsch, K. The Analytical Design of an Axially Symmetrical Laval Nozzle for a Parallel and
Uniform Jet. Jas., Vol.16, No. 3, 1949
8. Lukasiewicz, J. Humidity Effects in Supersonic Flow of Air. R. and M. 2563, 1947.