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Animal Anatomy and Physiology

Transport in animal
(Week 3)
Biology 012N
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Slides
By Ms Hana
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Learning Objective(s)
Understanding the structure of arteries, veins and
capillaries
Understanding the function of tissue fluid, lymph and
blood
Understanding the oxygen dissociation curve for
haemoglobin, fetal haemoglobin and myoglobin
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Learning Outcome(s)
Explain the need of transport mechanisms
Relate the function of arteries, veins and capillaries to
their functions
Describe the function of tissue fluid and lymph and their
formation
Describe and explain the oxygen dissociation curve for
haemoglobin, fetal haemoglobin and myoglobin and
explain the significance of these differences
Describe and explain the Bohr effect

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Introduction: Transport System
To provide substances as nutrients such as glucose for
energy and oxygen around the body
Wastes products such as CO
2
need to be disposed of as
well
In mammalian, transport system is the blood circulation
system
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Type od
Organism
Single
celled
Cnidarian
s
Insects Green
Plants
Fish Mammals
Size Range All
Microscope
Some
Microscope
, some up
to 60cm
Less than
1mm to 13
cm
1mm to 150
m
120 mm to
10 m
35mm to 34
m
Example Parameciu
m
Sea
anemone
Locust Pelargoniu
m
Goldfish Human
Level of
activity
Move in
search of
food
Jellyfish
swim
slowly;
anemone
are
sedentary
and move
very slowly
Move
actively;
Many fly
No
movement
of whole
plant; parts
such as
leaves may
move
slowly
Move
actively
Move
actively
Type of
transport
system
No
specialised
transport
system
No
specialised
transport
system
Blood
system with
pumps
Xylem and
phloem
makeup
transport
system; no
pump
Blood
system with
pump
Blood
system with
pump
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Single- celled
Small organisms, eg. Paramecium and amoeba
diffusion
Having a large surface area compared to volume for
efficient diffusion
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Cnidarians
Larger organisms such as
cnidarians can also manage
by diffusion alone
Cause body just made up of
two cell layers of cells
within close distance with the
water environment
Have relatively large surface
area to volume
Not an active animals
adequate diffusion
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Insects, Fish and mammals
Cannot rely on diffusion only
Cells are metabolically active
Usually deep within the bodies
Rapid supplies of oxygen and nutrients needed
Larger amount of waste to be disposed
well-organised transport system, with pumps to keep
the circulation system flowing
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The Cardiovascular System
Whole layout:
A pump, the heart

A closed system = blood is remained closed within
vessels (capillaries)

Cardiovascular system transport oxygen from gas
exchange surfaces of the alveoli
Constant supply of oxygen to carry out aerobic respiration
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In one complete circulation, blood travels twice through the
heart
Systemic circulation
Pulmonary circulation


Double circulatory system
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Blood system are made up of three main types of
vessels:
Arteries vessels carrying blood away from heart
Veins carrying blood towards the heart
Capillaries tiny vessels linking arteries and veins
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Features Artery Vein Capillary
Shape Circular Irregular Circular
Wall 3 layers 3 layers 1 layer
Lumen Smaller
Lumen
Larger lumen
compared to
artery
Small size of a
RBC
Wall thickness Thickest Relatively thinner Thin
Valve Absent Present Absent
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Both arteries and veins have walls made up of three
layers:
An inner endothelium (lining tissue) layer of flat
cells fitting together, smooth layer to minimise the
friction with the blood flow

Middle layer, tunica media containing smooth
muscle, collagen and elastic fibres

Outler layer, tunica externa, containing elastic fibres
and collagen fibres

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Wall Artery Vein
Tunica intima Inner endothelium layer,
made up of squamous
epithelium layer, smooth
layer to minimise friction
with moving blood and
rests on elastic fibres
Thinner than that of the
artery
Tunica media - Collagen smooth
muscle, collagen and
elastic fibres
- More muscular
Very thin, containing
some smooth muscle and
elastic fibres
Tunica externa Contain collagen and
elastic fibres
Mostly collagen fibres
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Arteries
Distinctive characteristic = its strength
Transport blood away from the heart
Pressure in human aorta may be around
120 mm Hg or 16 kPa

So, artery walls must be extremely strong
Thickness
Its composition

Aorta diameter 2.5cm, wall thickness 2mm
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Elasticity of artery walls
Enables the stretching and recoiling of the artery walls
When blood enters the artery, the wall stretched
pressure reduced
Blood of lower pressure walls recoils give a push
to the blood flow increase the pressure
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Arteries branch into smaller vessels arterioles

Wall similar to that of artery, but with higher proportion of
smooth muscle

The smooth muscle can contract to narrow the diameter
of arteriole to reduce the blood flow control the volume
of blood flowing into a tissue
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Capillaries
Form by continuous branching of arterioles to form tiniest
blood vessels
Function:
Make sure the blood is as close as possible to all
cells
Allowing rapid transfer between cells and blood (quick
diffusion)

Network of capillaries throughout tissues in body
capillary beds
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Diameter of a capillary is about 7m ~ RBC

Thin walls (single layers of endothelial cells)
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Veins
The rejoining of capillaries form the larger vessels,
venules

Then, venules form veins which function to return the
blood to the heart

At the time blood reaches the veins, the blood pressure
had dropped to about 5mm Hg or even lesser

Low pressure (about 5 mmHg) = no need thick walls
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Have three layers like arteries, but
Thin tunica media
Fewer elastic and fibre muscles







One problem: low blood pressure, how can it flow
back to the heart?
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To help to return the blood back to the heart with just low
blood pressure

Valves in Vein
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Opening and Closing of Valve


Artificial vein valve
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Blood plasma
Blood is composed of cells floating in a pale yellow liquid
= plasma

Mostly water, with variety of substances such as
glucose, urea and plasma proteins dissolved in it
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Design an experiment to obtain the blood
plasma from a 1L of blood
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Tissue fluid
As blood flows through capillaries within tissues, some
plasma leaks out through the gaps between the cells in
the walls of the capillary
They seep into spaces between the cells of the tissues
Almost 1/6 of the body consists of spaces between cells
These spaces are filled with this leaked plasma, which is
known as tissue fluid/Interstitial fluid.
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Identical composition to blood plasma but with less
plasma protein and RBC

Larger size cannot escape easily through the tiny holes
in the capillary endothelium

But some white blood cells can squeeze through and
move freely around in tissue fluid

The amount of fluid which leaves the capillary to form
tissue fluid is the result of two opposing pressures
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At the arterial end of capillary higher blood pressure
push fluid out into the tissue

Osmosis
Water from low [solute] to high [solute]
Venous end, water flow back into veins by osmosis

More fluid flows out of the capillary rather into them
net loss of fluid from the blood as it flows through
capillary bed
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Tissue fluid forms the immediate environment of each
individual body cell

Exchanges of materials between cells and the blood
occur

In the body, process of homeostasis maintain the
composition of tissue fluid at a constant level, to provide
an optimum environment in which cells can work
Include regulation of glucose concentration, water,
pH, metabolic wastes and temperature
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Lymph
About 90% of the fluid that leaks from capillaries
eventually seeps back into them namely Lymph

The remaining 10% is collected up and returned to the
blood by series of tubes known as lymph vessels or
lymphatics to avoid the accumulation of tissue fluid

Lymphatics
Tiny, blind-ending vessels
Found in almost all body tissues
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Lymph Capillaries
Have tiny valves, allowing tissue fluid to flow into the
lymphatics, but not out of it

The valves are also large enough for protein molecules to
pass through

Accumulation of proteins caused by imbalance between
rate of loss from tissue fluid and that from plasma will
cause build up of tissue fluid Edema
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Lymphatic system
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Fluid inside lymphatics lymph (virtually identical to
tissue fluid)

Lymphatics larger lymph vessels subclavian veins
(just beneath the collarbone)
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Movement of lymph smooth muscles contraction
around the vessels

Controlled by valves as well

Lymph flow is very slow = 100 cm
3
/ hour
(compare with blood flow = 80 cm
3
/ second)
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Lymph nodes are present in between lymph vessels

Involved in protections against disease

Bacteria and unwanted particles are removed from the
lymph by some types of WBC as the lymph passes
through the lymph nodes

Other types of WBC secret antibodies as well in the
defence mechanism
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Blood
Average volume in a person = 5dm
3

About 5kg

Blood plasma :
2.5 x 10
13
RBC
5 x 10
11
WBC
6 x 10
12
platelets

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RBC
Another name erythrocytes

Presence of haemoglobin gives the cell colour, red

Main function oxygen carrier esp from lung to
respiring tissues
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Formation of RBC
Fetus liver
After born bone marrow
1
st
long bones (humerus and femur)
Then, skull, ribs, pelvis, vertebrate

RBCs do not live long their membranes become more
and more fragile and eventually rupture within some
tight spot in the circulatory system, often inside the
spleen
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Structure of RBC
1. Very small: diameter is about 7m
Increasing surface area for diffusion
Capillaries size would be more or less the same
Allowing just one RBC to be squeezed through at a time

2. Biconcave disc shape
The dent increases the surface area in relation to
the volume of the cell quicker diffusion

3. No nucleus, no mitochondria and no ER
More room for haemoglobin
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White blood cells
Also known as leucocytes
Also made in the bone marrow

Can be differentiated easily from a RBC:
WBC have nucleus, although there are different
shapes for different types of WBC
Most WBC are larger than RBC (with the exception of
lymphocyles)
Either spherical or irregular in shape, never looking
like a biconcave disc
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Haemoglobin

Hb + 4O2 HbO8

oxyhaemoglobin


Oxygen-carrying pigment
Each haemoglobin 4 polypeptides: 2 and 2 chains
So, each haemoglobin can bind to 4 O
2


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Haemoglobin Dissociation Curve
Sample of haemoglobin which has combined with the
maximum amount of oxygen is said to be satured

The amounts with which identical samples combine at
lower ppO2 are then expressed as a percentage of this
maximum value
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Low ppO2, percentage saturation decreases
Haemoglobin combines with a very little oxygen

High ppO2, percentage saturation increases

A haemoglobin of 95-97% satured with oxygen in lungs
Almost every haemoglobin molecule will be combined
with its full complement of 8 oxygen atoms
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In respiring muscle, where ppO2 is low (about 20-25%
satured with oxygen), the haemoglobin carry a quarter of
the oxygen which it is capable of carrying

Haemoglobin coming from lungs carries lots of oxygen,
as it reaches muscle, it releases around
3
/
4
of the oxygen
Released O2 diffuse out of RBC and into the muscle,
where it can be used in respiration
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S-Shaped Curve
Explained by behaviour of a haemoglobin molecule as it
combines with more or less O2 molecules
When one O2 binds with one haem group, whole
haemoglobin molecule is slightly distorted

This distortion makes it easier for second oxygen
molecule to comebine with second haem group

This in turn makes it easier for third oxygen molecule to
bind to the 3
rd
haem group
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About below 2kPa, 25% saturation one O2 molecule
combine

Above 2kPa, easier combination of O2 to haem

S-shape curve small change in the partial pressure of
O2 causes a very large change in the amount of O2
carried

Eventually, the haemoglobin is saturated with oxygen
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Maximum amount of O
2

with which a sample can
possibly combine (100%)








(Partial pressure of O
2
(ppO
2
)
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The Bohr Shift
The amount of oxygen a haemoglobin carried is also
affected by the partial pressure of carbon dioxide

CO
2
is continuously produced by cells in their respiration

It diffuses from cell into the blood plasma and some of it
diffuses into the RBC
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Carbonic anhydrase

CO
2
+ H
2
O H
2
CO
3
carbonic acid

H
2
CO
3
H
+
+ HCO
3
Carbonic acid hydrogencarbonate ion
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Haemoglobin + hydrogen ions = haemoglobinic acid,
HHb
Releasing the oxygen it carried


Net result:
Hb mops up the H+ which are formed when CO2
dissolves and dissociates
pH maintained (act as buffer)
Remove the H+ ions in the blood (avoid acidity)
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High PPCO
2
cause HB to release O2
Bohr effect
In respiring tissues, (CO2)
This (CO2) cause HB to release
its O2 more readily than
it would otherwise do
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CO2 Transport
1. CO2 dissociate in cytoplasm of RBC HCO
3

Enzyme carbonic anhydrase
Then HCO
3
diffuse out of the RBC into blood plasma
carried in solution about 85% CO2 transport
2. Some does not dissociate remains as CO2 molecule
dissolve in blood plasma
About 5%

3. Others diffuse into RBC (does not involve carbonic
anhydrase)
Directly combine with terminal amine groups (-NH2)
of some of the haemoglobin molecule
Carbamino-haemoglobin
About 10%

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When blood reaches the lungs reactions go reverse
Low (CO2) in alveoli compared to (CO2) in blood cause
CO2 to diffuse from blood into the air of the alveoli
Stimulating:
CO2 from carbamino-haemoglobin to leave the RBC
Hydrogen carbonate recombine with H+ CO2
leaves the haemoglobin molecules, free to combine
with oxygen
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Fetal Haemoglobin
Where does a developing fetus get its oxygen? Simple
diffusion with mothers blood

In placenta, mothers blood is brought very close to that
of the fetus, allowing diffusion of various substances from
mother to fetus and vice versa

Partial pressure of oxygen in placenta is relatively low
fetus is respiring

Mums haemoglobin releases some of its oxygen
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ppO2 in fetus blood only a little lower than that in
mothers blood

But fetal haemoglobin can combines more readily with
oxygen

Fetal haemoglobin can carry more oxygen than adults
(higher affinity for oxygen)
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Myoglobin
Red pigment that combine reversibly with oxygen, like
haemoglobin

Not found in blood, but inside cells in some body tissues,
esp in muscle cells
Made up of only one polypeptide chain, one haem group

Combine with just one oxygen oxymyoglobin

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Myoglobin

Combine with just one oxygen molecule
oxymyoglobin (very stable)

Will not release oxygen until the partial pressure of
oxygen is very low

Store for oxygen
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Normal ppO2 in respiring muscle, haemoglobin releases
its O2
Some of the O2 is picked up by myoglobin and held
tightly in the muscle
Myoglobin will not release its O2 until ppO2 in the
muscle drops very low (muscle uses up O2 at a faster
rate than the haemoglobin in the blood can supply it)

O2 held by the myoglobin in a reserve to be used only
in conditions of particular great O2 demand
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Problems with oxygen transport
Carbon monoxide
Haemoglobin binds readily (250x easier) and almost
irreversibly with carbon monoxide carboxyhaemoglobin

As low as 0.1% of CO in the air can cause death by
asphyxiation

Formed by carbon-containing compound burns incompletely
Exhaust fumes
Cigarette smoke (5%)
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High altitude
At sea level
Partial level of O
2
= 20 kPa

6500 metres high
Partial level of O
2
= 10 kPa
In lung = 5.3 kPa 70% saturated with O
2

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Might face altitude sickness

Begins with an increase in the rate and depth of
breathing

General feeling of dizziness and weakness
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Adaptations of people who live permanently at high
altitude

Not genetically different, but their exposure to low
altitude since birth encourages the adaptations
Broad chest larger lung capacity
More haemoglobin in the blood
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References:

Jones, M. 2007, ASA/A Level Biology (Cambridge
International Examinations), 2
nd
edn, Cambridge
Unversity Press.

Jones, M. 2010. Cambridge International A/AS-Level
Biology: Revision Guide, Trans-Atlantic Publications.
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Term Definition
Lymph An almost colourless fluid, very similar
in composition to blood plasma but
with fewer plasma proteins, that is
present in lymph vessels
Bohr effect The decrease in affinity of
haemoglobin for oxygen that occurs
when carbon dioxide is present
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