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Medical Etymology

By Teresa Marcotte & Beth Boyer

PREGNANCY.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
AFTERBIRTH..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
AMNIOCENTESIS......................................................................................................................................................................................2
AMNIOTIC FLUID.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANEMIA...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
APGAR SCORE.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
AUTISM...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
BABY BLUES..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
BAG OF WATERS......................................................................................................................................................................................2
BRAXTON-HICKS CONTRACTIONS....................................................................................................................................................................2
BREECH PRESENTATION..............................................................................................................................................................................2
CEREBRAL PALSY (CP)..............................................................................................................................................................................2
CHROMOSOME........................................................................................................................................................................................2
CONGENITAL ANOMALIES............................................................................................................................................................................2
CROWNING............................................................................................................................................................................................2
DOULA................................................................................................................................................................................................2
DOWN SYNDROME....................................................................................................................................................................................2
ECLAMPSIA...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ECTOPIC PREGNANCY.................................................................................................................................................................................2
EFFACEMENT.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ELECTRONIC FETAL MONITOR.......................................................................................................................................................................2
EPISIOTOMY..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME.........................................................................................................................................................................2
FETAL DISTRESS......................................................................................................................................................................................2
FOLIC ACID...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
GENETIC COUNSELING................................................................................................................................................................................2
INCUBATOR...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
JAUNDICE.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
KARYOTYPE...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
LABOR................................................................................................................................................................................................2
LACTATION...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
LOW BIRTH WEIGHT..................................................................................................................................................................................2
MIDWIFE..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
MISCARRIAGE........................................................................................................................................................................................2
MORNING SICKNESS..................................................................................................................................................................................2
PLACENTA.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION............................................................................................................................................................................2
PRE-ECLAMPSIA......................................................................................................................................................................................2
PREMATURE LABOR...................................................................................................................................................................................2
PROLONGED LABOR...................................................................................................................................................................................2
RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME.................................................................................................................................................................2
STILLBIRTH...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME (SIDS)........................................................................................................................................................2
TOXEMIA..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
TRIMESTER...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ULTRASOUNDS........................................................................................................................................................................................2
VACUUM EXTRACTION................................................................................................................................................................................2
VAGINAL BIRTH AFTER CESAREAN...................................................................................................................................................................2
VIABLE................................................................................................................................................................................................2
CHOLESTORAL................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANGINA...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS...................................................................................................................................................................................2
ATHEROSCLEROSIS...................................................................................................................................................................................2
BODY MASS INDEX (BMI)...........................................................................................................................................................................2
CALORIE..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
CARDIOVASCULAR (CV).............................................................................................................................................................................2
CHOLESTEROL........................................................................................................................................................................................2
CORONARY ARTERY..................................................................................................................................................................................2
CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE (CAD)...............................................................................................................................................................2
DIABETES.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA...........................................................................................................................................................................2
HYPERTENSION (HTN)..............................................................................................................................................................................2
LIPID..................................................................................................................................................................................................2
METABOLIC SYNDROME..............................................................................................................................................................................2

1|Page
OBESE.....................................................................................................................................................................................................2
OBSTRUCTION........................................................................................................................................................................................2
PLAQUE...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
DIABETES.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
HEMOGLOBIN (HB, HGB)...........................................................................................................................................................................2
ACE INHIBITOR......................................................................................................................................................................................2
ADVANCED GLYCATION END-PRODUCTS.............................................................................................................................................................2
AMYOTROPHY........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ATHEROSCLEROSIS...................................................................................................................................................................................2
AUTOIMMUNE.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
BETA CELL OF PANCREAS............................................................................................................................................................................2
BLADDER..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
BLOOD PRESSURE (BP)..............................................................................................................................................................................2
BLOOD SUGAR........................................................................................................................................................................................2
CALLUS...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
CHOLESTEROL........................................................................................................................................................................................2
CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY...........................................................................................................................................................................2
CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT (CABG)......................................................................................................................................................2
DIABETES.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS (DKA)...................................................................................................................................................................2
DIALYSIS..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
DIPHTHERIA..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................................................................................................2
ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG, EKG).............................................................................................................................................................2
FLU....................................................................................................................................................................................................2
GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS (GDM).......................................................................................................................................................2
GINGIVITIS............................................................................................................................................................................................2
GLUCAGON............................................................................................................................................................................................2
HEART ATTACK.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
HORMONE.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
HYPERGLYCEMIA.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
HYPERTENSION (HTN)..............................................................................................................................................................................2
HYPOGLYCEMIA......................................................................................................................................................................................2
IMMUNIZATION........................................................................................................................................................................................2
IMPOTENCE...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
INFLUENZA............................................................................................................................................................................................2
INSULIN...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
INSULIN RESISTANCE..................................................................................................................................................................................2
KIDNEY...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
METABOLIC SYNDROME..............................................................................................................................................................................2
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (MI)....................................................................................................................................................................2
NEPHROPATHY........................................................................................................................................................................................2
NEUROPATHY.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
PANCREAS.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
PERIODONTITIS.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
PREDIABETES.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
RETINOPATHY........................................................................................................................................................................................2
RETROGRADE EJACULATION.........................................................................................................................................................................2
RISK FACTOR.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
STROKE...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
TYPE 1 DIABETES.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
TYPE 2 DIABETES.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
ULCER................................................................................................................................................................................................2
VITRECTOMY.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ALLERGIES......................................................................................................................................................................................2
ADENOIDECTOMY.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
ALLERGEN............................................................................................................................................................................................2
ALLERGEN IMMUNOTHERAPY........................................................................................................................................................................2
ALLERGIC RHINITIS...................................................................................................................................................................................2
ALLERGY..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANAPHYLAXIS.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANGIOEDEMA.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANTIBODY (AB)......................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANTIGEN (AG).......................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANTIHISTAMINES.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANTIINFLAMMATORY.................................................................................................................................................................................2
ASTHMA...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
BRONCHODILATOR....................................................................................................................................................................................2
BRONCHOSPASM......................................................................................................................................................................................2
CONJUNCTIVITIS......................................................................................................................................................................................2
DANDER...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
DECONGESTANT......................................................................................................................................................................................2
DERMATITIS..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
DESENSITIZATION.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
DRUG ALLERGY.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
ECZEMA...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
ENDOSCOPY...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)..............................................................................................................................................2
EPINEPHRINE..........................................................................................................................................................................................2

2|Page
HISTAMINE (H)...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
HIVES.................................................................................................................................................................................................2
IMMUNE SYSTEM......................................................................................................................................................................................2
IMMUNOTHERAPY.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
LATEX.................................................................................................................................................................................................2
MAST CELL...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
METERED-DOSE INHALER (MDI)...................................................................................................................................................................2
MOLD.................................................................................................................................................................................................2
POLLEN...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
PULMONARY FUNCTION TEST (PFT)................................................................................................................................................................2
RADIOALLERGOSORBENT TEST (RAST)............................................................................................................................................................2
SINUSITIS..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
URTICARIA............................................................................................................................................................................................2
DEPRESSION.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
ACUPUNCTURE........................................................................................................................................................................................2
AGORAPHOBIA........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANOREXIA NERVOSA..................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANTIDEPRESSANT.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANXIETY DISORDERS..................................................................................................................................................................................2
BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER.......................................................................................................................................................................2
BULIMIA NERVOSA....................................................................................................................................................................................2
DEPRESSION...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
EATING DISORDERS (ED)............................................................................................................................................................................2
MAJOR DEPRESSION..................................................................................................................................................................................2
MANIC-DEPRESSIVE DISORDER.......................................................................................................................................................................2
MAOI................................................................................................................................................................................................2
MENOPAUSE..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD)........................................................................................................................................................2
PREMENSTRUAL DYSPHORIC DISORDER (PMDD)..................................................................................................................................................2
PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME (PMS)................................................................................................................................................................2
PSYCHIATRIST........................................................................................................................................................................................2
PSYCHOLOGIST.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
PSYCHOSIS............................................................................................................................................................................................2
PSYCHOTHERAPY.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
REFLEXOLOGY........................................................................................................................................................................................2
REGISTERED NURSE (RN)...........................................................................................................................................................................2
SCHIZOPHRENIA......................................................................................................................................................................................2
SELECTIVE SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITOR.......................................................................................................................................................2
SEXUAL ABUSE........................................................................................................................................................................................2
SOCIAL PHOBIA.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
TOURETTE SYNDROME................................................................................................................................................................................2
TRICHOTILLOMANIA..................................................................................................................................................................................2
SEXUAL CONDITIONS.......................................................................................................................................................................2
AMENORRHEA........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANORGASMY..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS...............................................................................................................................................................................2
BISEXUAL.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
CHLAMYDIA...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
CIRCUMCISION........................................................................................................................................................................................2
CLITORIS..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
CONDYLOMA..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
EJACULATE...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
EMERGENCY HORMONAL CONTRACEPTION..........................................................................................................................................................2
ENDOMETRIOSIS......................................................................................................................................................................................2
ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.............................................................................................................................................................................2
FEMALE CIRCUMCISION..............................................................................................................................................................................2
FORESKIN.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
GENDER...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
GLANS.................................................................................................................................................................................................2
GONORRHEA..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
HEPATITIS............................................................................................................................................................................................2
HERPES...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
HETEROSEXUAL.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
HOMOSEXUAL.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY.................................................................................................................................................................2
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS................................................................................................................................................................2
HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS..........................................................................................................................................................................2
HYSTERECTOMY......................................................................................................................................................................................2
IMPOTENCE...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
MASTURBATION......................................................................................................................................................................................2
MENOPAUSE..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
MONOGAMY..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ORGASM..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
PARAPHILIA...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
PEDOPHILIA...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE....................................................................................................................................................................2
PENETRATION.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
PREMATURE EJACULATION...........................................................................................................................................................................2
PREMENSTRUAL DYSPHORIC DISORDER (PMDD)..................................................................................................................................................2

3|Page
PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME (PMS)................................................................................................................................................................2
RAPE..................................................................................................................................................................................................2
SADISM................................................................................................................................................................................................2
SEXUAL ORIENTATION................................................................................................................................................................................2
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE (STD)..........................................................................................................................................................2
SYPHILIS..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
TESTOSTERONE.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
TRANSSEXUAL........................................................................................................................................................................................2
TRICHOMONIASIS.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
UNDESCENDED TESTIS................................................................................................................................................................................2
URINARY TRACT INFECTION (UTI).................................................................................................................................................................2
VAGINITIS.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
VAGINOPLASTY.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
VASECTOMY..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
VULVA................................................................................................................................................................................................2
VULVOVAGINITIS.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
DENTISTRY......................................................................................................................................................................................2
ABSCESS:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
ACRYLIC RESIN:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
ALVEOLAR BONE:....................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANESTHESIA:.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
APEX:.................................................................................................................................................................................................2
APHTHOUS ULCERS (CANKER SORES):...............................................................................................................................................................2
ARTIFICIAL CROWN:.................................................................................................................................................................................2
BABY BOTTLE SYNDROME:...........................................................................................................................................................................2
BICUSPID:.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
BITEWING X-RAY:...................................................................................................................................................................................2
BONDING:.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
BONE RESORPTION:...................................................................................................................................................................................2
BRACES:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
BRIDGE:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
CALCIUM:.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
CANINE TOOTH:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
CAP:..................................................................................................................................................................................................2
CARIES:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
CLEFT LIP:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
CLEFT PALATE:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
CROWN:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
DECAY:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
DENTAL FLOSS:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
DENTIN:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
DENTURE:.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
ENAMEL:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
EXTRACATION:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
FILLING:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
FLUORIDE:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
GINGIVITUS:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
HYGIENIST:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
IMMEDIATE DENTURE:...............................................................................................................................................................................2
IMPLANT:.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
IMPRESSION:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
INCISION:.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
INCISOR TOOTH:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
MANDIBLE:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
MOLAR:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
MOUTH GUARD:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
NIGHT GUARD:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ORTHODONTICS:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
ORTHODONTIST:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
OVERBITE:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
PALATE:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
PANORAMIC X-RAY FILM:............................................................................................................................................................................2
PARTIAL DENTURE:...................................................................................................................................................................................2
PEDODONTICS:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
PERMANENT TOOTH:.................................................................................................................................................................................2
PLAQUE:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
RETAINTER:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
SCALING:.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
TARTAR:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
THRUSH:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION (TENS):..................................................................................................................................2
UNDERBITE:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
VENEER:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
DERMATOLOGY...............................................................................................................................................................................2
ACNE:.................................................................................................................................................................................................2
ALLERGEN:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ALOE:.................................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANGIOMA:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
ATOPY:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2

4|Page
BIOPSY:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
CANCER:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
CHEMOTHERAPY:.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
CALLOGEN:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
CYST:.................................................................................................................................................................................................2
DERMABRASION:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
DERMATITUS..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
DERMATOFIBROMA:..................................................................................................................................................................................2
DERMATOPATHOLOGY:...............................................................................................................................................................................2
DERMATOSCOPY:.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
DERMIS:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
DERMOID CYST:.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
ECZEMA:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
EPIDERMIS:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
LYMPH NODE:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
MOLE:................................................................................................................................................................................................2
NODULE:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
PHOTOSENSITIVITY:..................................................................................................................................................................................2
PRECANCEROUS:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
PUNCH BIOPSY:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
PUNCH GRAFTS:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
RADIATION THERAPY:................................................................................................................................................................................2
RECURRENCE:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
RISK FACTOR:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
SEBACEOUS GLANDS:.................................................................................................................................................................................2
SPF:..................................................................................................................................................................................................2
SUBCUTANEOUS:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
SUNSCREEN:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
TUMOR:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
WART:................................................................................................................................................................................................2
ZINC OXIDE:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
EMERGENCY ROOM.........................................................................................................................................................................2
ACUTE:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANESTHETICS:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
AMBULANCE:.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ARRHYTHMIA:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
BLOOD LOSS:.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
CAST:.................................................................................................................................................................................................2
CATHETER:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
DEAD ON ARRIVAL:...................................................................................................................................................................................2
IV:....................................................................................................................................................................................................2
EMT:................................................................................................................................................................................................2
HYPOXIA:.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
PANCREATITIS:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
PALPATIONS:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
SECOND DEGREE BURN:.............................................................................................................................................................................2
SEPSIS:................................................................................................................................................................................................2
THIRD DEGREE BURN:...............................................................................................................................................................................2
TOX SCREEN:.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
TRACHEOSTOMY:.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
TRAUMA:.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
WAITING ROOM:.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
PHYSICAL........................................................................................................................................................................................2
BLOOD PRESSURE:...................................................................................................................................................................................2
DRUG TEST:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
EAR CHECK:.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
HEART:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
HEIGHT:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
LUNGS:................................................................................................................................................................................................2
PULSE:................................................................................................................................................................................................2
SHOT:.................................................................................................................................................................................................2
SPINE CHECK:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
TEMPERATURE:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
VISION:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
WEIGHT:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
OPTOMETRY....................................................................................................................................................................................2
ASTIGMATISM.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
BIFOCALS.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
BINOCULAR VISION...................................................................................................................................................................................2
BLIND SPOT...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
CATARACT............................................................................................................................................................................................2
CENTRAL VISION......................................................................................................................................................................................2
COLOR BLINDNESS....................................................................................................................................................................................2
CORNEA...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
CRYSTALLINE LENS...................................................................................................................................................................................2
DOUBLE VISION.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
GLAUCOMA...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
HYPEROPIA...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
IRIS....................................................................................................................................................................................................2

5|Page
LENS, CRYSTALLINE LENS............................................................................................................................................................................2
LOW VISION...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
MYOPIA...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
OPTOMETRIST........................................................................................................................................................................................2
PERIPHERAL VISION...................................................................................................................................................................................2
PRESBYOPIA...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
PUPIL..................................................................................................................................................................................................2
REFRACTION..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
RETINA................................................................................................................................................................................................2
TRIFOCAL.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
20/20..................................................................................................................................................................................................2
AUDIOLOGY.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
ACOUSTIC MEATUS:.................................................................................................................................................................................2
ACUITY:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
AIR-CONDUCTION THRESHOLDS:...................................................................................................................................................................2
AMPLIFIER:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANACUSIS:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
ATRESIA:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
AUDIOGRAM:.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
AUDIOMETER:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
AUDIOLOGIST:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
AURICLE:.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
BEHAVIORAL AUDIOMETRY:.........................................................................................................................................................................2
BILATERAL:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
BINAURAL:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
BONE-CONDUCTION THRESHOLDS:.................................................................................................................................................................2
CALIBRATION:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
CENTRAL AUDITORY PROCESSING:.................................................................................................................................................................2
CERUMEN:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
CHOLESTEATOMA:....................................................................................................................................................................................2
COCHLEA:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
COCHLEAR IMPLANT:................................................................................................................................................................................2
CONCHA:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS:.......................................................................................................................................................................2
CONGENITAL HEARING LOSS:.......................................................................................................................................................................2
DECIBEL:.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
DEGENERATIVE HEARING LOSS:....................................................................................................................................................................2
DEGREE OF HEARING LOSS:.......................................................................................................................................................................2
DIPLACUSIS:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
DIRECT AUDIO INPUT:...............................................................................................................................................................................2
DISCRIMINATION:.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
DYNAMIC RANGE:....................................................................................................................................................................................2
EAR CANAL:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
EARDRUM:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
EIGHTH CRANIAL NERVE (CN VIII):.............................................................................................................................................................2
EQUILIBRIUM:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ETIOLOGY:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
EUSTACHIAN TUBE:..................................................................................................................................................................................2
EUSTACHIAN TUBE DYSFUNCTION:.................................................................................................................................................................2
EVOKED POTENTIALS:...............................................................................................................................................................................2
EXOSTOSIS:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
FEEDBACK:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
FLAT AUDIOGRAM:..................................................................................................................................................................................2
FREQUENCY:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
GENETIC HEARING LOSS:...........................................................................................................................................................................2
HAIR CELLS:.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
HARD OF HEARING:.................................................................................................................................................................................2
HEARING AID:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
HEARING LOSS:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
HELIX:................................................................................................................................................................................................2
HEREDITARY HEARING LOSS:.......................................................................................................................................................................2
HERTZ (HZ):.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
INCUS:.................................................................................................................................................................................................2
INDUCTION COIL:....................................................................................................................................................................................2
INNER EAR:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
INTENSITY:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
LABYRINTH:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
LATERALIZATION:....................................................................................................................................................................................2
LISTENING STETHOSCOPE:...........................................................................................................................................................................2
LOBULE:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
LOCALIZATION:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
MALINGERING:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
MALLEUS:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
MASKING NOISE:....................................................................................................................................................................................2
MASTOID BONE:.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
MICROPHONE:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
MICROTIA:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
MIDDLE EAR:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
MIDDLE EAR EFFUSION:............................................................................................................................................................................2

6|Page
MIXED HEARING LOSS:.............................................................................................................................................................................2
MONAURAL:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
MOST COMFORTABLE LEVEL (MCL):............................................................................................................................................................2
NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS:...................................................................................................................................................................2
OCCLUSION:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ORGAN OF CORTI:..................................................................................................................................................................................2
OSSICULAR CHAIN:..................................................................................................................................................................................2
OSCILLATOR:.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
OTALGIA:.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
OTITIS MEDIA:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
OTOLARYNGOLOGIST:................................................................................................................................................................................2
OTOLOGIST:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
OTORRHEA:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
OTOSCOPE:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
OTOSCOPIC EXAMINATION:..........................................................................................................................................................................2
OTOSCLEROSIS:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
OUTER EAR:.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
OVAL WINDOW:.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
PERFORATED TYMPANIC MEMBRANE:..............................................................................................................................................................2
PERIPHERAL HEARING LOSS:.......................................................................................................................................................................2
P.E. TUBES:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
PINNA:................................................................................................................................................................................................2
POWER HEARING AID:..............................................................................................................................................................................2
PRELINGUAL HEARING LOSS:.......................................................................................................................................................................2
PRESBYCUSIS:.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
PURE TONE AUDIOMETRY:..........................................................................................................................................................................2
PURE TONE AVERAGE (PTA):.....................................................................................................................................................................2
RECEIVER:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
RECRUITMENT:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
RETROCOCHLEAR:....................................................................................................................................................................................2
REVERSE-SLOPE AUDIOGRAM:......................................................................................................................................................................2
SCREENING (HEARING):.............................................................................................................................................................................2
SEMICIRCULAR CANALS:.............................................................................................................................................................................2
SENSORI-NEURAL HEARING LOSS:.................................................................................................................................................................2
SOUND BOOTH:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
SOUND FIELD HEARING AID TESTING:.............................................................................................................................................................2
SPEECH AUDIOMETRY:...............................................................................................................................................................................2
SPEECH READING:...................................................................................................................................................................................2
SPEECH RECEPTION THRESHOLD:..................................................................................................................................................................2
STAPES:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
TELECOIL:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
THRESHOLD OF HEARING:..........................................................................................................................................................................2
TRANSMITTER:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
TTS (TEMPORARY THRESHOLD SHIFT):...........................................................................................................................................................2
TYMPANIC MEMBRANE:.............................................................................................................................................................................2
TYMPANOGRAM:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
TYMPANOMETRY:....................................................................................................................................................................................2
UNCOMFORTABLE LOUDNESS LEVEL (UCL):.....................................................................................................................................................2
UNILATERAL:.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
VERTIGO:.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
VESTIBULAR SYSTEM:................................................................................................................................................................................2
VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE:......................................................................................................................................................................2
VISUAL REINFORCEMENT AUDIOMETRY:...........................................................................................................................................................2
WORD RECOGNITION SCORE:.......................................................................................................................................................................2
CANCER...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ABSCESS:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
ADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY:........................................................................................................................................................................2
APNAPLASTIC:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANDROGEN:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ANTIEMETIC:.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ASCITES:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
AUTOLOGOUS:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
BENIGN:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
BIOPSY:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
BONE MARROW:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID:..............................................................................................................................................................................2
CHEMOTHERAPY:.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
CLINICAL TRIAL:.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
COLONOSCOPE:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CAT SCAN):...........................................................................................................................................................2
CYTOTOXIC:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
DEHYDRATION:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
DIGITAL RECTAL EXAMINATIONS DRE:............................................................................................................................................................2
DYSPLASIA:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
EDEMA:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
EMBOLUS:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
ENCAPSULATED:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
ENDOMETRIUM:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
ENDOSCOPY:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2

7|Page
ESOPHAGUS:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
ESTROGEN:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
FLUOROSCOPY:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
GAMMA RAYS:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
GENE THERAPY:......................................................................................................................................................................................2
GLIOMA:..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
GRAFT:...............................................................................................................................................................................................2
HODGKIN DISEASE:..................................................................................................................................................................................2
HORMONE:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
IMMUNE SYSTEM:....................................................................................................................................................................................2
INCISION BIOPSY:....................................................................................................................................................................................2
INFORMED CONSENT:.................................................................................................................................................................................2
INVASIVE CARCINOMA:...............................................................................................................................................................................2
LAPAROSCOPY:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
LAPAROTOMY:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
LEUKEMIA:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
LUMPECTOMY:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
LYMPH NODE:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
MALIGNANT:.........................................................................................................................................................................................2
MASTECTOMY:.......................................................................................................................................................................................2
MELANOMA:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
MRI:.................................................................................................................................................................................................2
NECROSIS:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
NEUROMA:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
ONCOLOGY:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
PHLEBITIS:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
PLATELET:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
POLYP:................................................................................................................................................................................................2
PROGNOSIS:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
PROSTHESIS:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
RADIATION:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
RECURRENCE:........................................................................................................................................................................................2
REMISSION:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
SARCOMA:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
SEMINOMA:...........................................................................................................................................................................................2
SHUNT:................................................................................................................................................................................................2
STAGING:.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
STEROIDS:............................................................................................................................................................................................2
STOMATITIS:..........................................................................................................................................................................................2
TUMOR MARKER:.....................................................................................................................................................................................2
ULTRASOUND:........................................................................................................................................................................................2

8|Page
PREGNANCY
Afterbirth
Pronunciation (af'ter-berth)
1. The placenta and fetal membranes that are extruded from the uterus after birth.
Syn: secundina, secundines
Amniocentesis
Pronunciation (am'ne-o-sen-te'sis)
1. Transabdominal aspiration of fluid from the amniotic sac.
Amniotic Fluid
Pronunciation (am-nee-ot-ik floo-id)
1. The fluid bathing the fetus and serving as a shock absorber.
Anemia
Pronunciation (ă-nē′mē-ă)
1. Any condition in which the number of red blood cells/mm3, the amount of hemoglobin in 100 mL of blood, and/or the
volume of packed red blood cells/100 mL of blood are less than normal; clinically, generally pertaining to the
concentration of oxygen-transporting material in a designated volume of blood, in contrast to total quantities as in
oligocythemia, oligochromemia, and oligemia. Anemia is frequently manifested by pallor of the skin and mucous
membranes, shortness of breath, palpitations of the heart, soft systolic murmurs, lethargy, and tendency to fatigue.
Apgar score
Pronunciation (ap'gar)
1. evaluation of a newborn infant's physical status by assigning numerical values (0–2) to each of five criteria: heart rate,
respiratory effort, muscle tone, response stimulation, and skin color; a score of 8–10 indicates the best possible
condition.
Autism
Pronunciation (aw′tizm)
1. A mental disorder characterized by severely abnormal development of social interaction and of verbal and nonverbal
communication skills. Affected people may adhere to inflexible, nonfunctional rituals or routines. They may become
upset with even trivial changes in their environment. They often have a limited range of interests but may become
preoccupied with a narrow range of subjects or activities. They appear unable to understand others' feelings and often
have poor eye contact with others. Unpredictable mood swings may occur. Many demonstrate stereotypical motor
mannerisms such as hand or finger flapping, body rocking, or dipping. The disorder is probably caused by organically
based central nervous system dysfunction, especially in the ability to process social or emotional information or
language. Cf.: Asperger disorder
Baby Blues
Pronunciation (bey-bee blooz)
1. Sadness that a new mother may feel soon after her baby is born; the feelings are usually temporary.
Bag of waters
1. colloquialism for the amniotic sac containing amniotic fluid.
Braxton-Hicks contractions
Pronunciation (brack-stuhn hiks kuhn-trak-shuhnz)
1. These feel like labor pains, but are not. They are considered "false labor."
Breech presentation

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1. presentation of any part of the pelvic extremity of the fetus, the nates, knees, or feet; more properly only of the nates;
frank breech presentation occurs when the fetus presents by the pelvic extremity; the thighs may be flexed and the legs
extended over the anterior surfaces of the body; in full breech presentation, the thighs may be flexed on the abdomen
and the legs upon the thighs; and in footling presentation, foot presentation, the feet may be the lowest part; in
incomplete foot presentation, incomplete knee presentation, one leg may retain the position that is typical of one of the
above-mentioned presentations, while the other foot or knee may present.
Cerebral palsy (CP)
1. a generic term for various types of nonprogressive motor dysfunction present at birth or beginning in early childhood.
Causes are both hereditary and acquired; depending on cause, classified as intrauterine, natal, and early postnatal;
motor disturbances include diplegia, hemiplegia, quadriplegia, choreoathetosis, and ataxia.
Cesarean Section
Delivery of a baby through an incision in the womb.

Chromosome
Pronunciation (kro'mo-som)

1. One of the bodies (normally 46 in somatic cells in humans) in the cell nucleus that is the bearer of genes, has the form
of a delicate chromatin filament during interphase, contracts to form a compact cylinder segmented into two arms by
the centromere during metaphase and anaphase stages of cell divison, and is capable of reproducing its physical and
chemical structure through successive cell divisons. In bacteria and other prokaryotes, the chromosome is not enclosed
within a nuclear membrane and not subject to a mitotic mechanism. Prokaryotes may have more than one chromosome.
Congenital Anomalies
Pronunciation (kuhn-jen-i-tl uh-nom-uh-leez)
1. Defects present at birth.
Crowning
Pronunciation (krown'ing)
1. That stage of childbirth when the fetal head has negotiated the pelvic outlet and the largest diameter of the head is
encircled by the vulvar ring.
Doula
Pronunciation (du'lah)
1. A woman who assists at labor and birth and in postpartum care of mother and baby. Doulas are trained and certified
according to various requirements of local jurisdictions. They are helpful in educating the new family and in helping
build their confidence as new parents.
Down syndrome
Pronunciation (down)
1. a chromosomal dysgenesis syndrome consisting of a variable constellation of abnormalities caused by triplication or
translocation of chromosome 21. The abnormalities include mental retardation, retarded growth, flat hypoplastic face
with short nose, prominent epicanthic skin folds, small low-set ears with prominent antihelix, fissured and thickened
tongue, laxness of joint ligaments, pelvic dysplasia, broad hands and feet, stubby fingers, and transverse palmar crease.
Lenticular opacities and heart disease are common. The incidence of leukemia is increased and Alzheimer disease is
almost inevitable by age 40 years.
Eclampsia
Pronunciation (ek-lamp'se-a)
1. Occurrence of one or more convulsions, not attributable to other cerebral conditions such as epilepsy or cerebral
hemorrhage, in a patient with preeclampsia.
Ectopic pregnancy
1. the implantation and development of a blastocyst outside the cavity of the uterus
Effacement
Pronunciation (e-fas'ment)

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1. The thinning out of the cervix just before or during labor.
Electronic fetal monitor
1. an instrument for continuous monitoring of the fetal heart before or during labor.
Episiotomy
Pronunciation (e-piz′ē-ot′ŏ-mē)
1. Surgical incision of the vulva to prevent laceration at the time of delivery or to facilitate vaginal surgery.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
1. A pattern of malformation with growth deficiency, craniofacial anomalies, and functional deficits including mental
retardation that can result when a woman drinks alcohol during pregnancy.
Fetal distress
1. Syn: nonreassuring fetal status
Folic acid
Pronunciation (fō′lik as′id)
1. A collective term for pteroylglutamic acids and their oligoglutamic acid conjugates. N-[p-[[(2-Amino-4-
hydroxypteridin-6- yl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-L(+)-glutamic acid; specifically, pteroylmonoglutamic acid. See also:
homocysteine
2. The growth factor for Lactobacillus casei, and a member of the vitamin B complex necessary for the normal production
of red blood cells. It is a hemopoietic vitamin present, with or without L-(+)-glutamic acid moieties, in peptide linkages
in liver, green vegetables, and yeast; used to treat folate deficiency and megaloblastic anemia, and to assist in lowering
homocysteine levels. Syn: Lactobacillus casei factor, liver Lactobacillus casei factor, pteroylmonoglutamic acid
Genetic counseling
1. the process whereby an expert in genetic disorders provides information about risk and clinical burden of a disorder or
disorders to patients or relatives in families with genetic disorders as an aid to making informed and responsible
decisions about marriage, children, early diagnosis, and prognosis.
Incubator
Pronunciation (in'kyu-ba'tor)
1. An apparatus for maintaining an infant (usually premature) in an environment of proper oxygenation, humidity, and
temperature.
Jaundice
Pronunciation (jawn′dis)
1. A yellowish staining of the integument, sclerae, deeper tissues, and excretions with bile pigments, resulting from
increased levels in the plasma.
Karyotype
Pronunciation (kar'e-o-tip)
1. The chromosome characteristics of an individual cell or of a cell line arranged in descending order of size and
according to the position of the centromere. Usually presented as a systematized array of metaphase chromosomes from
a photomicrograph of a single cell nucleus.
Labor
Pronunciation (la'bor)
1. The process of expulsion of the fetus and the placenta from the uterus. The stages of labor include: first stage,
beginning with the onset of uterine contractions through the period of dilation of the os uteri; second stage, the period
of expulsive effort, beginning with complete dilation of the cervix and ending with expulsion of the infant; third stage
or placental stage, the period beginning at the expulsion of the infant and ending with the completed expulsion of the
placenta and membranes.
Lactation

11 | P a g e
Pronunciation (lak-ta'shun)
1. Period following birth during which milk is secreted in the breasts.
Low birth weight
Pronunciation (loh burth weyt)
1. The category of babies weighing less than 2500 grams at birth
Midwife
Pronunciation (mid'wif)
1. A person qualified to practice midwifery, having received specialized training in obstetrics and child care.
Miscarriage
Pronunciation (mis-kar′ăj)
1. Layperson's term for spontaneous expulsion of the products of pregnancy before the middle of the second trimester; no
longer accepted in clinical usage.
Morning sickness
1. The nausea and vomiting of early pregnancy.
Placenta
Pronunciation (pla-sen'ta)
1. Fetomaternal organ of metabolic interchange between the embryo or fetus and mother. It has a portion of embryonic
origin, derived from a highly developed area of the outermost embryonic membrane (chorion frondosum), and a
maternal portion formed by a modification of the part of the uterine mucosa (decidua basalis) in which the chorionic
vesicle is implanted. Within the placenta, the chorionic villi, with their contained capillaries carrying blood of the
embryonic circulation, are exposed to maternal blood in the intervillous spaces in which the villi lie; no direct mixing
of fetal and maternal blood occurs, but the intervening tissue (the placental membrane) is sufficiently thin to permit the
absorption of nutritive materials, oxygen, and some harmful substances, like viruses, into the fetal blood and the release
of carbon dioxide and nitrogenous waste from it. At term, the human placenta is disc shaped, about 4 cm in thickness
and 18 cm in diameter, and averages about 1/6–1/7 the weight of the fetus; its fetal surface is smooth, being formed by
the adherent amnion, with the umbilical cord normally attached near its center; the maternal surface of a detached
placenta is rough because of the torn decidual tissue adhering to the chorion and shows lobular elevations called
cotyledons or lobes.
Postpartum depression
Pronunciation (pohst-pahr-tuhm di-presh-uhn)
1. Depression that develops after a woman gives birth
Pre-eclampsia
Pronunciation (pree-i-klamp-see-uh)
1. Serious condition during pregnancy, with symptoms including high blood pressure, edema, and protein in the urine.

Premature labor
1. Onset of labor after 20 weeks' gestation and before the 37th completed week of pregnancy dated from the last normal
menstrual period.
Prolonged labor
Pronunciation (pruh-lawng-d ley-ber)
1. A drawn out labor lasting more than eighteen to twenty-four hours.
Respiratory distress syndrome
Pronunciation (res-per-uh-tawr-ee di-stres sin-drohm)
1. One of the most common lung disorders in premature infants; causes increasing difficulty in breathing.
Stillbirth

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Pronunciation (stil'berth)
1. The birth of an infant who has died before delivery.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
1. The sudden death of an apparently healthy infant that remains unexplained after all known possible causes have been
ruled out through autopsy, death scene investigation, and review of the medical history.
Toxemia
Pronunciation (tok-se'me-a)
1. A lay term referring to the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
Trimester
Pronunciation (tri'mes-ter, tri-mes'ter)
1. A period of 3 months; one third of the length of a pregnancy.
Ultrasounds
Pronunciation (uhl-truh-sound)
1. The use of sound waves to form an image of internal organs.
Vacuum extraction
Pronunciation (vak-yoom ik-strak-shuhn)
1. A process utilizing a suction device that is attached to the baby's head to help bring the baby out of the birth canal
during labor
Vaginal birth after cesarean
Pronunciation (vaj-uh-nl burth si-zair-ee-uhn)
1. Vaginal delivery after having had a cesarean section previously
Viable
Pronunciation (vi'a-bel)
1. Capable of living; denoting a fetus sufficiently developed to live outside of the uterus.

CHOLESTORAL
Angina
Pronunciation (an′ji-nă, an-jī′nă)
1. A severe, often constricting pain or sensation of pressure, usually referring to angina pectoris.
Arteriosclerosis
Pronunciation (ar-tēr′ē-ō-skler-ō′sis)
1. Hardening of the arteries; types generally recognized are: atherosclerosis, Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis, and
arteriolosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis
Pronunciation (ath′er-ō-skler-ō′sis)
1. Arteriosclerosis characterized by irregularly distributed lipid deposits in the intima of large and medium-sized arteries,
causing narrowing of arterial lumens and proceeding eventually to fibrosis and calcification. Lesions are usually focal
and progress slowly and intermittently. Limitation of blood flow accounts for most clinical manifestations, which vary
with the distribution and severity of lesions. In lower animals, atherosclerosis of swine and fowl closely resemble
human atherosclerosis.
Body mass index (BMI)
1. An anthropometric measure of body mass, defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared; a
method of determining caloric nutritional status.

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Calorie
Pronunciation (kal′ō-rē)
1. A unit of heat content or energy. The amount of heat necessary to raise 1 g of water from 14.5–15.5°C (small calorie).
Calorie is being replaced by joule, the SI unit equal to 0.239 calorie. See also: British thermal unit
Cardiovascular (CV)
Pronunciation (kar′dē-ō-vas′kyū-lăr)
1. Relating to the heart and the blood vessels or the circulation.
Cholesterol
Pronunciation (kō-les′ter-ol)
1. 5-cholesten-3β-ol (cholestane with a 5,6 double bond and a 3β-hydroxyl group); the most abundant steroid in animal
tissues, especially in bile and gallstones, and present in food, especially food rich in animal fats; circulates in the
plasma complexed to proteins of various densities and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atheroma
formation in arteries; a precursor of steroid hormones. See also: lipoprotein
Coronary artery

1. (obsolete) Syn: left gastric artery


Coronary artery disease (CAD)
1. narrowing of the lumen of one or more of the coronary arteries, usually due to atherosclerosis; myocardial ischemia;
can cause congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, or myocardial infarction.
Diabetes
Pronunciation (dī′ă-bē′tēz)
Font Size
1. Either diabetes insipidus or diabetes mellitus, diseases having in common the triad of symptoms polyuria, weight loss,
and significant glucosuria; when used without qualification, refers to diabetes mellitus.
Hypercholesterolemia
Pronunciation (hī′pĕr-kō-les′tĕr-ol-ē′mē-ă, hī′per-kō-les′ter-ē′mē-ă, hī′per-kō-les′ter-i-nē′mē-ă)
1. The presence of an abnormally large amount of cholesterol in the blood.
Hypertension (HTN)
Pronunciation (hī′pĕr-ten′shŭn)
1. High blood pressure; transitory or sustained elevation of systemic arterial blood pressure to a level likely to induce
cardiovascular damage or other adverse consequences. Hypertension has been arbitrarily defined as a systolic blood
pressure above 140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg. Consequences of uncontrolled hypertension
include retinal vascular damage (Keith-Wagener-Barker changes), cerebrovascular disease and stroke, left ventricular
hypertrophy and failure, myocardial infarction, dissecting aneurysm, and renovascular disease. An underlying disorder
(e.g., renal disease, Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma) is identified in fewer than 10% of all cases of
hypertension. The remainder, traditionally labeled “essential” hypertension, probably arise from a variety of
disturbances in normal pressure-regulating mechanisms (which involve baroreceptors, autonomic influences on the rate
and force of cardiac contraction and vascular tone, renal retention of salt and water, formation of angiotensin II under
the influence of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme, and other factors known and unknown), and most are
probably genetically conditioned.
Lipid
Pronunciation (lip′id)
1. “Fat-soluble,” an operational term describing a solubility characteristic, not a chemical substance, i.e., denoting
substances extracted from animal or vegetable cells by nonpolar solvents; included in the heterogeneous collection of
materials thus extractable are fatty acids, glycerides and glyceryl ethers, phospholipids, sphingolipids, long-chain
alcohols and waxes, terpenes, steroids, and “fat-soluble” vitamins such as A, D, and E.
Metabolic syndrome

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1. a group of metabolic risk factors linked to insulin resistance and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular
disease. It is defined as the presence of any three of the following: 1) increased waist circumference (>102 cm for men,
>88 cm for women), 2) elevated triglycerides >150 mg/dL, 3) low HDL cholesterol (less than 40 mg/dL for men, less
than 50 mg/dL for women), 4) hypertension (systolic BP >130 and/or diastolic >85) or antihypertensive medication
use, 5) impaired fasting glucose (>110 mg/dL).
Obese
Pronunciation (ō-bēs′)
1. Excessively fat.
Obstruction
Pronunciation (ob-strŭk′shŭn)
1. Blockage, clogging, or impeded flow, e.g., by occlusion or stenosis.
Plaque
Pronunciation (plak)
1. A patch or small differentiated area on a body surface (e.g., skin, mucosa, or arterial endothelium) or on the cut surface
of an organ such as the brain; in skin, a circumscribed, elevated, superficial, and solid area exceeding 1 cm in diameter.
2. An area of clearing in a flat confluent growth of bacteria or tissue cells, such as that caused by the lytic action of
bacteriophage in an agar plate culture of bacteria, by the cytopathic effect of certain animal viruses in a sheet of
cultured tissue cells, or by antibody (hemolysin) produced by lymphocytes cultured in the presence of erythrocytes and
to which complement has been added.

DIABETES
Hemoglobin (Hb, Hgb)
Pronunciation (hē′mō-glō′bin)
1. The red respiratory protein of erythrocytes, consisting of approximately 3.8% heme and 96.2% globin, with a molecular
weight of 64,450, which as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues where the oxygen is
readily released and HbO2 becomes Hb. When Hb is exposed to certain chemicals, its normal respiratory function is
blocked; e.g., the oxygen in HbO2 is easily displaced by carbon monoxide, thereby resulting in the formation of fairly
stable carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO), as in asphyxiation resulting from inhalation of exhaust fumes from gasoline
engines. When the iron in Hb is oxidized from the ferrous to ferric state, as in poisoning with nitrates and certain other
chemicals, a nonrespiratory compound, methemoglobin (MetHb), is formed. In humans there are at least five kinds of
normal Hb: two embryonic Hb's (Hb Gower-1, Hb Gower-2), fetal (Hb F), and two adult types (Hb A, Hb A2). There
are two α globin chains containing 141 amino acid residues, and two of another kind (β, γ, ΄, ε, or ζ), each containing
146 amino acid residues in four of the Hb's. Hb Gower-1 has two ζ chains and two ε chains. The production of each
kind of globin chain is controlled by a structural gene of similar Greek letter designation; normal individuals are
homozygous for the normal allele at each locus. Substitution of one amino acid for another in the polypeptide chain can
occur at any codon in any of the five loci and have resulted in the production of many hundreds of abnormal Hb types,
most of no known clinical significance. In addition, deletions of one or more amino acid residues are known, as well as
gene rearrangements due to unequal crossing over between homologous chromosomes. The Hb types below are the
main abnormal types known to be of clinical significance. Newly discovered abnormal Hb types are first assigned a
name, usually the location where discovered, and a molecular formula is added when determined. The formula consists
of Greek letters to designate the basic chains, with subscript 2 if there are two identical chains; a superscript letter (A if
normal for adult Hb, etc.) is added, or the superscript may designate the site of amino acid substitution (numbering
amino acid residues from the N-terminus of the polypeptide) and specifying the change, using standard abbreviations
for the amino acids. There is an exhaustive listing of variant Hb's in MIM in which a composite numbering system is
used.
ACE inhibitor
1. A class of drugs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) that block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II,
used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure and in the prevention of microvascular complications
of diabetes mellitus (DM).
Advanced glycation end-products
1. glycation adducts of sugars and proteins involved in the collagen cross-linking occurring with aging.
Amyotrophy

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Pronunciation (ă′mī′ot′rō-fē)
1. Muscular wasting or atrophy.
Atherosclerosis
Pronunciation (ath′er-ō-skler-ō′sis)
1. Arteriosclerosis characterized by irregularly distributed lipid deposits in the intima of large and medium-sized arteries,
causing narrowing of arterial lumens and proceeding eventually to fibrosis and calcification. Lesions are usually focal
and progress slowly and intermittently. Limitation of blood flow accounts for most clinical manifestations, which vary
with the distribution and severity of lesions. In lower animals, atherosclerosis of swine and fowl closely resemble
human atherosclerosis.
Autoimmune
Pronunciation (aw′tō-i-mūn′)
1. Term describing cells and antibodies arising from and directed against the individual's own tissues, as in autoimmune
disease.
Beta cell of pancreas
1. the predominant cell of the pancreatic islets that secretes insulin.
Bladder
Pronunciation (blad′er)
1. A distensible musculomembranous organ serving as a receptacle for fluid, such as the urinary bladder or gallbladder.
See: detrusor
Blood pressure (BP)
1. the pressure or tension of the blood within the systemic arteries, maintained by the contraction of the left ventricle, the
resistance of the arterioles and capillaries, the elasticity of the arterial walls, as well as the viscosity and volume of the
blood; expressed as relative to the ambient atmospheric pressure.
Blood sugar
1. See: D-glucose
Callus
Pronunciation (kal′ŭs)
1. A composite mass of tissue that forms at a fracture site to establish continuity between the bone ends; it is composed
initially of uncallused fibrous tissue and cartilage, and ultimately of bone. Syn: fracture callus
Cholesterol
Pronunciation (kō-les′ter-ol)
1. 5-cholesten-3β-ol (cholestane with a 5,6 double bond and a 3β-hydroxyl group); the most abundant steroid in animal
tissues, especially in bile and gallstones, and present in food, especially food rich in animal fats; circulates in the
plasma complexed to proteins of various densities and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atheroma
formation in arteries; a precursor of steroid hormones. See also: lipoprotein
Coronary angiography
1. imaging of the circulation of the myocardium by injection of contrast medium, usually by selective catheterization of
each coronary artery, formerly by nonselective injection at the root of the aorta.
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
1. a surgical procedure in which damaged sections of the coronary arteries are replaced with new articular of venous
graftings to increase rate of cardiac blood flow.
Diabetes
Pronunciation (dī′ă-bē′tēz)
1. Either diabetes insipidus or diabetes mellitus, diseases having in common the triad of symptoms polyuria, weight loss,
and significant glucosuria; when used without qualification, refers to diabetes mellitus.

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Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
1. buildup of ketones in blood due to breakdown of stored fats for energy; a complication of diabetes mellitus. Untreated,
can lead to coma and death.
Dialysis
Pronunciation (dī-al′i-sis)
1. A method of artificial kidney function.
Diphtheria
Pronunciation (dif-thēr′ē-ă)
1. A specific infectious disease due to the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae and its highly potent toxin; marked by
severe inflammation that can form a membranous coating, with formation of a thick fibrinous exudate, of the mucous
membrane of the pharynx, the nose, and sometimes the tracheobronchial tree; the toxin produces degeneration in
peripheral nerves, heart muscle, and other tissues, diphtheria had a high fatality rate, especially in children, but is now
rare because of an effective vaccine.
Echocardiography
Pronunciation (ek′ō-kar′dē-og′ră-fē)
1. The use of ultrasound in the investigation of the heart and great vessels and diagnosis of cardiovascular lesions.
Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)
Pronunciation (ē-lek′trō-kar′dē-ō-gram)
1. Graphic record of the heart's integrated action currents obtained with the electrocardiograph displayed as voltage
changes over time.
Flu
Pronunciation (flū)
1. Syn: influenza
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
1. carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.
Gingivitis
Pronunciation (jin′ji-vī′tis)
1. Inflammation of the gingiva as a response to bacterial plaque on adjacent teeth; characterized by erythema, edema, and
fibrous enlargement of the gingiva without resorption of the underlying alveolar bone.
Glucagon
Pronunciation (glū′kă-gon)
1. A hormone consisting of a straight-chain polypeptide of 29 amino acyl residues, extracted from pancreatic alpha cells.
Parenteral administration of 0.5–1 mg results in prompt mobilization of hepatic glycogen, thus elevating blood glucose
concentration. It activates hepatic phosphorylase, thereby increasing glycogenolysis, decreases gastric motility and
gastric and pancreatic secretions, and increases urinary excretion of nitrogen and potassium; it has no effect on muscle
phosphorylase. As the hydrochloride, it is used in the treatment of type I glycogenosis (von Gierke disease) and
hypoglycemia, particularly hypoglycemic coma due to exogenously administered insulin.
Heart attack
1. Syn: myocardial infarction
Hormone
Pronunciation (hōr′mōn)
1. A chemical substance, formed in one organ or part of the body and carried in the blood to another organ or part where
they exert functional effects; depending on the specificity of their effects, hormones can alter the functional activity,
and sometimes the structure, of just one organ or tissue or various numbers of them. Various hormones are formed by
ductless glands, but molecules such as secretin, cholecystokinin/somatostatin, formed in the gastrointestinal tract, by
definition are also hormones. The definition of hormone has been recently extended to chemical substances formed by

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cells and acting on neighboring cells (i.e., paracrine function) or the same cells that produce them (i.e., autocrine
function). For hormones not listed below, see specific names.
Hyperglycemia
Pronunciation (hī′pĕr-glī-sē′mē-ă)
1. An abnormally high concentration of glucose in the circulating blood, seen especially in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Hypertension (HTN)
Pronunciation (hī′pĕr-ten′shŭn)
1. High blood pressure; transitory or sustained elevation of systemic arterial blood pressure to a level likely to induce
cardiovascular damage or other adverse consequences. Hypertension has been arbitrarily defined as a systolic blood
pressure above 140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg. Consequences of uncontrolled hypertension
include retinal vascular damage (Keith-Wagener-Barker changes), cerebrovascular disease and stroke, left ventricular
hypertrophy and failure, myocardial infarction, dissecting aneurysm, and renovascular disease. An underlying disorder
(e.g., renal disease, Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma) is identified in fewer than 10% of all cases of
hypertension. The remainder, traditionally labeled “essential” hypertension, probably arise from a variety of
disturbances in normal pressure-regulating mechanisms (which involve baroreceptors, autonomic influences on the rate
and force of cardiac contraction and vascular tone, renal retention of salt and water, formation of angiotensin II under
the influence of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme, and other factors known and unknown), and most are
probably genetically conditioned.
Hypoglycemia
Pronunciation (hī′pō-glī-sē′mē-ă)
1. Symptoms resulting from low blood glucose (normal glucose range 60–100 mg/dL [3.3–5.6 mmol/L]), which are either
autonomic or neuroglycopenic. Autonomic symptoms include sweating, trembling, feelings of warmth, anxiety, and
nausea. Neuroglycopenic symptoms include feelings of dizziness, confusion, tiredness, difficulty speaking, headache,
and inability to concentrate.
Immunization
Pronunciation (im′myū-ni-zā′shŭn)
1. Protection of susceptible patients from communicable diseases by administration of a living modified agent
(e.g., yellow fever vaccine), a suspension of killed organisms (e.g., pertussis vaccine), a protein expressed in a
heterologous organism (e.g., hepatitis B vaccine), or an inactivated toxin (e.g., tetanus). See also: vaccination,
allergization
Impotence
Pronunciation (im′pŏ-tens, -ten-sē)
1. Weakness; lack of power.
2. Specifically, inability of the male to achieve or maintain penile erection and thus engage in copulation; a manifestation
of neurologic, vascular, or psychological dysfunction.
Influenza
Pronunciation (in′flū-en′ză)
1. An acute infectious respiratory disease, caused by Influenza viruses, which are in the family Orthomyxoviridae, in
which the inhaled virus attacks the respiratory epithelial cells of those susceptible and produces a catarrhal
inflammation; characterized by sudden onset, chills, fever of short duration (3–4 days), severe prostration, headache,
muscle aches, and a cough that usually is dry and may be followed by secondary bacterial infections that can last up to
10 days. The disease commonly occurs in epidemics, sometimes in pandemics, which develop quickly and spread
rapidly; the mortality rate is usually low, but may rise in patients with secondary bacterial pneumonia, particularly in
old people and those with underlying debilitating diseases; strain-specific immunity develops, but mutations in the
virus are frequent, and such immunity usually does not affect antigenically different strains.
Insulin
Pronunciation (in′sŭ-lin)
1. A polypeptide hormone, secreted by β cells in the islets of Langerhans, which promotes glucose use, protein synthesis,
and the formation and storage of neutral lipids; available in various preparations including genetically engineered
human insulin, which is currently favored. Insulin is used parenterally in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

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Insulin resistance
1. diminished effectiveness of insulin in lowering plasma glucose levels, arbitrarily defined as a daily requirement of at
least 200 units of insulin to prevent hyperglycemia or ketosis; usually due to binding of insulin or insulin receptor sites
by antibodies; associated with obesity, ketoacidosis, and infection. See also: metabolic syndrome
Kidney
Pronunciation (kid′nē)
1. One of the paired organs that excrete urine, remove nitrogenous wastes of metabolism, reclaim important electrolytes
and water, contribute to blood pressure control(renin-angiotensin system) and erythropoiesis (via erythropoietin
production). The kidneys are bean-shaped organs about 11-cm long, 5-cm wide, and 3-cm thick, lying on either side of
the vertebral column, posterior to the peritoneum, opposite the 12th thoracic and 1st–3rd lumbar vertebrae. In animals,
the kidney has variable size and location.
Metabolic syndrome
1. a group of metabolic risk factors linked to insulin resistance and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular
disease. It is defined as the presence of any three of the following: 1) increased waist circumference (>102 cm for men,
>88 cm for women), 2) elevated triglycerides >150 mg/dL, 3) low HDL cholesterol (less than 40 mg/dL for men, less
than 50 mg/dL for women), 4) hypertension (systolic BP >130 and/or diastolic >85) or antihypertensive medication
use, 5) impaired fasting glucose (>110 mg/dL).
Myocardial infarction (MI)
1. infarction of a segment of heart muscle, usually due to occlusion of a coronary artery.
Nephropathy
Pronunciation (ne-frop′ă-thē)
1. Any disease of the kidney.
Neuropathy
Pronunciation (nū-rop′ă-thē)
1. A classic term for any disorder affecting any segment of the nervous system.
2. In contemporary usage, a disease involving the cranial nerves or the peripheral or autonomic nervous system.
Pancreas
Pronunciation (pan′krē-as, pan-krē-ā′tă)
1. An elongated lobulated retroperitoneal gland, devoid of a distinct capsule, extending from the concavity of the
duodenum to the spleen; it consists of a flattened head within the duodenal concavity, a neck connecting the head and
body, an elongated three-sided body extending transversely across the abdomen, and a tail in contact with the spleen.
The gland secretes from its exocrine part pancreatic juice that is discharged into the intestine, and from its endocrine
part the internal secretions insulin and glucagon.
Periodontitis
Pronunciation (per′ē-ō-don-tī′tis)
1. Inflammation of the periodontium.
2. A chronic inflammatory disease of the periodontium occurring in response to bacterial plaque on the adjacent teeth;
characterized by gingivitis, destruction of the alveolar bone and periodontal ligament, apical migration of the epithelial
attachment resulting in the formation of periodontal pockets, and ultimately loosening and exfoliation of the teeth.
Prediabetes
Pronunciation (pre′dī-ă-bē′tēz)
1. A state of potential diabetes mellitus, with normal glucose tolerance but with an increased risk of developing Type 2
diabetes, (e.g., family history).
Retinopathy
Pronunciation (ret′i-nop′ă-thē)
1. Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the retina.

19 | P a g e
Retrograde ejaculation
1. delivery of semen ejaculate into the bladder; seen in neurologic disease, diabetes, and occasionally after prostate
surgery.
Risk factor
1. a characteristic statistically associated with, although not necessarily causally related to, an increased risk of morbidity
or mortality, e.g., smoking as a risk factor for heart disease.
Stroke
Pronunciation (strōk)
1. Any acute clinical event, related to impairment of cerebral circulation, that lasts longer than 24 hours. Syn: apoplexy,
brain attack
Type 1 diabetes
1. a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by a total lack of insulin. Occurs when the body's
immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces
little or no insulin. Type 1 diabetes develops most often in young people but can appear in adults.
Type 2 diabetes
1. a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by either a lack of insulin or the body's inability to use
insulin efficiently. Type 2 diabetes develops most often in middle-aged and older adults but can appear in young
people.
Ulcer
Pronunciation (ŭl′sĕr)
1. A lesion through the skin or a mucous membrane resulting from loss of tissue, usually with inflammation. See: erosion
Vitrectomy
Pronunciation (vi-trek′tŏ-mē)
1. Removal of the vitreous by means of an instrument that simultaneously removes vitreous by suction and cutting, and
replaces it with saline or some other fluid.

ALLERGIES
Adenoidectomy
Pronunciation (ad′ĕ-noy-dek′tŏ-mē)
1. An operation for the removal of adenoid tissue from the nasopharynx.
Adenoids
Glands or lymphoid tissue in the upper part of the throat behind the nose.
Allergen
Pronunciation (al′er-jen)
1. An antigen that induces an allergic or hypersensitive response.
Allergen immunotherapy
1. a process of administering allergenic extracts to patients who suffer from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic
asthma to decrease the degree of hypersensitivity and symptoms by reducing immunologic responses to environmental
allergens like pollen, dust, animal dander, and molds; also highly effective for preventing anaphylaxis in patinets
allergic to bee venom.
Allergic rhinitis
1. rhinitis associated with hay fever; allergic rhinitis is manifest by sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, pruritus of the
nose, ears, palate; may also occur concurrently with allergic conjunctivitis.
Allergy
Pronunciation (al′er-jē)

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1. Hypersensitivity caused by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen) resulting in a marked increase in reactivity to that
antigen on subsequent exposure, sometimes resulting in harmful immunologic consequences. See also: allergic
reaction, anaphylaxis, immune Syn: acquired sensitivity, induced sensitivity
2. That branch of medicine concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of allergic manifestations.
3. An acquired hypersensitivity to certain drugs and biologic materials.
Anaphylaxis
Pronunciation (an′ă-fi-lak′sis)
1. An induced systemic or generalized sensitivity; at times the term anaphylaxis is used for anaphylactic shock. The term
is commonly used to denote the clinical reaction seen with system IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. Multivalent
antigen crosslinks IgE on the surface of tissues mast cells, causing degranulation with release of preformed mediators
(e.g., histamine). Generation of newly synthesized mediators occurs rapidly. The physiologic manifestations reflect the
biologic effects of these mediators. Cutaneous symptoms include pruritus, erythema, urticaria, and angioedema.
Respiratory compromise can come from laryngeal obstruction or bronchospasm. Cardiac effects include arrhythmia,
hypotension, and shock. The reaction may be fatal if asphyxiation or cardiovascular collapse occurs.
Angioedema
Pronunciation (an′jē-ō-ĕ-dē′mă)
1. Recurrent large circumscribed areas of subcutaneous or mucosal edema of sudden onset, usually disappearing within 24
hours; frequently, an allergic reaction to foods or drugs.
Antibody (Ab)
Pronunciation (an′tē-bod′ē)
1. An immunoglobulin molecule produced by B-lymphoid cells that combine specifically with an immunogen or antigen.
Antibodies may be present naturally, their specificity is determined through gene rearrangement or somatic
replacement or may be synthesized in response to stimulus provided by the introduction of an antigen; antibodies are
found in the blood and body fluids, although the basic structure of the molecule consists of two light and two heavy
chains, antibodies may also be found as dimers, trimers, or pentamers. After binding antigen, some antibodies may fix,
complement, bind to surface receptors on immune cells, and in some cases may neutralize microorganisms. See also:
immunoglobulin
Antigen (Ag)
Pronunciation (an′ti-jen)
1. Any substance that, as a result of coming in contact with appropriate cells, induces a state of sensitivity or immune
responsiveness and that reacts in a demonstrable way with antibodies or immune cells of the sensitized subject in vivo
or in vitro. Modern usage tends to retain the broad meaning of antigen, employing the terms “antigenic determinant” or
“determinant group” for the particular chemical group of a molecule that confers antigenic specificity. See also: hapten
Antihistamines
Pronunciation (an′tē-his′tă-mēnz)
1. Drugs having an action antagonistic to that of histamine on either H1 or H2 receptors.
Antiinflammatory
Pronunciation (an′tē-in-flam′ă-tō-rē)
1. Reducing inflammation by acting on body responses, without directly antagonizing the causative agent; denoting
agents such as glucocorticoids and aspirin.
Asthma
Pronunciation (az′mă)
1. An inflammatory disease of the lungs characterized by (in most cases) reversible airway obstruction. Originally, a term
used to mean “difficult breathing”; now used to denote bronchial asthma.
Bronchodilator
Pronunciation (brong′kō-dī-lā′ter, -tōr)
1. Causing an increase in caliber of a bronchus or bronchial tube.
2. An agent that possesses this power (e.g., epinephrine, albuterol).

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Bronchospasm
Pronunciation (brong′kō-spazm)
1. Contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, causing narrowing of the lumen. Cf.:
bronchoconstriction
Conjunctivitis
Pronunciation (kon-jŭnk′ti-vī′tis)
1. Inflammation of the conjunctiva.
Dander
Pronunciation (dan′dĕr)
1. A fine scaling of the skin and scalp. See also: dandruff
2. A normal effluvium of animal hair or coat capable of causing allergic responses in atopic persons.
Decongestant
Pronunciation (dē′kon-jes′tant)
1. An agent that possesses this action.
Dermatitis
Pronunciation (der′mă-tī′tis, -tit′i-dēz)
1. Inflammation of the skin.
Desensitization
Pronunciation (dē-sen′si-ti-zā′shŭn)
1. The reduction or abolition of allergic sensitivity or reactions to the specific antigen (allergen). Syn: antianaphylaxis
Drug allergy
1. sensitivity (hypersensitivity) to a drug or other chemical.
Eczema
Pronunciation (ek′zĕ-mă, eg′zĕ-mă, eg-zē′mă)
1. Generic term for inflammatory conditions of the skin, particularly with vesiculation in the acute stage, typically
erythematous, edematous, papular, and crusting; followed often by lichenification and scaling and occasionally by
duskiness of the erythema and, infrequently, hyperpigmentation; often accompanied by sensations of itching and
burning; the vesicles form by intraepidermal spongiosis; often hereditary and associated with allergic rhinitis and
asthma.
Endoscopy
Pronunciation (en-dos′kŏ-pē)
1. Examination of the interior of a canal or hollow viscus by means of a special instrument, such as an endoscope. See:
endoscope
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
1. an in vitro binding assay in which an enzyme and its substrate (rather than a radioactive substance) serve as the
indicator system; in positive test results, the two yield a colored or other easily recognizable substance; tests are made
in wells in polystyrene or other material to which immunoglobulins or antigenic preparations readily adsorb; the
enzyme is linked to known immunoglobulin (or antigen) and in positive test results remains in the well as part of the
antigen-antibody complex available to react with its substrate when added.
Epinephrine
Pronunciation (ep′i-nef′rin)
1. A catecholamine that is the chief neurohormone of the adrenal medulla of most species; also secreted by certain
neurons. The L-isomer is the most potent stimulant (sympathomimetic) of adrenergic α- and β-receptors, resulting in
increased heart rate and force of contraction, vasoconstriction or vasodilation, relaxation of bronchiolar and intestinal
smooth muscle, glycogenolysis, lipolysis, and other metabolic effects; used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, acute

22 | P a g e
allergic disorders, open-angle glaucoma, cardiac arrest, and heart block, and as a topical and local vasoconstrictor.
Generally used salts are epinephrine hydrochloride and epinephrine bitartrate, the latter most frequently used in topical
preparations. See also: emergency theory, fight or flight response
Histamine (H)
Pronunciation (his′tă-mēn)
1. A vasodepressor amine derived from histidine by histidine decarboxylase and present in ergot and in animal tissues. It
is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, and a vasodilator (capillaries and
arterioles) that causes a fall in blood pressure. Histamine, or a substance indistinguishable in action from it, is liberated
in the skin as a result of injury. When injected intradermally in high dilution, it causes the triple response.
Hives
Pronunciation (hīvz)
1. Syn: urticaria Syn: wheal
Immune system
1. an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune
response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.
Immunotherapy
Pronunciation (im′yū-nō-thār′ă-pē)
1. Originally, therapeutic administration of serum or immune globulin containing preformed antibodies produced by
another individual. Currently, immunotherapy includes nonspecific systemic stimulation, adjuvant, active specific
immunotherapy, and adoptive immunotherapy. New forms of immunotherapy include the use of monoclonal
antibodies.
Latex
Pronunciation (lā′teks)
1. An emulsion or suspension produced by some seed plants; it contains suspended microscopic globules of natural
rubber.
2. Similar synthetic materials such as polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, etc.
Mast cell
1. a connective tissue cell that contains coarse, basophilic, metachromatic secretory granules that contain, among other
pharmacologic agents, heparin, histamine, and eosinophilic chemotactic factor. These cells are involved in immediate
hypersensitivity reactions and play a role in the regulation of the composition of ground substance.
Metered-dose inhaler (MDI)
1. a device used to administer a defined dose of medication for inhalation; used frequently in the treatment of asthma and
other respiratory conditions.
Mold
Pronunciation (mōld)
1. A filamentous fungus, generally appearing as a circular colony that may be cottony, wooly, or glabrous, but with
filaments that are not organized into large fruiting bodies, such as mushrooms.
Pollen
Pronunciation (pol′ĕn)
1. Microspores of seed plants carried by wind or insects before fertilization; important in the etiology of hay fever and
other allergies.
Pulmonary function test (PFT)
1. an assessment of the respiratory system that provides information about ventilation, airflow, lung volumes and
capacity, and the diffusion of gas incorporating spirometry, peak flow meters, and the body plethysmograph.
Radioallergosorbent test (RAST)

23 | P a g e
1. a radioimmunoassay test to detect specific IgE antibodies responsible for hypersensitivity: the allergen is bound to
insoluble material and the patient's serum is reacted with this conjugate; if the serum contains antibody to the allergen,
it will be complexed to the allergen. Radiolabeled anti-human IgE antibody is added where it reacts with the bound
IgE. The amount of radioactivity is proportional to the serum IgE.
Sinusitis
Pronunciation (sī′nŭs-ī′tis)
1. Inflammation of the mucous membrane of any sinus, especially the paranasal. See also: rhinosinusitis
Urticaria
Pronunciation (ŭr′ti-kar′i-ă)
1. An eruption of itching wheals, collquially called hives, usually of systemic origin; it may be due to a state of
hypersensitivity to foods or drugs, foci of infection, physical agents (heat, cold, light, friction), or psychic stimuli.

DEPRESSION
Acupuncture
Pronunciation (ak′yū-punk′chŭr)
1. An ancient Asian system of therapy in which long, fine needles are inserted into discrete areas of the body that are
considered linked to symptoms or disease.
2. More recently, acupuncture anesthesia or analgesia.
Agoraphobia
Pronunciation (ag′ōr-ă-fō′bē-ă)
1. A mental disorder characterized by an irrational fear of leaving the familiar setting of home, or venturing into the open,
so pervasive that a large number of external life situations are entered into reluctantly or are avoided; often associated
with panic attacks.
Anorexia nervosa
1. a mental disorder manifested by extreme fear of becoming obese and an aversion to food, usually occurring in young
women and often resulting in life-threatening weight loss, accompanied by a disturbance in body image, hyperactivity,
and amenorrhea.
Antidepressant
Pronunciation (an′tē-dē-pres′ănt)
1. Counteracting depression.
2. A pharmacologic agent used in treating depression.
Anxiety disorders
1. a group of disorders involving various manifestations of anxiety that are grouped together nosologically in the DSM.
These include panic disorder (see also panic attack), specific phobia, formerly simple phobia (see phobia); social
phobia that was formerly called social anxiety disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); (see also obsession,
compulsion, obsessive-compulsive); posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); acute stress disorder; generalized anxiety
disorder (GAD); and anxiety disorders secondary to medical conditions or substance-induced or not otherwise
specified. See: neurosis See also: neurosis, anxiety
Body dysmorphic disorder
1. a psychosomatic (somatoform) disorder characterized by preoccupation with some imagined defect in appearance in a
person who looks normal.
2. a DSM diagnosis that is established when the specified criteria are met.
Bulimia nervosa
1. a chronic morbid disorder involving repeated and secretive episodic bouts of eating characterized by uncontrolled rapid
ingestion of large quantities of food over a short period of time (binge eating), followed by self-induced vomiting, use
of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or vigorous exercise to prevent weight gain; often accompanied by feelings of guilt,
depression, or self-disgust.
Depression

24 | P a g e
Pronunciation (dĕ-presh′ŭn)
1. A mental state or chronic mental disorder characterized by feelings of sadness, loneliness, despair, low self-esteem, and
self-reproach; accompanying signs include psychomotor retardation (or less frequently agitation), withdrawal from
social contact, and vegetative states such as loss of appetite and insomnia. Syn: dejection (1) , depressive reaction,
depressive syndrome
Eating disorders (ED)
1. a group of mental disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, pica, and rumination disorder of infancy.
Major depression
1. a mental disorder characterized by sustained depression of mood, anhedonia, sleep and appetite disturbances, and
feelings of worthlessness, guilt, and hopelessness. Diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode (DSM-IV) include
a depressed mood, a marked reduction of interest or pleasure in virtually all activities, or both, lasting for at least 2
weeks. In addition, 3 or more of the following must be present: gain or loss of weight, increased or decreased sleep,
increased or decreased level of psychomotor activity, fatigue, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, diminished ability to
concentrate, and recurring thoughts of death or suicide. See: endogenous depression, exogenous depression, bipolar
disorder
Manic-depressive disorder
1. older term for bipolar disorder.
MAOI
1. Abbreviation for monoamine oxidase inhibitor.
Menopause
Pronunciation (men′ō-pawz)
1. Permanent cessation of the menses due to ovarian failure; termination of the menstrual life.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
1. a type of anxiety disorder the essential features of which include recurrent obsessions, persistent intrusive ideas,
thoughts, impulses or images, or compulsions (repetitive, purposeful, and intentional behaviors performed to decrease
anxiety in response to an obsession) sufficiently severe to cause marked distress, be time-consuming, or significantly
interfere with the person's normal routine, occupational functioning, or usual social activities or relationships with
others.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)
1. a pervasive pattern occurring during the last week of the luteal phase in most menstrual cycles for at least a year and
remitting within a few days of the onset of the follicular phase, with some combination of depressed mood, mood
lability, marked anxiety, or irritability; various specific physical symptoms; and significant functional impairment; the
symptoms are comparable in severity with those seen in a major depressive episode, distinguishing this disorder from
the far more common premenstrual syndrome. See also: premenstrual syndrome
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
1. in women of reproductive age, a constellation of emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms that occur in the luteal
(premenstrual) phase of the menstrual cycle and subside with the onset of menstruation; characterized by swelling and
weight gain due to fluid retention, breast tenderness, irritability, mood swings, anxiety, depression, drowsiness, fatigue,
difficulty concentrating, and changes in appetite and libido.
Psychiatrist
Pronunciation (sī-kī′ă-trist)
1. A physician who specializes in psychiatry.
Psychologist
Pronunciation (sī-kol′ŏ-jist)
1. A specialist in psychology licensed to practice professional psychology (e.g., clinical psychologist), or qualified to
teach psychology as a scholarly discipline (academic psychologist), or whose scientific specialty is a subfield of
psychology (research psychologist).
Psychosis

25 | P a g e
Pronunciation (sī-kō′sis, -sēz)
1. A mental and behavioral disorder causing gross distortion or disorganization of a person's mental capacity, affective
response, and capacity to recognize reality, communicate, and relate to others to the degree of interfering with that
person's capacity to cope with the ordinary demands of everyday life. The psychoses are divided into two major
classifications according to their origins: those associated with organic brain syndromes (e.g., Korsakoff syndrome);
and those less clearly organic and having some functional component(s) (e.g., the schizophrenias, bipolar disorder).
2. Generic term for any of the so-called insanities, the most common forms of which are the schizophrenias.
3. A severe emotional and behavioral disorder.
Psychotherapy
Pronunciation (sī-kō-thār′ă-pē)
1. Treatment of emotional, behavioral, personality, and psychiatric disorders based primarily on verbal or nonverbal
communication and interventions with the patient, in contrast to treatments using chemical and physical measures. See
entries under: psychoanalysis; psychiatry; psychology; therapy
Reflexology
Pronunciation (rē′flek-sol′ŏ-jē)
1. The study of reflexes.
Registered nurse (RN)
1. a nurse who has graduated from an accredited nursing program, has passed the state examination for licensure, and has
been registered and licensed to practice by a state authority.
Schizophrenia
Pronunciation (skiz′ō-frē′nē-ă, skit-sō-)
1. A term coined by Bleuler, synonymous with and replacing dementia praecox, denoting a common type of psychosis,
characterized by abnormalities in perception, content of thought, and thought processes (hallucinations and delusions)
and by extensive withdrawal of interest from other people and the outside world, with excessive focusing on one's own
mental life. Now considered a group or spectrum of disorders rather than a single entity, with distinction sometimes
made between process schizophrenia and reactive schizophrenia. The “split” personality of schizophrenia, in which
individual psychic components or functions split off and become autonomous, is popularly but erroneously identified
with multiple personality, in which two or more relatively complete personalities dominate by turns the psychic life of
a patient.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
1. a class of chemical compounds that selectively, to varying degrees, inhibit the reuptake of serotonin by presynaptic
neurons and are posited to exert their antidepressant effect by this mechanism.
Sexual abuse
1. See: domestic violence
Social phobia
1. a persistent pattern of significant fear of a social or performance situation, manifesting in anxiety or panic on exposure
to the situation or in anticipation of it, which the person realizes is unreasonable or excessive and interferes
significantly with the person's functioning;
Tourette syndrome
Pronunciation (tur'et)
1. a tic disorder appearing in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and vocal tics present for longer than 1 year.
Obsessive-compulsive behavior, attention-deficit disorder, and other psychiatric disorders may be associated;
coprolalia and echolalia rarely occur; autosomal dominant inheritance.
Trichotillomania
Pronunciation (trik′ō-til′ō-mā′nē-ă)
1. A compulsion to pull out one's own hair.

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SEXUAL CONDITIONS
Amenorrhea
Pronunciation (ă-men′ō-rē′ă)
1. Absence or abnormal cessation of the menses.
Anorgasmy
Pronunciation (an′ōr-gaz′mē, -gaz′mē-ă)
1. Failure to experience an orgasm; may be biogenic, secondary to a physical disorder or medication (e.g., SSRIs or
possibly some psychotropics) or drug of abuse, or psychogenic, secondary to psychological or situational factors, or
have a multifactorial cause.
Bacterial vaginosis
1. infection of the human vagina that may be caused by anaerobic bacteria, especially by Mobiluncus species or by
Gardnerella vaginalis. Characterized by excessive, sometimes malodorous, discharge.
Bisexual
Pronunciation (bī-sek′shū-ăl)
1. Having gonads of both sexes. See also: hermaphroditism
2. Denoting a person who engages in both heterosexual and homosexual activities.
Chlamydia
Pronunciation (kla-mid′ē-ă, -mid′ē-ē)
1. A vernacular term used to refer to any member of the genus Chlamydia.
Circumcision
Pronunciation (ser′kŭm-sizh′ŭn)
1. Operation to remove part or all of the prepuce.
2. Cutting around an anatomic part (e.g., the areola of the breast). Syn: peritectomy (2)
Clitoris
Pronunciation (klit′ō-ris, -tōr′i-dēz; klī′tō-ris)
1. A cylindric, erectile body, rarely exceeding 2 cm in length, situated at the most anterior portion of the vulva and
projecting between the branched limbs or laminae of the labia minora, which form its prepuce and frenulum. It consists
of a glans, a corpus, and two crura, and is the homologue of the penis in the male, except that it is not perforated by the
urethra and does not possess a corpus spongiosum.
Condyloma
Pronunciation (kon′di-lō′mă, -mah′tă)
1. A wartlike excrescence at the anus or vulva, or on the glans penis.
Ejaculate
Pronunciation (ē-jak′yū-lāt)
1. To expel suddenly.
2. Semen expelled in ejaculation. See: ejaculation
Emergency hormonal contraception
1. Syn: morning-after pill
Endometriosis
Pronunciation (en′dō-mē′trē-ō′sis)
1. Ectopic occurrence of endometrial tissue, frequently forming cysts containing altered blood.

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Erectile dysfunction
1. inability to achieve or maintain penile tumescence sufficient for sexual intromission or for achieving orgasm.
Female circumcision
1. a broad term referring to many forms of female genital cutting, ranging from removal of the clitoral prepuce to the
removal of the clitoris, labia minora and parts of the labia majora, and infibulation; done for cultural, not medical,
reasons.
Foreskin
Pronunciation (fōr′skin)
1. Syn: * official alternate term for prepuce
Gender
Pronunciation (jen′dĕr)
1. Category to which an individual is assigned by self or others, on the basis of sex. Cf.: sex, gender role
Glans
Pronunciation (glanz, glan′dēz)
1. A conic or acorn-shaped structure.
Gonorrhea
Pronunciation (gon-uh-ree-uh)
1. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is spread primarily by intercourse. []
Hepatitis
Pronunciation (hep′ă-tī′tis)
1. Inflammation of the liver, due usually to viral infection but sometimes to toxic agents
Herpes
Pronunciation (her′pēz)
1. An inflammatory skin disease caused by herpes simplex virus or varicella-zoster virus; an eruption of groups of deep-
seated vesicles on erythematous bases.
Heterosexual
Pronunciation (het′ĕr-ō-seks′yū-ăl)
1. A person whose sexual orientation is toward people of the opposite sex.
2. Relating to or characteristic of heterosexuality.
3. One whose interests and behavior are characteristic of heterosexuality.
Homosexual
Pronunciation (hō′mō-seks′yū-ăl)
1. Relating to or characteristic of homosexuality.
2. One whose interests and behavior are characteristic of homosexuality. See: gay, lesbian
Hormone replacement therapy
Pronunciation (hawr-mohn ri-pleys-muhnt ther-uh-pee)
1. The use of hormones, usually estrogen and progesterone, as a therapy; often used to treat the discomforts of menopause
or to replace hormones (especially estrogen) lost after menopause.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Pronunciation (hyoo-muhn im-yuh-noh-di-fish-uhn-see di-zeez)
1. The virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).
Human Papilloma Virus

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Pronunciation (hyoo-muhn pap-uh-loh-muh vahy-ruhs)
1. Viruses that generally cause warts. Some papilloma viruses are sexually transmitted. Some of these sexually
transmitted viruses cause wartlike growths on the genitals, and some are thought to cause abnormal changes in cells of
the cervix.
Hysterectomy
Pronunciation (his′ter-ek′tŏ-mē)
1. Removal of the uterus; unless otherwise specified, usually denotes complete removal of the uterus (corpus and cervix).
Impotence
Pronunciation (im′pŏ-tens, -ten-sē)
1. Weakness; lack of power.
2. Specifically, inability of the male to achieve or maintain penile erection and thus engage in copulation; a manifestation
of neurologic, vascular, or psychological dysfunction.
Masturbation
Pronunciation (mas′tŭr-bā′shŭn)
1. Self-stimulation of the genitals for erotic pleasure, often resulting in orgasm.
Menopause
Pronunciation (men′ō-pawz)
1. Permanent cessation of the menses due to ovarian failure; termination of the menstrual life.
Monogamy
Pronunciation (mŏ-nog′ă-mē)
1. The marriage or mating system in which each partner has but one mate.
Orgasm
Pronunciation (ōr′gazm)
1. The acme of the sexual act.
Paraphilia
Pronunciation (par′ă-fil′ē-ă)
1. A condition, in either men or women, of compulsive responsivity and obligatory dependence on an unusual or
personally or socially unacceptable external stimulus or internal fantasy for sexual arousal or orgasm.
2. In legal parlance, a perversion or deviancy.
Pedophilia
Pronunciation (pē′dō-fil′ē-ă)
1. In psychiatry, an abnormal attraction to children by an adult for sexual purposes.
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Pronunciation (pel-vik in-flam-uh-tawr-ee di-zeez)
1. An infection of the female reproductive organs usually contracted through sexual contact.
Penetration
Pronunciation (pen′ĕ-trā′shŭn)
1. A piercing or entering.
2. Mental acumen. Syn: focal depth
Premature ejaculation
1. during sexual intercourse, too rapid achievement of climax and ejaculation in the male relative to his own or his
partner's wishes.

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Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)
1. a pervasive pattern occurring during the last week of the luteal phase in most menstrual cycles for at least a year and
remitting within a few days of the onset of the follicular phase, with some combination of depressed mood, mood
lability, marked anxiety, or irritability; various specific physical symptoms; and significant functional impairment; the
symptoms are comparable in severity with those seen in a major depressive episode, distinguishing this disorder from
the far more common premenstrual syndrome. See also: premenstrual syndrome
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
1. in women of reproductive age, a constellation of emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms that occur in the luteal
(premenstrual) phase of the menstrual cycle and subside with the onset of menstruation; characterized by swelling and
weight gain due to fluid retention, breast tenderness, irritability, mood swings, anxiety, depression, drowsiness, fatigue,
difficulty concentrating, and changes in appetite and libido.
Rape
Pronunciation (rāp)
1. Sexual intercourse by force, duress, intimidation, or without legal consent (as with a minor).
2. The performance of such an act.
Sadism
Pronunciation (sā′dizm, sad′izm)
1. A form of perversion, often sexual in nature, in which a person finds pleasure in inflicting abuse and maltreatment. Cf.:
masochism
Sexual orientation
1. concept that includes the permutations among body morphology, gender identity, gender role, and sexual preference.
Sexually transmitted disease (STD)
1. any contagious disease acquired during sexual contact (e.g., syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid).
Syphilis
Pronunciation (sif′i-lis)
1. An acute and chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum and transmitted by direct
contact, usually through sexual intercourse. After an incubation period of 12–30 days, the first symptom is a chancre,
followed by slight fever and other constitutional symptoms (primary syphilis), followed by a skin eruption of various
appearances with mucous patches and generalized lymphadenopathy (secondary syphilis), and subsequently by the
formation of gummas, cellular infiltration, and functional abnormalities usually resulting from cardiovascular and
central nervous system lesions (tertiary syphilis).
Testosterone
Pronunciation (tes-tos′tĕ-rōn)
1. The most potent naturally occurring androgen, formed in greatest quantities by the interstitial cells of the testes, and
possibly secreted also in small amounts by the ovary and adrenal cortex; may be produced in nonglandular tissues from
precursors such as androstenedione; used in the treatment of hypogonadism, cryptorchism, certain carcinomas, and
menorrhagia. Various preparations are used therapeutically.
Transsexual
Pronunciation (trans-sek′shū-ăl)
1. A person with the external genitalia and secondary sexual characteristics of one gender, but whose personal
identification and psychosocial configuration are that of the opposite gender; a study of morphologic, genetic, and
gonadal structure may be genitally congruent or incongruent.
2. Denoting or relating to such a person.
3. Relating to medical and surgical procedures designed to alter a patient's external sexual characteristics so that they
resemble those of the opposite gender.
Trichomoniasis
Pronunciation (trik′ō-mō-nī′ă-sis)

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1. Disease caused by infection with a species of protozoon of the genus Trichomonas or related genera.
Undescended testis
1. a testis that has not descended into the scrotum; palpable and nonpalpable (impalpable) variants exist.
Urinary tract infection (UTI)
1. microbial infection, usually bacterial, of any part of the urinary tract; may involve the parenchyma of the kidney, the
renal pelvis, the ureter, the bladder, the urethra or combinations of these organs. Often, the entire urinary tract is
affected; the most common organism causing such infection is Escherichia coli.
Vaginitis
Pronunciation (vaj′i-nī′tis, -nī′ti-dēz)
1. Inflammation of the vagina.
Vaginoplasty
Pronunciation (vaj′i-nō-plas′tē)
1. Surgery involving the vagina.
Vasectomy
Pronunciation (va-sek′tŏ-mē)
1. Excision of a segment of the vas deferens, performed in association with prostatectomy or to produce sterility.
Vulva
Pronunciation (vŭl′vă)
1. The external genitalia of the female, composed of the mons pubis, the labia majora and minora, the clitoris, the
vestibule of the vagina and its glands, and the opening of the urethra and of the vagina.
Vulvovaginitis
Pronunciation (vŭl′vō-vaj′i-nī′tis)
1. Inflammation of both vulva and vagina.

DENTISTRY
Abscess:
An abscess is a localized collection of pus in any part of the body that is surrounded by swelling

Acrylic resin:
1. A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate frequently associated with swelling and other signs of inflammation.2. A
cavity formed by liquefactive necrosis within solid tissue.

Alveolar bone:
in dentistry, the specialized bony structure that supports the teeth; it consists of the cortical bone that comprises the tooth socket
into which the roots of the tooth fit, and is supported by the trabecular bone.

Anesthesia:
general or local insensibility, as to pain and other sensation, induced by certain interventions or drugs to permit the performance
of surgery or other painful procedures.

Apex:
tip of a pyramidal or rounded structure

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Aphthous ulcers (canker sores):
small ulcer crater in the lining of the mouth

Artificial crown:
a fixed restoration of the major part of the entire coronal part of a natural tooth; usually of gold, porcelain, or acrylic resin.

Baby bottle syndrome:


is a syndrome where your child's teeth decay.

Bicuspid:
A tooth with two cusps; a premolar tooth.

Bitewing X-ray:
radiograph; another name for x-ray

Bonding:
cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration.

Bone resorption:
the removal of osseous tissue by osteoclasts

Braces:
Colloquialism for orthodontic appliances.

Bridge:
The upper part of the ridge of the nose formed by the nasal bones.

Calcium:
An element taken in through the diet that is essential for a variety of bodily functions, such as neurotransmission, muscle
contraction and proper heart function

Canine tooth:
a tooth having a crown of thick conic shape and a long, slightly flattened conic root

Cap:
Abbreviation for capsule.

Caries:
Microbial destruction or necrosis of teeth.

Cleft Lip:
a congenital facial abnormality of the lip (usually of the upper lip) resulting from failure of union of the medial and nasal
prominences with maxillary prominence

Cleft palate:

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a congenital fissure in the median line of the palate, often, but not necessarily associated with cleft lip.

Crown:
that part of a tooth that is covered with enamel

Decay:
To deteriorate; to undergo slow combustion or putrefaction.

Dental Floss:
an untwisted thread made from fine, short, silk or synthetic fibers, frequently waxed

Dentin:
The ivory forming the mass of the tooth

Denture:
An artificial substitute for missing natural teeth and adjacent tissues

Enamel:
The hard, glistening substance covering the coronal dentin of the tooth

Extracation:
Luxation and removal of a tooth from its alveolus

Filling:
Lay term for a dental restoration.

Fluoride:
A compound of fluorine with a metal, a nonmetal, or an organic radical.

Gingivitus:
Inflammation of the gingiva as a response to bacterial plaque on adjacent teeth

Hygienist:
One who is skilled in the science of health and its maintenance.

Immediate Denture:
a complete or partial denture constructed for insertion immediately following the removal of natural teeth.

Impacted tooth a tooth the normal eruption of which is prevented by adjacent teeth or bone

Implant:
A surgically inserted or imbedded graft or device

Impression:
An imprint or negative likeness

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Incision:
A cut; a surgical wound; a division of the body parts, usually made with a knife.

Incisor tooth:
a tooth with a chisel-shaped crown and a single conical tapering root

Mandible:
A U-shaped bone (in superior view), forming the lower jaw,

Molar:
a tooth having a somewhat quadrangular crown with four or five cusps on the grinding surface

Mouth guard:
A pliable plastic device, adapted to cover the maxillary teeth, which is worn to reduce potential injury to oral structures during
participation in contact sports.

Night guard:
A device used to stabilize the teeth and reduce the traumatic effects of bruxism.

Orthodontics:
That branch of dentistry concerned with the correction and prevention of irregularities and malocclusion of the teeth.

Orthodontist:
A dental specialist who practices orthodontics.

Overbite:
vertical overlap

Palate:
The bony and muscular partition between the oral and nasal cavities

Panoramic x-ray film:


in dentistry, a radiograph taken to give a panoramic view of the entire upper and lower dental arch as well as the
temporomandibular joints.

Partial denture:
a dental prosthesis that restores one or more, but not all, of the natural teeth or associated parts and that is supported by the teeth
or the mucosa

Pedodontics:
The branch of dentistry concerned with the dental care and treatment of children.

Periodontist dentist who specializes in periodontics.

Permanent tooth:
1 of 32 teeth belonging to the second, or permanent, dentition;

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Plaque:
A patch or small differentiated area on a body surface

Retainter:
Any type of clasp, attachment, or device used for the fixation or stabilization of a prosthesis

Root canal therapy dental therapy for damaged pulp by removal of the pulp and sterilization and filling of the root canal.

Scaling:
removal of accretions from the crowns and roots of teeth by use of special instruments.

Tartar:
A white, brown, or yellow-brown deposit at or below the gingival margin of teeth, chiefly hydroxyapatite in an organic matrix

Thrush:
Infection of the oral tissues with Candida albicans; often an opportunistic infection in humans with AIDS or those suffering from
other conditions that depress the immune system; also common in normal infants who have been treated with antibiotics.

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS):


a method of reducing pain by passage of an electric current

Underbite:
A nontechnical term applied to mandibular underdevelopment or to excessive maxillary development.

Veneer:
In dentistry, a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or composite resin, attached to and covering the surface of a
metal crown or natural tooth structure.

DERMATOLOGY
Acne:
An inflammatory follicular, papular, and pustular eruption involving the pilosebaceous apparatus

Allergen:
An antigen that induces an allergic or hypersensitive response

Aloe:
An antigen that induces an allergic or hypersensitive response

Angioma:
A swelling or tumor resulting from proliferation, with or without dilation, of the blood vessels

Atopy:
A genetically determined state of hypersensitivity to environmental allergens

Biopsy:

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Process of removing tissue from patients for diagnostic examination.

Cancer:
General term frequently used to indicate any of various types of malignant neoplasms, most of which invade surrounding tissues,
may metastasize to several sites, and are likely to recur after attempted removal and to kill the patient unless adequately treated;
especially, any such carcinoma or sarcoma, but, in ordinary usage, especially the former.

Chemotherapy:
Treatment of disease by means of chemical substances or drugs; usually used in reference to neoplastic disease. See also:
pharmacotherapy

Callogen:
The major protein (comprising over half of that in mammals) of the white fibers of connective tissue, cartilage, and bone;

Cyst:
An abnormal sac containing gas, fluid, or a semisolid material, with a membranous lining

Dermabrasion:
Operative procedure to efface acne scars or pits

Dermatitus
: Inflammation of the skin.

Dermatofibroma:
slowly growing benign skin nodule consisting of poorly demarcated cellular fibrous tissue enclosing collapsed capillaries, with
scattered hemosiderin-pigmented and lipid macrophages

Dermatopathology:
Histopathology of the skin and subcutis, and study of the causes of skin disease.

Dermatoscopy:
Inspection of the skin, usually with the aid of a lens or by epiluminescence microscopy

Dermis:
A layer of skin composed of two zones

Dermoid Cyst:
a tumor consisting of displaced ectodermal structures along lines of embryonic fusion, the wall being formed of epithelium-lined
connective tissue, including skin appendages and containing keratin, sebum, and hair

Eczema:
Generic term for inflammatory conditions of the skin, particularly with vesiculation in the acute stage, typically erythematous,
edematous, papular, and crusting; followed often by lichenification and scaling and occasionally by duskiness of the erythema
and, infrequently, hyperpigmentation; often accompanied by sensations of itching and burning; the vesicles form by
intraepidermal spongiosis; often hereditary and associated with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

Epidermis:

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The superficial epithelial portion of the skin

Lymph node:
One of numerous round, oval, or bean-shaped bodies located along the course of lymphatic vessels, varying greatly in size

Mole:
An intrauterine mass formed by the degeneration of the partly developed products of conception.

Nodule:
A small node; in skin, a node up to 1.0 cm in diameter, solid, with palpable depth

Photosensitivity:
Abnormal sensitivity to light, especially of the eyes.

Precancerous:
Pertaining to any lesion that is interpreted as precancer.

Punch biopsy:
any method that removes a small cylindric specimen for biopsy by means of a special instrument that pierces the organ directly,
or through the skin, or a small incision in the skin.

Punch grafts:
harvesting technique in which small full-thickness grafts are removed with a circular punch for transplantation.

Radiation therapy:
treatment with x-rays or radionuclides

Recurrence:
A return of the symptoms, occurring as a phenomenon in the natural history of the disease

Risk factor:
a characteristic statistically associated with, although not necessarily causally related to, an increased risk of morbidity or
mortality

Sebaceous glands:
numerous holocrine glands in the dermis that usually open into the hair follicles and secrete an oily semifluid, sebum.

SPF:
Abbreviation for sun protection factor

Subcutaneous:
located, living, or made beneath the skin

Sunscreen:
A topical product that protects the skin from ultraviolet-induced erythema and resists washing off; its use also reduces formation
of solar keratoses and reduces ultraviolet-B-induced melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers and wrinkling.

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Tumor:
Any swelling or tumefaction

Wart:
a small benign rough lump that grows, usually, on the hands, feet, or genitals, caused by a virus

Zinc oxide:
used as a protective in ointment, as a dusting powder; also used in paint as a substitute for lead carbonate.

EMERGENCY ROOM
Acute:
extremely serious, severe, or painful

Anesthetics:
a substance that reduces sensitivity to pain and may cause unconsciousness, especially a drug used in medicine

Ambulance:
vehicle designed and equipped for carrying people to and from a hospital

Arrhythmia:
an irregularity in the rhythm of the heartbeat

Blood Loss:
blood leaving the body

Cast:
to pour something such as molten metal or plaster into a mold and allow it to solidify in order to create an object

Catheter:
a thin flexible tube that is inserted into a part of the body to inject or drain away fluid or to keep a passage open

Dead on arrival:
patient is already dead when medical personnel show up

IV:
intravenous; injection of quantities of a therapeutic fluid such as blood, plasma, saline, or glucose directly into somebody's vein
at an adjustable rate

EMT:
Emergency Medical Technician; medical professional specializing in emergency situations; usually the person in the ambulance.

Hypoxia:
an inadequacy in the oxygen reaching the body's tissues

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Pancreatitis:
inflammation of the pancreas

Palpations:
a method of clinical examination using gentle pressure of the fingers to detect growths, changes in the size of underlying organs,
and unusual tissue reactions to pressure

Second Degree Burn:


a burn that causes blistering on the skin but does not damage the deeper layers of the skin or require grafting

Sepsis:
the condition or syndrome caused by the presence of microorganisms or their toxins in the tissue or the bloodstream

Third Degree Burn:


a burn of the most serious kind, in which the skin and the tissues beneath it are severely damaged

Tox Screen:
toxicology test checks blood or urine for the presence of drugs

Tracheostomy:
a hole cut in the trachea, e.g. to ensure the airway is unblocked or to suck out secretions

Trauma:
an extremely distressing experience that causes severe emotional shock and may have long-lasting psychological effects

Waiting Room:
a room in which people may wait, e.g. for a doctor's appointment

PHYSICAL
Blood Pressure:
the pressure exerted by the blood against the walls of blood vessels. Blood pressure depends on the strength of the heartbeat,
thickness and volume of the blood, the elasticity of the artery walls, and general health.

Drug test:
an examination given to find out if one is on drugs (marijuana, narcotics, etc.)

Ear Check:
When the doctor checks the ears; otoscopic examination

Heart:
a hollow muscular organ that pumps blood around the body, in humans situated in the center of the chest with its apex directed to
the left

Height:

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the distance that somebody or something is above the ground, sea, or another reference point

Lungs:
in air-breathing vertebrate animals, either of the paired spongy respiratory organs, situated inside the rib cage, that transfer
oxygen into the blood and remove carbon dioxide from it

Pulse:
the regular expansion and contraction of an artery, caused by the heart pumping blood through the body. It can be felt through an
artery that is near the surface such as the one in the wrist on the same side as the thumb.

Shot:
medicine an injection of a medication or vaccine

Spine check:
making sure one’s spinal column is in line

Temperature:
the degree of heat in a living organism; 98.6 is the norm

Vision:
one’s eyesight; ability to see

Weight:
the heaviness of a particular object or person, especially as measured by a particular system of weight

OPTOMETRY
Astigmatism
(uh-STIG-muh-tiz-um). A Refractive Error of the eye in which refractive power is not uniform in all directions (meridians).
Light rays entering the eye are refracted unequally through different meridians, which prevents formation of a sharp image focus
on the retina. Correctable with a cylindrical lens.

Bifocals.
A lens having two separate and distinct points of focus (focal lengths) which incorporate two different powers in each lens,
usually for near and distance corrections.

Binocular vision.
Focusing and fusing of the separate images seen by each eye into one single binocular image.

Blind spot.
Sightless area within the visual field of a normal eye, where the optic disc attaches the optic nerve to the eye. Caused by absence
of light sensitive photoreceptors where the optic nerve enters the eye.

Cataract.
Clouding of the crystalline lens, which may prevent a clear image from forming on the retina. If visual loss becomes significant,
surgical removal is required. Types of cataracts include traumatic, congenital and age-related.

Central vision.
An eye's best vision; used for reading and discriminating fine detail and color.

Color blindness.
Decreased ability to determine differences between colors, especially shades of red and green. Usually hereditary.

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Cornea
(KOR-nee-uh). Transparent membrane in the front of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber and provides most
of an eye's optical power.

Crystalline lens.
The natural lens inside of the eye. Transparent, biconvex intraocular tissue that converges light to helps bring rays of light to the
retina.

Double vision.
A visualization of two images from one object; images may be horizontal, vertical or oblique.

Glaucoma
(glaw-KOH-muh). A disease of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure. A common cause of preventable vision
loss. May be treated by prescription drugs or surgery.

Hyperopia
(hi-pur-OH-pee-uh), farsightedness. Focusing defect in which an eye is underpowered. Light rays coming from a distant object
strike the retina before coming to sharp focus, causing blurred vision. Corrected with plus (convex) lenses.

Iris.
Pigmented tissue lying behind the cornea that gives color to the eye (e.g., blue eyes) Controls light by contracting and
constricting the opening (pupil).

Lens, crystalline lens.


The natural lens inside the eye. Transparent, biconvex intraocular tissue that helps refract rays of light to a point focus on the
retina.

Low vision.
Term usually used to indicate vision of less than 20/200. May require additional optical aids, especially for near point tasks.

Myopia
(mi-OH-pee-uh), nearsightedness. A Refractive Error in which the eye over focuses light. Rays of light traveling from a distant
object are brought to focus in front of the retina. Requires a minus (concave) lens to correct.

Optometrist
(ahp-TAHM-uh-trist). Doctor of optometry (OD) specializing in vision problems, treating vision conditions with spectacles,
contact lenses, low vision aids and vision therapy, and prescribing medications for certain eye diseases.

Peripheral vision.
Side vision; vision, caused by stimuli falling on retinal areas distant from the macula, toward the sides of the globe.

Presbyopia
(prez-bee-OH-pee-uh). Refractive condition in which there is a diminished power of accommodation arising from loss of
elasticity of the crystalline lens, as occurs with aging. Usually becomes significant after age 40.

Pupil.
An opening in the center of the iris, of variable sizes, that regulates the amount of light that enters the eye.

Refraction.
A test to determine the refractive state of the eye, and the best corrective lenses required to aid in clear vision. A series of lenses
in graded powers are offered to determine which provide sharpest, clearest vision.

Retina
(RET-ih-nuh). Light sensitive with photoreceptors in the eye that converts images from the eye's optical system into electrical
impulses that are sent to the brain where the image is formed.

Trifocal

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(TRI-foh-kul). An ophthalmic lens that incorporates three lenses of different powers. The main portion is usually focused for
distance (20 ft.), the center segment for about 2 ft., and the lower segment for near (40 cm, or 16 inches).

20/20.
“Normal” vision. Upper number is the standard distance (20 feet) between an eye being tested and the eye chart; lower number
indicates that a tested eye can see the same small standard-sized letters or symbols as an emmetropic eye at 20 feet.

AUDIOLOGY
Acoustic Meatus:
Another name for the external ear canal through which sound travels from the concha of the pinna to the eardrum.
Acuity:
In hearing terms, it refers to the clarity or audibility of sound.
Air-Conduction Thresholds:
The lowest level that an individual can hear a pure tone stimulus presented through headphones or insert earphones. During a
hearing test a patient's air-conduction thresholds are measured at several frequencies associated with the normal pitch range of the
human voice and graphed out onto an audiogram.
Amplifier:
An electronic sound processor located inside of a hearing aid that increases the incoming signal to improve the audibility of the
outgoing signal.
Anacusis:
Absence of sound. Deafness.
Atresia:
The absence or closure of the external auditory meatus (ear canal).
Audiogram:
A chart onto which is graphed the results of a hearing test. The chart has intensity levels listed on one axis and frequencies
(pitches) listed on the other axis.
Audiometer:
The electronic piece of equipment employed by a hearing healthcare professional to assess the hearing thresholds and speech
awareness / processing ability of an individual.
Audiologist:
A hearing healthcare professional who has earned a Masters Degree (M.S. or M.A.) or Doctorate Degree (Au.D. or Ph.D.) in
audiology or a related field of study. Some activities that audiologists are involved with are the assessment and treatment of
hearing and vestibular disorders, the dispensing of hearing aids, research, industrial consultation, and/or teaching.
Auricle:
The pinna. The cartilaginous structures of the external ear located peripheral to the skull.
Behavioral Audiometry:
A hearing test that requires some type of visible and voluntary response from the individual being evaluated.
Bilateral:
A term used to signify that both ears or both sides of the head are involved (i.e., He has bilateral hearing loss.).
Binaural:
Refers to when sound is presented to both ears (i.e., She wears binaural amplification.).
Bone-Conduction Thresholds:

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The lowest level that an individual can hear a pure-tone stimulus presented through a vibrator placed on the mastoid bone or
forehead. Bone-conduction threshold testing attempts to assess the ability of the sensory and neural auditory systems without the
sound passing through the outer and middle ear.
Calibration:
The regular tuning of an audiometer to set the presentation values at levels consistent with (inter)national standards.
Central Auditory Processing:
The awareness of an auditory signal in the central nervous system, that occurs beyond the peripheral auditory system (outer ear,
middle ear, and cochlea), and the interpretation / processing of that signal.
Cerumen:
Earwax.
Cholesteatoma:
A benign expanding mass which can form in the middle ear cavity. It is made up of skin and cholesterol crystals. The mass can
become infected and cause other problems in the middle ear.
Cochlea:
The snail-shaped portion of the inner ear that contains the hair cells and nerve endings that convert a sound from the
mechanical/vibratory movements present in the middle ear into an electrical charge, as the sound travels to the brain for
processing.
Cochlear Implant:
An electronic device, a portion of which is surgically implanted into the inner ear, that is designed to provide a sensation of sound
to deaf individuals.
Concha:
The bowl area of the pinna (auricle) that channels sound from the environment to the ear canal.
Conductive Hearing Loss:
A decrease in an individual's ability to hear a particular sound due to an inefficiency or disruption in the outer ear or middle ear
system. A conductive hearing loss is when the sounds are somehow "blocked" as they travel from the pinna to the cochlea.
Congenital Hearing Loss:
The presence of hearing loss at or before birth.
Decibel:
A decibel is a unit for expressing the relative loudness of a sound. One-tenth of a bel, the decibel is a designation of a unit of
intensity on a logarithmic (non-linear) scale.
Degenerative Hearing Loss:
A hearing impairment that worsens over time.
Degree Of Hearing Loss:
Terms utilized to represent the thresholds of hearing graphed onto an audiogram to help describe the different degrees of hearing
impairment expected. One commonly used scale is: mild = 25 to 40 dB, moderate = 41 to 55 dB, moderately-severe = 56 to 70
dB, severe = 71 to 90 dB, and profound = greater than 90 dB.
Diplacusis:
Perceiving a single tone as multiple tones or multiple harmonics.
Direct Audio Input:
A port on a hearing aid that allows a hard-wired input of sound directly from an assistive listening device into the hearing aid's
electronic mechanisms (bypassing the external microphone).
Discrimination:
In hearing terms, it refers to the ability to distinguish between various tonal or speech sounds.
Dynamic Range:

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Refers to the range of volume between the level at which an individual first hears a sound and the level at which that individual
perceives the sound to be uncomfortably loud.
Ear Canal:
The external auditory meatus. The hole in the temporal bone that tunnels the sound from the pinna to the ear drum (tympanic
membrane).
Eardrum:
The tympanic membrane. A thin layer of skin that separates the ear canal from the middle ear cavity. The eardrum converts
sound waves into vibrations.
Eighth Cranial Nerve (CN VIII):
The acoustic or auditory nerve which runs from the inner ear to the brainstem which contains fibers that carry auditory and
vestibular information.
Equilibrium:
A body's ability to maintain physical balance by using vestibular, visual and proprioceptive (sense of touch) input.
Etiology:
In hearing terms, the source or cause of a hearing loss.
Eustachian Tube:
A small connection between the throat and the middle ear cavity which in the normal human ear system is utilized to equalize the
pressure in the middle ear cavity to the pressure in the atmosphere surrounding the body.
Eustachian Tube Dysfunction:
When the tube that connects the throat and the middle ear cavity becomes inflamed or blocked. Eustachian tube dysfunction can
lead to negative pressure, fluid in the middle ear, and/or middle ear infections.
Evoked Potentials:
Electrical activity in the body measured by electrodes that occurs as a result of a stimulus.
Exostosis:
A bony growth in the ear canal.
Feedback:
The high-pitched whistling sound that can be emitted by a hearing aid when the hearing aid's microphone picks up its own output,
thus re-amplifying itself.
Flat Audiogram:
A description of the graph of an individual's hearing thresholds in which the degree of loss present is similar or equal for low,
mid and high frequencies.
Frequency:
Cycles per second. The number of vibrations occurring during a second, resulting in the perceived "pitch" of a sound.
Genetic Hearing Loss:
Congenital hearing loss. Hearing loss that is present at or before birth.
Hair Cells:
Cells present in the cochlea that convert the mechanical energy present in sound vibrations into electrical activity. Hair cells have
cilia on one side which are stimulated by movement and on the other side are connected to fibers of the VIIIth cranial nerve,
which carries the impulse to the brain.
Hard Of Hearing:
A term used to describe hearing-impaired individuals with mild to severe / profound hearing impairment who are not deaf.
Hearing Aid:

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An electronic device which is utilized by an individual with hearing loss to amplify sound and therefore make the sound more
audible.
Hearing Loss:
The inability to perceive the presence of a sound at normal hearing levels.
Helix:
The curved / raised rim of the external ear (pinna)
Hereditary Hearing Loss:
A hearing loss or a propensity for hearing loss that is transferred via genes from parent to offspring.
Hertz (Hz):
Cycles per second. A name given to describe the frequency or pitch of a sound.
Incus:
The middle bone of the ossicular chain.
Induction Coil:
The telecoil inside of a hearing aid that is activated by electro-magnetic energy coming from a telephone or assistive listening
device.
Inner Ear:
The cochlea. The snail-like portion of the ear system that converts mechanical sound energy coming from the middle ear into an
electrical impulse prior to transmission to the brain.
Intensity:
The loudness or volume of a sound.
Labyrinth:
The hollowed-out area of the skull's temporal bone that contains the cochlea and parts of the balance system.
Lateralization:
The perception by an individual that a sound is being heard on one side due to a timing and intensity difference, when in fact the
sound was presented bilaterally.
Listening Stethoscope:
A device used by hearing healthcare professionals to listen to a hearing aid for the purpose of assessing the hearing aid's
performance and adjustments / repairs.
Lobule:
The ear lobe. The bottom part of the pinna which does not contain cartilage.
Localization:
The ability of the brain to determine the direction from which the sound originated by utilizing differences between the timing
and intensity of a sound as perceived in one ear compared to the other ear.
Malingering:
The faking of a hearing loss for social or financial reasons.
Malleus:
The first / hammer-shaped bone in the ossicular chain, that is attached to the eardrum.
Masking Noise:
A sound introduced into an ear system for the purpose of covering up an unwanted sound. Masking noises are used during
hearing tests to cover-up unwanted responses from a non-test ear. Tinnitus maskers also utilize a masking noise to cover-up
tinnitus.
Mastoid Bone:

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A portion of the temporal bone that is located behind the external ear. The bone conduction vibrator employed during bone
conduction testing is usually placed on the mastoid.
Microphone:
The entry point for sound into a hearing aid. The mechanism inside a hearing aid that converts sound waves into an electrical
signal.
Microtia:
A congenital malformation of the external ear. A condition in which an individual is born with an abnormally small pinna and
often a very small or absent ear canal.
Middle Ear:
The portion of the human auditory system located between the outer and inner ear, which uses the tympanic membrane
(eardrum) and ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes) to transfer the sound via vibration from the ear canal to the cochlea.
Middle Ear Effusion:
When the body discharges fluid into the middle ear cavity.
Mixed Hearing Loss:
A hearing loss that has both conductive and sensori-neural components.
Monaural:
Refers to when sound is presented only to one ear (i.e., A monaural hearing aid fitting involves only one ear.).
Most Comfortable Level (MCL):
A measurement that is often made prior to the ordering of or programming of a hearing aid that determines, for speech or tones,
the intensity level that a patient considers to be the most acceptable in regards to the overall comfort of the signal.
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss:
A type of hearing loss caused by the introduction of intense volumes into a human ear system over long periods of time or very
intense volumes for a short period of time. The hearing loss often is worse on the side of exposure and is most pronounced in the
higher frequencies.
Occlusion:
The sensation that results from "plugging up" the ear canal with cerumen, an un-vented hearing aid, or a foreign body.
Organ Of Corti:
The structure built upon the basilar membrane inside of the spiral cochlea that contains the special sensory receptors (hair cells).
Ossicular Chain:
The three very small bones located in the middle ear that are connected together to form a link between the tympanic membrane
(eardrum) and the cochlea. The three ossicles, called the malleus, incus and stapes (hammer, anvil, and stirrup), transfer the
sound through the middle ear via vibrations.
Oscillator:
A device that is used to produce vibrations, such as the bone conduction oscillator used during bone conduction threshold testing.
Otalgia:
Ear pain or earache.
Otitis Media:
Inflammation and/or infection of the middle ear.
Otolaryngologist:
An Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) physician.
Otologist:
An ENT physician who specializes in the evaluation and treatment of the ear.

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Otorrhea:
Drainage from the ear often caused by an external ear infection or a middle ear problem with a tympanic membrane (eardrum)
perforation.
Otoscope:
A magnifying and lighting tool utilized by health care workers to look into the ear canal.
Otoscopic Examination:
The use by a healthcare professional of the lighted and magnified vision provided by an otoscope to evaluate the integrity of the
pinna, ear canal and eardrum
Otosclerosis:
An abnormal condition of the middle ear in which there is a formation of spongy bone onto the footplate of the stapes, resulting
in a conductive hearing loss.
Outer Ear:
The most peripheral aspect of the human auditory system that includes the auricle (pinna) and external auditory meatus (ear
canal).
Oval Window:
A connection between the stapes footplate of the middle ear and the fluid filled inner ear through which sound vibrations pass in
a normal auditory system.
Perforated Tympanic Membrane:
A hole in the eardrum.
Peripheral Hearing Loss:
Hearing loss due to a dysfunction of the auditory structures located outside of the central nervous system.
P.E. Tubes:
Pressure equalization tubes placed into the tympanic membrane (eardrum) for the purpose of keeping pressure levels in middle
ear cavity equal to atmospheric pressure.
Pinna:
The auricle. The cartilaginous structures of the external ear located peripheral to the skull.
Power Hearing Aid:
A hearing aid designed specifically for individuals with severe to profound hearing losses to provide the appropriate amount of
extra gain needed to match their specific losses.
Prelingual Hearing Loss:
Hearing loss that occurs prior to a child developing speech and language skills.
Presbycusis:
Hearing loss that is attributed to the aging process.
Pure Tone Audiometry:
Refers to the part of a complete hearing evaluation that includes the measuring of air-conduction and bone-conduction thresholds
while using non-complex (pure) tones.
Pure Tone Average (PTA):
The average of the air-conduction thresholds of the three middle frequencies, usually 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, and 2000 Hz. For flat or
gently-sloping shaped hearing losses the Pure Tone Average often correlates with the Speech Reception Threshold. Sometimes
the average includes other combinations of frequencies (i.e., a high frequency average may include 3000 Hz or 4000 Hz).
Receiver:
The speaker inside a hearing aid that converts the amplified electrical energy to sound waves.
Recruitment:

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A condition often occurring with a sensori-neural hearing loss that results in an abnormal growth in loudness. For someone with
hearing loss who experiences recruitment, a specific increase in intensity is perceived as a significantly larger increase in
loudness than a normal hearing individual would perceive the same increase in intensity.
Retrocochlear:
A designation for the part of the human auditory system that includes the acoustic nerve, the brainstem and the brain.
Reverse-Slope Audiogram:
A description of the graph of an individual's thresholds in which the hearing is poorer in the lower frequencies and the hearing
loss is less pronounced or the hearing is normal in the higher frequencies
Screening (Hearing):
An evaluation of the auditory system that is generally not as in-depth as a traditional hearing test and often does not include the
actual assessment of an individual's thresholds, but instead results in "pass" or "fail".
Semicircular Canals:
The three fluid-filled tubes in the vestibular portion of the inner ear that helps with equilibrium and the interpretation of the
body's position.
Sensori-Neural Hearing Loss:
A decrease in an individual's ability to hear a particular sound due to a problem in the inner ear (cochlea) or the neural system
(Cranial Nerve VIII). The designation of a hearing loss as sensori-neural suggests that the sound makes it way through the outer
and middle ear systems efficiently, but is not picked-up by the hair cells in the cochlea or transmitted by the hearing nerves as
well as an average normal human ear's system.
Sound Booth:
A sound treated enclosure that is designed to attenuate the interference of extraneous sounds during a hearing test. Sound booths
lessen but do not eliminate reverberant and ambient noises.
Sound Field Hearing Aid Testing:
The analysis of the performance of a hearing aid in which a patient's thresholds are measured, while in a sound booth with the
stimuli presented through a speaker system, with and without a hearing aid inserted.
Speech Audiometry:
The portion of an audiological evaluation that uses speech stimuli to measure the auditory system. Speech audiometry testing
often includes the measurement of Speech Reception Thresholds (SRTs) utilizing two-syllable spondee words and the assessment
of Word Recognition / Speech Discrimination scores utilizing single syllable words in a carrier phrase. Some speech audiometry
tests use sentence materials instead of single word materials.
Speech Reading:
The use of lip reading and other visual cues produced by a speaker to help with the understanding of spoken words.
Speech Reception Threshold:
The use of familiar two-syllable spondee words by a hearing healthcare professional to assess the lowest intensity level at which
an individual can repeat the words more than half of the time.
Stapes:
The smallest and last bone in the ossicular chain. It attaches to the oval window of the inner ear.
Telecoil:
A coil placed inside of a hearing aid that picks up electro-magnetic energy emitted by certain telephones and assistive listening
devices.
Threshold Of Hearing:
The lowest level that a particular sound's presence can be perceived by an individual more than half of the time.
Transmitter:
The portion of a CROS system that picks up a signal on one side of the head and sends it via a hard wire or an FM signal to the
receiver on the other side of the head.

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TTS (Temporary Threshold Shift):
The presence of some degree of hearing loss, often induced by noise or chemical exposure, that recovers over time.
Tympanic Membrane:
Another name for an eardrum. It is the membrane that separates the ear canal and the middle ear cavity. The tympanic membrane
vibrates when hit with sound waves, causing the ossicular chain to vibrate.
Tympanogram:
A chart onto which the compliance results of tympanometry are graphed.
Tympanometry:
A test, also referred to as immittance testing, done during an audiological evaluation that helps to assess the integrity of the
tympanic membrane (eardrum) and the middle ear cavity. During tympanometry testing, a probe is inserted into and sealed in the
ear canal and then a reflected tone is measured as the pressure in the ear canal is changed. The results are often graphed onto a
tympanogram, showing the compliance at various positive and negative pressure levels.
Uncomfortable Loudness Level (UCL):
A measurement that is often made prior to the ordering of or programming of a hearing aid that determines, for speech or tones,
the intensity level at which a patient judges a particular signal to be uncomfortably loud.
Unilateral:
Pertaining to only one ear or one side of the head (i.e., The person with a hearing loss on the right but not the left has a unilateral
hearing loss.).
Vertigo:
A sensation of spinning experienced by individuals with vestibular problems.
Vestibular System:
The inner ear portion of the balance system.
Vestibulocochlear Nerve:
Another name for the auditory nerve or the VIIIth cranial nerve which connects the cochlea to the brainstem and is made up of
both auditory and vestibular nerve fibers.
Visual Reinforcement Audiometry:
A procedure used when testing the hearing of very young patients. The young patient is trained to associate a sound with an
interesting visual experience (such as a flashing light or an animated stuffed animal) so that future presentations of audible
sounds elicit head movements
Word Recognition Score:
The percentage of a list of speech stimuli that an individual is able to repeat.

CANCER
Abscess:
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate frequently associated with swelling and other signs of inflammation. 2. cavity
formed by liquefactive necrosis within solid tissue

Adjuvant Chemotherapy:
chemotherapy given in addition to surgical therapy, in order to reduce the risk of local or systemic relapse.

Apnaplastic:
1. Characterized by or pertaining to anaplasia.

2. Growing without form or structure.

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Androgen:
Generic term for an agent, usually a hormone (e.g., androsterone, testosterone), which stimulates activity of the accessory male
sex organs, encourages development of male sex characteristics, or prevents changes in the latter due to castration; natural
androgens are steroids, derivatives of androstane.

Antiemetic:
Preventing or arresting vomiting.

2. A remedy that tends to control nausea and vomiting

Ascites:
Accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity.

Autologous:
Occurring naturally and normally in a certain type of tissue or in a specific structure of the body

Benign:
Denoting the mild character of an illness or the nonmalignant character of a neoplasm.

Biopsy:
Process of removing tissue from patients for diagnostic examination.

Bone marrow:
the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency
by age and location

Cerebrospinal fluid:
a fluid largely secreted by the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, filling the ventricles and the subarachnoid cavities
of the brain and spinal cord.

Chemotherapy:
Treatment of disease by means of chemical substances or drugs; usually used in reference to neoplastic disease

Clinical trial:
controlled experiment involving a defined set of human subjects, having a clinical event as an outcome measure, and intended to
yield scientifically valid information about the efficacy or safety of a drug, vaccine, diagnostic test, surgical procedure, or other
form of medical intervention.

Colonoscope:
A long, flexible fiberoptic endoscope

Computed tomography (CAT scan):


imaging anatomic information from a cross-sectional plane of the body, each image generated by a computer synthesis of x-ray
transmission data obtained in many different directions in a given plane

Cytotoxic:
Detrimental or destructive to cells

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Dehydration:
Deprivation of water

Digital rectal examinations DRE:


a manual examination done with the physician's hand gloved to check anatomic structures about the pelvis and lower abdomen.

Dysplasia:
Abnormal tissue development

Edema:
An accumulation of an excessive amount of watery fluid in cells or intercellular tissues.

Embolus:
A plug, composed of a detached thrombus or vegetation, mass of bacteria, or other foreign body, occluding a vessel

Encapsulated:
Enclosed in a capsule or sheath

Endometrium:
The mucous membrane comprising the inner layer of the uterine wall

Endoscopy:
Examination of the interior of a canal or hollow viscus by means of a special instrument

Esophagus:
The portion of the alimentary canal between the pharynx and stomach

Estrogen:
Generic term for any substance, natural or synthetic, that exerts biologic effects characteristic of estrogenic hormones such as
17β-estradiol. They control the course of the menstrual cycle.
Fibroid: Resembling or composed of fibers or fibrous tissue.

Fluoroscopy:
Examination of the tissues and deep structures of the body by x-ray, using the fluoroscope or its successor, video fluoroscopy

Gamma rays:
electromagnetic radiation emitted from radioactive substances; they are high-energy x-rays but originate from the nucleus rather
than the orbital shell and are not deflected by a magnet.

Gene therapy:
alteration of somatic or germ-line DNA to correct or prevent disease

Glioma:

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Any neoplasm derived from one of the various types of cells that form the interstitial tissue of the brain, spinal cord, pineal gland,
posterior pituitary gland, and retina.

Graft:
Any tissue or organ for transplantation.

Hodgkin Disease:
disease marked by chronic enlargement of the lymph nodes, often local at the onset and later generalized, together with
enlargement of the spleen and often of the liver, no pronounced leukocytosis, and commonly anemia and continuous or remittent
(Pel-Ebstein) fever;

Hormone:
chemical substance, formed in one organ or part of the body and carried in the blood to another organ or part where they exert
functional effects; depending on the specificity of their effects, hormones can alter the functional activity, and sometimes the
structure, of just one organ or tissue or various numbers of them

Immune System:
an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response,
against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.

Incision Biopsy:
removal of only a part of a lesion by cutting into it.

Informed consent:
Voluntary agreement given by a person or a patients' responsible proxy (e.g., a parent) for participation in a study, immunization
program, treatment regimen, invasive procedure, etc., after being informed of the purpose, methods, procedures, benefits, and
risks.

Invasive carcinoma:
a neoplasm in which collections of epithelial cells infiltrate or destroy the surrounding tissue

Laparoscopy:
Examination of the contents of the abdominopelvic cavity with a laparoscope passed through the abdominal wall

Laparotomy:
Incision into the loin.

Leukemia:
Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in
increased numbers.

Lumpectomy:
Removal of either a benign or malignant lesion from the breast with preservation of essential anatomy of the breast

Lymph node:
One of numerous round, oval, or bean-shaped bodies located along the course of lymphatic vessels, varying greatly in size (1–25
mm in diameter) and usually presenting a depressed area, the hilum, on one side through which blood vessels enter and efferent
lymphatic vessels emerge.

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Malignant:
Resistant to treatment; occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal; tending to become worse and leading to an inravescent
course.

Mastectomy:
Excision of the breast.

Melanoma:
A malignant neoplasm, derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, arising most commonly in the skin of any part of
the body, or in the eye, and, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites

MRI:
Abbreviation for magnetic resonance imaging.

Necrosis:
Pathologic death of one or more cells, or of a portion of tissue or organ, resulting from irreversible damage

Neuroma:
General term for any neoplasm derived from cells of the nervous system

Oncology:
The study or science dealing with the physical, chemical, and biologic properties and features of neoplasms, including causation,
pathogenesis, and treatment.

Palliative treatment: treatment to alleviate symptoms without curing the disease.

Phlebitis:
Inflammation of a vein.

Platelet:
An irregularly shaped, disclike cytoplasmic fragment of a megakaryocyte that is shed in the marrow sinus and subsequently
found in the peripheral blood, where it functions in clotting

Polyp:
A general descriptive term used with reference to any mass of tissue that bulges or projects outward or upward from the normal
surface level

Prognosis:
A forecast of the probable course and/or outcome of a disease.

Prosthesis:
Fabricated substitute used to assist a damaged or replace a missing body part; or to augment or stabilize a hypoplastic structure.

Radiation:
The sending forth of light, short radio waves, ultraviolet rays or x-rays, or any other rays for treatment, diagnosis, or another
purpose.

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Recurrence:
A return of the symptoms, occurring as a phenomenon in the natural history of the disease, as seen in recurrent fever

Remission:
Abatement or lessening in severity of the symptoms of a disease.

Sarcoma:
A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.

Seminoma:
A radiosensitive malignant neoplasm usually arising from germ cells in the testis of young male adults that metastasizes to the
paraortic lymph nodes; a counterpart of dysgerminoma of the ovary.

Shunt:
bypass or divert

Staging:
The determination or classification of distinct phases or periods in the course of a disease or pathologic process.

Steroids:
A large family of chemical substances, comprising many hormones, body constituents, and drugs, each containing the tetracyclic
cyclopenta[a]phenanthrene skeleton.

Stomatitis:
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth

Tumor marker:
a substance, released into the circulation by tumor tissue, the detection of which in the serum indicates the presence of tumor.

Ultrasound: a substance, released into the circulation by tumor tissue, the detection of which in the serum indicates the
presence of tumor.

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