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ADVANCED BUILDING MEASUREMENTS

MEASUREMENT OF PLUMBING WORKS


Order of measurements
1. Connection to water authoritys main and all work up to boundary of site, including
reinstatement of public highway and provision of stop valve near the site boundary.
2. Underground service and rising main from site boundary up to cold water storage
tank, including any stop valves, holes through walls, ceiling and floors, lagging of
pipes, and the like.
3. Branches to rising main, such as supply to sink, including any associated works.
4. Cold water storage tank or cistern and associated work such as bearers, overflow,
cover and insulating lining.
5. Down service with branches, including any stop valves, holes through walls, ceiling
and floors and lagging of pipes.
6. Sanitary appliances such as sinks, wash basins, baths and water closets supply and
fixing, including supporting brackets, taps and the like.
7. Discharge pipes (waste, soil and vent pipes) and associated work.
8. Any other work connected with the plumbing installation, such as painting pipes and
testing the installation.
Drawing of plumbing installations -
The architects drawing normally gives little information on the layout of the water service
pipes in the building. The information supplied is frequently limited to the point of entry of
the rising main in to the building, the position of the cold water storage tank or cistern and the
various sanitary appliances. In these circumstances the quantity surveyor must decide on a
suitable layout of pipes and plot them on the various drawings, with the consultation of the
plumbing engineer. It is good practice to draw the various pipes in different colours, such as
the rising main in red and down service in blue.
Connection to water main -
The tapping and insertion of a ferrule to the water authoritys main and the provision of the
communication pipe from the main to the boundary of the site with a stop valve provided at
this point, including opening up and reinstatement of the highway and all watching and
lighting usually covered by a Provisional Sum (SMM A53.1.1 2.0.0).





Pipe Work -
Classified under appropriate headings, such as cold water system (S10 of Common
Arrangement) measured over all fittings and branches in meters stating the type,
nominal size, method of jointing and type, spacing and method of fixing supports
distinguish between straight and curved pipes (SMM Y10.1.1.1.0 and Y10.M3). Pipes are
deemed to include joints in their running lengths (SMM Y10.C3). The provision of
everything necessary for jointing is deemed to be included (SMM Y10.C.1). The type of
background to which the pipe supports fixed is classified in the categories listed in SMM
General Rules 8.3.
Details of the kind and quality of materials used in the pipes, gauge and other particulars
listed in SMM Y10.S1-6, and likely to be included in preamble clauses.
Made bends, special joints and connections, and fittings such as Y-junctions, reducers,
elbows, tees, and crosses are enumerated as items extra over the pipes in which they occur
(SMM Y10.2.1-4).
Pipe fittings 65 mm diameters are classified according to the number of ends, while those
of larger diameter are described.
Valves and cocks are classified as pipe work ancillaries and are enumerated, stating the type,
nominal size, method of jointing, type, number and method of supports and type of pipe to
which connected (SMM Y11.8.1.1.0).
Water storage tanks or Cisterns
Water storage tanks or cisterns are enumerated giving appropriate particulars (SMM
Y21.1.1.0.0). Timber supports to tanks are measured in meters with a dimensioned overall
cross-section description (SMM G20.13.0.1.0). Insulation to tanks or cisterns is enumerated,
giving the overall size of he tank, or insulations contained in casings can be measured in m
2

(SMM Y50.1.4.1-2.0). Any pipe work located in the roof space should be insulated and this
insulation is measured in meters giving the type of insulation and nominal size of the pipe
(SMM Y50.1.1.1.0).
Holes for pipes
Cutting holes through the structure for pipes and making good structure are enumerated,
stating the nature and thickness of the structure and the shape of the hole, and classifying the
pipes to size in accordance with SMM P31.20.2.1 3.2 & 4. Ex: pipes 55 mm nominal size,
55 110 mm and >110 mm.






Sanitary Appliances
Sanitary appliances include low level WC suits, WC pans and cisterns, urinals and cisterns,
sinks, wash basins, bidets, baths, showers and vanity units (Common Arrangement N13).
These appliances are enumerated giving details of the type, size, pattern and capacity, and
method of fixing (SMM N13.4.1.1.6). The supply of appliances is frequently covered by
prime cost sum, including relevant particulars and provision for main contractors profit
(SMM A52.1.1.1.0). Another alternative is to give supply and fix items with full details
(SMM General Rules 6.1).
Builders work in connection with plumbing installations
Builders work in connection with a plumbing installation is identified under an appropriate
heading (SMM P31.M2). Unless identified in SMM work sections P30 and P31, all other
items of builders work are given in accordance with the appropriate work sections (SMM
P31.M1).
Example
Refer drawing in page no 8.


ADVANCED BUILDING MEASUREMENTS
MEASUREMENT OF MECHANICAL WORKS
General Background
The measurement of mechanical services installations requires a detailed knowledge of
technology. The drawings from which the quantity surveyor must work are those that are
prepared by the consulting services engineer. Consulting engineers are normally required to
prepare drawings and specifications sufficient to obtain tenders. These drawings are
schematic only, because trade practice is for the contractor to prepare all necessary working
drawings and to include in his tender for a complete working installation. The exact route of
pipe work and duct work is often left to the craft operatives doing the work. Therefore, the
quantity surveyor must put himself in the position of the operative and include in the bill of
quantities all items necessary for the complete installation.
Measurement Procedure
The first task is full study and understanding the drawings and specifications provided. A
study of these documents will lead to queries. These queries must be first submitted to the
consulting services engineer and clarified.




Approach to Measurement
Having acquired adequate information and full understanding of the scheme, taking off can
begin. Firstly, the drawings should be coloured up using a suitable colour code to illustrate
the various services to be measured. The drawings are mainly in the form of floor plans and it
is often helpful to draw a sketch of complicated sections of the work to be taken off in
isometric projection to illustrate the full extent of the work involved.
The process of measurement is relatively straightforward, comprising enumerated items of
plant at the source, a connecting network of pipe work or ducting measured linearly, with
enumerated fittings taken as extra over pipes and ducting, enumerated ancillaries, and finally
enumerated items for the emission plant and equipment. Special supports and sleeves for
pipes and ducting generate further enumerated items.
Work in plant rooms is identified separately because of the restricted working conditions
(SMM Y10/20/30.M2). Everything necessary for jointing is deemed to be included (SMM
Y10/20/30.C1) and full requirement of materials shall be given as prescribed in SMM
Y10/20/30.S1-6. Thermal insulation to pipelines and ducting is measured in meters giving the
nominal size of the pipeline or ducting, while insulation to equipment is enumerated giving
the overall size or measured in m
2
(SMM Y50.1.1, 3 & 4.1.0).
Pipe fittings 65 mm diameters are grouped together irrespective of type, stating the number
of ends. With larger fittings the type is stated (SMM Y10.2.3 4.2 6.1 2). Examples of
pipe work ancillaries are draw-off taps, stop valves, control valves, non-return valves, drain
cocks, stop cocks, air cocks, mixing valves, steam traps, strainers, gauges and thermometers
and automatic controls.
Other Measurement Aspects
Work Sections
The rules for the measurement of mechanical services given in Work Group Y are billed
under separate work sections. Those work sections are;
R Disposal system includes sewage pumping and refuses chutes.
S Piped supply system includes cold water, hot water, steam, fire hose reels, dry risers, wet
risers and sprinklers.
T Mechanical Heating / Cooling / Refrigeration Systems includes gas / oil fired boilers,
coal fired boilers, heat pumps, solar collectors, low temperature hot water heating, steam
heating, warm air heating and central refrigeration plant.
U Ventilation / Air Conditioning System include toilet and kitchen extracts, smoke extracts
/ smoke control and various forms of air conditioning.




Pipe work generally
Pipes are classified under appropriate headings such as hot water supply and measured over
all fittings and branches in meters, stating the type, nominal size, method of jointing and type,
spacing and method of fixing supports, and distinguishing between straight and curved pipes
(SMM Y10.1.1.1.0 and Y10.M3). Pipes are deemed to include joints in their running length
(SMM Y10.C3) and the provision of everything necessary for jointing (SMM Y10.C1),
without the need for specific mention. The type of background to which the pipe supports are
fixed will be classified in the categories listed in SMM General rule 8.3.
Details of the kind and quality of materials used in the pipes, gauge and other relevant
particulars listed in SMM Y10.S1 6 are to be included in preamble clauses.
Made bends, special joints and connections and fittings such as Y-junctions, reducers,
elbows, tees and crosses are all enumerated as items extra over the pipes in which they occur
(SMM Y10.2.1 4). In the case of special joints, the type and method of jointing is to be
stated and they comprise joints which differ from those generally occurring in the running
length or are connections to pipes of a different profile or material, connections to existing
pipes or to equipment, appliances or ends of flue pipes (SMM Y10.D2).
Pipe fittings 65 mm diameters are classified according to the number of ends, while those
of larger diameter are described. The method of jointing is stated where different from the
pipe in which the fitting occurs.
Valves and cocks are classified as pipe work ancillaries and are enumerated, stating the type,
nominal size, method of jointing, type, number and method of fixing supports and the type of
pipe to be connected (SMM Y11.8.1.1.0). Those located in ducts or trenches are each kept
separate and so described.
Cutting holes through the structure for pipes and making good surfaces are enumerated,
stating the nature and thickness of the structure and the shape of the hole, classifying the
pipes as to size in accordance with SMM P31.20.2.1 3.2 & 4; for example pipes 55 mm
nominal size, 55 110 mm and >110 mm.
Equipment
When measuring mechanical equipments, such details as type, size and pattern, rated duty,
capacity, loading as appropriate and method of fixing are stated. Specification cross
references are often inserted for mechanical equipment as provided for in SMM
Y20/40.1.1.1.0. Examples of equipments include boilers, generators, water treatment and
pressurisation plant, tanks, cylinders, clarifiers, pumps, compressors, fans, filters, humidifiers
and refrigeration units.




Air Duct lines
Ducting is classified as to whether straight, curved stating radii or flexible and giving the
type, shape, size, method of jointing and spacing and method of fixing supports, and
background, and is measured in meters (SMM Y30.1.1 5.1.1). It is measured over all
fittings and branches (SMM Y30.M3) and is deemed to include joints in running lengths and
stiffeners (SMM Y30.C3).
Items measured extra over include;
1. Lining ducting internally in meters, stating type and thickness of lining materials and
internal size of ducting (SMM Y30.2.1.1.0).
2. Special joints and connections, (SMM Y30.D2), enumerated stating type, size,
ducting size and method of jointing.
3. Fittings such as stop ends, bends, offsets, diminishing pieces, changes of section
pieces and junction pieces, access openings and covers for doors, nozzle outlets, and
test holes and covers are each enumerated stating the type (SMM Y30.3-6.1.1).
Ancillaries to ducting, such as grilles, diffusers, dampers, shutters, cowls, terminals, roof
ventilators, attenuators and anti-vermin screens are enumerated giving necessary information
(SMM Y30.4.1.1.0). Breaking in to existing ducting is given as item, stating the type, size
and location of duct and purpose of breaking in (SMM Y30.5.1.1 4).
Ducting sleeves are enumerated (SMM Y30.7.1 2.11 -2).
Pipe and Ducting Supports
Pipe and ducting supports which differ from those given with pipe or duct lines are separately
enumerated, giving details of the nominal size of pipe or shape and size of duct, type and size
of support, method of fixing pipe or duct support and nature of background (SMM
Y10.9.0.1.3 and Y30.6.0.1.3).
Builders work in connection with mechanical installations
Builders work in connection with a mechanical installation is identified under an appropriate
heading (SMM P31.M2). Unless identified in SMM work sections P30 and P31, all other
items of builders work are given in accordance with the appropriate work sections (SMM
P31.M1).
Example:
The example covers the measurement of low pressure hot water heating and ventilation
system. Refer drawing in page no 7.