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ISSN: 2094-1749 Vol: 1 Issue: 1, 2009

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EVALUATION OF A PROPOSED SET OF MODULES IN
PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF TEACHING
Mercedes A. Macarandang University of Batangas


INTRODUCTION

Education today is facing great
challenges. One such challenge lies in
the area of instruction. In the face of
severe criticism to the effect that many
of our schools at present are not
producing quality graduates, it would not
be sufficient to hear recriminations right
and left. It would be more apt and
practical to focus educators attention on
other ways and means. One such way is
to provide quality teachers in the field.
Much is expected therefore from pre-
service education because it is tasked
with the preparation of basic education
teachers. On their part, teacher training
institutions keep abreast of new
techniques, strategies and ideas to meet
the rising needs of the learners.

The Educational Committee (EDCOM)
maintained that there is a need to
strengthen the curriculum for elementary
and high school teachers with subjects
that will make them competent in their
field, creative and resourceful in the use
of instructional materials, alert and
adaptive to challenges and trends.
One skill that a teacher should develop is
the ability to organize and develop
materials suited to the students level of
readiness and understanding. Guided by
studies in the development of logical
thinking, together with the current
thrusts in the particular discipline, a
teacher should be able to prepare self-
instructional materials. The use of self-
instructional materials is particularly
beneficial as a strategy in introducing
basic information to an entire class,
freeing the lecture discussion hours for
more discussions and less lecture, an
enrichment activity for talented students;
a strategy for make-up for a student who
has been absent and a strategy for a
student in need of remedial lectures.
Thus, self-instructional materials like
modules would benefit both the student
and the teacher as well. Complete
learning packages and home study
modules are definitely here to stay.
Their use for either enrichment or
remediation cannot be overemphasized
(Salandanan, 2001).

The use of modules as a learning
material is no longer new in the field of
education especially in the tertiary level,
This teaching-learning material is
characterized by small-step, sequential
and concept-and/or skill-oriented
presentation of a unit of learning. This
applies to all levels of learning, and to a
wide range of learning activities: in
school, in the trade and industry and
even in the world of high technology.
As an instructional strategy, modules are
designed to bring about a satisfactory
level kind of learning among slow,
average and fast learners.

With the current shift toward
individualized programs in all levels of
instruction, it has become imperative for
the classroom teacher to learn to develop
her own self-instructional materials.
Such programs put a heavy demand in
the teachers basic knowledge in the
preparation of learning units suited to
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special groups of individuals in her
class. Whether the instruction is intended
for a whole class, or a student, the
teacher should be able to plan, organize
and develop suitable instructional
materials.

The College of Education of the
University of Batangas, like other
institutions of higher learning,
encourages its faculty members to
develop instructional materials. The
College is in need of instructional
modules which can be used by the
department to encourage independent
study, critical thinking, resourcefulness
and cooperation among students. Since
there is already a set of modules
developed in one of the subject
offerings, the researcher, being the dean
of the College, deemed it proper to
evaluate the modules so that they will
become useful and the efforts of the
module developer will prove more
meaningful.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF
THE STUDY
If we are to look closely at the
contemporary problem of how to raise
the quality of education, no matter what
the discipline, it would be obvious that
the answer lies in the right educational
objectives at one end, effective
evaluation at the other, with instructional
procedures and materials in between.
Evaluation of studentl learning to check
on whether the educational objectives
have been achieved cannot be done
thoroughly if the instructional materials
are not first subjected to evaluation
(Robles: 1993). The use of modules as
self-instructional materials is anchored
on certain developed theories of teaching
and learning. These are discussed by
Race (1989) in his book. One of these
theories is Skinners behavior control
model which stimulus-response shapes
behavior in formulating objectives in
measurable terms. If objectives are
specified in measurable terms, it is
possible to organize and evaluate
learning to achieve such objectives.

Rothopfs model of written instruction
advocates the use of in-text questions
aimed at structuring and facilitating
active learning. In-text questions are
used to establish the link between what
the learner knows and what the learner
needs to resolve.

This study is also based on Ausubels
advance organizer model which states
that students acquire knowledge with the
aid of a well-structured presentation;
students learn new materials in terms of
what they already know; and, advance
organizers bridge the gap between what
the student has learned and what he
needs to learn and assimilate.
Egans structural communication model
is also a basis of this study. One of the
significant features of this theory is the
idea of presenting small doses of
information. Exercises are set to test the
learners understanding of the
information and responses are given so
that learners can check their progress.
This is so in self-instruction teaching.
Carl Rogers facilitation model has
found application in the use of modules
in teaching. This theory of learning is
based on the need to facilitate
knowledge rather than teach it in the
traditional sense. In modular instruction
students are given complete freedom to
learn when and how they want to learn;
and the personal relationship between
the teacher and the learner is motivating.


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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study aimed to evaluate a set of
developed modules in Principles and
Methods of Teaching. Specifically, this
research paper found answers to the
following questions:
1. What are the components of the
proposed set of modules in
Principles of Teaching?
2. How do the professional education
subject teachers and students assess
the characteristics of the developed
modules in terms of:
2.1. specific objectives,
2.2. content,
2.3. language used, and
2.4. evaluation activities?
3. How do the teachers and the students
compare in their assessment of the
modules?
4. What modifications do teachers and
students propose to improve the
modules?

HYPOTHESIS:
There is no significant difference
between the teachers and students in
their assessment of the characteristics of
the set of modules intended for
instruction in Principles and Methods of
Teaching.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE
STUDY
The main focus of this study is the set of
modules in Principles and Methods of
Teaching which was developed by a
faculty researcher during the school year
2006 2007. This study is limited to the
responses of teacher and student
respondents to the checklists developed
by the researcher.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The results of this study will be
beneficial primarily to the faculty
members and students in teacher-training
institutions particularly the College of
Education of the University of Batangas.
Faculty members teaching Principles and
Methods of Teaching will have an
alternative way in dealing with the
subject. They can choose from among
the different modules and lessons which
they may allow the students to study
independently and/ or cooperatively.
The modules can be used by students
who for some valid reasons may not be
able to attend their class regularly.
By using the developed modules, the
students will be able to experience
learning and teaching style apart from
the traditional memorization and lecture
techniques. They will be able to develop
independence in learning and realize
their own responsibilities for their own
achievement.

The use of the modules could facilitate
the teachers handling of the subject.
With ready-made materials, teachers
could find more time doing other
instructional tasks. This study could
also inspire them to develop
instructional materials in other
disciplines.

The supervisory tasks of the department
heads and deans could be lightened since
the modules already indicate which areas
to focus on and to evaluate.

This study could guide researchers doing
their study in the area of instructional
materials development and evaluation.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
To facilitate understanding of this study,
different terms are herein defined:
Assessment. This term refers to the
process of determining the value of the
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developed set of modules using relevant
assessment tools.
Evaluation. This refers to the process of
determining the worth of the developed
set of modules.
Evaluation activities. In this study, this
term refers to the assessment procedures
to determine how well the students learn
about the lessons in the proposed set of
modules.
Instructional content. This refers to the
subject matter or topics being taught in a
particular subject. In this study, this
refers to the different lessons in the
modules in Principles and Methods of
Teaching.
Instructional objectives. This refers to
the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes
and competencies sought to be
developed in the lessons covered by the
modules.
Materials development. As defined by
Tomlinson (1998), this term refers to
any activity engaged in by writers,
teachers or learners to provide sources of
content and to supply information about
a topic.
Module. This is a self-contained or self-
learning kit designed to make learning
easier among students and teachers as
well (Salandanan, 2001). In this study
this term refers to the developed
Modules in Principles and Methods of
Teaching.
Principles and Methods of Teaching. As
used in this study, this refers to one of
the professional subjects in the Teacher
Education program which deals with the
principles, methods, techniques,
approaches and strategies of teaching
applicable to elementary and high school
teaching.
Supplementary activities. In this paper,
this term refers to activities relevant to
the different topics to further enhance
mastery of the lessons and facilitate
attainment of instructional objectives.

RELATED LITERATURE AND
STUDIES
As Salandanan (2001) explained,
instructional materials offer the best
means by which a teacher can provide
direction in her students daily search for
new understandings and verifications.
Even the best teachers trained in the
latest teaching methods, well-informed
about facts, and aware of the goals of
education can fail in planning and
implementing a course if she is not
equipped with appropriate instructional
materials. Knowledge of how to
develop a course syllabus, a teaching
unit or a simple learning activity can
undoubtedly enhance her competence in
communicating to the students the
coverage and sequences of the content to
be take up. One such instructional
material is the self-instructional module.
A self-instructional module is a self-
contained, independent unit of
instruction prepared for the purpose of
attaining defined instructional
objectives. It is characteristically self-
directing since it includes instruction on
how the various investigations will be
pursued. Classroom instruction using
modules is described as self-pacing
where the students progress through the
learning tasks at their own rate.
Observation and experience show that
the distinctive features of self-
instructional materials (SIMs) are as
follows: it provides for individual
learning because there is not need to
wait until there are enough learners to
form a group; it is self-paced learning
where each individual can work at his or
her own pace rather than the pace of a
group which may be too fast or too slow;
it can be learned privately so that there
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is no danger of loss of face as might
be feared in certain kinds of group
learning; they are available at any time,
at any place and to any number; they
provide standardized content so that all
learners receive the same content;
materials can include contributions from
national and international experts; they
have updatable content and can use
structured teaching, active learning and
frequent feedback; and they have
explicit aims and objectives (Robles,
1998).

The preparation of self-instructional
modules includes careful analysis of the
course plan or syllabus, preparing
preliminaries and designing of the
learning activities. The course plan is
based on the course description as
provided in the curriculum by the
institution or college. The module may
involve one, a few or all the topics listed
in the course plan. The preliminaries
include the rationale, objectives, target
population, time frame for completing
the module and plan for work or
instructional planning chart. The design
of the learning activities includes the
objectives, directions, pretest and key,
activity proper, self-evaluation exercises
and post tests.

Hughes (1992) described modular
instruction as that which provides the
basis for a close interaction between the
learner and the subject matter, that the
learner is called upon to respond actively
in the interaction with an instructional
program, and that the rate at which the
interaction proceeds is governed
individually by each learners response.
An educational technique is then created
and aptitudes are taken directly into
consideration in the management of the
learning process, in a way that is hardly
possible in the fixed-paced instruction
typical of a classroom lecture.

The best features of self-instructional
materials are described by Race (1989).
He explained that self-instructional
materials may come in the form of
modules, self-learning kits, etc., are
interaction-centered rather than content-
centered. These are written to entice the
learner or get the learner interested and
involved. Self-instructional materials
develop the self-esteem of learners and
give them a confidence boost. This is
possible because the learners are given
the framework within which to think
things out for themselves. More
importantly, the learners are given the
credit for the newly acquired knowledge.
Most self-instructional materials are
purpose-built and are structured to meet
the learners needs. Race further
emphasized that the main principle
underlying the use of self-instructional
materials is to make learning reactive,
interesting, successful and humane.
Self-instructional materials must provide
for the following components (Robert, et
al., 1962): a) rationale; b) objectives; c)
pre-test; d) learning activities and
content materials; e) self-test items; and
f) posttest. Moreover, self-instructional
materials should follow certain
guidelines as follows: 1. The module
must be limited in scope to cover what is
normally covered in one class period; 2.
Materials should always contain a
review of pre-requisite content; 3. All
items in the module should be simple
and clearly defined; 4. Language should
be simple and easily understood by its
intended users; 5. All that a teacher
would normally discuss in class should
be presented in detail in the material;
and 6. The material should be
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supplementary to other existing
instructional materials.
The use of self-instructional materials
for individualized instruction and
independent study is promising as
revealed by researches on the use of
programmed instructional (PI) materials.
Aggabao (2002) cited the survey of 15
studies conducted by Silberman (1962)
which revealed that PI is either better (9
studies) or at par (6 cases) with
traditional methods. Comparative
findings were also provided in his survey
of 36 PI studies.

Greager and Murray (1991) enumerated
the advantages offered to the teacher
who uses the modular approach. These
are: it provides the opportunity for
organizing numerous sequences to
reflect special interest of the teacher and
students; it allows the teacher to focus
on the deficiencies of students in the
subject matter; it serves to eliminate the
necessity of covering subject matter
already known to students. With the use
of modules, the progress of students is
assessed and the routine aspect on
instruction is reduced giving the teacher
a chance to enjoy her personal contact
with the students.
The self-instructional module once
prepared cannot right away be given to
students for utilization. It has to be
validated to ensure the reliability and
effectiveness of its use and that it
possesses desirable characteristics of a
good and working module. In the
process the module has to pass the
critique of subject specialists and be
tried-out with possible target students.
Hamona (2002) cited the criteria for
evaluation of try-out materials developed
by the UNICEP Curriculum
Development Project. They are:
1. The material should cover the
required learning competencies and
lessons or activities must be
provided to carry out the objectives.
The objectives should be clear,
attainable and measurable.
2. There should be provision for
appropriate evaluation activities with
indicators for the degree of attaining
the learning competency.
3. Time allotment is suggested in each
lesson which should be long enough
for the users to cover the lesson or
unit.
4. In field testing the following should
be considered: workability of
activities, sufficient content to
achieve objectives, sequencing and
organizing of content and activities,
interest and variety in activities,
value orientation of the material and
appropriate content and approach,

Samonte (2004) developed, evaluated
and tried out an environmental outdoor
education module for the use of students
of St. Scholastica College. She found
out that majority of the students
comments and responses to the guide
questions and personal insights were
positive. The remarks and suggestions
were sufficient reasons for considering
the modules suitable and purposeful.
She concluded that the module was able
to a great extent to meet the criteria set
in terms of content, instructional
characteristics and effectiveness.
Ubina (2000) produced and evaluated a
videotaped lesson in the teaching of a
science concept utilizing cooperative
learning. Based on the results of the
study, the videotaped lesson could be
used as an instructional material in
teaching strategy courses to BEEd
students as evidenced by the evaluation
of the target users who rated yes the
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clarity and features of the Jigsaw II
Method and the audio and visual aspects
of the videotaped lessons as high quality.
A module on basic cooking skills for the
mentally retarded was developed by
Hsieh (2002). After the try-out she
concluded that the use of modules could
enhance the mentally retarded students
culinary skills; that using modules as a
teaching strategy was effective
particularly for mentally retarded
children; and modules could be used as
an additional instructional material
especially for the mentally retarded.
Receno (2001) developed and evaluated
instructional materials for the
enhancement of listening skills among
freshman students of St. Michael
College of Laguna. Among others, she
concluded that freshman students need
instructional materials that will help
them realize and make use of their
internal language resources to be able to
attend to and appreciate listening.

Aquino-Danganan (2001) proposed
instructional modules in developing
computational skills in College Algebra.
She concluded that the proposed
instructional modules had titles,
instruction to the learners, rationale,
objectives, pretest with answer keys,
worksheet assignment, progress check
with answer key and post-test with
answer key. The format and language of
each were properly organized, clear and
simple. The objectives of each module
were specific and were based on the
course syllabus. The topics were
properly developed and explained and
the activities and exercises facilitated
student learning in College Algebra.
Sunga (1996) developed and validated a
self-instructional teaching package on
the art of questioning for teachers. She
found out that the self-instructional
teaching package was useful and
effective. The teaching package proved
useful for both pre-service and in-service
teachers. There was evidence that it
could be used to prepare student-interns
for actual teaching in the field. Because
of the nature of the teaching package, it
could be used for distance learning in
which teacher-users respond to the
module at their own pace, and at their
own convenient time.

Aggabao (2002) made a study aimed at
developing individualized self-
instructional modules on selected topics
in Basic mathematics for instructional
use at the Teachers College in Isabela
State University. After making use of
the experimental method, concluded that
instructional materials used at the
college for Basic Mathematics are
inadequate and are not designed for self-
instruction; that instruction through self-
instructional materials is as effective as
the prevailing teaching method of
instruction; and students as well as
teachers generally have a positive
attitude toward the use of individualized,
self-instructional materials as a mode of
instruction in Basic Mathematics.

All the studies cited are related to the
present research paper because they all
deal on assessment of self-instructional
materials. They are different since they
deal on other subject areas or disciplines.
The present study is similar to
Aggabaos and Sungas works in the
sense that they made use of pre-service
Education students as subjects of the
study. Sungas study was about the art
of questioning which is part of the
modules validated in this study while
that of Aggabaos was about Basic
Mathematics which is a subject in the
teacher education program. All the
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researchers developed and validated
their own modules but the present study
evaluated modules prepared by another
researcher.

METHOD AND PROCEDURE
The researcher utilized the descriptive
method in determining the
characteristics of the developed
modules. Documentary analysis was
also used since the modules evaluated
have been previously developed by a
faculty researcher.
The respondents to the study were
faculty members currently teaching
and/or have taught Principles and
Methods of Teaching in the past two
academic years. Forty-two students had
been exposed to the use of the modules
before they were asked to evaluate them.
The main instrument used in this study is
a set of checklist developed by the
researcher on the characteristics of the
modules . The checklist contains items
on the objectives of the lessons included
in the modules, language used, content
and evaluation activities. The researcher
requested selected faculty members to
look into the content of the checklist for
validation and improvement.

The researcher also made use of
interview in determining the
respondents suggestions on how to
improve the modules.
Permission was obtained by the
researcher from the module developer
for the evaluation of the modules. The
developed modules were reproduced and
a faculty member of the College
teaching Principles and Methods of
Teaching was requested to use the
modules during the first semester of AY
2004 2005. The faculty member was
guided by the researcher on how the
modules will be utilized in the
classroom. At the end of the semester,
the checklist was distributed to the
students for their evaluation of the
modules. After accomplishing the
checklist, the students were instructed by
the researcher to go over the modules
and to give their comments and
suggestions.

Copies of the developed modules were
distributed to selected faculty members
in four schools in Batangas City for their
evaluation using the same checklist
given to students. The teachers were
individually interviewed to gather
suggestions on how the modules would
be improved.

The accomplished checklists from
students and teachers were then retrieved
and the data were tallied, presented in
tables and interpreted.
The researcher was guided by the
following values of weighted mean and
their meaning as to interpretation of
results from the data gathered:
3.50 - 4.00
To a very great extent
2.5 - 3.49
To a great extent
1.50 - 2.49
To a moderate extent
0 - 1.49
To the least extent

STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF
DATA
The researcher made use of weighted
mean and T-test to be able to interpret
the data gathered. Weighted mean was
used to determine the pooled evaluation
of students and that of faculty members
as to characteristics of the modules. T-
test was used to compare the evaluation
of students and of faculty members using
.05 significance level.
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PRESENTATION AND
INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This portion discusses the results and
interpretation of the data gathered.
1. The Components of the Proposed Set
of Modules in Principles and Methods of
Teaching.
There are five modules evaluated in this
study. Each module is divided into
lessons.

Module I is about the qualities that a
teacher should posses and the basic
concepts and principles of teaching. It is
composed of two lessons. Lesson 1
discusses The Effective Teacher and
covers the topics on the personal
qualities and the professional
competencies of an effective teacher and
the different learning styles while
Lesson 2 focuses on the Concepts and
Principles of Teaching which includes
the various concepts of teaching and the
different principles of teaching.
Module II consisting of two lessons
deals on methods of teaching.. Lesson 1
is centered on the Meaning and Nature
of Method which covers the meaning and
nature of method, the function of
methods in classroom teaching, the
characteristics of effective methods, the
guidelines involved in the use of
teaching methods and the major
classifications of methods. Lesson 2 is
about The Factors that Affect the Choice
of Methods covering the nature of the
learner, the teacher, the aims of
education, the nature of the subject
matter, the school environment,
equipment and facilities.
Module III has three lessons discussing
the direct instruction methods.. Lesson 1
stresses The Expository Method
explaining what the method is about,
when it is best used, when its use is
ineffective, and when to follow the steps.
Lesson 2 is about The Deductive
Method. The topics included are the
definition of deductive method, the
various categories of subject matter that
can best be learned through the
deductive method, the situations where
the use of the method is ineffective, the
steps and a sample lesson plan using the
deductive method. Lesson 3 deals with
The Demonstration Method. The lesson
covers the meaning of the demonstration
method, the situations when the method
is effective, the instances when it is
ineffective, the steps used and a sample
lesson plan utilizing the method.

Module IV includes five lessons which
cover indirect instruction methods.
Lesson 1 explains The Inductive Method.
The topics are definition of the inductive
method, the learning objectives which
can be best achieved using the inductive
method, the situations where the use of
the method is effective or inappropriate,
the steps used in the method, and a
sample lesson plan using the method.
Lesson 2 focuses on The Problem-
Solving Method. This includes
description of the method, how it is used
and a sample lesson plan using the
method. Lesson 3 discusses The
Discovery Method emphasizing its
definition, its uses, its effectiveness and
when it is ineffective, steps used and a
sample lesson plan using the method.
Lesson 4 is about the Laboratory
Method. This explains what the method
is, when it is used, the situations when it
is ineffective, how it is used, and a
sample lesson plan using the method.
Lesson 5 is about The Inquiry Method.
The topics discussed are: what the
method is, when and how it is used and a
sample lesson using the method.
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Module 5 covers the various techniques
of classroom instruction. Lesson 1
stresses The Techniques of Skillful
Questioning. This includes the
classifications of questions, uses of
questions, characteristics of good
questions, effective questioning
strategies/techniques, and techniques in
handling students responses. Lesson 2,
The Techniques of Discussion dwells on
steps in effective discussion, advantages
of the use of discussion and techniques
in effective discussion. Lesson 3 centers
on The Techniques of Reinforcement.
The topics included are: the functions of
practice and drill in learning and the
guidelines for implementing practice and
drill. Lesson 4 is on The Techniques of
Giving Assignments. This covers the
functions and uses of assignments, the
requisites of a good assignment and the
guidelines in giving assignments.
Lesson 5 centers on The Techniques of
Classroom Management. This portion
explains the meaning and nature of
classroom management and discipline,
The various components of classroom
management, the various approaches in
classroom management, the guidelines
that may be used to determine the
appropriate classroom management
approach, the management of time,
routines and physical facilities and
environment.
At the introductory portion, the course
description is clearly stated. There is an
explanation on how the target users will
be benefited by the use of the modules.
The users are instructed to work through
each lesson in the sequence it is
presented. After going through the
input, they are to do the self-test, then
refer to the feedback that follows each
self-test.

Each lesson of the modules has the
following parts: specific objectives for
the entire lesson, input which contains
the information the students are to learn,
self-test, which presents an activity that
must be completed satisfactorily by the
students for them to be able to move on
to the next lesson, and feedback which
contains the correct answer to the task or
activity. After each module, there is the
end-of-the-module test. Students are
instructed to compare their answer with
the key provided. Their score must at
least be SATISFACTORY before
proceeding to the next module in the
series. If the score is LESS THAN
SATISFACTORY students are advised
to go through the module again.
Students are also instructed not to mark
the module in any way. They need a
separate sheet for their answers.

Icons are also used to give direction to the students in their use of the module.





This icon introduces a module and the list of major
topics on which the module is focused. It specifies
clearly what the students are expected to learn and
what to do at the end of each module.
This icon introduces the students to a new lesson
within a module. It clearly states what they are
supposed to achieve in the particular learning activity.
?
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2. Teachers and Students Assessment
of the Characteristics of the Modules
2.1 The Specific Objectives of Each
Lesson of the Module.
Table 1 presents the teachers and the
students assessment of the specific
objectives of each lesson of the modules.
The data reveal that each lesson in the
modules is accompanied by specific
objectives. The students rated this
characteristic with a weighted mean of

R
F
?

This icon signals an input. This contains new
information for the students to learn and on which they
will be tested.
This icon signals a checkpoint. This tells the students
that there is a question to answer.
This icon introduces a list of important facts to
remember or commit to memory.
This icon is found after a task and presents which
task or a series of tasks must be completed to aid the
students in understanding the module.
Found at the end of each lesson this icon signals an
end-of-the-lesson-self-test to determine how well the
students have achieved the objectives of the modules.
This icon represents the key to correction. The
students are to compare their answers with those given
in the answer key.
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3.25 interpreted as to a great extent. The
teachers assessment is 4.00 interpreted
as to a very great extent. The combined
weighted mean is 3.67 interpreted as to a
very great extent. One of the
requirements of a good module is the
provision for specific objectives in each
lesson. These objectives serve as guide
to the users as to what competencies,
skills or knowledge should be acquired
in learning each module. They also
guide the module developer in the
construction of check up or evaluation
activities.
The student respondents assessed the
objectives as stated in behavioral terms
with weighted mean of 3.7 while the
teachers rated it with 3.80. The average
of the combined assessment is 3.48
interpreted as to a great extent.
According to Ornstein objectives stated
in terms of students behavior guide the
teacher in leading the students to
manifest in action whatever instructional
goal


Table 1

Teachers and Students Assessment of the Specific Objectives of Each Lesson in the
Modules

Characteristics SA R VI TA R VI CWM VI OR
Each lesson in the
modules is
accompanied by
specific objectives.

3.25

1

TGE

4.00

1

TVGE

3.67

TVGE

1
The objectives are
stated in behavioral
terms
3.17 2.5 TGE 3.80 4 TVGE 3.48 TGE 2
The words used in the
objectives are clear and
easily understood

3.09

4

TGE

3.80


4

TVGE

3.45

TGE

3
The specific objectives
are realistic.
2.91 5 TGE 3.80 4 TVGE 3.35 TGE 4
The objectives are
measurable.
2.89 6 TGE 3.80 4 TVGE 3.33 TGE 5
The time limit for the
attainment of objectives
is specified.

3.17

2.5

TGE

3.19

7

TGE

3.19

TGE

6
The specific objectives
are attainable within
specified time limit.

2.73

7

TGE

3.80

4

TVGE

3.17

TGE

7
COMPOSITE MEAN 3.03 TGE 3.75 TVGE 3.38 TGE




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Legend:
SA Students Assessment TVGE To a very great extent
TA Teachers Assessment TGE To a great extent
VI Verbal Interpretation
CWM Combined Weighted Mean
R Rank
OR Overall Rank



lessons aim to achieve. Some
manifestations of these objectives are:
enumerate the personal qualities and
professional competencies of an
effective teacher; identify the different
teaching style illustrated by various
teacher behaviors (Lesson 1 - The
Effective Teacher). The terms
enumerate and identify are action terms
which are supposed to be shown by the
students after going through the lesson.
Other behavioral terms commonly found
in the objectives are explain, apply,
describe, distinguish, define, etc.
The objectives in each lesson of the
modules are measurable. The students
assessment for this characteristic is 2.86
while that of the teachers is 3.80. The
combined weighted mean is 3.33
interpreted as to a great extent. The
measurability of lesson objectives is
evidenced by the test given after using
each module. There should be
congruency between lesson objectives
and lesson tests. The developed
modules possess these characteristics as
proven by the tests given after each
lesson.

One of the aims of Module 2, Lesson 2.
(The Factors that Affect the Choice of
Methods) is to distinguish between
methods, technique and approach. The
end of the lesson self-test has this
direction: Decide whether each idea
below is suggestive of Approach (A),
Method (M), Technique (T) or Strategy
(S). Write only the letter of your answer
on the blank space before the number.
1. It guides the students learning by
following a fixed patter of steps or
processes.
2. It is the manner an individual teacher
structures the lesson and proposes
activities in order to achieve the
objectives.
This self-test shows the congruence of
the items with the lesson objectives.
Ranked third among the characteristics
of the objectives of the module is that
the words in the objectives are clear and
easily understood. This item has a
combined weighted mean of 3.45
interpreted as to a great extent.
Although the target users of the
module are second year college
students the module developer made
use of words which are within the
understanding of all Education students.
Most of the words used in the objectives
are already familiar to the target users
because they have been learning them in
their other professional subjects.
Examples of these are teaching-learning
process, nature of the subject matter,
school environment, learning styles,
learning materials, educational aims,
lesson plan, questioning, etc.
The composite mean of the items in
Table 1 is 3.38 interpreted as to a great
extent. This shows that the respondents
believe that the objectives of the
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different module lessons possessed good
characteristics.

The teachers assessed the other
objectives of the lessons in the modules
as being realistic, attainable within the
specified time limit and use words which
are clear and easily understood. These
items received a weighted mean of 3.80
also interpreted as to a very great extent.
The students evaluated these items with
weighted mean ratings ranging from
3.17 to 2.91, all interpreted as to a great
extent. The above mentioned
characteristics are those required of good
objectives of any lesson.

2.2 Students and Teachers Assessment
of the Content of the Modules

Table 2 shows the respondents
assessment on content of the modules.
The content is the meat or substance of
the modules. This shows the topics to be
learned by the users and become the
source of the competencies and skills to
be acquired. Ranked first among the
characteristics is that each module
reflects the most important aspects of
what is being taught. The students
assessment of this item was a weighted
mean of 3.17 while that of the teachers
is 3.83. The combined weighted mean
is 3.5 interpreted as to a great extent.
The contents of the modules are based
on the syllabus adopted by the school.
This syllabus in turn was based on the
PAFTE (Phil. Association For Teachers
Education) syllabus and PRC (Philippine
Regulatory Commission) Table of
Specifications. The findings reveal that
the modules contain lessons that are
important in the course. The subject
Principles of Teaching is very much
needed in the teacher education program.
This subject area comprises 25% of the
total number of items in the Licensure
Examination for Teachers (LET)
showing its importance in the
preparation needed by future mentors

The lessons in the modules are organized
at a pace that allows for reflection and
review. This characteristic is ranked
second with a combined weighted mean
of 3.70 interpreted as to a great extent.
The lessons in each module are carefully
divided. Each small topic is presented,
discussed and followed by reflection
activity. For example: In module 2
Lesson 2 (The Techniques of
Discussion) after the introduction of the
Meaning and Nature of Discussion as a
Technique is discussed, exercises are
given. This is done so that the
necessary knowledge will be retained in
the minds of the user. Direction of
these exercises is what best describes
discussion as a technique?, Put an X
on the blank space before the number
which contributes to an effective
discussion atmosphere? These
directions are followed by several
items.









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Table 2

Students and Teachers Assessment of the Content of the Modules

Characteristics of the
Content of the Modules
SA R VI TA R VI CWM VI R
Each module reflects the
most important aspects of
what is being taught.

3.17

TGE

3.83

TVGE

3.50

TVGE

1
The lessons are presented
at a pace that allows for
reflection and review.

3.26

TGE

3.67

TVGE

3.46

TGE

2
There is adequate
provision for
supplementary
activities/exercises.

3.13

TGE

3.75

TVGE

3.44

TGE

3
The content leads to the
attainment of the
objectives of the course.

3.00

TGE

3.83

TVGE

3.41

TGE

4
The supplementary
activities enhance
understanding of content.

2.91

TGE

3.67

TVGE

3.29

TGE

5
There is adequate
presentation/discussion of
content.

3.00

TGE

3.50

TVGE

3.25

TGE

6
The information about the
different topics is accurate
and precise.

2.91

TGE

3.58

TVGE

3.24

TGE

7
There is variety of
supplementary activities.
3.04 TGE 3.42 TGE 3.23 TGE 8
The ideas, concepts and
points presented are well-
expressed.

2.78

TGE

3.67

TVGE

3.22

TGE

9
The examples presented
are current, accurate and
defensible.

3.00

TGE

3.33

TGE

3.15

TGE

10
COMPOSITE MEAN 3.02 TGE 3.63 TVGE 3.32 TGE


Legend:
SA Students Assessment CWM Combined Weighted Mean
TA Teachers Assessment R Rank
VI Verbal Interpretation OR Overall Rank

TVGE To a very great extent
TGE To a great extent
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These data reveal that the topics in the
modules give the users all the needed
time to digest, interpret and analyze the
discussion on the different topics. This
tallies with the prescribed characteristic
of modules which is self-pacing.
The modules have adequate provision
for supplementary activities/exercises.
The combined weighted mean for these
characteristics is 3.44 which is
interpreted as to a great extent. Each
lesson in the five modules has
supplementary activities. They are
given after the discussion of the main
lesson. Examples of these directions
are:
1. Check the personal qualities of
an effective teacher you think you
already possess at the moment.
2. Which of the following
activities can help you further develop
your personal qualities to become an
effective teacher? Rank your answer.
Check your answer against those found
in the next page.

In Module III Lesson 2 The
Deductive Method, the exercise tells:
Here are some questions for you to
answer. This will help you determine
whether you understood the lesson you
have just finished. Check your answers
with those on the next page. This is
followed by 3 questions. Another
exercise for that lesson is Describe the
different steps in the deductive method.

These supplementary activities enhance
understanding of content These provide
the learners the opportunity to review the
knowledge and to practice the skills
acquired in studying the lessons and
enhance understanding of the content..
Provision for variety is needed so that
the learners will not experience the
monotony of doing the same activities.
Another characteristic of the module is
that its content leads to the attainment of
the objectives of the course. The
modules cover the concepts and
principles of teaching and learning, the
nature of the learners, the qualities of an
effective teacher, classroom
management, and discipline, the art of
questioning, and the direct and indirect
instruction methods. All these topics
lead to the attainment of the general
objectives of the course as provided by
PRC Table of Specifications namely:
Use principles of teaching-learning
associated with instructional operations
and curricular management
Instructional Planning
Classroom Management
Art of Questioning

Select and supply teaching strategies
appropriate for particular teaching-
learning situations
Teaching methods and techniques
Generally accepted methods of
teaching

This characteristic is rated by the
students with a weighted mean of 3.00
and the teachers with a weighted mean
of 3.83. The combined mean of 3.41 is
interpreted as to a great extent.

2.3 Students and Teachers Assessment
of Language Used in the Modules
Table 3 reveals the Students and
Teachers Assessment of the Language
Used in the modules. Any mode of
instruction is done through a language
clearly understood by the learners. The
modules developed used English as
medium of instruction although the users
are second language speakers of English.
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Table 3

Students and Teachers Assessment of Language Used in the Modules

Characteristics of
Language Used
SA R VI TA R VI CWM VI R

The words used in the
modules are correctly
used.

3.34



TGE

3.75



TVGE

3.54

TVGE

1
The modules are
accompanied by clear and
specific directions for
their use.

2.90

TGE

3.83

TVGE

3.39

TGE

2
The vocabulary used is
suitable to the reading and
understanding level of
students to whom the
modules are intended.


3.26


TGE


3.83


TVGE


3.38


TGE


3
Instructions to students
are clear, unambiguous
and easy to follow.

2.86

TGE

3.75

TVGE

3.30

TGE

4
The lessons are presented
in paragraphs/sentences
that are grammatically
correct.

3.04

TGE

3.42

TGE

3.23

TGE

5
COMPOSITE MEAN 3.09 TGE 3.72 TVGE 3.40 TGE


Legend:
SA Students Assessment
TA Teachers Assessment
VI Verbal Interpretation
CWM Combined Weighted Mean
R Rank
OR Overall Rank
TVGE To a very great extent
TGE To a great extent

They are familiar with it since this is
the medium in all subjects in College
except in Filipino.
The words in the modules are correctly
used, and suitable to the reading and
understanding level of the target users.
The module is accompanied by clear and
specific directions. Instructions to
students are clear and easy to follow.
This characteristic has a combined mean
of 3.30 interpreted as to a great extent.
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The composite mean of the items in the
table is 3.40 interpreted as to a great
extent. The module as a whole has
passed the scrutiny of an expert editor
as well as a content consultant and a
referee.

2.4 Students and Teachers Assessment
of the Evaluation Activities in the
Modules

The modules are accompanied by
evaluation activities to determine the
learning achievement of the users. Table
4 shows the respondents assessment of
the evaluation activities of the modules.

Ranked first with a combined weighted
mean of 4.52 interpreted s to a very
great extent is that the modules have
provisions for self assessment. Since the
modules are intended for independent
study, self-assessment exercises are
provided. All lessons in the module
have this kind of exercises. The learners
are required to answer them after which
they are directed to compare their
answers with those provided in the next
pages after the test.

The items help increase understanding
and retention of the content covered.
This characteristic is given a weighted
mean of 3.26 by the students and 3.67 by
the teachers. The combined weighted
mean is 3.34 interpreted as t



Table 4

Students and Teachers Assessment of the Evaluation Activities in the Modules

Characteristics of
Evaluation Activities
SA R VI TA R VI CWM VI R
The modules have
provisions for self-
assessment.

3.21



TGE

3.83

TVGE

3.52

TVGE

1
The items help increase
understanding and
retention of the content
covered.

3.26

TGE

3.67

TVGE

3.46

TGE

2
The items focus on
important objectives and
content of the lessons.

3.26

TGE

3.58

TVGE

3.42

TGE

3
The items in the
evaluation are congruent
to the specific objectives.

3.13

TGE

3.67

TVGE

3.40

TGE

4
Each item has a definite
answer.
3.17 TGE 3.58 TVGE 3.37 TGE 5.5
There are items which
measure higher thinking
skills.

3.17

TGE

3.58

TVGE

3.37

TGE

5.5
The items cover the
important competencies

3.26

TGE

3.42

TGE

3.34

TGE

7
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to be developed.
The items are
grammatically correct.
3.08 TGE 3.58 TVGE 3.33 TGE 8
The items are arranged
from easy to difficult.
2.95 TGE 3.67 TVGE 3.31 TGE 9
The test are easy to score 2.86 TGE 3.50 TVGE 3.18 TGE 10
The items are written at a
level that students can
understand.

2.56

TGE

3.67

TVGE

3.11

TGE

11
The answer to one item
furnishes or gives clue to
the answer in another
item.

2.91

TGE

3.30

TGE

3.10

TGE

12
There is provision for
pre-test and post-test in
each module.

2.00

TLE

1.58

TLE

1.74

TLE

13
COMPOSITE MEAN 2.98 TGE 3.43 TGE 3.20 TGE
Legend:
SA Students Assessment CWM Combined Weighted Mean
TVGE To a very great extent TA Teachers Assessment
R Rank VI Verbal Interpretation
OR Overall Rank TGE To a great extent

a great extent. The items in the
evaluation exercises are tests of contents
learned. For example, Module V,
Lesson 1 (Classroom Management and
Discipline) has for its discussion about
the general preventive measures to avoid
disciplinary problems/conflicts. Its
evaluation activity has for its direction:
Read the following situations and
identify the preventive measure applied
by the particular teacher involved.
Eight items are given. The target users
are asked to rate themselves. If their
rating is below 5 they are directed to
read the explanation again and do the
test once more. If their score is
satisfactory, they could go on to the next
lesson. With reading and re-reading as
well as test and re-testing the learners
will be able to gain deeper understanding
of the lessons.

Another characteristic rated high by the
respondents is that the items focus on
important objectives and content of the
lesson. This is ranked third and has a
combined weighted mean of 3.42
interpreted as to a great extent. These
data show the congruency among the
objectives, content and evaluative
measures.

One of the characteristics which has a
lower rank is that the tests are easy to
score. It has a combined weighted mean
of 3.18. The low value of the weighted
mean seems to indicate that the
respondents felt that the test items are
difficult to score. This is perhaps due to
the prevalence of essay questions in
most of the evaluation activities.
Examples of this are: How do the lesson
objectives affect the choice of method?
(Module II, lesson 2), Why are methods
necessary? (Module II, Lesson 1), and
what teaching learning situations
would render the use of the inductive
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method inappropriate? (Module IV,
Lesson 1).
Another characteristic getting
low combined weighted mean (3.11) is
that the items are written at a level
students can understand. This finding
tallies with that relative to the
vocabulary used in the content of the
module which has the lowest rank.
Perhaps the respondent found some
words vague and not within their
understanding, making the test less
usable. Boiser (2004) explains that
among others, some factors affecting the
usability of a test is that reading
vocabulary and sentence structure are
too difficult and the inappropriate level
of difficulty of the test items.

Lowest in ranked among the
characteristics of the evaluation
activities has to do with the provision for
pretest and posttests for each module.
This has a combined weighted mean of
1.74 interpreted at to the least extent.
Perhaps one flaw of the developed
modules is that it does not provide
pretest and post test activities. Provision
for such is very important for results of
these will serve as guide to the teachers
in determining whether there is effective
learning after the use of each module.
The results will also manifest the
effectiveness of the modules.
3. Comparison Between the Assessment
of Students and Teachers


Table 5
Comparison between the Assessment of Students and Teachers


Items
Mean Score
Students Teachers
Probability
t-value t-tabular value Significance
Specific Objectives 3.025 3.743 5.992 2.179 <0.001 HS
Content 3.020 3.625 8.773 2.101 <0.001 HS
Language used 3.090 3.716 5.269 2.306 <0.001 HS
Evaluation Activities 3.068 3.588 7.127 2.074 <0.001 HS


Table 5 indicates the comparison of the
assessment of students and teachers. On
their assessment of the characteristics of
specific objectives, the weighted mean
for students is 3.025 while that of the
teachers is 3.743. The obtained t-value
is 5.992 which is very much higher than
the tabular value of 2.179. In terms of
content, the weighted mean for students
is 3.02 while that of the teachers is
3.625. The obtained t-value of 8.773 is
higher the t-tabular value of 2.101. In
the language used in the modules, the
weighted mean for students is 3.09 and
that of the teachers is 3.176. The t-value
obtained is 5.269. This is
higher than the tabular value of t which
is 2.306. In terms of the characteristics
of evaluation activities given in the
modules, the weighted mean for students
is 3.068, while that of the teachers is
3.599. The obtained t-value is 7.127
which is higher that the t tabular value of
2.074. All the obtained t values are
interpreted as highly significant. This
means that there is significant difference
between the students and teachers in
their assessment of the characteristics of
the modules. However, although the
teachers evaluation is significantly
higher than those of the students, both
evaluation indicate agreement to the
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important characteristics of the modules
in terms of objective, content, language
and evaluation activities. This
difference could perhaps be attributed to
the teachers exposure to the topics in
the modules since they have taught them
for several times. Most of the teacher
respondents are department heads of
professional subjects in the teacher
education institutions; hence they are
also able to evaluate the modules
accordingly. The students on the other
hand are exposed to the topics for the
first time. Their lack of exposure to and
mastery of the lessons have perhaps
affected their assessment.

4. Teachers and Students Suggestions
to Improve the Modules
Through the interviews
conducted to the teacher and student
respondents it was learned that they are
in agreement that the modules as a
whole are useful and can be utilized for
classroom purposes. They however
suggested the inclusion of objective
pretest and posttest in each module.
These would guide both the users and
the teachers in determining whether
learning has taken place after using each
module. These tests could be written in
a separate manual for teachers that
would explain how these would be used
and administered.

One teacher respondent said:
It would perhaps be more useful
if a proposed achievement test could be
developed for the teachers use and
reference in constructing the final
examination for the course.

This suggestion seems to be justified.
With so many relevant tasks to
accomplish, those teaching Principles
and Methods of Teaching could be
unburdened if they have ready reference
for their final examination. A guide for
their final examination in the subject
could be used to ensure the validity of
their own tests.

The students suggested that in using the
modules, they should not be left alone,
that teachers still have to guide them on
what they are supposed to do since they
are not so familiar with some words
used. One student commented:
Kung ipagagamit po sa amin
ang mga module, sana and titser naming
ay laging available, para kapag may
tanong kami, maiipaliwanag nila agad
ang dapat naming gamin. (If ever the
modules will be used, if possible the
teacher should always be available for
consultation. When we have questions,
we will be clarified right away of what
we are going to do).

The researcher thinks that this
suggestion is valid. The kind of students
the College of Education has at present
still needs proper guidance and
supervision in their school undertakings.

A teacher respondent who is also
teaching English said:
There are paragraphs that are
too long. Look at pages 12, and 18 as
well as the introductory paragraph of
Module III. There are 17 to 19 lines in
those paragraphs. They could perhaps
each be divided into two.

This suggestion seems to be in place.
Most second year Education students,
who are the target users of the modules ,
still have to develop their
communication skills particularly in
reading. Reading long paragraphs may
be too taxing for them.

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Both the teachers and students proposed
to indicate the maximum time allotted
for the use of each lesson in the
modules. This would perhaps enable
student users to gauge their pace of
independent study and compare their
own pace of learning with others.

Still another teacher commented that if
there seems to be unfamiliar words, their
meaning could be given as a footnote at
the page where the word/s appear/s.
This comment seems valid for in
addition to the content learned the
students could also widen their
vocabulary.

The head of the professional subject in
one school suggested that a chart could
be included at the end of the modules
which both the teachers and students
may use to record the students
performance in each module.

The inclusion of the general objectives
of the course as well as the competencies
required by the Professional Regulatory
Commission is also suggested. This is
because the modules cover the whole
course in Principles and Methods of
Teaching.
Another teacher interviewed
suggested that in the discussion of the
different methods of teaching, it would
be better if situations where each method
is applicable be included. She further
said:
In the Licensure Examination
for Teachers, most items in the
professional subjects are situational.
The Lesson Plans given are in
Mathematics and English. Perhaps
giving more illustrations and citing how
these methods could be used in other
subjects would be very helpful to the
students.
The researcher believes that these
comments and suggestions could guide
in the modification and improvement of
the modules. However, the utility of the
proposed modules cannot be
underscored. During the interview at
least three respondent teachers suggested
that the modules be published so that
they can use them for their own students.

CONCLUSIONS:
From the data gathered and discussed the
following conclusions are derived:
1. The modules in Principles and
Methods of teaching include lessons
and topics which meet the
requirements of authorities on
Teacher Education.
2. The specific objectives of each
lesson of the modules possess the
characteristics of good objectives;
however the time limit for their
attainment is not clearly specified.
3. The contents of the modules reflect
the most important aspects of what is
being taught.
4. The language used in the modules is
correct but some words are not
within the vocabulary level of the
target users.
5. The modules provide evaluation
activities which relate with the
content and objectives of the lessons;
however, there is no provision for
pretest and posttest activities in each
module.
6. There is highly significant difference
between the students and the
teachers assessment of the
characteristics of the modules with
the teachers assessment higher than
that of the students.




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RECOMMENDATIONS:
Based on the conclusions generated from
the findings, the following
recommendations are herewith given:
1. The modules be improved by
specifying the approximate time
limit for each lesson in the modules;
simplifying the difficult words used
therein; including pretest and
posttests; identifying the general
objectives of the course and the
competencies required by LET;
shortening some long paragraphs;
citing situations where the different
methods of teaching could be
utilized and developing a guide
final examination.
2. After improving the modules, further
validation could be done by utilizing
them with selected experimental and
control groups.
3. Future research on effectiveness of
instructional materials should
consider ample exposure and
practice of students on the use of
such materials before any actual
measurement of outcomes.
4. Faculty members in teacher training
institutions should be encouraged to
develop the instructional materials in
other professional subjects.































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REFERENCES:
Books and Journal
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Boiser, Diosdada. Teaching Made
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Greager, Joan and Darrel Murray. The
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Washington, D.C: Nichols Publishing
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Hughes, John L. Programmed
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Ornstein, Allan C. Strategies for
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Race, Phil. The Open Learning
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Robles, Felicidad C. The Evaluation
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Salandan, Gloria. Teacher Education
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Tomlinson B. (Ed.) Materials
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Victor, Edward C. Science Teaching in
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Unpublished Materials
Aquino-Danganan, Aussie.
Development and Validation of A
Module in Developing Computational
Skills in College Algebra Tarlac State
University. April 2001.

Hamora, Lovina A. Development of
Prototype Pedagogical Materials for
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PNU, May 2002.

Receno, Carmela N. Development of
Instructional Materials for the
Enhancement of the Listening Skills
among Freshman College Students of
SMCL. PNU, March 2001.

Reyes- Sunga, Nillda. Development
and Validation of a Self-Instruction
Teaching Package on the Art of
Questioning for Teachers. PNU, July
1996.

Samonte, Ma Cristina L. Development,
Evaluation and Try-out of an
Environmental Outdoor Education
Module. . PNU, July 2004.

Ubina, Marilou M. Production,
Evaluation of a Videotaped Lesson in
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PNU, March 2000.









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