Você está na página 1de 7

Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.

ISSN 2222-17 !"aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline#
'ol.%( No.1)( 21)

Empirical Investigation of the Determinants of Poverty in Kano
Metropolis, Nigeria

Ibra*im Inuwa +alarabe
Department of Economics and ,anagement Science
Nigeria "olice -cadem.( /udil(".,.+. 0)7)( 1ano-Nigeria
E-mail2 ibinuwa3gmail.com

4*is paper provides some e5planations of t*e causes of povert. in 1ano metropolis b. investigating povert.
determinants t*at are too often neglected in t*e literature and in polic. debates. 4*e stud. comprises of si5 local
governments in t*e state w*ic* include Dala( 6agge( 7wale( ,unicipal( Nasarawa and 4arauni. "rimar. data
was collected using 8uestionnaire and interview from one *undred and twent. !12# residents selected in t*e
stud. area. 4*e data was anal.9ed using a probit regression anal.sis and t*e result s*owed t*at all coefficients of
t*e e5planator. variables *ave a positive relations*ip wit* povert. e5cept t*at of education w*ic* *as a negative
relations*ip. 4*erefore( t*e paper recommended t*at government s*ould improve its program on economic
growt* and empowerment. It s*ould also double its support to educating .out* so as to ma:e t*em self reliant in
t*e future.
Keywords: "overt.( "robit model( 1ano ,etropolis( Nigeria.

! Introd"ction
4*e case of povert. in Nigeria *as reac*ed an alarming rate because t*e most pat*etic feature of Nigerian societ.
toda. is t*at( ma;orit. of its members are living in a state of destitution w*ile t*e remaining relativel.
insignificant minorit. are in affluence. 4*ese s:ewed economic relations do not reflect t*e geograp*ical spread
of resources endowment< rat*er it is a product of classical greed( in;ustice and selfis*ness w*ic* is be.ond an.
economic principle. 4*oug*( it is true t*at w*ere one comes from can be a strong determinant of one=s economic
status because of different opportunities and constraints( but w*at is *appening in our societ. toda. differs ver.
muc* from t*is. 4*e problem of povert. is a worldwide p*enomenon and *as attracted muc* attention in recent
.ears. "eople perceive povert. as a t*reat to t*e ver. e5istence of *uman:ind. >ne8ual distribution of global
weat*er *as e5acerbated t*e problem of povert. in t*e developing countries. It is estimated t*at one t*ird of
world population live in c*ronic povert. !7arba( 2?#.

#! $tatement of the %esearch Problem
4*e issue of povert. especiall. in 1ano State is ver. important to stud. because it affects man. residents in t*e
State w*o are now struggling to survive due to man. reasons. 6irstl.( povert. in 1ano *as been on increase after
t*e Januar.( 212 insurgents@ attac: w*ic* resulted in loss of man. lives and properties in t*e state and t*e
subsistent government decision to ban -c*aba operation !motorc.clist activit.# due to t*e prevalent insecurit.
situation. 4*e effort( t*oug* positive( *as contributed muc* in t*e current povert. problem since most of t*e
affected motorc.clists t*at form large portion of our .out*s cannot afford to bu. t*e tric.cle !-dai-daita sa*u#
and uninterestingl. government *as done not*ing to provide t*e affected people considerabl. wit* alternatives<
as -c*aba operation used to be t*e source of t*eir liveli*ood. Secondl.( t*e issue of poor and unstable power
suppl. in t*e state forced man. factories to close down and some moved to t*e Sout*ern part of t*e countr.
w*ere power suppl. is relativel. stable. 4*is situation of metropolitan povert. *as left man. people out of wor:
and uncertain on *ow to provide for t*emselves and t*eir families !Inuwa( 212#.
4*e ob;ective of t*is researc* is to investigate t*e determinants of povert. in 1ano metropolis focusing on Dala(
6agge( 7wale( ,unicipal( Nasarawa and 4arauni local government areas. In t*is researc*( we consider a number
of factors t*at ma. influence socio-economic conditions and cause povert. to man. residents in t*e stud. area.
4*e stud. intends to bring to t*e attention of polic.ma:ers t*e prevalence of povert. in t*e urban area and offer
suggestions to tac:le it. 4*is is because urban povert. *as been a low priorit. on researc* development agenda
of Nigerian government for over two decades and t*is *ave been dominated b. rural development and rural

&! 'verview of Kano state
1ano state was created on ,a. 27( 1A?7. It originall. included Jigawa and in 1AA1 Jigawa was given an
autonom. t*erefore it became a state. 1ano state capital is 1ano. It *as an estimated population of 10 million
appro5imatel. !Bensus( 2?#. It *as )) local government areas. It s*ares borders wit* Jigawa state to t*e
nort*east( +auc*i and 1aduna states to t*e sout* and 1atsina state to t*e nort*west. Cistoricall.( 1ano state *as
been a commercial and agricultural state( it was popularl. :nown for t*e groundnut and cotton( s:in and craft
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-17 !"aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline#
'ol.%( No.1)( 21)

production. 4*e state *as more t*an 10(??) s8uare :ilometers of cultivable land and is t*e most e5tensivel.
irrigated state in t*e countr.. 4*e state is endowed wit* mineral resource deposits suc* as cessiterite !tin#(
columbine( feldspar( glass sand( limestone( lead( 9inc( copper( wolfram and bau5ite. Causa language is
commonl. spo:en !/i:ipedia( 212#.

(! Definitions of Poverty
"overt. is t*e state for t*e ma;orit. of t*e world=s people and nations. It e5its w*en certain sections of people
cannot even satisf. t*eir basic primar. needs in terms of food( clot* and s*elter. It *as been an unmitigated curse
of t*e underdeveloped nations. It is a matter of great regret to state t*at more t*an one t*ird of our population
even toda. is below t*e povert. line.
-ccording to Encarta !2)#( povert. is said to e5ist w*en people lac: t*e means to satisf. t*eir basic needs. In
t*is conte5t( t*e poor are identified b. a determination to w*at constitutes basic needs t*ese needs are t*ose
necessar. for survival covering t*ose w*o fall below t*e population as a w*ole in terms of nutrition( *ousing(
clot*ing( *ealt* and education.
6or t*e /orld +an:( povert. indicators include *unger( lac: of s*elter( being sic: and not being able to see a
doctor( not *aving access to sc*ool and not :nowing *ow to read. "overt. is not *aving a ;ob( is t*e fear for t*e
future living one da. at a time. Dosing a c*ild to illness broug*t about b. water borne disease. "overt. is
powerlessness( lac: of representation and freedom !/orld +an:( 2)#.
&fficial definition of povert. b. government !'ision( 21#( povert. is a condition in w*ic* a person is unable
to meet minimum re8uirements of basic needs of food( *ealt*( *ousing( education and clot*ing.
-not*er one b. t*e /orld +an: !1AAA# argued t*at in some instance( t*e gender *ad dimension for men and
women( bo.s and girls. 4*e processes causing povert. affect men and women in different wa.s and degree.
6emale povert. is more prevalent and t.picall. more severe t*an male povert..
Now t*e 8uestion is w*. soE Is it enoug* to blame poor people for t*eir own predicamentE Cave t*e. been la9.(
made poor decisions and been solel. responsible for t*eir plig*tE /*at about t*eir governmentsE Cave t*e.
pursued policies t*at actuall. *arm successful developmentE Suc* causes of povert. and ine8ualit. are no doubt

)! Empirical *iterat"re of poverty
"overt. *as no geograp*ical boundar.. It is seen in t*e nort*( west( sout* and east. It is found in rural as well as
urban areas of Nigeria. It is a comple5 *uman p*enomenon associated wit* unacceptabl. low standard of living
w*ic* *as multiple dimensions( manifestations and causes !/orld +an:( 21#. -ccording to Soludo !2?#
Nigeria *as been a countr. of parado5es even t*oug* it is it is abundantl. blessed wit* bot* natural and *uman
resources but t*e potentials remain largel. untapped and even mismanaged. /it* a population estimated at about
1) million( Nigeria is t*e largest countr. in -frica and one si5t* of t*e blac: population in t*e world. It is t*e
eig*t largest oil producer and *as t*e si5t* largest deposit of natural gas in t*e world. +ut unfortunatel.( t*e
growt* per capita income in t*e 1AAs was 9ero w*ile t*e incidence of povert. in 1AAA was 7F. -s a result of
different economic reforms and policies( t*e latest *ouse*old surve. b. t*e National +ureau Statistics !N+S#
indicated t*at t*e incidence of povert. *as significantl. dropped from 7F in 1AAA to %)F in 2) w*ile t*e
urban and rural povert. for t*at .ear was )0.1AF and ?0.27F respectivel.. 4*oug*( t*e incidence of povert. in
Nigeria is *ig*er in t*e rural area t*an in t*e urban centers( t*e urban slum-dwellers form one of t*e most
deprived groups. 4*e recent renewed interest in urban issues *as been due to t*e wide spread idea t*at
urbani9ation is speeding up. -t t*e end of t*e .ear 2 about *alf of t*e world@s population live in urban areas(
w*ile in 1A7% t*is was onl. 2$F. In 1A7( developing countries level of urbani9ation was 2%F. In 1AA)( it
increased to 07F and it is pro;ected to be %7F b. 22% !>N( 2)#.
- stud. conducted in 2$ s*owed t*at( all nort*ern states *ave all t*e natural and *uman resources to rubbis*
povert.( but ironicall. t*e. are t*e *it( ravaged and rubbis*ed b. c*ronic and devastated povert.. "overt. is one
of t*e most profound problems being grappled wit* in t*e nort*ern states of Nigeria. It *as contributed
substantiall. to t*e erosion and undermining of t*e foundation of peaceful coe5istence and stable national
development. 4*is is parado5ical as it is clearl. and ine5plicable issue of povert. amidst plent.. 4*e statistics
are grap*ic and confounding. -s muc* as 7? percent of nort*erners are said to be living in povert.( earning an
income of less t*an t*e e8uivalent of one -merican dollar a da.. It furt*er s*owed t*at povert. in nort*ern
Nigeria *as great regional( sectoral and gender disparities. 4*e current s*ortage of stable leading to t*e increase
in prices of t*e most foodstuffs is a warning about t*e severit. of p*.siologicalGdis;ointed deprivation bare
p*.sical survival of t*e people. -part from water( food is t*e most basic input for *uman survival< in addition
*uman deprivation( income povert. and social deprivation *ave become aggravated. "overt. is a problem
afflicting most people in nort*ern states. It is considered as one of t*e manifestations of underdevelopment. 4*e
poor in t*e nort*ern states are still widel. considered worse off as man. indications reflecting t*e abilit. to
provide for t*e p*.sical subsistence for t*e upliftment or *uman dignit. are below e5pectation. 4*us( povert.
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-17 !"aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline#
'ol.%( No.1)( 21)

constitutes a t*reat to t*e growt* and securit. of nort*ern states as well as t*e general standard of living of t*e
nort*ern populace( Sani !2$#.
-not*er report b. t*e >ND" 2) s*ows during t*e period 1A$-2)( t*e national povert. rates were as
follows2 2$.1F !1A$#( )?.0F !1A$%#( )2.7F !1AA2#( ?%.?F !1AA?# and %).)F !2)#. 4*is means t*at povert.
incidence in t*e countr. recorded increase between 1AA2 and 1AA?. 4*e results also s*owed appreciable decrease
in povert. between 1A$% and 1AA2 and between 1AA? and 2). Even wit* t*e drop in population rates( t*e
population *as maintained a stead. increase in povert. from 17.1m in 1A$ to ?$.7m in 2). Nigerians in terms
of p*.sical 8ualit. of life inde5 scored 0$F in 1AA1( t*e *uman development inde5 was .0A1 in 1AA$( ran:ing
t*e countr. as t*e 1)2
out of t*e 17) countries surve.ed. In t*e .ear 22( t*e Cuman Development Inde5
!CDI# score was .)??( w*ic* ran:ed t*e countr. still in t*e low *uman development countries( in t*e 1%1

ran:ing among 177 countries surve.ed.
-not*er report b. t*e International ,onetar. 6und !I,6# and t*e /orld +an: in 2) s*owed t*at cutbac:s in
*ealt*( education and ot*er vital social services around t*e world w*ic* resulted from structural ad;ustment
policies as conditions for loans and repa.ment was responsible for t*e povert. in developing nations. So t*e. are
re8uired to open t*eir economies to compete wit* eac* ot*er and wit* more powerful and establis*ed
industriali9ed nations. Ine8ualit. is often a measure of relative povert.. -bsolute povert.( *owever( is also a
concern. 6or e5ample( t*e new povert. line is defined as living on t*e e8uivalent of H1.2% a da.. /it* t*at
measure based on latest data available 2)( 1.) billion people live on or below t*at line. 6urt*ermore( almost
*alf t*e worldIover t*ree billion peopleIlive on less t*an H2.% a da. and at least $F of *umanit. lives on
less t*an H1 a da..
In general povert. ma. be seen as a situation of ver. low income culminating in ver. low consumption levels. It
*as bot* income and non-income dimensions( w*ic* are usuall. interconnected. It is manifested in t*e form of
low income( e5posure to disease( low standard of living( unemplo.ment and *ig* degree of social ine8ualit.
among t*e people.

+! Data so"rce and sampling
4*e source of data in t*is researc* is primar.. Juestionnaires were administered to t*ose w*o can read and write
w*ile structure interview was conducted to t*ose w*o cannot read and write. 4*e sample si9e of t*e researc* was
randoml. drawn from t*e si5 metropolitan local government areas. In eac* area( twent. residents were selected
and a total of one *undred and twent. residents were c*osen as respondents.

,! Model specification
4*e statistical met*odolog. used in t*is researc* is t*e &DS estimation model. It followed t*at of &sinubi !210#
in *is stud. of @- t*eoretical and empirical investigation of povert. in rural 7eorgia Bounties in >nited States@.
4*e model was e5pressed in t*e following linear e8uation<

= [
+ [
N0ES + [
0uIHIC0 + [
BIK + [
wEI + [
EwPI + c

------------------------------------------------------------------- I

K dependent variable representing residents w*o are below povert. line.
FHIEE K e5planator. variable representing *ouse*olds *eaded b. women.
N0ES K e5planator. variable representing residents w*o do not *ave a *ig* sc*ool diploma.
0uIHIC0 K e5planator. variable of residents w*ose *ead left t*em and moved to anot*er town.
BIK K e5planator. variable representing residents w*o are +lac: people in t*e stud. area.
wEI K e5planator. variable representing residents w*o are /*ite people in t*e stud. area.
FSIHPS K e5planator. variable representing residents w*o received food stamps in t*e area.
EwPI K e5planator. variable representing residents w*o lived b. *ig*wa. mileage.
In order to investigate t*e empirical determinants of povert. in 1ano metropolitan areas( &sinubi@s
model is adopted and modified to form t*e following linear e8uation2

= [
+ [
FwE + [
uNE + [
0uH + [
Eu + c

---------------------------------- II
'ariables e5plained<
PII K dependant variable representing residents w*o are below t*e povert. line.
FwE K e5planator. variable representing *ouse*olds *eaded b. women wit* no *usband !1K if t*e *ead is
woman( K if ot*erwise#.
uNE K e5planator. variable representing residents w*o are unemplo.ed !1K if emplo.ed( K if unemplo.ed#.
0uH K e5planator. variable representing residents w*o moved from 1ano to anot*er state outmigration !1K if
t*e *ead of *ouse*old moves to anot*er state( K if ot*erwise#.
Eu K e5planator. variable representing residents w*o *ave a *ig* sc*ool diploma education !1K if t*e resident
*as *ig*er sc*ool diploma( K if ot*erwise#.
7iven t*e selected variables( t*e coefficient signs of eac* variable could be predicted. 4*e sign of variable
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-17 !"aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline#
'ol.%( No.1)( 21)

representing *ouse*olds *eaded b. women will *ave a positive relations*ip wit* t*e povert.. 4*e sing of
variable representing *ead of *ouse*old w*o is unemplo.ed will also *ave positive relations*ip povert.. 4*e
sing of variable representing a *ouse*old w*ose *ead moved to anot*er state will *ave a positive relations*ip
wit* povert.. /*ile t*at variable representing *ouse*old level of education will *ave a negative relations*ip
wit* povert..

-! %es"lt and disc"ssion
.able : Estimated Probit %es"lts
/ariables Estimated coefficient Marginal probability
012 3!,),) 3!3#(44
5NE 3!&)) 3!&))-4
'5M 3!&63 3!##,-4
ED7 83!+&3- 3!,+4
Source2 Lesearc*er=s computation using E-views !7.#.
Number of observations 12< log li:eli*ood -)).200?%( restricted log li:eli*ood -)$.A%70( significant at MMM
!N.1# MM !pN.%# M!pN.1#< Source2 computer printout( 21).
"robit regression model was used to identif. factors responsible for povert. in 1ano metropolis. In t*e table
above( coefficients of t*ree out of four e5planator. variables are statisticall. significant in t*e model. So it is
evident from t*e table t*at t*e variables are significant in investigating determinants of povert. in t*e model.
4*e marginal effects were indication of unit c*ange in e5ogenous variable on t*e probabilit. of povert. increase
to t*e *ouse*olds.
6/C was found to be statisticall. significant at %F wit* a positive value of coefficient .7%7%. 4*e e5pectation
is t*at t*e *ig*er t*e population w*o *as *ouse*olds *eaded b. females wit* no *usbands present will *ave a
*ig*er percentage of povert.. 4*is indicates t*at a 1F increase in female-controlled *ouse*olds will increase t*e
probabilit. of povert. b. 2F *olding all ot*er variables constant. 4*e assumption for t*is is t*at in a single
parent *ouse*old( onl. one income is reflected. /omen on average ma:e less t*an t*eir male counterparts
because t*e. are less educated and less s:illed and also c*ild care constraints can furt*er *inder t*eir ;ob
performance t*erefore( t*e. receive lower wage rates and t*e. are less li:el. to participate in t*e labour force.
4*is was ;ustified b. &sinubi !210# in *is stud. on a t*eoretical and empirical investigation of povert. in rural
7eorgia Bounties in >nited States.
-not*er e5planator. variable is t*e percentage of people wit* no ;ob represented b. >NE. 4*e variable was
found to be statisticall. significant at 1F but *as a positive coefficient .0%1)A. 4*e e5pectation *ere is t*at t*e
*ig*er t*e *ouse*olds w*o are unemplo.ed t*e *ig*er t*e percentage of povert. in t*at population. 4*is
indicates t*at a 1F increase in unemplo.ment will result in 0?F probabilit. increase in povert..
4*e outmigration &>, is statisticall. significant in t*e model at 1F wit* a positive value of coefficient
.0A1$1. It is e5pected to *ave a positive relations*ip wit* povert.. +. *olding all ot*er variables constant( t*e
povert. will increase b. 0AF if t*e *ouse*old=s *eads abandoned t*eir famil. and moved to anot*er state. 4*is
indicates t*at about 1F increase in outmigration will increase t*e probabilit. of povert. b. 20F.
Education !EDB# was found to be statisticall. significant at 1F wit* a negative value if coefficient .?07A.
-bout 1F increase in educational status will decrease t*e probabilit. of povert. b. 12F. 4*e no *ig* sc*ool
diploma variable was *.pot*esi9ed to *ave a negative relations*ip wit* povert.. 4*is means t*at percentage of
people wit* no *ig* sc*ool education increased it will also increase povert.. 4*e regression result for t*is
variable was constant wit* t*e *.pot*esis t*at 1F increase in educational status will decrease povert. b. 12F.
4*e assumption *ere is t*at( *istoricall. people wit*out *ig* sc*ool diplomas are more susceptible to economic
*ards*ip t*an t*ose wit* *ig* sc*ool diploma.

6! 7oncl"sion and recommendations
4*e researc* was conducted to investigate t*e empirical attributes of povert. in 1ano state. 6our independent
variables were tested using a probit regression model to see t*e significance of eac* proposed cause of povert..
'ariables used included *ouse*olds *eaded b. women in t*e residence( people wit* no ;ob in a given residence(
people wit* no *ig* sc*ool diploma and *ouse*olds w*ose *eads moved to anot*er state. 4o do t*is( a probit
regression linear model was emplo.ed.
4*e researc* recommends t*at government s*ould improve its programs on economic growt* and empowerment.
It s*ould increase its efforts to educate .out*s so as to build and strengt*en t*eir *uman capital and get out of
povert. and to contribute more to t*e econom. and societ.. 7overnment s*ould also intensif. effort to provide
people wit* credit facilit. to afford alternatives to -c*aba w*ic* will improve t*eir per capita income( since it
banned t*e motorc.cle operation in t*e state. It furt*er recommends t*at a meaningful and long-term alleviation
of *unger s*ould be rooted in t*e povert. alleviation program since povert. leads to *unger and a *unger is a
terrible s.mptom of povert..
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-17 !"aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline#
'ol.%( No.1)( 21)

Economics Dictionar.< !2?#( "ublis*ed b. arrangement wit* -cademic !India# publis*ers( New Del*i- 11$.
Edition( 2?
Encarta !2#(@Enc.clopaedia +ritannica.
7arba( -. !2?#( @-lleviating "overt. in Nort*ern Nigeria@( - paper presented at t*e -nnual Bonference of
Oumunta -ssociation >S-( ,inneapolis( ,N( Jul. 2$-2A( 2?.
Inuwa( I.+. !212#2 P-ssessment of t*e Determinants of Emplo.ment in t*e 1ofar /ambai S*oe ,a:ing
Industr.( 1ano State@2 - publication in t*e 2
Edition of N9':ED, 'ol. 1 No.2 !ISSN21)1-02A?#
J>NE( 212. Department of +usiness -dministration and ,anagement( Sc*ool of ,anagement Studies(
1ano State "ol.tec*nic( 1ano.
J*ingan( ,.D. !22# P4*e Economics of Development and "lanningQ 'rinda "ublication !p# ltd. +-%( comple5(
ma.or vi*ar( p*ases I Del*i-11A1.
National +ureau of Statistics !N+S( 2?#(@ "overt. "rofile in Nigeria@. 7anfee: ventures( pg-$7.
&sinubi( -. !210#( @@- t*eoretical and Empirical Investigation of "overt. in Lural 7eorgia Bounties@@( - paper
presented at t*e Sout*ern -gricultural Economics -ssociation !S-E-# -nnual ,eeting( &rlando(
6lorida( 0-% 6ebruar.( 210.
Soludo( B. !2?#(@"otential Impacts of t*e 7lobal 6inance -rc*itecture on "oor Bountries@. Edited b. B*arles
Soludo and ,onsuru Lao. IS+N A7$2$?A7$1%$( 2?(B&DELSI-( Senegal paperbac: pg-$.
>nited Nations Development "rogram !1AA?( 2)#< Nigerian Caman Development Leport( >ND"( Nigeria
>nited Nations !2)#< federal 7overnment of Nigeria2 "overt. Leduction "rogram 20- 27< -bu;a( Nigeria.
/orld +an: !1AAA( 2)#( @@Nigeria "overt. in t*e ,idst of "lent. t*e B*allenges of 7rowt* wit* Inclusion@@( -
world +an: "overt. -ssessment Candboo:
/orld +an: !21#( @/orld Development Leport 2G212 -ttac:ing povert.@.
*ttp2GGen.wi:ipedia .orgGwi:iG1ano state

Dependent 'ariable2 "'4R
,et*od2 ,D - +inar. "robit !Juadratic *ill climbing#
Date2 7G2G1) 4ime2 )212
Sample2 1 12
Included observations2 12
Bonvergence ac*ieved after ) iterations
Bovariance matri5 computed using second derivatives

'ariable Boefficient Std. Error 9-Statistic "rob.

B .)0%7% .%17% .$?$%) .A0$
6/C .7%7%)? .02A10 2.01??2 .21)
>NE .0%1)%A .0$?) .A2000% .0%%$
&>, .0A1$1 .02)2$% 1.2%A$1 .227$
ED> -.?07A .)011$ -1.%?)77A .117?

,c6adden Ls8uared .A?)$% ,ean dependent var .$%$000
S.D. dependent var .0%17 S.E. of regression .0)?A
-:ai:e info criterion .$2%?1 Sum s8uared resid 10.0)1?$
Sc*war9 criterion .A0?7? Dog li:eli*ood -)).200?%
Cannan-Juinncriter. .$?772$ Deviance $$.)?72A
Lestr. Deviance A7.A1)%A Lestr. log li:eli*ood -)$.A%70
DL statistic A.))70 -vg. log li:eli*ood -.0?$?1)
"rob!DL statistic# .%$)1

&bs wit* DepK 17 4otal obs 12
&bs wit* DepK1 10

The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open-Access hosting service and academic event
management. The aim of the firm is Accelerating Global Knowledge Sharing.

More information about the firm can be found on the homepage:

There are more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals hosted under the hosting
Prospective authors of journals can find the submission instruction on the
following page: http://www.iiste.org/journals/ All the journals articles are available
online to the readers all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers
other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Paper version
of the journals is also available upon request of readers and authors.

Book publication information: http://www.iiste.org/book/

IISTE Knowledge Sharing Partners
EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP Open
Archives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, Elektronische
Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe Digtial
Library , NewJour, Google Scholar

Business, Economics, Finance and Management Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
European Journal of Business and Management EJBM@iiste.org
Research Journal of Finance and Accounting RJFA@iiste.org
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development JESD@iiste.org
Information and Knowledge Management IKM@iiste.org
Journal of Developing Country Studies DCS@iiste.org
Industrial Engineering Letters IEL@iiste.org
Physical Sciences, Mathematics and Chemistry Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Journal of Natural Sciences Research JNSR@iiste.org
Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research CMR@iiste.org
Journal of Mathematical Theory and Modeling MTM@iiste.org
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications APTA@iiste.org
Chemical and Process Engineering Research CPER@iiste.org
Engineering, Technology and Systems Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Computer Engineering and Intelligent Systems CEIS@iiste.org
Innovative Systems Design and Engineering ISDE@iiste.org
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy JETP@iiste.org
Information and Knowledge Management IKM@iiste.org
Journal of Control Theory and Informatics CTI@iiste.org
Journal of Information Engineering and Applications JIEA@iiste.org
Industrial Engineering Letters IEL@iiste.org
Journal of Network and Complex Systems NCS@iiste.org
Environment, Civil, Materials Sciences Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Journal of Environment and Earth Science JEES@iiste.org
Journal of Civil and Environmental Research CER@iiste.org
Journal of Natural Sciences Research JNSR@iiste.org
Life Science, Food and Medical Sciences PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Advances in Life Science and Technology ALST@iiste.org
Journal of Natural Sciences Research JNSR@iiste.org
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare JBAH@iiste.org
Journal of Food Science and Quality Management FSQM@iiste.org
Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research CMR@iiste.org
Education, and other Social Sciences PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Journal of Education and Practice JEP@iiste.org
Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization JLPG@iiste.org
Journal of New Media and Mass Communication NMMC@iiste.org
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy JETP@iiste.org
Historical Research Letter HRL@iiste.org
Public Policy and Administration Research PPAR@iiste.org
International Affairs and Global Strategy IAGS@iiste.org
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences RHSS@iiste.org
Journal of Developing Country Studies DCS@iiste.org
Journal of Arts and Design Studies ADS@iiste.org