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THE HUMAN BODY PLAN


INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF
ANATOMY and PHYSIOLOGY
THE HUMAN BODY PLAN
The human body begins to take shape during the earliest stages of embryonic
development. While the embryo is a tiny hallow ball of dividing cells, it begins forming
the tissues and organs that compose the human body. By the end of its third week,
human embryo has bilateral symmetry (a body plan in which the left and right sides
mirror each other) and is developing vertebrate characteristics that will support an
upright body.
OBJECTIVES: Define Anatomy and Physiology, and explain how they are related.
List and describe the major characteristics of life. Define homeostasis, and explain its
importance to survival. Describe a Homeostatic Mechanism. List and describe the four
types of tissues that make up the human body. Explain how tissues, organs, and organ
systems are organized. Summarize the functions of the primary organ systems in the
human body. Name and locate four human body cavities, and describe the organs
that each contain. Properly use terms that describe relative positions, body sections,
and body regions.
1. The human body is a precisely structured container of Chemical Reactions.
2. Biology is the Study of Living Things including the Study of the Human Body.
3. The Study of BODY STRUCTURE, which includes Size, Shape, Composition, and
perhaps even Coloration, is called ANATOMY.
4. The Study of HOW the BODY FUNCTIONS is called PHYSIOLOGY.
5. The purpose of this course is to enable you to gain an understanding of Anatomy
and Physiology with the emphasis on Normal Structure and Function. You will
examine the anatomy and physiology of the major body systems.
LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION
1. CHEMICAL LEVEL
A. The Chemicals that make up the body may be divided into TWO major
categories: INORGANIC AND ORGANIC.
1) INORGANIC CHEMICALS are usually simple molecules made of one or
more elements other than CARBON. Examples: Water, Oxygen, Carbon
Dioxide (an exception), and Minerals such as iron, calcium, and sodium.


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2) ORGANIC CHEMICALS are often VERY Complex and ALWAYS CONTAIN
THE ELEMENTS CARBON AND HYDROGEN. Examples: Carbohydrates,
Fats, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids.
2. CELLULAR LEVEL
A. The SMALLEST LIVING UNITS OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION ARE CELLS.
B. Cells are the smallest living subunits of a multicellular organism such as a human
being.
C. There are many different types of cells; each is made of chemicals and carries out
specific chemical reactions.
3. TISSUE LEVEL
A. A Tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function.
B. There are FOUR Groups of Tissue
1) EPITHELIAL TISSUE - Cover or line body surfaces; some are capable of
producing secretions with specific functions. The outer layer of the Skin and Sweat
Glands are examples of Epithelial Tissue.
2) CONNECTIVE TISSUE - Connects and supports parts of the body; some
transport or store materials. Blood, Bone, and Adipose Tissue (Fat) are examples.
3) MUSCLE TISSUE - Specialized for CONTRACTION, which brings about
movement. Our Skeleton Muscles and the Heart are examples.
4) NERVE TISSUE - Specialized to generate and transmit Electrochemical
Impulses that regulate body functions. The Brain and Optic
Nerves are examples.


4. ORGAN LEVEL
A. An Organ is a group of TWO or more different types of
Tissues precisely arranged so as to accomplish Specific Functions
and usually have recognizable shape.
B. Heart, Brain, Kidneys, Liver, Lungs are Examples.


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5. ORGAN SYSTEMS (System Level)
A. An Organ System is a group of organs that all contribute to a Particular Function.
B. Examples are the Circulatory, Respiratory, and Digestive Systems.
C. Each organ system carries out its own specific function, but for the organism to
survive the organ systems must work together- this is called INTEGRATION OF
ORGAN SYSTEM.

6. ORGANISM LEVEL
A. The MOST Complex Level.
B. ALL the Organ Systems of the body functioning with one another constitute the
TOTAL ORGANISM - ONE LIVING INDIVIDUAL.
LIFE PROCESSES or CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE
1. All living organisms carry on certain processes that set them apart from nonliving
things.
2. The Following are Several of the more important life processes of Humans:
A. METABOLISM is the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in the body.
One phase of Metabolism called CATABOLISM provides the ENERGY needed to
sustain life by BREAKING DOWN substances such as food molecules. The other phase
called ANABOLISM uses the energy from catabolism to MAKE various substances that
form body structures and enable them to function.
B. ASSIMILATION is the changing of Absorbed substances into forms that are
chemically different from those that entered body fluids.
C. RESPONSIVENESS is the ability to Detect and Respond to changes Outside or
Inside the Body. Seeking Water to quench thirst is a response to water loss from body
tissue.
D. MOVEMENT includes motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, or
even structures inside cells.
E. GROWTH refers to an Increase in Body Size. It may be due to an increase in the
size of existing cells, the number of cells, or the amount of substance surrounding cells. It
occurs whenever an organism produces new body materials faster than old ones are
worn out or replaced.


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F. DIFFERENTIATION is the process whereby unspecialized cells become
specialized cells. Specialized Cells differ in Structure and Function from the cells from
which they originated.
G. REPRODUCTION refers either to the formation of new cells for Growth, Repair,
or Replacement or to the making of a New Individual.
H. Others Include:
Respiration obtaining Oxygen.
Digestion Chemically and Mechanically breaking down food substances.
Absorption The passage of substances through certain membranes.
Circulation the movement of substances within the body in Body Fluids.
Excretion Removal of wastes that the body produces.
MAINTENANCE OF LIFE OR SURVIVAL NEEDS
1. The structures and functions of almost all body parts help maintain the Life of the
Organism. The ONLY Exceptions are an Organisms Reproductive Structures, which
ensure that its species will continue into the future.
2. Life requires certain Environmental Factors, including the Following:
A. WATER this is the most abundant chemical in the body and it is required for
many Metabolic Processes and provides the environment in which Most of them take
place. Water also transports substances within the organism and is important in
regulating body temperature.
B. FOOD the Substances that provide the body with necessary Chemicals
(Nutrients) in addition to Water. Food is used for Energy, supply the raw materials for
building new living matter, and still others help regulate vital chemical reactions.
C. OXYGEN It is required to release Energy from food substances. This energy, in
turn, drives metabolic processes. Approximately 20% of the air be breathe is oxygen.
D. HEAT (BODY TEMPERATURE) - a form of energy, it is a product of Metabolic
Reactions. Normal Body Temperature is around 37 C or 98 F. both low or high body
temperatures are dangerous to the organism.
E. PRESSURE (ATMOSPHERIC) Necessary for our Breathing.
PRINCIPLE ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE HUMAN BODY
1. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
A. The Skin and Structures derived from it, such as hair, nails, and sweat and oil
glands.


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B. Is a barrier to pathogens and chemicals (Protects the body), Helps regulate body
temperature,
Eliminates waste, Helps synthesize vitamin D, and receives certain stimuli such as
Temperature, Pressure, and Pain.
2. SKELETAL SYSTEM
A. All the Bones of the body (206), their associated Cartilage, and the Joints of the
Body.
B. Bones Support and Protect the body, assist in body movement, They also house
cells that produce
blood cells, and they store minerals.

3. MUSCULAR SYSTEM
A. Specifically refers to Skeletal Muscle Tissue and Tendons.
B. Participates in bringing about movement, maintaining posture, and produces
heat.
4. CIRCULATORY And CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
A. The Heart, Blood and Blood Vessels.
B. Transports oxygen and nutrients to tissues and removes waste.
5. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM- Sometimes included with the Immune System or
Circulatory System because it works closely with Both Systems.
A. The Lymph, Lymphatic Vessels, and Structures or Organs (Spleen and Lymph
Nodes) containing Lymph Tissue.
B. Cleans and Returns tissue fluid to the blood and destroys pathogens that enter the
body.
6. NERVOUS SYSTEM
A. The Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves, and Sense Organs, such as the eye and ear.
B. Interprets sensory information, Regulates body functions such as movement by
means of Electrochemical Impulses.



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7. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
A. ALL Hormone producing Glands and Cells such as the Pituitary Gland, Thyroid
Gland, and Pancreas.
B. Regulates body functions by means of Hormones.
8. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
A. The Lungs and a series of associated passageways such as the Pharynx (Throat),
Larynx (Voice Box), Trachea (Windpipe), and Bronchial Tubes leading into and out of
them.
B. Exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and blood.
9. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
A. A long tube called the Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract and associated organs such as
the Salivary Glands, Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas.
B. Breaks down and absorbs food for use by cells and eliminates solid and other
waste.
10. URINARY And EXCRETORY SYSTEMS
A. The Kidneys, Urinary Bladder, and Urethra that together produce, store, and
eliminate Urine.
B. Removes waste products from the blood and regulates volume and pH of blood.
11. IMMUNE SYSTEM
A. The Immune System Consists of Several Organs, as well as White Blood Cells in the
Blood and Lymph.
Includes the Lymph Nodes, Spleen, Lymph Vessels, Blood Vessels, Bone Marrow, and
White Blood Cells (Lymphocytes).
B. Provides protection against Infection and Disease.
12. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
A. Organs that produce, store, and transport reproductive cells (Sperm and Eggs).
B. Produces eggs and sperm, in women, provides a site for the developing embryo-
fetus.



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SUMMARY OF MAJOR ORGAN SYSTEMS
SYSTEM MAJOR STRUCTURES FUNCTIONS
Skeletal
bones, cartilage, tendons,
ligaments, and joints
provides structure; supports and protects
internal organs
Muscular
muscles (skeletal, cardiac,
and smooth)
provides structure; supports and moves
trunk and limbs; moves substances
through body
Integumentary skin, hair nails
protects against pathogens; helps
regulate body temperature
Circulatory heart, blood vessels, blood
transports nutrients and wastes to and
from all body tissues
Respiratory air passages, lungs
carries air into and out of lungs, where
gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) are
exchanged
Immune
lymph nodes and vessels,
white blood cells
provides protection against infection and
disease
Digestive
mouth, esophagus,
stomach, liver, pancreas,
small and large intestines
stores and digests food; absorbs nutrients;
eliminates waste
Excretory and
Urinary
kidneys, ureters, bladder,
urethra, skin, lungs
eliminate waste; maintains water and
chemical balance
Nervous
brain, spinal cord, nerves,
sense organs, receptors
controls and coordinates body
movements and senses; controls
consciousness and creativity; helps
monitor and maintain other body systems
Endocrine
endocrine glands and
hormones
maintain homeostasis; regulates
metabolism, water and mineral balance,
growth and sexual development, and
reproduction
Lymphatic
lymph nodes, spleen,
lymph vessels
cleans and returns tissue fluid to the blood
and destroys pathogens that enter the
body
Reproductive
ovaries, uterus, mammary
glands (in females), testes
(in males)
produce gametes and offspring
HOMEOSTASIS
1. All of the above systems function together to help the Human Body to Maintain
HOMEOSTASIS.



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2. A person who is in good health is in a state of Homeostasis.
3. Homeostasis reflects the ability of the body to maintain relative Stability and to
Function Normally despite constant Changes.
4. Changes may be External or Internal, and the body must Respond Appropriately.
5. As we continue to study the Human Body, keep in mind that the Proper
Functioning of each Organ and Organ System has a role to perform in maintaining
HOMEOSTASIS.
6. The Human Body uses Homeostasis Mechanisms to maintain its stable internal
environment. Homeostasis Mechanisms work much like a Thermostat (NEGATIVE
FEEDBACK) that is sensitive to temperature and maintains a relative constant room
temperature whether the room gets to Hot or Cold.
BODY CAVITIES
1. Many organs and organ systems in the human body are housed in compartments
called BODY CAVITIES.
2. These cavities protect delicate internal organs from injuries and from the daily wear
of walking, jumping, or running.
3. The body cavities also permit organs such as the lungs, the urinary bladder, and the
stomach to expand and contract while remaining securely supported.
4. The human body has FOUR Main Body Cavities that house and protect delicate
internal organs:
A. CRANIAL CAVITY - encases the brain.
B. SPINAL CAVITY - extending from the cranial cavity to the base of the spine,
surrounds the Spinal Cord.
THE TWO MAIN CAVITIES IN THE TRUNK OF THE HUMAN BODY ARE SEPARATED
BY
A WALL OF MUSCLE CALLED THE DIAPHRAGM.
C. THORACIC CAVITY - The upper compartment, contains the heart, the
esophagus, and the organs of the respiratory system - the lungs, trachea, and bronchi.
D. ABDOMINAL CAVITY - The lower compartment, contains organs of the
digestive, reproductive, and excretory systems.



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ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY
To communicate effectively with one another, researchers and clinicians have develop
a set of Terms to describe anatomy that have precise meaning. Use of these terms
assumes the body in the ANATOMICAL POSITION. This means that the body is
standing erect, face forward with upper limbs at the sides and with the palms forward.
RELATIVE POSITION
Terms of Relative position describe the location of one body part with respect to
another. The include the following:
1. SUPERIOR - means that a body part is above another part or is closer to the head.
2. INFERIOR - means that a body part is below another body part or toward the feet.
3. ANTERIOR means toward the front.
4. VENTRAL also means toward the front
5. POSTERIOR is the opposite of anterior; it means toward the back.
6. DORSAL - also is the opposite of anterior; it means toward the back.
7. MEDIAL relates to an imaginary midline dividing the body in equal right and left
halves. Sample: The nose is medial to the eyes.
8. LATERAL means toward the side with respect to the imaginary midline. Sample:
The ears are lateral to the eyes.
9. PROXIMAL describes a body part that is closer to a point of attachment or closer
to the trunk of the body than another part. Sample: The elbow is proximal to the
wrist.
10. DISTAL is the opposite of proximal. It means that a particular body part is
farther from the point of attachment or farther from the trunk of the body than
another part. Sample: The fingers are distal to the wrist.
11. SUPERFICIAL means situated near the surface.
12. PERIPHERAL also means outward or near the surface.
13. DEEP describes parts that are more internal.



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14. CORTEX - the outer layer of an organ
15. MEDULLA - the inner portion of an organ.























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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

A BASIC NEURON
An Overview
The Nervous System is the body's information gatherer, storage center and control
system. Its overall function is to collect information about the external conditions in
relation to the body's internal state, to analyze this information, and to initiate
appropriate responses to satisfy certain needs (Maintain Homeostasis). The most
powerful of these needs is survival. The nerves do not form one single system, but
several which are interrelated. Some of these are physically separate, others are
different in function only. The brain and spinal cord make up the Central Nervous
System (CNS). The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) is responsible for the body
functions which are Not under conscious control - like the heartbeat or the digestive
system. The smooth operation of the Peripheral Nervous System is achieved by dividing
it into Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems. These are opposing actions and
check on each other to provide a balance. The nervous system uses electrical impulses,
which travel along the length of the cells (Neurons). The cell processes information from
the sensory nerves and initiates an action within milliseconds. These impulses can travel
at up to 250 miles per hour, while other Systems such as the Endocrine System may
take many hours to respond with hormones.


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OBJECTIVES: Explain the general functions (Four Functions) of the nervous system.
Identify the Two main organs of the Central Nervous System. Describe the structure of
a neuron and describe the functions of each major part. Distinguish between sensory
neurons (receptor), motor neurons and interneurons. Summarize the electrical and
chemical conditions of resting potential. Describe the process of a nerve impulse.
Describe how the central nervous system is protected from injury. Describe the structure
of the spinal cord and its major functions. Describe the structure of a spinal nerve.
Describe the role of neurotransmitters in transmitting a signal across a synaptic cleft.
Explain how information passes from one neuron to another. Name the Two divisions
of the peripheral nervous system and describe their functions. Distinguish between the
somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. Distinguish between the
sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division. Describe a spinal reflex (The
Patellar Reflex). Name the parts of a Reflex Arc, and describe the functions of each
part. Name the cranial nerves and lists their major
functions.
INTRODUCTION
1. Communication is vital to the survival of living
organisms.
2. To interact with their environment, multicellular
organisms have developed a communication system
at the Cellular Level.
3. Specialized Cells (Neurons) allow Messages to be
carried from one cell to another so that
communication among all body parts is smooth and
efficient.
4. In HUMANS, these Cells called NEURONS make
up the Nervous System.



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5. The Nervous System CONTROLS and COORDINATES ALL ESSENTIAL
FUNCTIONS of the Human Body.
6. The Nervous System RECEIVES and RELAYS information about activities within
the body and Monitors and Responds to INTERNAL and EXTERNAL CHANGES.
7. The Nervous System has FOUR FUNCTIONS that enable the body to respond
quickly. The Nervous System:
A. Gathers information both from the outside world and from inside the body.
SENSORY FUNCTION
B. Transmits the information to the processing area of the brain and spinal cord.
C. Processes the information to determine the best response. INTEGRATIVE
FUNCTION
D. Sends information to muscles, glands, and organs (effectors) so they
can respond correctly. Muscular contraction or glandular secretions. MOTOR
FUNCTION
8. The Nervous System has TWO Major Divisions.
A. The Central Nervous System (CNS) consist of the Brain and the Spinal Cord.
The Spinal Cord carries messages from the body to the Brain, where they are analyzed
and interpreted. Response Messages are then passed from the Brain through the Spinal
Cord and to the rest of the Body.
B. The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of the neurons NOT Included
in the Brain and Spinal Cord. Some Peripheral Neurons Collect Information from the
Body and Transmit it TOWARD the CNS. These are called AFFERENT NEURONS.
Other Peripheral Neurons Transmit Information AWAY from the CNS. These are called
EFFERENT NEURONS.
8. The Functioning Nervous System is an enormous network of "one-way streets".
THE NEURON
1. The CELLS that Carry Messages Throughout the Nervous System are called
NEURONS.
2. The Neuron is the Basic Functional Unit of the Nervous System.
3. Whatever their specific function, all neurons have the same physical parts: The Cell
Body, Dendrites and One Axon.


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4. Messages take the form of ELECTRICAL SIGNALS, and are known as IMPULSES.
A Neuron carries impulses in only ONE direction.
5. Neurons can be classified into THREE TYPES:
A. SENSORY (RECEPTOR) NEURONS (AFFERENT) - Carry impulses from the
SENSE ORGANS (RECEPTORS) to the Brain and Spinal Cord. Receptors detect
external or internal changes and send the information to the Central Nervous System in
the form of impulses by way of the Afferent Neurons.
B. MOTOR NEURONS (EFFERENT) - Carry impulses from the Brain and Spinal
Cord to MUSCLES or GLANDS. Muscles and Glands are Two Types of Effectors. In
response to impulses, Muscles Contract and Glands Secrete.
C. INTERNEURONS - Connect Sensory and Motor neurons and carry impulses
between them. They are found entirely within the Central Nervous System.
THE ANATOMY OF A NEURON
6. A Neuron consists of THREE MAIN PARTS:
A. CELL BODY - The largest part, contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm
(area between the nucleus and the cell membrane), most of the metabolic activity of
the cell, including the generation of ATP (Adenine Triphosphate Compound that Stores
Energy) and synthesis of protein.
B. DENDRITES - Short branch extensions spreading out from the cell body.
Dendrites Receive STIMULUS (Action Potentials) and carry IMPULSES from the
ENVIRONMENT or from other NEURONS AND CARRY THEM TOWARD THE CELL
BODY.
C. AXON - A Long Fiber that CARRIES IMPULSES AWAY FROM THE CELL
BODY. Each neuron has only ONE AXON. The Axon Ends in a series of small swellings
called AXON TERMINALS.
7. Neurons may have Dozens or even Hundreds of DENDRITES but usually ONLY ONE
AXON.
8. The Axons of most Neurons are covered with a Lipid Layer known as the MYELIN
SHEATH.
9. The Myelin Sheath both Insulates and Speeds Up transmission of Action Potentials
through the Axon.
10. In the Peripheral Nervous System, Myelin is produced by SCHWANN CELLS, which
surround the Axon.


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11. GAPS (NODES) in the Myelin Sheath along the length of the Axon are known as the
NODES OF RANVIER.


TRANSMISSION OF NERVE IMPULSES
1. The Italian scientist Luigi Galvani found that nervous tissue (groups of cells that
conduct impulses) displays Electrical Activity in the form of a Nerve Impulse, which is a
flow of electrical charges along The Cell Membranes of a Neuron.
2. This Electrical Activity is due to Movement of IONS (charge particles) across the Cell
Membrane. SODIUM - Na+, AND POTASSIUM - K+.
3. The movement of these Ions is affected by their ability to pass through the Cell
membrane, their Concentration Inside and Out of the Cell, and Their Charge.
4. Neurons have an Electrical Charge Different from the Extracellular Fluid that
surrounds them. A difference in electrical Charge between Two Locations is called a
POTENTIAL.
RESTING POTENTIAL
1. A Nerve Cell has ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL across its cell membrane because of a
difference in the number of Positively and Negatively Charged IONS on each side of
the Cell Membrane.
2. The Electrical Potential is due to PROTEINS in the Neuron known as Sodium-
Potassium Pumps move Sodium ions (Na+) OUT of the Cell and Actively Pump
Potassium ions (K+) INTO the Cell.
3. The result of this Active Transport of ions is the Cytoplasm of the neuron contains
MORE K+ IONS and FEWER Na+ IONS than the surrounding medium.


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4. The Cytoplasm also contains Many NEGATIVE CHARGES PROTEINS Molecules and
Ions.
5. K+ ions can leak out across the membrane more easily than Na+ ions can leak in.
6. The Negatively charged protein molecules and ions do not leak in or out.
7. The Net Result of the leakage of positively charged ions out of the cell is a Negative
Charge on the INSIDE of the neuron's Cell Membrane.
8. The Charge Difference is known as the RESTING POTENTIAL of the Neuron's Cell
Membrane.
9. As a result of its Resting Potential, the Neuron is said to be POLARIZED.
10. POLARIZED = Negatively Charged on the inside of the Cell Membrane,
and Positively Charged on the Outside.
11. A Neuron maintains this polarization until it is stimulated.
12. A STIMULUS is a change in the environment that may
be of sufficient strength to initiate an impulse.
13. The ability of a neuron to respond to a Stimulus and
Convert it into a nerve impulse is known as EXCITABILITY.
THE MOVING IMPULSE 1. A Nerve Impulse causes a
movement of ions across the cell membrane of a neuron
Similar to a ripple passing along the surface of a pond.
2. The cell membrane of a neuron contains thousands of tiny
molecules known as GATES. (Sodium and Potassium)
3. These Gates allow either Sodium or Potassium ions to pass
through.
4. Generally the Gates on a neuron are CLOSED.
5. A Nerve Impulse STARTS when Pressure or other Sensory
Inputs, Disturbs a Neuron's Plasma Membrane, causing
Sodium Gates to OPEN.
6. At the beginning of an impulse, the Sodium Gates OPEN,
allowing positively charged Na+ ions to flow INSIDE the Cell
Membrane.


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7. The INSIDE of the membrane temporarily becomes MORE POSITIVE than the
OUTSIDE. THIS IS CALLED DEPOLARIZED .
8. The Membrane is now said to be DEPOLARIZED: the charge inside the axon
changes from negative to positive as sodium ions enter the interior.
9. As the impulse passes, the Potassium Gates OPEN, allowing positively charged K+
ions to FLOW OUT. REPOLARIZED: the inside of the axon resumes a negative
charge.
10. The membrane is now said to be REPOLARIZED. Once again NEGATIVELY
Charged on the INSIDE and POSITIVELY Charged on the OUTSIDE.
11. The DEPOLARIZATION and REPOLARIZATION of a Neuron Membrane is
called an ACTION POTENTIAL. Action Potential is another name for a Nerve
Impulse or simply an impulse.
12. After a nerve impulse is period when the neuron is unable to conduct a nerve
impulse called the REFRACTORY PERIOD.
14. The Refractory Period is a very short period during which the sodium-potassium
pump continues to return sodium ions to the outside and potassium ions to the inside of
the axon. THUS RETURNING THE NEURON TO RESTING POTENTIAL.
15. An impulse is not an electric current; it is a wave of Depolarization and
Repolarization. Or a nerve impulse is actually the movement of an action potential
along a neuron as a series of voltage-gated ions channels open and close.
16. An impulse is much SLOWER than an electric current.
17. Unlike an electric current, the STRENGTH of an impulse is ALWAYS the SAME.
18. There is either an impulse to a stimulus or there in not. (ALL OR NOTHING)
PROPAGATION
1. An impulse is self-propagating. Once started it continues, and moves only in one
direction. Like the falling of Dominos.
MYELIN SHEATH
1. Myelin Sheaths greatly increase the speed of impulse along an axon.
2. Myelin is composed of 80% lipid and 20% protein.


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3. Myelin is made of special cells called Schwann Cells that forms an insulated sheath, or
wrapping around the axon.
4. There are SMALL NODES or GAPS called the Nodes of Ranvier between
adjacent myelin sheath cells along the axon.
5. As an impulse moves down a myelinated (covered with myelin) axon, the impulse
JUMPS form Node to Node instead of moving along the membrane.
6. This jumping from Node to Node greatly increase the speed of the impulse.
7. Some myelinated axons conduct impulses as rapid as 200 meters per second.
8. The formation of myelin around axons can be thought of as a crucial event in
evolution of vertebrates.
9. Destruction of large patches of Myelin characterize a disease called Multiple
Sclerosis. In multiple sclerosis, small, hard plaques appear throughout the myelin.
Normal nerve function is impaired, causing symptoms such as double vision, muscular
weakness, loss of memory, and paralysis.
THE THRESHOLD
1. The Strength of an impulse is always the SAME.
2. Either there is an impulse in response to a STIMULUS or there is not.
3. A STIMULUS must be of Adequate Strength to cause a neuron to conduct an
impulse.
4. The MINIMUM LEVEL of a STIMULUS that is REQUIRED to Activate a neuron is
called the THRESHOLD.
5. Any Stimulus WEAKER than the Threshold will produce NO impulse.
6. Any Stimulus STRONGER than the Threshold WILL produce an impulse.
7. A nerve impulse follows the ALL-OR-NONE Principle.
THE SYNAPTIC CLEFT OR SYNAPSE
1. The Axon ends with many small swellings called AXON TERMINALS.


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2. At these Terminals the neuron may make contact with the DENDRITES of another
neuron, with a RECEPTOR, or with an
EFFECTOR.
3. RECEPTORS are special SENSORY
NEURONS in SENSE ORGANS that
RECEIVE Stimuli from the EXTERNAL
ENVIRONMENT.
4. EFFECTORS are MUSCLES or GLANDS
that bring about a COORDINATE
RESPONSE.
5. The point of contact at which impulses are
passed from one cell to another are known as
THE SYNAPTIC CLEFT OR SYNAPSE.
6. Neurons that transmit impulses to other neurons DO NOT actually touch one
another. The Small Gap or Space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites
or cell body on the next neuron is called the Synapse. One importance of the presence
of Synapses is that they ensures one-way transmission of impulses in a living person. A
nerve impulse CANNOT go backward across a Synapse.
7. The Axon Terminals at a Synapse contain tiny vesicles, or
sacs.
8. These tiny vesicles are filled with CHEMICALS known as
NEUROTRANSMITTERS. (Acetylcholine)

9. A NEUROTRANSMITTER is a chemical substance that is
used by one neuron to signal another. The impulse is
changed from and Electrical Impulse to a Chemical Impulse
(Electrochemical Impulses).
10. When an impulse reaches the Axon Terminal, dozen of vesicles fuse with the cell
membrane and discharge the Neurotransmitter into the Synaptic Cleft (GAP).
11. The molecules of the neurotransmitter diffuse across the gap and attach themselves
to SPECIAL RECEPTORS on the membrane of the neuron
receiving the impulse.
12. When the neurotransmitter becomes attached to the cell membrane of the adjacent
nerve cell, it changes the permeability of that membrane.
13. As a result, Na+ ions diffuse through the membrane into the cell.


20
14. If enough neurotransmitter is released by the axon terminal, so many Na+ ions
diffuse into the neuron that the neuron becomes DEPOLARIZED.
15. DEPOLARIZED = Inside the membrane becomes more positive than outside.
16. This causes a THRESHOLD to be REACHED and an impulse (ACTION POTENTIAL)
begins in the second cell.
17. After the neurotransmitter relays it message it is rapidly REMOVED or DESTROYED,
thus halting its effect.
18. The molecules of the neurotransmitter may be broken down by ENZYMES, taken
up again by the axon terminal and recycled, or they may simply diffuse away.
19. Synapses are the slowest part of the nervous system. The advantage to having
many neurons, with gaps between them, is that we can control and receive
information from different parts of the body at different
times. They also ensure One-Way Transmission of
impulses in a living person.
20. NERVE GAS prevents enzymes from breaking down
neurotransmitters, as a result muscles in the respiratory
and nervous system becomes paralyzed.
DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
1. Neurons, which are the functional units of the nervous
system, do not act alone as individual cells.
2. They are joined together to form a complicated
communication network that gives rise to the nervous
system.

3. THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM IS DIVIDED INTO TWO MAJOR DIVISION:
A. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
B. THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)
4. The CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM serves as the CONTROL CENTER of the
body.
5. The Central Nervous System consists of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.


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6. Both the brain and the spinal cord are encased in bone.
7. The Central Nervous System RELAYS MESSAGES, PROCESSES INFORMATION, AND
COMPARES AND ANALYZES INFORMATION.
8. The Central Nervous system DOES NOT come in contact with the Environment.
9. This job is left to the other major division of the nervous system - THE
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
10. THE BRAIN IS THE MAIN SWITCHING UNIT OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM;
IT IS THE PLACE TO WHICH IMPULSES FLOW AND FROM WHICH IMPULSES
ORIGINATE.
11. THE SPINAL CORD PROVIDES THE LINK BETWEEN THE BRAIN AND THE REST
OF THE BODY.
THE SPINAL CORD
1. The spinal cord acts as a communication link between the Brain And the Peripheral
Nervous
system.
2. The spinal cord is continuous with the brain and emerges from an opening at the
base of the skull. The spinal cord stretches downward for approx. 42 - 45 cm through
the vertebral column.
3. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, part of the Peripheral Nervous system, that
emerge from the spinal cord. The nerves are named according to their respective
vertebrae. NERVES are AXONS that Are BUNDLED TOGETHER.
4. Each Spinal Nerve consists of a DORSAL ROOT and a VENTRAL ROOT.
5. The Dorsal Roots contain Neurons that carry signals TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS
SYSTEM from various kinds of Sensory Neurons.
6. The Ventral Roots contain the Axons of Motor Neurons, which are neurons that
contact and carry information to the Muscles and Glands (Effectors).
7. Within the Spinal Cord and else where in the body are Interneurons, which are
neurons that connect neurons to each other.
8. In addition to carrying impulses to and from the brain, the spinal cord regulates
REFLEXES.
9. A REFLEX is the simplest response to a STIMULUS.


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10. Sneezing and Blinking are two examples of Reflexes.
11. A Reflex produces a rapid MOTOR RESPONSE to a STIMULUS because the Sensory
Neuron Synapses DIRECTLY with a MOTOR NEURON in the Spinal Cord.
12. REFLEXES are very fast, and Most Reflexes Never Reach the Brain.
13. Blinking to protect your eyes from danger is a reflex.
14. 31 PAIRS of spinal nerves originate in the spinal cord and branch out to both sides of
the body. Carrying messages to and from the spinal cord.
15. Sensory Neurons carry impulses from RECEPTORS to the spinal cord.
16. Motor Neurons carry impulses from the spinal cord to the EFFECTORS.
17. Within the spinal cord, motor and sensory neurons are connected by
INTERNEURONS.

THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
1. ALL OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM OUTSIDE THE SPINAL CORD AND BRAIN IS
KNOWN AS THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)
2. THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM CAN BE DIVIDED INTO TWO
DIVISION:
A. THE SENSORY DIVISION (AFFERENT)
B. THE MOTOR DIVISION (EFFERENT)
3. THE SENSORY DIVISION TRANSMITS IMPULSES FROM SENSE ORGANS - SUCH
AS THE EARS AND TASTE BUDS- TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
4. THE MOTOR DIVISION TRANSMITS IMPULSES FROM THE CENTRAL NERVOUS
SYSTEM TO THE MUSCLES OR GLANDS (EFFECTORS).

5. THE MOTOR DIVISION IS FURTHER INTO:
A. THE SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
B. THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.


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THE SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
1. The Somatic Nervous System regulates activities that ARE UNDER CONSCIOUS
CONTROL, movement of skeletal muscles.
2. Every time you lift your finger or wiggle your toes, you are using the Motor Neurons
of the Somatic Nervous System.
3. Many Nerves within this system are part of reflexes and can act automatically.
4. A Reflex Sample:
A. Step on a tack with your bare foot.
B. Receptors in the skin stimulated.
C. The Sensory Neurons carry the impulse to Spinal Cord.
D. A group of Neurons in the Spinal Cord AUTOMATICALLY ACTIVATES Motor
Neurons.
E. These Motor Neurons cause the Muscles (effectors) in your leg to contract, pulling
you foot away.
5. Notice that this message did not go to the Brain, but was completed in the Spinal
Cord. (REFLEX)
6. THE RECEPTOR, SENSORY NEURON, MOTOR NEURON, AND EFFECTOR THAT
ARE INVOLVED IN THIS QUICK RESPONSE ARE TOGETHER KNOWN AS A REFLEX
ARC.


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THE PATELLAR REFLEX
1. IN THE PATELLAR REFLEX, A SENSORY NEURON WITH A RECEPTOR THAT
DETECTS STRETCH IN THE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE (UPPER THIGH) SENDS SIGNALS
TO THE SPINAL CORD.
2. THIS IMPULSE ACTIVATES A MOTOR NEURON, THAT LEADS BACK TO THE
QUADRICEPS MUSCLE (THE EFFECTOR), CAUSING IT TO CONTRACT.
3. THE IMPULSE ALSO ACTIVATES AN INTERNEURON, THAT HAS AN INHIBITORY,
OR CALMING, EFFECT ON THE MOTOR NEURONS OF THE HAMSTRINGS IN THE
LOWER THIGH.
4. THE CONTRACTION OF THE QUADRICEPS COUPLED WITH THE RELAXATION OF
THE HAMSTRING EXTENDS THE LOWER LEG.
THIS TYPE OF REFLEX IS A TRUE SPINAL REFLEX; THAT IS, IT INVOLVES
ONLY NEURONS IN THE BODY AND SPINAL CORD, AND COMPLETELY
BYPASSES THE BRAIN.
THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
1. THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM REGULATES ACTIVITIES THAT ARE
AUTOMATIC, OR INVOLUNTARY.
2. The Nerves of the Autonomic Nervous System CONTROL Functions of the body that
are NOT UNDER CONSCIOUS CONTROL.
3. The Autonomic Nervous system seems to be concerned with striking a balance or
MAINTAINING HOMEOSTASIS IN THE FUNCTIONING OF MANY ORGANS OF
THE BODY.


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EXAMPLES: CONTRACTION IN THE HEART, DIGESTION, HEART RATE,
BREATHING, SALIVATION, AND BLADDER.

4. THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IS FURTHER SUBDIVIDED INTO TWO
PARTS:
A. THE SYMPATHETIC DIVISION
B. THE PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION
5. The TWO parts have OPPOSITE EFFECTS on the ORGANS they control.
6. Most organs controlled by the Autonomic Division are under control of both
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Neurons.

EXAMPLE: Heart Rate is SPEEDED UP by the Sympathetic Nervous
System, and it is SLOWED DOWN by the Parasympathetic Nervous System.
7. The Sympathetic Division generally ACTIVATES ORGANS or SPEEDS UP.
8. The Parasympathetic Division generally RETARDS ORGANS or SLOWS DOWN.




















26
CRANIAL NERVES AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM :



27



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THE BRAIN & FIVE SENSES
UNIT OBJECTIVES: Describe all the major parts of the brain and their functions.
Summarize the functions of the cerebrum, brain stem, and cerebellum. Describe how
the brain is protected from injury. List and describe the five types of sensory receptors.
Describe the structure of the eye and the roles of rods and cones. Identify the parts of
the ear responsible for hearing and for maintaining balance. Compare the senses of
smell and taste. Explain how taste and smell are detected. Identify the various sense
receptors in the skin. Name the parts of the ear and explain the function of each part.
Name the parts of the eye and explain the function of each part.
THE BRAIN The human brain is responsible for overseeing the daily operations of
the human body and for interpreting the vast amount of information it receives. The
adult human brain weighs an average of 1.4 kg, or about 2 percent of the total body
weight. Despite this relatively small mass, the brain contains approximately 100 billion
neurons. Functioning as a unit, these neurons make up the most complex and highly
organized structure on Earth. The brain is responsible for many of the qualities that
make each individual unique-thoughts, feelings, emotions, talents, memories, and the
ability to process information. Much of the brain is dedicated to running the body, the
brain is responsible for maintaining Homeostasis by controlling and integrating the
various systems that make up the body.
OBJECTIVES: Describe all the major parts of the brain and their functions.
Summarize the functions of the cerebrum, brain stem, and cerebellum. Describe how
the brain is protected from injury.


29
1. THE BRAIN IS THE MAIN SWITCHING UNIT OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS
SYSTEM; IT IS THE PLACE TO WHICH IMPULSES FLOW
AND FROM WHICH IMPULSES ORIGINATE.
2. THE SPINAL CORD PROVIDES THE LINK BETWEEN
THE BRAIN AND THE REST OF THE BODY.
3. THE BRAIN HAS THREE MAIN PARTS:
A. THE CEREBRUM
B. THE CEREBELLUM
C. THE BRAIN STEM
4. The Brain is a highly organized ORGAN that contains approximately 100 billion
neurons and has a MASS of 1.4 Kilograms.
5. The Brain is Protected by a BONY Covering called the SKULL.
6. The Brain is also WRAPPED in THREE LAYERS of CONNECTIVE TISSUE
known as the MENINGES.
7. Connective Tissue connects one tissue to another.
8. The INNER most layer, which covers and is bound to the surface of the
brain, is called PIA MATER.
9. It is a FIBEROUS LAYER made up of many Blood Vessels which carry FOOD and
OXYGEN to the Brain.
10. The OUTER Layer, called the DURA MATER, is composed of Thick Connective
Tissue.
11. The ARACHNOID is the THIN, elastic, weblike layer between the PIA MATER and
the DURA MATER.
12. Between the Pia Mater and the Arachnoid is a space filled with CEREBROSPINAL
FLUID.
13. Cerebrospinal Fluid separates the middle and inner Meninges and fills four
interconnected VENTRICLES, or Cavities in the Brain. Within the Ventricles,
Cerebrospinal Fluid acts as a Transport Medium for substances that are important to
Brain Function.


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14. The Cerebrospinal Fluid is a clear liquid that PROTECTS the Brain from mechanical
injury by acting as a Shock Absorber.
15. In order for the Brain to perform its functions, it must have a constant supply of
Food and Oxygen.
16. If the Oxygen supply to the brain is cut off even for a few minutes, the brain will
usually suffer enormous damage. Such damage may result in DEATH.
PARTS OF THE BRAIN
THE CEREBRUM
1. THE CEREBRUM IS THE CONTROL CENTER OF THE BRAIN.
2. The LARGEST and most PROMINENT part of the Human
Brain is the CEREBRUM. 85% OF THE WEIGHT OF A HUMAN
BRAIN.
3. The Cerebrum is responsible for all the VOLUNTARY
(CONSCIOUS) ACTIVITIES OF THE BODY.
4. It is the site of INTELLIGENCE, LEARNING AND JUDGMENT.
5. IT FUNCTIONS IN LANGUAGE, CONSCIOUS THOUGHT, MEMORY, PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT, VISION, AND OTHER SENSATIONS.
6. The Cerebrum takes up most of the space in the cavity that
houses the Brain. (SKULL)
7. The CEREBRUM IS DIVIDED INTO TWO HEMISPHERES, THE
LEFT AND RIGHT CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES.
8. There is a DEEP GROVE that separates the Two Hemispheres.
9. The Hemispheres are Connected in a region known as the
CORPUS CALLOSUM.
10. The right and left cerebral hemispheres are linked by a bundle
of neurons called A TRACT.
11. THE TRACT TELLS EACH HALF OF THE BRAIN WHAT THE OTHER HALF IS
DOING.
12. The MOST Obvious FEATURE on the surface of each hemisphere are NUMEROUS
FOLDS.


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13. These FOLDS and the GROVES INCREASE the Surface Area of the Cerebrum. The
Ridges are called GYRI, and the grooves are called SULCUS.
14. The Cerebrum, which looks like a wrinkled mushroom, is positioned over the rest of
the brain.
15. It contains thick layers of Unmyelinated Neurons, which look GRAY. (OUR "GRAY
MATTER")
16. The increased surface area permits the large number of neurons to fit easily within
the confines of the Skull.
17. Each Hemisphere of the Cerebrum is divided into Four regions called LOBES.
18. These LOBES are named for the SKULL BONES that cover them, FRONTAL,
PARIETAL, TEMPORAL, AND OCCIPITAL LOBES.
19. Scientist have Discovered that the LEFT Side of the Body SENDS its Sensations to
the RIGHT Hemisphere of Cerebrum, and the RIGHT Side of the body send its
sensations to the LEFT Hemisphere.
20. Commands to move muscles are generated in the same way the Left Hemisphere
controls the Right side of the body and the Right Hemisphere controls the Left side of
the body.
21. The RIGHT Hemisphere is associated with CREATIVITY AND ARTISTIC ABILITY.
22. The LEFT Hemisphere is associated with ANALYTICAL AND MATHEMATICAL
ABILITY.
23. Sometimes blood vessels in the brain are blocked by blood clots, causing a disorder
called A STROKE.
24. During a Stroke, circulation to an area in the brain is blocked and the brain tissue
dies. A severe Stroke in one side of the brain may cause PARALYSIS of the other side of
the body.
25. The Cerebrum consists of TWO SURFACES.
A. The FOLDED OUTER SURFACE is called the CEREBRAL CORTEX and
consists of GRAY MATTER (UNMYELINATED NEURONS).
B. The INNER SURFACE is called the CEREBRAL MEDULLA, which is made
up of bundles of MYELINATED AXONS. THE WHITE MATTER.



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26. The Myelin gives the White Mater its White Color.
THE CEREBELLUM
1. The CEREBELLUM is the SECOND LARGEST part of the Brain, and is located at the
back of the Skull.
2. THE CEREBELLUM COORDINATES MUSCLE MOVEMENTS.
3. The Cerebellum coordinates and balances the actions of Muscles so that the body
can move gracefully and efficiently.
4. The Cerebellum CONTROLS BALANCE, POSTURE, and COORDINATION.
5. The Cerebellum receives sensory impulses from muscles, tendons, joints, eyes, and
ears, as well as input from other brain centers.
6. It processes information about position and controls posture by keeping skeletal
muscles in a constant state of partial contraction.
7. The Cerebellum Coordinates rapid and ongoing movements.
8. This is a small CAULIFLOWER SHAPED Structure, while well developed in mammals,
is even more developed in BIRDS.
9. Bird performs more complicated feats of balance than most mammals, because
they move through the air, as well as, along the ground.
10. Imagine the kind of balance and coordination needed for a bird to land on a
branch at precisely the right moment.
11. A Major part of learning how to perform physical activities seems to be related to
training the Cerebellum to coordinate the proper muscles.

12. Because the function of the Cerebellum is INVOLUNTARY (not under conscious
control), learning a completely new physical activity can be very difficult.




33
THE BRAIN STEM
1. The BRAIN STEM CONNECTS the BRAIN to the SPINAL CORD.
2. THE BRAIN STEM, WHICH MAINTAINS LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS, CONSIST OF THE
DIENCEPHALON, MEDULLA OBLONGATA, PONS, AND THE MIDBRAIN.
3. THE BRAIN STEM CONTROLS VITAL BODY PROCESSES.
4. The Brain stem not only coordinates and integrates all INCOMING INFORMATION;
it also serves as the place of entry or exit for ten of the Twelve Cranial Nerves.
5. The Upper Brain Stem, the Diencephalon, contains important relay centers for
information entering an exiting the brain.
6. The Lower Brain Stem consists of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, PONS, AND
MIDBRAIN.
7. The Lowest Part of the Brain Stem is the Medulla Oblongata (Sometimes just
called the Medulla).
8. The Medulla contains WHITE MATER that conducts impulses between the Spinal
Cord and Brain.
9. THE MEDULLA CONTROLS INVOLUNTARY FUNCTIONS THAT INCLUDE,
BREATHING, BLOOD PRESSURE, HEART RATE, DIGESTION, SWALLOWING, AND
COUGHING.
10. Another important part of the Medulla is a GROUP of CELLS known as THE
RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM or RETICULAR FORMATION (RAS).
11. The Reticular Activation System (RAS) actually helps to alert, or awaken, the upper
parts of the Brain, including the Cerebral Cortex.
12. Such actions keep the Brain alert and conscious.
13. The RAS also helps to control respiration and circulation and serves as a filtering
system for incoming sensory signals.
14. For example, we awaken to the sound of an alarm clock, to a bright light flash, or
to a painful pinch because activity in the RAS that arouses the Cerebral Cortex.
15. Just above the Medulla, the brainstem enlarges to form the PONS.


34
16. PONS MEAN BRIDGE, AND THIS AREA OF THE BRAIN STEM CONTAINS
MOSTLY WHITE MATTER THAT PROVIDES A LINK BETWEEN THE CEREBRAL
CORTEX AND THE CEREBELLUM.
17. Above the PONS and continuous with it is the MIDBRAIN, THE SMALLEST
DIVISION OF THE LOWER BRAIN STEM.
18. AREAS OF THE MIDBRAIN ARE INVOLVED IN HEARING AND VISION.
THE UPPER BRAIN STEM - DIENCEPHALON
THE THALAMUS AND HYPOTHALAMUS
1. The Thalamus and Hypothalamus are found in the part of the brain between the
Brain Stem and Cerebrum.
2. The Thalamus, which is composed of Gray Matter, serves as a SWITCHING
STATION FOR SENSORY INPUT. With the Exception of SMELL, each Sense
Channels its Sensory Nerves through the Thalamus.
3. The Thalamus passes information to the proper region of the Cerebrum for further
processing.
4. Immediately Below the Thalamus is the Hypothalamus, which is the CONTROL
CENTER for HUNGER, THIRST, FATIGUE, ANGER, AND BODY
TEMPERATURE.
5. Parts of the Diencephalon and the Cerebrum are included in an important group of
connected Brain Centers called the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
6. The Limbic System includes the Thalamus, the Hypothalamus, some deeper parts of
the Cerebral Cortex, and centers in the Temporal Lobes.
7. The Limbic system plays an important role in emotions, memory, and
motivation, among other things.
SENSORY SYSTEMS :
Human experience is effected by both internal and external stimuli. Humans are able
to distinguish among many different types of stimuli by means of a highly developed
system of SENSE ORGANS. Sensory Systems represent an integration of the functions of
the Peripheral Nervous System and the Central Nervous System. The Sensory Division
of the Peripheral Nervous System gathers information about the Body's Internal
Conditions and External Environment. Sensory Systems translate light, sound,
temperature, and other aspects of the Environment to Electrical Signals and transmit


35
these signals, in the form of Action Potentials, to the Central Nervous System, where
they are Interpreted.
OBJECTIVES: List and describe the five types of sensory receptors. Describe the
structure of the eye and the roles of rods and cones. Identify the parts of the ear
responsible for hearing and for maintaining balance. Compare the senses of smell and
taste. Explain how taste and smell are detected. Identify the various sense receptors in
the skin. Name the parts of the ear and explain the function of each part. Name the
parts of the eye and explain the function of each part.
1. There are million of neurons in the body that do not receive impulses from other
neurons. Instead these neurons which are called SENSORY RECEPTORS, REACT
DIRECTLY TO STIMULATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT.
2. Many Receptors that enable the Body to RECEIVE INFORMATION from the
ENVIRONMENT are located in highly specialized Organs called SENSE ORGANS.
3. Examples of stimulation include: LIGHT, SOUND, MOTION, CHEMICAL, PRESSURE,
PAIN OR CHANGES IN THE TEMPERATURE.
4. Once these Sensory Receptors are Stimulated, they TRANSFORM one form of
ENERGY from the Environment (LIGHT, SOUND) into another form of ENERGY
(ACTION POTENTIAL) that can be transmitted to other neurons. These Action
Potentials (IMPULSES) reach the Central Nervous System (CNS).
5. A Sensory Receptor is a Neuron that is Specialized to detect a Stimulus. There are
many kinds of Sensory Receptors, and they can be categorized on the Basis of the Type
of Stimuli they Respond To:
A. MECHANORECEPTORS - Respond to Movement, Pressure, and Tension.
B. PHOTORECEPTORS (RODS AND CONES) - Respond to Variations in
Light.
C. CHEMORECEPTORS - Respond to Chemicals.
D. THERMORECEPTORS - Respond to Changes in Temperature.
E. PAIN RECEPTORS - Respond to Tissue Damage - PAIN!
6. THE SENSORY RECEPTORS ARE CONTAINED IN THE SENSE ORGANS.
7. EACH OF THE FIVE SENSES (SIGHT, HEARING, SMELL, TASTE, AND TOUCH)
HAS A SPECIFIC SENSE ORGAN ASSOCIATED WITH IT.


36
8. The MOST familiar Sense Organs are the EYES, EARS, NOSE, SKIN AND TASTE
BUDS. These Organs have RECEPTORS that can respond to Stimuli by producing
NERVE IMPULSES in a Sensory Neuron.
9. The Receptors CONVERT the ENERGY of a Stimulus into ELECTRICAL ENERGY that
can travel in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
10. Receptors INSIDE the body inform the CNS about the CONDITIONS OF THE
BODY.
11. EXAMPLE: TEMPERATURE Receptors throughout the body detect Changes in
Temperature. This information travels to the HYPOTHALAMUS, which helps control
body temperature.
12. SPECIALIZED CELLS (Receptors) WITHIN EACH SENSE ORGAN ENABLE IT TO
RESPOND TO PARTICULAR STIMULI.
13. Messages from Sense Organs to the CNS are all in the form of Nerve Impulses. How
does are brain know whether incoming impulse is sound or light?
14. This Information is built into the "WIRING" in the Pathways of Neurons that
Synapse with each other, and into the location in the Brain where the information
arrives.
15. The Brain knows if the information received is from a Sensory Neuron that comes
from LIGHT RECEPTORS CELLS when it gets the message.
HEARING AND BALANCE
1. The EAR is really TWO Sense Organs in ONE. It not only detects
Sound Waves, it also senses the Position of the HEAD, whether it is
STILL, MOVING IN A STRAIGHT LINE, OR ROTATING.
2. Sound is nothing more than Vibrations in the Air around us.
3. Deep LOW-PITCHED Sounds result from slow vibrations. HIGH-
PITCHED Sounds are caused from faster Vibrations.
4. In addition to Pitch, sounds differ by their Loudness or Volume.
5. The Sense Organ that can distinguish BOTH PITCH AND LOUDNESS of SOUNDS are
the EARS.
6. The External Ear consists of the visible fleshy part helps to COLLECT Sounds and
FUNNEL them into the AUDITORY CANAL. The Auditory Canal connects the
External Ear with the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, also called the Eardrum.


37
7. The Auditory Canal contains small Hairs and WAX Producing GLANDS that
PREVENT Foreign objects from entering the ear.
8. The Auditory Canal extends into the bone of the head, but stops at the EARDRUM
OR TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
9. The Eardrum is the beginning of the MIDDLE EAR.
10. Sound Vibrations STRIKE the EARDRUM and are
Transmitted through THREE TINY BONES: THE MALLEUS
(HAMMER), INCUS (ANVIL), AND STAPES
(STIRRUP).
11. The Stirrup transfers the Vibrations to a thin membrane
covering an opening called the OVAL WINDOW.
12. This Membrane transmits the vibrations to the
COCHLEA, which begins the INNER EAR.
13. The COCHLEA is SNAIL SHAPED, consisting of Three FLUID FILLED Chambers
that are separated by membranes.
14. The Middle Chamber contains the ORGAN OF CORTI, which is the organ of
Hearing.
15. When the Fluid Vibrates, tiny Hair Cells lining the Cochlea are PUSHED back and
forth, providing Stimulation that is turned into NERVE IMPULSES.
16. These Nerve Impulses are carried to the Brain by the AUDITORY OR ACOUSTIC
NERVE.
17. The EARS also contain structures for DETECTING STIMULI that make us aware of
our MOVEMENTS and allow us to maintain our BALANCE.
18. Located within the INNER EAR just above the Cochlea are three tiny canals that lie
at right angles to each other.
19. They are called the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS BECAUSE THEY EACH MAKE
HALF A CIRCLE.
20. The Semicircular Canals and the TWO Tiny Sacs located behind them help us to
SENSE BALANCE OR EQUILIBRIUM.
21. Both the Canals and the Sacs are filled with Fluid and Lined with Hair Cells
(Mechanoreceptors).


38
22. There are also Tiny Grains of Calcium Carbonate and Protein called OTOLITHS,
Otoliths roll back and forth in response to gravity, acceleration, and deceleration.
23. The Movement of Fluid and Otoliths bend the hair on the Hair Cells, and in turn
sends the impulses to the Brain that enable it to determine BODY MOTION AND
POSITION.
VISION - THE EYE
1. The Sense Organ we use to sense Light is the EYES.
2. The EYE is composed of THREE LAYERS:
A. The OUTER Layer consists of the SCLERA
AND CORNEA.
B. The MIDDLE Layer contains the CHOROID,
CILIARY BODY, AND IRIS.
C. The INNER Layer consists of the RETINA.
3. The SCLERA (WHITE OF THE EYE) consist of tough
white connective tissue. The Sclera helps MAINTAIN the SHAPE OF EYE, and also
provides a means of ATTACHMENT for the MUSCLES THAT MOVE THE EYE.
4. IN THE FRONT OF THE EYE, THE SCLERA FORMS A TRANSPARENT LAYER
CALLED THE CORNEA.
5. The CORNEA is the part of the eye through which LIGHT ENTERS.
6. Just inside the Cornea is a small chamber filled with FLUID known as the AQUEOUS
HUMOR.
7. At the BACK of this chamber, the PIGMENTED CHOROID, WHICH CONTAINS THE
BLOOD VESSELS OF THE EYE, BECOMES a disk-like structure called the IRIS.
8. The IRIS (A DIAPHRAGM) is the portion of the eye that gives your eye its
COLOR. The Iris controls the amount of Light entering the eye by altering the
Diameter of the Pupil.
9. In the MIDDLE of the Iris is a small opening called the PUPIL, through which LIGHT
ENTERS THE EYE.


39
10. The Pupil appears as a small black disk in the CENTER of the Eye. Tiny muscles in
the Iris REGULATE the SIZE of the Pupil, controlling the amount of Light to enter the
Eye.
11. In DIM LIGHT the Pupil OPENS to INCREASE the amount of Light, In BRIGHT
LIGHT the Pupil CLOSES to DECREASE the amount of Light entering the Eye.
12. Behind the Iris is the LENS. Light is Focused by the Lens, which changes shape when
pulled by muscles around its edges.
13. The CELLS that form the Lens contain a special PROTEIN called CRYSTALIN.
CRYSTALIN is almost transparent and allows light to pass through.
14. Small Muscles attached to the Lens cause it to bend, this enables the eye to FOCUS
on close and distant objects.
15. Behind the Lens is a Large Chamber called the VITREAL CHAMBER filled with a
transparent Jelly-like Fluid called VITREOUS HUMOR.
16. Special Light Sensitive RECEPTOR CELLS, or PHOTORECEPTORS, are arranged
in a layer in the RETINA, at the BACK of the EYE.
17. The PHOTORECEPTORS CONVERT LIGHT ENERGY INTO IMPULSES THAT ARE
CARRIED TO THE CNS.
18. THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF PHOTORECEPTORS: RODS AND CONES. We
have about 125 million RODS and 7 million CONES on a single Retina.
19. Photoreceptors contain a PIGMENT called RHODOPSIN, that can respond to
most wavelengths of light.
20. RODS are extremely sensitive to ALL COLORS of LIGHT, but DO NOT
DISTINGUISH DIFFERENT COLORS.
21. CONES are less sensitive than RODS, but they DO RESPOND DIFFERENTLY TO
LIGHT OF DIFFERENT COLORS, PRODUCING COLOR VISION.
22. Humans have three kinds of cones. Each type of cone contains a pigment that
absorbs different wavelengths of light. When the signals from these three kinds of cone
are integrated, a person is able to see all the colors in the visible spectrum.
23. In DIM Light, when only RODS are activated, you may see objects clearly, but not
their colors.
24. As the amount of Light INCREASE, the CONES are stimulated and the colors
become clear.


40
25. The Impulses leave the Eye by way of the OPTIC NERVE, and CARRIED to the
part of BRAIN Known as the OPTIC LOBE OR OCCIPITAL LOBE. Here the Brain
Interprets the visual images and provides information about the external world.
SMELL
1. The Sense of Smell is a CHEMICAL SENSE, the Cells responsible for smell are
Specialized Chemoreceptors called OLFACTORY RECEPTORS.
2. These Cells are located in the Upper Part of the Nasal Cavity.
3. Chemoreceptors contain Cilia that extend into the air passageways of the nose and
react to Chemicals in the Air. Chemicals that come into contact with the
Chemoreceptors Stimulate them, causing Impulses to be sent to the Brain by the
OLFACTORY NERVE.
TASTE
1. The Sense of Taste is a Chemical Sense.
2. The Cells that are Stimulated by the Chemicals are called
CHEMORECEPTORS.
3. The Sense Organ that detects Taste are the TASTE BUDS. NOT
THE TONGUE!
4. Most of the 10,000 Taste Buds are embedded between bumps
called PAPILLAE on the tongue, but can also be found on the roof
of the mouth, on the lips, and in the throat.
5. Humans can detect FOUR main kinds of TASTE: SWEET, SALTY,
SOUR, AND BITTER.
6. Each Taste Bud shows a particular Sensitivity to one of these taste. The Sense of
Taste is converted to Nerve Impulses in the Taste Buds and transmitted to the Brain by
TWO Nerves - The FACIAL NERVE AND GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVES.
7. Many of the Sensation associated with taste are actually SMELL Sensations, You
depend on both Senses to detect Flavors in Food.



41
8. That is why when you have a Cold and Your Smell Receptors are blocked, food
seems to have little or no taste.
TOUCH AND RELATED SENSES
1. All Regions of our bodies are sensitive to TOUCH.
2. YOUR LARGEST SENSE ORGAN IS YOUR SKIN.
3. MECHANORECEPTORS located throughout the Skin make it possible to sense
touch, pressure, and tension.
4. In humans, the receptors for touch are concentrated in the face, tongue, and
fingertips.
5. Body hair also plays an important role in the ability to sense touch. Large numbers
of Mechanoreceptors are found in the skin at the base
of hair follicles.
6. Our Skin has several different types of Sensory
Receptors that are just below the surface of the Skin.
7. Two Types respond to Heat or Cold -
THERMORECEPTORS; Two others respond to
TOUCH - MECHANORECEPTORS; one Type
responds to TISSUE DAMAGE WHICH CAUSES PAIN -
PAIN RECEPTORS.
8. Sensory receptors for Hot or Cold are scattered
directly below the surface of the skin. There are THREE
to FOUR WARM Receptors for every COLD Receptor.
9. Sensory Receptor can be more concentrated in
different places of our bodies.
10. The MOST TOUCH-Sensitive areas are the FINGERS, TOES, AND LIPS.
11. Pain Receptors are located throughout the skin. The Sensation of Pain can be
experienced as either Prickling Pain (FAST PAIN) or Burning and Aching Pain (SLOW
PAIN). Pain receptors are Stimulated by mechanical, thermal, electrical, or chemical
Energy.






42

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


It is the function of the respiratory system to transport gases to and from the circulatory
system. The respiratory system involves both External and Internal respiration.
External Respiration is the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the
blood. Internal Respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood and the
cells of the body. Cellular Respiration or Aerobic Respiration involves the use of
oxygen to break down glucose in the cell. We will examine the structures and
mechanisms that carry oxygen to the cells for use in aerobic respiration and that
eliminate the carbon dioxide that is produced by the same process.
OBJECTIVES: Trace the passage of air from the environment to the bloodstream.
Describe how gases are exchanged in the lungs. Contrast the ways that oxygen and
carbon dioxide are transported in the bloodstream. Summarize the skeletal and
muscular changes that occur during breathing. Describe how the rate of breathing is
controlled. Compare internal and external respiration. Define respiratory system and
explain its importance to multicellular organisms.


43
1. THE MAIN JOB OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IS
TO GET OXYGEN INTO THE BODY AND WASTE
GASES OUT OF THE BODY. IT IS THE FUNCTION OF
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM TO TRANSPORT GASES
TO AND FROM THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM.
2. Respiration is a vital function of all living organisms.

3. Respiration occurs at TWO DIFFERENT LEVELS:
A. The level of the CELL. In the Mitochondria of
Eukaryotic Cells, Aerobic Respiration requires OXYGEN to
break down Glucose, releases CARBON DIOXIDE, and
produces large amounts of ATP. THIS LEVEL OF
RESPIRATION IS CALLED INTERNAL RESPIRATION
OR CELLULAR RESPIRATION.
B. The level of the ORGANISM. An organism must get oxygen into its CELLS and
CARBON DIOXIDE back out. THIS LEVEL OF RESPIRATION IS CALLED EXTERNAL
RESPIRATION BECAUSE THE EXCHANGE OF GASES TAKES PLACE WITH THE
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT. THE EXCHANGE OF GASES, OXYGEN (O2) AND
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) BETWEEN AIR AND BLOOD.
4. EXTERNAL RESPIRATION INVOLVES THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
5. A RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IS A GROUP OF ORGANS WORKING TOGETHER TO
BRING ABOUT THE EXCHANGE OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE WITH THE
ENVIRONMENT.
6. A single-celled organism living in water (DIFFUSION) gets its oxygen directly from its
surroundings (the water). The oxygen easily diffuses across the Cell Membrane. Carbon
dioxide also diffuses across the Cell Membrane; thus single-celled organisms do not need
a Respiratory System.
7. In MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS, Each Cell consumes Oxygen and produces Carbon
dioxide. Large Multicellular organism must have a Respiratory System to ensure the
effective exchange of gasses with the Atmosphere quickly and efficiently to survive.
8. THIS OCCURS EVERY TIME AN ORGANISM TAKES A BREATH.
9. The atmosphere of planet Earth is approximately 78% Nitrogen and 21% Oxygen.
The remaining 1% is made up of Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and other trace gases.


44
10. Humans are Air Breathers; our Respiratory System has adapted to these
concentrations of gases in the Atmosphere. If the amount of Oxygen FALLS much
below 15 %, our Respiratory System will be UNABLE to provide enough Oxygen to
support cellular respiration.
THE PASSAGE OF AIR AND THE RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES
1. THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CONSIST OF THE NOSE, NASAL
CAVITY, PHARYNX, LARYNX, TRACHEA, SMALLER CONDUCTING
PASSAGEWAYS (BRONCHI AND BRONCHIOLES), AND LUNGS.
2. The Respiratory System may be divided into the UPPER RESPIRATORY
TRACT AND THE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT.
3. THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT CONSISTS OF THE PARTS OUTSIDE THE
THORACIC (CHEST) CAVITY: THE AIR PASSAGES OF THE NOSE, NASAL CAVITIES,
PHARYNX (WINDPIPE), LARYNX (VOICE BOX), AND UPPER TRACHEA.
4. THE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT CONSISTS OF THE PARTS FOUND IN THE
THORACIC (CHEST) CAVITY: THE LOWER TRACHEA AND THE LUNGS THEMSELVES.
5. Air ENTERS the Respiratory System through the Mouth or Nose.
6. Air entering the Nose passes into the NASAL CAVITY. The Nasal Cavity is richly
supplied with arteries, veins, and capillaries, which bring nutrients and water to its cells.
7. As air pushes back from the Nasal Cavity, it enters the PHARYNX. The Pharynx is
located in the back of the mouth and serves as a passageway for BOTH AIR AND
FOOD. When food is swallowed, a Flap of Cartilage, called the EPIGLOTTIS, presses
down and covers the opening to the air passage (ever have food go "Down the Wrong
Way"?).
8. From the Pharynx, the air moves through the LARYNX, the upper end of the
Trachea, and into the TRACHEA (WINDPIPE), WHICH LEADS DIRECTLY TO THE
LUNGS.
9. These passageways provide a direct connection between the outside air and some of
the most Delicate Tissue in the body.
10. These passageways must filter out dust, dirt, smoke, bacteria, and a variety of other
contaminants found in air.




45








11. THE FIRST FILTERING IS DONE IN THE NOSE. THE NOSE WILL DO THREE
THINGS TO THE AIR WE BREATHE IN:
A. FILTER THE AIR
B. WARM THE AIR
C. PROVIDE MOISTURE (WATER VAPOR OR HUMIDITY) TO THE AIR.
12. As air passes through the nasal cavities it is warmed and humidified, so that air that
reaches the lungs is warmed and moist.
13. The Nasal Airways are lined with Cilia and kept moist by Mucous secretions. The
combination of Cilia and Mucous helps to filter out solid particles from the air an Warm
and Moisten the air, which prevents damage to the delicate tissues that form the
Respiratory System.
14. The moisture in the nose helps to heat and humidify the air, Increasing the amount
of Water Vapor the air entering the Lungs contains.
15. This helps to keep the air entering the nose from Drying out the Lungs and other
parts of our Respiratory System.
16. When air enters the Respiratory System through the Mouth, much less filtering is
done. It is generally better to take in air through the Nose.
17. At the top of the Trachea is the LARYNX (Voice Box or Adam's Apple). Inside, and
stretched across the Larynx are two highly elastic folds of tissue (Ligaments) called the
VOCAL CORDS. Air rushing through the voice box causes the vocal cords to vibrate
producing sound waves.




46
18. From the Larynx, the Warmed, Filtered, and Moistened air passes downward into
the Thoracic Cavity through the Trachea.
19. The Walls of the Trachea are made up of C-Shaped rings of tough flexible
Cartilage. These rings of cartilage Protect the Trachea, make it Flexible, and keep it
from Collapsing or over expanding.
20. The Cells that line the trachea produce Mucus; the mucus helps to capture things
still in the air (Dust and Microorganisms), and is swept out of the air passageway by
tiny Cilia into the Digestion System.
21. Within the Thoracic Cavity, the Trachea divides into TWO Branches, the
Right and Left BRONCHI. Each BRONCHUS enters the LUNG on its
respective side. The Lungs are the Site of Gas Exchange Between the
Atmosphere and the Blood. The Right Lung has Three Divisions or Lobes,
and is slightly larger than the Two Lobed Left Lung. The Lungs are inside
the Thoracic Cavity, bounded by the Rib Cage and Diaphragm. Lining
the entire cavity and encasing the Lungs are PLEURA MEMBRANES
that secrete a Mucus that decreases friction from the movement of the
Lungs during Breathing.
22. The further branching of the BRONCHIAL TUBES is often called the
BRONCHIAL TREE.
23. Imagine the Trachea as the trunk of an upside down tree with extensive branches
that become smaller and smaller; these smaller branches are the BRONCHIOLES.

24. Both Bronchi and Bronchioles contain Smooth Muscle Tissue in their walls. This
muscle tissue controls the SIZE of the Air Passage.
25. The Bronchioles continue to subdivide until they finally end in Clusters of Tiny
Hallow AIR SACS called ALVEOLI. Groups of Alveoli look like bunches of grapes. ALL
EXCHANGE OF GASES IN THE LUNGS OCCURS IN THE ALVEOLI.

26. The Alveoli consist of thin, flexible membranes that contain
an extensive network of Capillaries. The Membranes separate a
gas from liquid. The gas is the air we take in through our
Respiratory System, and the liquid is BLOOD.
27. The Functional Unit of the LUNGS is the ALVEOLI; it
is here that the Circulatory and Respiratory Systems come
together, for the purpose of gas exchange. ALL EXCHANGE OF
GASES IN THE LUNGS OCCURS IN THE ALVEOLI. Each Lung
contains nearly 300 Million ALVEOLI and has a total surface
area about 40 times the surface area of your skin.



47
THE MECHANISM OF BREATHING
1. BREATHING IS THE ENTRANCE AND EXIT OF AIR INTO AND FROM THE LUNGS.
2. VENTILATION is the term for the movement of air to and from the Alveoli.
3. Every single time you take a breath, or move air in and out of your lungs, TWO
major actions take place.
A. INHALATION - also called INSPIRATION, air
is pulled into the LUNGS.
B. EXHALATION - also called EXPIRATION, air is
pushed out of the Lungs.
4. These Two actions deliver oxygen to the Alveoli,
and remove Carbon dioxide.
5. The Continuous Cycles of Inhalation and
Exhalation are known as BREATHING. Mostof us
Breathe 10 to 15 times per minute.
6. The lungs are not directly attached to any Muscle, SO THEY CANNOT BE
EXPANDED OR CONTRACTED.
7. Inhalation and Exhalation are actually produced by Movements of the LARGE FLAT
MUSCLE CALLED THE DIAPHRAGM AND THE INTERCOSTAL (BETWEEN THE
RIBS) MUSCLES.

8. The DIAPHRAGM is located along the BOTTOM of the RIB CAGE and SEPARATES
THE THORACIC CAVITY FROM THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
9. Before Inhalation the Diaphragm is curved UPWARD into the chest. During
Inhalation, the Diaphragm CONTRACTS and Moves DOWN, CAUSING THE VOLUME
OF THE THORACIC CAVITY TO INCREASE.
10. When the Diaphragm moves Down, the Volume of the Thoracic Cavity INCREASES
and the AIR PRESSURE INSIDE IT DECREASES.
11. The Air OUTSIDE is still at ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, TO EQUALIZE THE
PRESSURE INSIDE AND OUT, THE AIR RUSHES THROUGH THE TRACHEA INTO THE
LUNGS - INHALED.



48
12. When the Diaphragm relaxes, it returns to its curved position. THIS ACTION
CAUSES THE VOLUME OF AIR IN THE THORACIC CAVITY TO DECREASE.
13. As the Volume Decreases, the pressure in the Thoracic Cavity outside the lungs
increases. This INCREASE the Air pressure and causes the LUNGS to DECREASE IN
SIZE.
14. The air inside the Lungs is Pushed Out or EXHALED.
15. We generally breathe with the Diaphragm and Intercostal Muscles (REST), under
extreme conditions we can use other muscles in our Thoracic Cavity to breathe
(ACTIVITY).
16. Since our Breathing is based on Atmospheric Pressure, the Lungs can only Work
Properly if the space around them is SEALED.
17. When the Diaphragm contracts, the expanded volume in the Thoracic Cavity
quickly fills as air rushes into the Lungs. If there is a small hole in the Thoracic Cavity,
the Respiratory System will NOT Work.
18. Air will rush into the cavity through the hole, upset the pressure relationship, and
possibly cause the collapse of a lung.
HEMOGLOBIN AND GAS EXCHANGE
1. Chemical Analysis of the gases that are inhaled and exhaled:
GAS INHALED -vs- EXHALED
O2 20.71% 14.6%
CO2 0.04% 4.0%
H2O 1.25% 5.9%
2. THREE IMPORTANT THINGS HAPPEN TO
THE AIR WE INHALE:
A. OXYGEN IS REMOVED
B. CARBON DIOXIDE IS ADDED
C. WATER VAPOR IS ADDED.
3. This occurs in the ALVEOLI in the LUNGS; Our Lungs consist of nearly 300 million
ALVEOLI where gas exchange occurs (THE EXCHANGE OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND
OXYGEN).


49
4. Blood flowing from the HEART enters Capillaries surrounding each Alveolus and
spreads around the Alveolus. This Blood contains a LARGE AMOUNT of CO2 and Very
Little O2.
5. The Concentration of the gases in the blood and the alveolus are not Equal
(Concentration Gradient). This causes the DIFFUSION of CO2 from the Blood to the
Alveolus and the DIFFUSION of O2 from the Alveolus into the Blood.
6. The Blood leaving the alveolus has nearly tripled the total amount of oxygen it
originally carried.
7. TWO SPECIAL MOLECULES HELP THIS PROCESS OF GAS EXCHANGE
WORK EFFECTIVELY:
A. MACROMOLECULES - Soaplike, consisting of phospholipid and protein, they
coat the inner surface of the Alveolus.
B. HEMOGLOBIN - An Oxygen Carrying Molecule that is a component of Blood.
Hemoglobin is a red colored protein found in red blood cells. Each Hemoglobin
molecule has FOUR SITES to which O2 atoms can bind. Thus, One Hemoglobin
molecule can carry up to Four molecules of oxygen. Most of the oxygen - 97 percent -
moves into the red blood cells, where it combines with Hemoglobin.
REGULATION OF BREATHING
1. Breathing is such an important function that your NERVOUS SYSTEM will NOT let
you have complete control of it.
2. TEST IT! HOW LONG CAN YOU HOLD YOUR BREATH!
3. BREATHING IS AN INVOLUNTARY ACTION UNDER CONTROL OF THE
MEDULLA OBLONGATA IN THE LOWER PART OF THE BRAIN. Sensory
neurons in this region control MOTOR NEURONS IN THE SPINAL CORD.
4. Although YOU can consciously controlled breathing to a limited extent-such as
holding your breath-it CANNOT BE CONSCIOUSLY SUPPRESSED. THE NEED TO
SUPPLY OXYGEN TO OUR CELLS AND REMOVE CARBON DIOXIDE IS A POWERFUL
ONE.
5. You can only hold your breath until you lose Consciousness - Then the Brain takes
control and normal breathing resumes.




50
6. CARBON DIOXIDE AND HYDROGEN IONS (BLOOD ACIDITY) ARE THE
PRIMARY STIMULI THAT CAUSES US TO BREATHE.
7. The Nervous System must have a way to determine whether enough O2 is getting
into the Blood.
8. Two special sets of SENSORY NEURONS constantly check the levels of gases in the
Blood. THESE SPECIAL SENSORY RECEPTORS ARE SENSITIVE TO THE LEVELS OF
GASES IN THE BLOOD, ESPECIALLY THE LEVEL OF CARBON DIOXIDE.
9. One set is located IN the CAROTID ARTERIES in the NECK, which Carry Blood to
the BRAIN.
10. The other set is located NEAR the AORTA, the large ARTERY that Carries Blood
FROM THE HEART TO THE REST OF THE BODY.
11. When Carbon Dioxide Dissolves in the blood, it forms AN ACID KNOWN AS
CARBONIC ACID. CARBONIC ACID IS SO UNSTABLE THAT IT IMMEDIATELY
BREAKS DOWN INTO HYDROGEN ION (H+) AND A BICARBONATE IONS
(HCO3-).
CO2 + H20 H2CO3
H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-
12. Most carbon dioxide travels in the blood as Bicarbonate Ions. When the
Blood reaches the Lungs, the series of reactions is reversed. The Bicarbonate ions
combine with a proton to form Carbonic Acid, which in turn forms Carbon Dioxide and
Water. The carbon dioxide Diffuses out of the capillaries into the Alveoli and is exhaled
into the atmosphere.
13. The Hydrogen Ions change the ACIDITY (pH) of the Blood, and it is this change in
Acidity the special sensory cells respond to.
14. The Lungs of an average person have a total air capacity of about 6.0 liters. Only
about 0.6 liter is exchange during Normal Breathing. This is all the air we need at rest.
15. During Exercise, deep breathing forces out much more of the total lung capacity. As
much as 4.5 liters of air can be Inhaled or Exhaled with effort.
16. The MAXIMUM Amount of Air that can be moved into and out of the Respiratory
System is Known AS THE VITAL CAPACITY OF THE LUNGS.
17. The Vital Capacity is ALWAYS 1 to 1.5 liters LESS than the Total Capacity because
the Lungs Cannot be completely Deflated without serious damage.


51
18. The extra capacity allows us to exercise for long periods of time. Rather than
Breathing 12 times a minute, as most of us do at REST, a Runner may Breath as often
as 50 times a minute.
19. For rapid and deep breathing during vigorous exercise you use the muscles of the rib
cage.

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM,
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM, AND BLOOD

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
Most of the cells in the human body are Not in direct contact with the external
environment. The circulatory system acts as a transport service for these cells. Two
fluids move through the circulatory system: Blood and Lymph. The blood, heart, and
blood vessels form the Cardiovascular System. The lymph, lymph nodes and lymph
vessels form the Lymphatic System. The Cardiovascular System and the Lymphatic
system collectively make up the Circulatory System.
OBJECTIVES: List the parts of the circulatory system. Describe the structure and
function of the human heart. Trace the flow of blood through the heart and body.
Distinguish between arteries, veins, and capillaries in terms of the structure and
function. Distinguish between pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation. Describe
the structure and function of the lymphatic system
1. Higher animals, including humans, usually have a CLOSED CIRCULATORY
SYSTEM, meaning it is repeatedly cycled throughout the body.


52
2. It was in 1628, when the English physician William Harvey showed that BLOOD
Circulated throughout the body in one-way Vessels.
3. According to Harvey, Blood was pumped out of the Heart and into the Tissue
through ONE TYPE OF VESSEL and back to the Heart through ANOTHER TYPE OF
VESSEL. The Blood, in other words, moved in a CLOSED CYCLE through the body.
4. BLOOD IS THE BODY'S INTERNAL TRANSPORTATION
SYSTEM.
5. PUMPED BY THE HEART, BLOOD TRAVELS THROUGH A
NETWORK OF VESSELS, CARRYING MATERIALS SUCH AS OXYGEN,
NUTRIENTS, AND HORMONES TO AND WASTE PRODUCTS FROM
EACH OF THE HUNDRED TRILLION CELLS IN THE HUMAN BODY.
6. BLOOD, THE HEART, AND BLOOD VESSELS MAKE UP THE
CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM.

THE HEART
1. The Central Organ of the Cardiovascular System is the HEART.
2. THE HEART IS A HOLLOW, MUSCULAR ORGAN THAT
CONTRACTS AT REGULAR INTERVALS, FORCING BLOOD THROUGH THE
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM.
3. The Heart is cone-shaped, about the size of a Fist, and is located in the Thoracic
Cavity between the Lungs directly behind the Sternum (Breastbone). The Heart is
tilted so that the APEX (the pointed end) is oriented to the Left.
4. The walls of the Heart are made up of Three Layers of Tissue.
A. The Outer and Inner Layers are EPITHELIAL TISSUE.
B. The Middle Layer (The walls of the four chambers of the Heart) is CARDIAC
MUSCLE TISSUE CALLED THE MYOCARDIUM.
5. CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE IS NOT UNDER CONSCIOUS CONTROL OF THE
NERVOUS SYSTEM.
6. Cardiac Muscle Tissue has a rich supply of Blood, which ensures that it gets plenty of
Oxygen.


53
7. There is also a special connection between Cells that allow Impulses to travel from
one cell to another. The Cells that make up the Cardiac Muscle Tissue are loaded with
MITOCHONDRIA, (POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL), guaranteeing the each Cell has a
constant supply of ATP.
8. Our Hearts Contract or Beat about once every second of every day of our lives. The
heart beats more than 2.5 million times in an average life span. The only time the
Heart gets a Rest is Between Beats.
HOW THE HEART WORKS
1. The Heart can be thought of as TWO PUMPS sitting side by side. The Human Heart,
with a Right Atrium and Right Ventricle, as well as a Left Atrium and Left Ventricle,
essentially has TWO Separate Hearts inside one.
2. The RIGHT SIDE of the Heart pumps Blood From The BODY INTO THE LUNGS,
WHERE OXYGEN POOR BLOOD (DEOXYGENATED, USUALLY SHOWN IN BLUE)
GIVES UP CARBON DIOXIDE AND PICKS UP OXYGEN.
3. The LEFT SIDE of the Heart pumps OXYGEN RICH BLOOD (OXYGENATED,
USUALLY SHOWN IN RED) FROM THE LUNGS TO THE REST OF THE BODY EXCEPT
THE LUNGS.
4. The Heart is Enclosed in a Protective Membrane Sac called the PERICARDIUM.
The Pericardium surrounds the heart and secretes a fluid that Reduces Friction as the
heart beats.
5. Our Heart has FOUR CHAMBERS:
A. The UPPER CHAMBERS of the Heart are the RIGHT
AND LEFT ATRIA (ATRIUM), RECEIVE BLOOD COMING
INTO THE HEART.
B. The LOWER CHAMBERS are the RIGHT AND LEFT
VENTRICLES, PUMP BLOOD OUT OF THE HEART. The Left
Ventricle is the Thickest chamber of the heart because it has to
do most of the work to pump blood to all parts of the body.
6. Vertically Dividing the Right and Left sides of the Heart is a
Common Wall called the SEPTUM. The Septum Prevents the
Mixing of Oxygen-poor and Oxygen-rich Blood.



54
THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE HEART (FROM BODY TO LUNGS,
DEOXYGENTATED BLOOD -BLUE)
1. Oxygen-Poor Blood from the body enters the Right side of the Heart through TWO
large blood vessels called VENA CAVA.
2. The SUPERIOR (UPPER) Vena Cava brings Blood from the UPPER PART OF
THE BODY TO THE HEART.
3. The INFERIOR (LOWER) Vena Cava brings Blood from the LOWER PART OF
THE BODY TO HE HEART.
4. Both VENA CAVA EMPTY INTO THE RIGHT ATRIUM. When the Heart Relaxes
(Between Beats), pressure in the circulatory system causes the Atrium to fill with blood.
5. When the Heart CONTRACTS, Blood is squeezed from the RIGHT ATRIUM INTO THE
RIGHT VENTRICLE through flaps of tissue called a ATRIOVENTRICULAR (AV)
VALVE, that prevents blood from flowing back into the Right Atrium.
6. The valve that separates the Right Atrium and Ventricle is called the TRICUSPID
VALVE.
7. THE GENERAL PURPOSE OF ALL VALVES IN THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM IS TO
PREVENT THE BACKFLOW OF BLOOD. They also ensure that BLOOD FLOWS IN
ONLY ONE DIRECTION.
8. THE SPECIFIC PURPOSE OF THE TRICUSPID VALVE IS TO PREVENT BACKFLOW
OF BLOOD FROM THE RIGHT VENTRICLE TO THE RIGHT ATRIUM WHEN THE
RIGHT VENTRICLE CONTRACTS.
9. When the Heart CONTRACTS a second time, Blood in the RIGHT VENTRICLE IS
SENT THROUGH THE A SEMILUNAR (SL) VALVE KNOWN AS THE PULMONARY
VALVE INTO THE PULMONARY ARTERIES TO THE LUNGS. These are the Only
Arteries to carry Oxygen-Poor Blood. At the base of the Pulmonary Arteries is a valve
(Pulmonary Valve) that prevents blood from traveling back into the Right Ventricle.
THE LEFT SIDE OF THE HEART (FROM LUNGS TO BODY,
OXYGENATED BLOOD-RED)
1. Oxygen-Rich Blood leaves the Lungs and Returns to the Heart by way of Blood
Vessels called the PULMONARY VEINS. These are the only Veins to carry Oxygen-
Rich Blood.



55
2. Returning Blood enters the LEFT ATRIUM, IT PASSES THROUGH flaps of tissue called
a ATRIOVENTRICULAR (AV) VALVE to the LEFT VENTRICLE.
3. The valve that separates the Left Atrium and Ventricle is called the MITRAL
VALVE or BICUSPID VALVE.
4. FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE, BLOOD IS PUMPED THROUGH A SEMILUNAR (SL)
VALVE CALLED THE AORTIC VALVE INTO THE AORTA ARTERY THAT CARRIES IT
TO EVERY PART OF THE BODY EXCEPT THE LUNGS.
5. At the base of the Aorta is a Valve (Aortic Valve) that prevents blood from flowing
back into the Left Ventricle.
THE HEARTBEAT (CARDIAC CYCLE)
1. The Cardiac Cycle is the Sequence of events in one heartbeat. In its simplest form, the
cardiac cycle is the Simultaneous Contraction of the TWO Atria, followed a fraction of a
second latter by the Simultaneous Contraction of the TWO Ventricles.
2. The Heart consists of Muscle Cells that contract in Waves. When the first group is
Stimulated, they in turn stimulate Neighboring Cells. Those cells Stimulate more cells.
This chain reaction continues until all cells Contract. The wave of activity spreads in
such a way that the Atria and the Ventricles contract in a Steady Rhythm.
3. A Heartbeat has two Phases:
A. Phase 1 - SYSTOLE is the term for CONTRACTION. Occurs when the Ventricles
contract, closing the AV Valves and opening the SL Valves to pump blood into two
major vessels leaving the heart.
B. Phase 2 - DIASTOLE is the term for RELAXATION. Occurs when the Ventricles
relax, allowing the back pressure of the blood to closed SL Valves and opening AV
valves.
4. The Cardiac Cycle also creates the HEART SOUNDS: each heartbeat produces TWO
Sounds, often called LUBB-DUP, that can be heard with a stethoscope.
5. The First sound, the Loudest and Longest, is caused by the Ventricular Systole
(Contraction) closing the AV Valves.
6. The Second sound is caused by the closure of the Aortic and Pulmonary Valves (SL).
7. If any of the Valves do not close properly, an extra sound called a HEART
MURMUR may be heard.
8. Although the Heart is a SINGLE MUSCLE, it does NOT Contract in a Single motion.
The Contraction spreads over the Heart like a WAVE.


56







9. The Wave BEGINS in a Small Bundle of Specialized Heart Muscle Cells embedded in
the RIGHT ATRIUM CALLED THE SINOATRIAL NODE (SA).
10. The SA Node is the Natural PACEMAKER of the Heart. It initiates each Heartbeat
and sets the PACE for the HEART RATE.
11. The impulse spreads from the Pacemaker through the Cardiac Muscle Cells in the
Right and Left Atrium, causing BOTH Atria to Contract almost Simultaneously.
12. When the impulse INITIATED by the SA Node reaches Another special area of the
Heart known as the ATRIOVENTRICULAR (AV) NODE. The AV Node is located in
the Septum between the Right and Left Ventricles. The AV Node Relays the electrical
impulse to the muscle cells that make up the Ventricles. The Ventricles Contract almost
Simultaneously a Fraction of a second after the Atria, COMPLETING ONE FULL
HEARTBEAT.
13. These Contractions causes the Chambers to Squeeze the Blood, Pushing it in the
proper direction along its path.
14. The Heart Initiates its Own Stimulation from the Sinoatrial Node and
Atrioventricular Node, and Does NOT require Stimulation from the Nervous System.
15. The Autonomic Nervous system does influence Heart Rate. The Sympathetic
Nervous System INCREASES HEART RATE and the Parasympathetic Nervous System
DECREASES IT.
16. For most of us, at REST our Heart Beats between 60 and 80 beats per minute.
During Exercise that can increase to as many as 200 beats per minute.

BLOOD VESSELS (ARTERIES, VEINS AND CAPILLARIES)


57
1. The Circulatory System is known as a CLOSED SYSTEM because the blood is
contained within either the Heart or Blood Vessels at all times.
2. The blood Vessels that are part of the Closed Circulatory System of humans from a
vast network to help keep the Blood flowing in One Direction.
3. After the Blood leaves the Heart, it is pumped through a network of Blood Vessels to
different parts of the body.
4. The Blood Vessels that form this network and are part of the CIRCULATORY
SYSTEM ARE THE ARTERIES, CAPILLARIES, AND VEINS.








5. With the exception of Capillaries and tiny Veins, Blood Vessels have WALLS made
of THREE LAYERS OF TISSUE, that provides for a combination of Strength and
Elasticity
A. THE INNER LAYER IS EPITHELIAL TISSUE.
B. THE MIDDLE LAYER IS SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE.
C. THE OUTER LAYER IS CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
ARTERIES AND ARTERIOLES (SMALL ARTERIES)
1. Arteries carry blood from the HEART TO CAPILLARIES AND THE REST OF THE
BODY.
2. The Walls of Arteries are generally THICKER than those of Veins.


58
3. The Smooth Muscle Cells and Elastic Fibers that make up the Walls help make
Arteries Tough and Flexible. This enables Arteries to withstand the high pressure of
blood as it is pumped from the Heart. The force that blood exerts on the walls of blood
vessels is known as BLOOD PRESSURE.
4. EXCEPT FOR THE PULMONARY ARTERIES, ALL ARTERIES CARRY OXYGEN-RICH
BLOOD.
5. The Artery that carries Oxygen-Rich Blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE to all parts of
the body, EXCEPT THE LUNGS, is the AORTA.
6. THE AORTA WITH A DIAMETER OF 2.5 cm, IS THE LARGEST
ARTERY IN THE BODY.

7. As the Aorta travels away from the Heart, it branches into
smaller Arteries so that all parts of the body are supplied.
8. THE SMALLEST ARTERIES ARE CALLED ARTERIOLES.
CAPILLARIES
1. ARTERIOLES BRANCH INTO NETWORKS OF VERY SMALL BLOOD VESSELS
CALLED CAPILLARIES.
2. IT IS IN THE THIN-WALLED (ONE-CELL IN THICKNESS) THAT THE REAL WORK
OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM IS DONE.
3. The Walls of the Capillaries consist of only one layer of cells, making it easy for
Oxygen and Nutrients to DIFFUSE FROM THE BLOOD INTO THE TISSUE.
4. Forces of Diffusion drive CO2 and waste products from the tissue into the Capillaries.
5. Capillaries are extremely NARROW; Blood Cells moving through them must pass in
Single file.
VEINS
1. THE FLOW OF BLOOD MOVES FROM CAPILLARIES INTO THE VEINS.
2. Veins form a system that COLLECTS Blood from every part of the Body and
CARRIES it Back to the HEART.
3. The smallest Veins are called VENULES.


59
4. LIKE ARTERIES, VEINS ARE LINED WITH SMOOTH MUSCLE. Vein walls are thinner
and less elastic than Arteries. Veins though are more FLEXIBLE and are able to stretch
out readily.
5. This flexibility reduces the Resistance the flow of blood encounters on its way back to
the Heart.
6. Large Veins contain Valves that maintain the one direction flow of Blood. This is
important where Blood must flow against the Force of Gravity.
7. The flow of Blood in Veins is help by Contractions of Skeleton Muscles, especially those
in the legs and arms. When muscles contract they squeeze against Veins and help force
Blood Toward the Heart.
PATTERNS OF CIRCULATION
1. Blood moves through the body in a continuous pathway, of which there are TWO
MAJOR PATHS; THE PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION.
2. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION CARRIES BLOOD BETWEEN THE HEART
AND THE LUNGS. THIS CIRCULATION BEGINS AT THE RIGHT VENTRICLE AND
ENDS AT THE LEFT ATRIUM.
3. Oxygen-Poor blood is pumped out of the Right Ventricle of
the Heart into the Lungs through the Pulmonary Arteries.
These are the only Arteries in the Body to Carry
Deoxygenated Blood.
4. Blood returns to the Heart through the Pulmonary Veins,
the only Veins to carry oxygen-rich blood.
5. THE LUNGS ARE THE ONLY ORGANS DIRECTLY
CONNECTED TO BOTH CHAMBERS OF THE HEART.
6. THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION, STARTS AT THE LEFT
VENTRICLE AND ENDS AT THE ATRIUM, CARRIES BLOOD
TO THE REST OF THE BODY.
7. Oxygen-rich blood leaving the Heart passes through the
Aorta and into a number of Arteries that supply blood to
every part of the body.
8. SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION SUPPLIES EACH MAJOR ORGAN
WITH BLOOD, INCLUDING THE HEART.


60
9. The Heart receives its supply of Blood from a PAIR of CORONARY ARTERIES leading
from the Aorta. Blood enters into Capillaries that lead to Veins through which blood
returns to the Right Atrium.
10. The Systemic System can be divided into THREE SUBSYSTEMS:
A. CORONARY CIRCULATION - SUPPLIES BLOOD TO THE HEART.
B. RENAL CIRCULATION - SUPPLIES BLOOD TO THE KIDNEYS. Nearly one-
forth of the blood that is pump into the Aorta by the Left Ventricle flows to the
Kidneys. The Kidneys Filter Waste From the Blood.
C. HEPATIC PORTAL CIRCULATION - Nutrients are picked up by capillaries in
the small intestines and are transported to the Liver. Excess nutrients are stored in the
Live for future needs. The Liver receives oxygenated blood from a large Artery that
branches of the Aorta.
BLOOD PRESSURE
1. Blood moves through our Circulation System because it is under Pressure.
2. This Pressure is caused by the Contraction of the Heart and by Muscles that surround
Blood Vessels.

3. A MEASURE OF FORCE THAT BLOOD EXERTS AGAINST A VESSEL WALL IS
CALLED BLOOD PRESSURE.
4. Blood Pressure is Always highest in the Two Main Arteries that leave the Heart.
5. Blood Pressure is maintain by TWO WAYS: (1) The Nervous System, which can
speed up or slow down the Heart Rate; (2) The KIDNEYS, which regulate blood
pressure by the amount of fluid in our Blood.
6. When our pressure is too high, kidneys remove water from blood, lowering the total
amount of fluid in the Circulatory System.
7. Both High and LOW Blood Pressure can cause our bodies problems.
8. Blood Pressure is Usually Measured in the Artery Supplying the upper
Arm.
9. To measure Blood Pressure:
A. A Cuff is inflated around a persons arm - stopping the flow of blood


61
through the artery.
B. Air Pressure in the Cuff is slowly released- the first sounds of blood passing through
the artery means that the Ventricles have pump with enough force to overcome the
pressure exerted by the cuff.
C. This measurement is known as the SYSTOLIC PRESSURE, or the pressure of the
blood when it leaves the Ventricles. NORMAL PRESSURE IS ABOUT 120 mm Hg FOR
MALES, AND 110 mm Hg FOR FEMALES.
D. Air pressure is continued to be released - listening for the disappearance of Sound,
which indicates a steady flow of blood. This known as the DIASTOLIC PRESSURE, or
the pressure of the blood is sufficient to keep arteries open constantly even with the
Ventricles Relax. NORMAL PRESSURE IS ABOUT 80 mm Hg FOR MALES AND 70 mm
Hg FOR FEMALES.
E. YOUR BLOOD PRESSURE IS GIVEN TO AS THE SYSTOLIC NUMBER OVER THE
DIASTOLIC NUMBER.
THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM









1. As Blood Circulates throughout the body, Fluid from the Blood LEAKS into tissue.
2. A NETWORK OF VESSELS KNOWN AS THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM COLLECTS THE
FLUID AND RETURNS IT TO THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM.
3. The loss Fluid is known as LYMPH, a transparent yellowish fluid, and is collected in
Lymphatic Capillaries and moves to larger Lymph Vessels. Like Veins Lymph Vessels


62
contain valves to prevent the back flow of lymph. Lymph vessels form a one-way
system that returns fluids collected in tissues back to the bloodstream.
4. The Lymphatic system has no pump like the heart, lymph must be moved through
vessels by the squeezing of skeletal muscles.
5. These Lymph Vessels Pass Through small bean-shaped enlargements (organs) called
LYMPH NODES, WHICH ACTS AS FILTERS AND PRODUCERS OF SPECIAL WHITE
BLOOD CELLS CALLED LYMPHOCYTES THAT ARE SPECIALIZED TO FIGHT
INFECTION.
6. The Fluid is returned to the Circulatory System at an opening in a Vein located
under the Left Clavicle, or Collarbone, just below the shoulder.
BLOOD
Blood is a Liquid Connective Tissue that constitutes the transport medium of the
circulatory system. The Two main functions of blood are to transport nutrients and
oxygen to the cells and carry carbon dioxide and waste materials away from the cells.
Blood also transfers heat to the body surface and plays a role in defending the body
against disease.
OBJECTIVES: List the components of blood. Distinguish between red blood cells,
white blood cells, and platelets in terms of structure and function. Summarize the
process of blood clotting. Explain what determine the compatibility of blood types for
transfusion.
1. The Main Function of the Circulatory System is to Transport Material in a FLUID
Medium throughout the body.
2. THIS FLUID MEDIUM IS CALLED BLOOD. BLOOD IS A TYPE OF LIQUID
CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT HAS MANY FUNCTIONS. Blood is composed of a Liquid
Medium and Blood Solids. The liquid makes up about 55 percent of the blood, and
blood solids make up the remaining 45 percent.
3. BLOOD TRANSPORT NUTRIENTS, DISSOLVED GASES (O2, CO2), ENZYMES,
HORMONES, AND WASTE PRODUCTS.
4. BLOOD REGULATES BODY TEMPERATURE, pH, and ELECTROLYTES.
5. BLOOD PROTECTS THE BODY FROM INVADERS, AND BLOOD RESTRICTS THE
LOSS OF FLUID.
6. Our Bodies contains 4 to 5 liters of Blood.



63
BLOOD PLASMA
1. Approximately 55 percent of Blood in made up of a Fluid Portion called PLASMA.
2. Plasma is the Straw-Colored Liquid portion of Blood and is 90 Percent Water and 10
percent dissolved fats, salts, sugars, and Proteins called PLASMA PROTEINS.
3. THE PLASMA PROTEINS ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE TYPES:
A. ALBUMINS - HELP REGULATE OSMOTIC PRESSURE (MAINTAIN NORMAL
BLOOD VOLUME AND BLOOD PRESSURE). THIS IS THE MOST ABUNDANT PLASMA
PROTEIN.
B. GLOBULINS OR ANTIBODIES - INCLUDE ANTIBODIES THAT HELP FIGHT
OFF INFECTION. ANTIBODIES INITIATE THE DESTRUCTION OF PATHOGENS AND
PROVIDE US WITH IMMUNITY.
C. FIBRINOGEN - RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ABILITY OF BLOOD TO CLOT.
BLOOD CELLS OR SOLIDS
THE CELLULAR PORTION OF BLOOD MAKE UP THE OTHER 45 PERCENT AND
INCLUDES SEVERAL TYPES OF HIGHLY SPECIALIZED CELLS AND CELL
FRAGMENTS. THEY ARE RED BLOOD CELLS (RBC), WHITE BLOOD CELLS (WBC),
AND PLATELETS.
RED BLOOD CELLS (RBC) ERYTHROCYTES
1. RBC are the most numerous of the Blood Cells. One microliter of blood contains
approx. 5 million RBCs.
2. RBC are BICONCAVE, or shaped so that they are narrower in the
center than along the edges.
3. RBC are produced from cells in the Bone Marrow, they are gradually
filled with HEMOGLOBIN which forces out the nucleus and other
organelles.
4. Mature RBC do not have a Cell Nucleus and Organelles. The Mature RBC becomes
little more than a membrane sac containing Hemoglobin.
5. Hemoglobin is the iron-containing protein that gives RBC the ability to carry
Oxygen. Hemoglobin gives the RBC their color.


64
6. RBC stay in circulation for about 120 days before they are destroyed by special WBC
in the liver and spleen. RBC in your body are dying and being replace at a rate of
about 2 million per second.
WHITE BLOOD CELLS (WBC) LEUKOCYTES







1. Outnumbered by RBC almost 500 to 1.
2. WBC are produced in the Red Bone Marrow, The Lymph Nodes, and the Spleen.
They are larger than RBC, almost Colorless, and do NOT Contain Hemoglobin.
3. WBC have a Nucleus and can live for many months or years.
4. THE MAIN FUNCTION OF WBC IS TO PROTECT THE BODY AGAINST INVASION
BY FOREIGN CELLS OR SUBSTANCES.
5. WBC called PHAGOCYTES can destroy bacteria and foreign cells by Phagocytosis
(engulfed and digested), some produce special proteins called ANTIBODIES, and
some release special chemicals that help the body fight off disease and resist infection.
6. Doctors are able to detect the presence of infection by counting the number of WBC
in the blood. When a person has an infection, the number of WBC can Double.
PLATELETS AND BLOOD CLOTTING
1. Platelets are NOT Cells; they are tiny Fragments of other Cells that were formed in
the bone marrow.
2. Platelets are formed when small pieces of Cytoplasm are pinched off the large cells in
the Red Bone Marrow called MEGAKARYOCYTES, which are found in the Bone
Marrow. Platelets lack a nucleus and their life span is about 7 to 11 days.


65
3. Platelets play an important role in Blood Clotting.
4. Platelets help the Clotting process by Clumping together and forming a Plug at the
site of a wound and then releasing proteins called CLOTTING FACTORS.
5. Clotting Factors start a series of Chemical Reactions that ends with a sticky
meshwork of Fibrin Filaments that stop bleeding by producing a clot.
6. A genetic disorder of Clotting Factors is called HEMOPHILIA, suffers may bleed
uncontrollably from even a small cut or scrape.
7. Clotting of blood in Vessels can block the flow of blood, if this happens in the brain,
brain cells may die, causing a STROKE.
BLOOD TYPES
1. Blood type is determined by the Type of ANTIGEN present on the Surface of RBC.
2. An ANTIGEN is a protein or carbohydrate that acts as a signal, enabling the body
to recognize foreign substances in the body.
3. Blood from Humans is Classified into FOUR GROUPS,
based on the Antigens on the Surface of RBC.
4. BLOOD TYPING involves identifying the Antigens in a
Sample.
5. THREE of the most important human antigens are called
A, B, and Rh.
6. The A-B-O System is based on the A and B Antigen. It is a
means of classifying blood by the Antigens located on the
surface of RBC and the Antibodies circulating in the Plasma.
7. An Individual's RBC may carry an A ANTIGEN, a B ANTIGEN, both A and B
ANTIGENS, OR NO ANTIGEN AT ALL. These Antigen patterns are called BLOOD
TYPES A, B, AB, O RESPECTIVELY.
8. Type AB is known as a Universal Receiver, meaning that
they can receive any type blood.
9. Type O is known as a Universal Donor, meaning they can
donate blood to anyone.




66
Rh SYSTEM
1. An antigen that is sometimes on the surface of RBC is the Rh FACTOR, named after
the rhesus monkey in which it was first discovered.
2. Eighty-five percent of the U.S. population is Rh-positive (Rh+), meaning that Rh
Antigens are present.
3. People who do not have Rh Antigens are called Rh-negative (Rh-).
4. If an Rh- person receives a transfusion of blood that has Rh+ antigens, Rh- antibodies
will react with the Antigen and Agglutination (clumping) will occur.
5. The Rh Factor is the reason there are blood test before marriage. The most serious
problem with Rh incompatibility occurs during pregnancy.
6. If the mother is Rh- and the father is Rh+, the child may inherit the Dominant Rh+
allele (gene) from the father.
7. If the babies Rh+ blood gets into the mother during delivery, the mother will develop
Antibodies to the Rh Factor.
8. If a second Rh+ child is conceived later, the mother's antibodies can cross the placenta
and attack the blood of the fetus.
9. This condition is called ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.
10. To prevent this condition, an Rh- mother of an Rh+ child can by given Antibodies to
destroy and Rh+ cells that have entered her bloodstream from the fetus.
11. The antibodies, a substance called RHOGAM, must be administered to the mother
within Three Days after the birth of her first Rh+ child to remove from her bloodstream
any Rh+ antibodies.
12. By destroying any Rh+ cells in her bloodstream, any danger to a second child is
prevented because the mother will not make any Antibodies against the blood cells of the
Rh+ fetus.
NUTRITION AND DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
NUTRIENTS
OBJECTIVES: List the four organic nutrients needed by the human body. Identify
foods containing each of the organic nutrients. Explain the importance if inorganic
molecules. Summarize the functions that the Six Nutrients perform in the body.
Explain why water is an important nutrient.


67
1. Humans, like most animals, are HETEROTROPHS; We eat other organisms for Food
and Energy.
2. FOOD CONTAINS NUTRIENTS, OR MOLECULES THAT PROVIDE ENERGY AND
MATERIAL FOR GROWTH AND REPAIR.
3. NUTRIENTS ARE CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES NEEDED BY THE BODY FOR
GROWTH, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE.
4. All the different FOODS in the world CONTAIN at least ONE of SIX KINDS OF
NUTRIENTS: CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEINS, LIPIDS (FATS), VITAMINS,
MINERALS AND WATER.
5. FOUR of these Nutrients- Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, and Vitamins-are
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Because they contain the Elements Carbon, Hydrogen, and
Oxygen.
6. The TWO Remaining Nutrients-Minerals and Water-are INORGANIC
COMPOUNDS.
7. Nutrition is the Science or Study of how our bodies obtain Energy, Build Tissue, and
Control Body Functions using materials supplied in the Food We Eat.
8. Like any Machine that DOES WORK, Our bodies need FUEL.
9. FOOD IS OUR BODY'S FUEL. It supplies us with Energy not only to do Work but to
generate the HEAT that Maintains our body Temperature.
10. To MEASURE the Amount of Energy that can be obtained from food, Biologist and
Chemists use the unit known as a calorie.
11. A calorie IS THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY NEEDED TO RAISE THE TEMPERATURE
OF 1 GRAM OF WATER BY 1 DEGREE CELSIUS.
12. Because the Energy needs of the body are great, Nutritionist usually refer to the
Energy content of food in terms of the kilocalorie or kcal, which is 1000 calories.
Written as Calorie, a capital C.
13. The calories you see listed on food labels really are kilocalories, or simply Calories.
14. The basic Energy needs of an Average-sized Adult Human is about 1500 Calories
per day.
15. Energy needs vary depending on the KIND OF WORK YOU DO, HOW ACTIVE YOU
ARE, YOUR GENDER, AND YOUR AGE.


68
16. MEN GENERALLY HAVE HIGHER ENERGY NEEDS THAN WOMEN.
17. If you measure your body's Metabolism, (the sum of all the chemical processes that
take place within an organism), the results would be expressed in a number called the
BASAL METABOLIC RATE (BMR).
18. This number (BMR) is equal to the number of kilocalories an animal must use in a
set amount of time just to maintain life.
19. The BMR for females is 1300 to 1500 kcal per day. A male has a BMR of 1600 to
1800 kcal per day.
20. Food supplies building materials - the substances required by the cells in our body
for proper growth and development.
21. Tissue throughout the body must be repaired and replaced.
22. Proteins and Nucleic Acids cannot be synthesis unless key compounds are supplied
by a Complete Diet.
23. A Balanced Diet includes foods from the FOUR BASIC FOOD GROUPS OR
FOOD PYRAMID:

THE NEW FOOD PYRAMID
A. VEGETABLES AND FRUITS, 5 TO 9 SERVINGS
B. GRAIN PRODUCTS, SUCH AS BREAD AND CEREALS, 6 TO 11 SERVINGS
C. DAIRY PRODUCTS, 2 TO 3 SERVINGS
D. PROTEIN-RICH FOODS SUCH AS MEAT, FISH, AND BEANS, 2-3
SERVINGS
24. According to the Food Pyramid, a Healthy Diet consists of many more servings of
breads, fruits, and vegetables each day than meats and dairy foods.
THE SIX ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS:
CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEINS, LIPIDS (FATS), VITAMINS, MINERALS, AND WATER.
CARBOHYDRATES
1. The cells of the human body obtain MOST of their ENERGY from
CARBOHYDRATES.


69
2. CARBOHYDRATES ARE COMPOUNDS MADE OF CARBON, HYDROGEN, AND
OXYGEN IN APPROXIMATELY 1:2:1 RATION. (C6 H12 O6)
3. Sugars and Starches are Carbohydrates.
4. Before your body can use energy in carbohydrates, the carbohydrates must first be
broken down. The Digestion System breaks most of the Carbohydrates that we eat
into GLUCOSE.
5. Glucose provides most of the energy used by cells.
6. If you eat more carbohydrates than your body needs for energy, the excess is
changed to Glycogen. The body stores Glycogen in the Liver and the Muscles. If the
Glycogen stores are full, the body then converts the excess into FAT for long-term
storage.
7. There are THREE TYPES of Carbohydrates, grouped according to complexity:
MONOSACCHARIDES, DISACCHARIDES, AND POLYSACCHARIDES.
A. MONOSACCHARIDES ARE SINGLE SUGARS SUCH AS GLUCOSE AND
FRUCTOSE, A SUGAR FOUND IN FRUITS.
B. DISACCHARIDES, OR DOUBLE SUGARS, CONSIST OF TWO SINGLE SUGARS
LINKED TOGETHER. Common disaccharides include SUCROSE, OR TABLE SUGAR;
LACTOSE, OR MILK SUGAR; AND MALTOSE; A SUGAR CONTAINED IN CEREAL
GRAINS.
C. POLYSACCHARIDE IS A CARBOHYDRATE MADE OF LONG CHAINS OF
SUGARS. The prefix POLY means "Many". Starches, such as those in BREAD, PASTA,
AND POTATOES, ARE POLYSACCHARIDES.
8. Our digestion system must break down starches before they can be used in cellular
respiration, long Polysaccharide chains into disaccharides; disaccharides are then
broken apart to yield Simple Sugars such as Glucose.
9. Plants convert excess sugars into Starches for long-term storage. Starches take
longer than most sugars to break down in the Digestion System. Starches provide the
body with energy over a longer period of time than sugars.
10. Cellulose is a Polysaccharide contained in the cell walls of plants. The cellulose
you eat comes from VEGETABLES, FRUITS, AND WHOLE GRAIN BREADS AND
CEREALS.
11. Your body CANNOT break down cellulose, so it has NO VALUE AS A NUTRIENT.
CELLULOSE PASSES THROUGH THE BODY UNCHANGED UNTIL IT IS ELIMINATED
AS A WASTE PRODUCT.


70
12. Cellulose is also referred to as FIBER, (BULK, ROUGHAGE) an important part of
the diet. Fiber aids in Digestion may provide some protection against heart disease
and certain types of cancer.
PROTEINS
1. Carbohydrates and Fats provide the body with Energy, but these nutrients DO NOT
provide many of the materials the body needs for GROWTH and REPAIR.
2. GROWTH AND REPAIR REQUIRE THE MATERIALS CONTAINED IN PROTEINS.
3. PROTEINS ARE THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR THE BODY PARTS SUCH
AS MUSCLES, SKIN, AND BLOOD.
4. Our cells need proteins to make other proteins, such as enzymes.
5. Proteins are made up of smaller units called AMINO ACIDS.
6. Our bodies contain thousands of different proteins. All these proteins are made from
about 20 Different Amino Acids.
7. Most Amino Acids are made in the body (12), but there are EIGHT ESSENTIAL
AMINO ACIDS, WHICH CAN ONLY BE OBTAINED IN THE FOODS WE EAT.
8. Proteins that contain all eight essential Amino acids are called COMPLETE
PROTEINS.
9. COMPLETE PROTEINS are found in food that comes from ANIMALS, such as
meat, eggs, and dairy products.
10. Most plant products lack some of the Essential Amino Acids and are called
INCOMPLETE PROTEINS.
11. Before our bodies can use the Proteins in foods, the Proteins must be broken down
into their component Amino Acids.
12. Cells then use the Amino Acids to synthesize new proteins.
LIPIDS OR FATS
1. Although too much Fat is not healthy, your body does need some fat.
2. Fats are important for several reasons:
A. They are a concentrated source of energy.


71
B. Fats store other nutrients, such as Vitamin A.
C. Fats protect vital organs.
D. Help keep our skin from drying out.
E. Lipids, a kind of fat, are important parts of the cell membrane.
F. Fats help to insulate the body against changes in environmental temperature.
3. A FAT IS MADE OF THREE FATTY ACIDS JOINED TO A GLYCEROL
MOLECULE.
4. Fatty Acids are Chains of Carbon and Hydrogen Compounds with a Weak Acid
Group attached to one end.
5. When you eat foods containing Fats, the body must first break the fats down into
their basic components of Glycerol and Fatty Acids. From these raw materials, other
lipids can be made.
6. The body uses lipids to make Cell Membranes, Hormones, and the Oils on your skin
and hair.
7. Fatty Acids are Classified as either SATURATED OR UNSATURATED. The
classification depends on the proportion of Hydrogen Atoms to Carbon - Carbon Bonds
in the molecule.
8. The FEWER the Hydrogen Atoms the MORE Double Bonds there will be connecting
the Carbons. Double Bonds can be broken and more Hydrogen's Added.
9. FATS WITH DOUBLE BONDS ARE CALLED UNSATURATED FAT. MOST
UNSATURATED FATS ARE A LIQUID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE, COME FROM
PLANTS, AND ARE USUALLY REFERRED TO AS OILS. However, some Vegetable oils,
such as Palm Oil and Coconut Oil, are composed of primarily of saturated fats.
10. FATS WITH MANY DOUBLE BONDS IS A POLYUNSATURATED FAT.
11. SATURATED FATS HAVE NO DOUBLE BONDS BETWEEN THE CARBONS AND
CONTAIN THE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF HYDROGEN ATOMS.

12. SATURATED FATS ARE USUALLY SOLID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE, AND MOST
COME FROM ANIMAL PRODUCTS.
13. A FAT WITH ONLY ONE DOUBLE BOND IS CALLED A MONOUNSATURATED
FAT.


72
14. Fats provide TWICE as many Calories per gram as Carbohydrates. Fats are an
excellent way to store energy for future use.
15. When a person eats more food than is needed, the body stores extra energy by
producing fat. It is deposited in a layer just under the skin.
16. According to Nutritionist, the diets of most Americans include too high a proportion
of fats. Physicians recommend limiting the total amounts of fats eaten and replacing
saturated fats with unsaturated fats in the diet whenever possible.
VITAMINS
1. VITAMINS ARE COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES THAT ARE NEEDED BY THE
BODY IN VERY SMALL AMOUNTS THAT SERVE AS COENZYMES.
2. VITAMINS DO NOT CONTAIN ENERGY.
3. Most Vitamins are enzyme helpers, and play a role in Cellular Reactions.
4. With the single exception of Vitamin D, VITAMINS ARE NOT MADE BY THE
BODY AND MUST BE OBTAINED FROM FOOD.
5. Vitamin D can be made in the Skin under direct sunlight. This synthesis involves the
conversion of Cholesterol to Vitamin D by Intestinal Enzymes and Sunlight.
6. THERE ARE TWO MAIN TYPES OF VITAMINS:
A. WATER-SOLUBLE - Vitamins that CANNOT be stored in the body, should be
included in a balanced diet every day. Includes Vitamins B and C.
B. FAT-SOLUBLE - Vitamins that CAN be stored in the fatty tissue of our bodies.
Includes Vitamins A, D, E, AND K.
7. Like other essential nutrients, most vitamins can be obtained NATURALLY by eating
a Balanced Diet that includes fresh fruits, vegetables, and meats.
8. When the body Does Not receive a sufficient supply of vitamins, it can develop
vitamin deficiency diseases.
9. SCURVY once common among sailors, was cause by a lack of Vitamin C in the diet.

MINERALS


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1. MINERALS ARE INORGANIC SUBSTANCES REQUIRED THE NORMAL
FUNCTIONING OF THE BODY.
2. Many bodily functions rely on Minerals.
EXAMPLES: Calcium, a mineral in dairy products, is a major component of bones and
teeth. Iron is essential for transporting oxygen in blood. Nerves and Muscles need
Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, and Magnesium to function properly. Many bodily
functions rely on Minerals.
3. We obtain Minerals from the food we eat. The body DOES NOT destroy the minerals
it takes in; it does lose many of them in SWEAT, URINE, AND OTHER WASTE
PRODUCTS.
4. THE BODY CANNOT STORE MOST MINERALS. Minerals must be included regularly
in the diet.
5. Some minerals come from plants, which absorb minerals from the soil. Other
minerals can be obtained by eating animal products or other foods.
6. A Balanced Diet usually provides all the minerals the body needs.
WATER
1. Water is one of the simplest of the ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS and also the MOST
Important.
2. Animals will die from a lack of Water long before they will Starve from Lack of
Food.
3. Most of the weight of our bodies is Water. Water accounts for at least half of your
total body mass.
4. Blood plasma, the liquid part of blood, is more than 90 percent water.
5. Water is the solvent in which Food and Enzymes are dissolved in the Digestion
System.
6. Water also helps to regulate Body temperature. It absorbs the heat released in
Cellular Respiration and distributes the Heat throughout the body. When the body
needs to Cool, PERSPIRATION-a water based substance-evaporates from the skin, and
heat is drawn from the body.
7. Water dissolves the waste materials that are eliminated in Urine. Sweat Glands also
remove water from our tissues to cool the body. Each time we take a breath we lose
water.


74
8. Water is constantly being lost from the body, so a steady supply of this liquid is
required.
9. Every day your body loses between 3 and 5 L of water through Sweat, Urine and
Exhaled Air.
10. Most water is replaced by drinking liquids, but we can also obtain small quantities
water from the foods we eat and as by-products of cellular respiration.

11. A condition referred as DEHYDRATION can occur and cause Death if you lose as
much as 12 percent of your body water.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Before your body can use nutrients in the food you consume, the nutrients must be
broken down physically and chemically. This process of breaking down food into
molecules the body can use is called digestion.
OBJECTIVES: List the major organs of the digestion system. Distinguish between
mechanical and chemical digestion. Relate the structure of each digestive organ to its
function in mechanical digestion. Identify the source of each major digestive enzyme,
and describe the function of the enzyme. Summarize the process of absorption in both
the small and large intestines.
THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
1. DIGESTION IS THE BREAKDOWN OF FOOD INTO SIMPLER MOLECULES THAT
CAN BE ABSORBED AND USED BY THE BODY.
2. The Digestion System is actually a LONG, HALLOW TUBE called the
GASTRIONTESTINAL TRACT OR GI TRACT or DIGESTIVE TRACT. It begins with
the Mouth and winds through the body to the Anus. - "In one end and Out the other
end."
3. THE DIGESTION SYSTEM INCLUDES THE MOUTH, PHARYNX, ESOPHAGUS,
STOMACH, SMALL INTESTINE, AND LARGE INTESTINE.
4. SEVERAL MAJOR ORGANS, ( EXOCRINE GLANDS), ALONG THE DIGESTIVE TRACT
AID DIGESTION, INCLUDING THE SALIVARY GLANDS, THE PANCREAS, AND
THE LIVER, ADD THEIR SECRETIONS TO THE DIGESTION SYSTEM, BUT ARE NOT
PART OF THE GI TRACT.
5. THREE ACTIVITIES ARE INVOLVED IN THE DIGESTIVE PROCESS:
A. MECHANICAL DIGESTION


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B. CHEMICAL DIGESTION
C. ABSORPTION.
6. The FIRST TASK of the Digestion System is to BREAK DOWN food into a fine PULP
(MECHANICALDIGESTION), to INCREASE it's surface area and expose more food
molecules to the actions of Digestive Chemicals.
7. The process of Mechanical Digestion breaks food into tiny pieces WITHOUT changing
the CHEMICAL STRUCTURE of the food.
8. The SECOND TASK of the Digestion System is to CHEMICALLY act on Food,
breaking it down into smaller and smaller particles. The molecules must be small
enough and chemically simple enough to be absorbed into the Bloodstream.
EXAMPLES: STARCHES to SIMPLE SUGARS, PROTEINS to AMINO ACIDS.
9. The LAST TASK of the Digestion System is to ABSORB the small molecules and pass
them to the BLOODSTREAM AND LYMPH VESSELS for distribution to the rest of
the body.
10. Humans are OMNIVORES who eat both PLANTS and ANIMALS for ENERGY and
our Digestion System is adapted to process both vegetable and animal materials.
THE MOUTH
1. MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL DIGESTION BOTH BEGIN IN THE MOUTH.
2. CHEWING is the FIRST step in Mechanical Digestion.
3. During Chewing, SALIVARY GLANDS produce SALIVA, a mixture of water, mucus,
and a Digestive Enzyme called SALIVARY AMYLASE, which mixes with the chewed
food. Enzymes in the saliva KILL Bacteria and BEGIN the process of CHEMICAL
DIGESTION by breaking down STARCHES to SUGARS. Saliva is produced by three sets
of glands located near the mouth.
4. The mucus in the saliva softens and lubricates food and helps hold the food
together. Th Salivary Amylase begins the Chemical Digestion of Carbohydrates by
braking down some Starch into Disaccharide Maltose.
5. Human TEETH are well adapted for chewing many kinds of food. The 32 Teeth of
the normal adult have THREE BASIC SHAPES, EACH WITH A DIFFERENT
FUNCTION:
A. INCISORS - SHARP FRONT TEETH USED FOR BITING INTO AND TEARING
PIECES OF FOOD.


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B. CANINES - POINTED TEETH (VAMPIRE) NEXT TO INCISORS, USED TO TEAR
OR SHRED FOOD.
C. MOLARS - TEETH AT THE BACK OF THE MOUTH, HAVE LARGE FLAT
SURFACES THAT CRUSH AND GRIND FOOD.
6. Every Tooth has TWO main parts: the CROWN and the ROOT.
7. A Tooth is made of FOUR LAYERS of Tissue: ENAMEL,
DENTIN, CEMENTUM, AND PERIODONTAL MEMBRANE
(LIGAMENT).
8. The CROWN is covered by ENAMEL, a calcium-containing
material THAT IS THE HARDEST SUBSTANCE IN THE BODY.
9. DENTINE a bone like tissue makes up most of the inside of a
tooth.
10. CEMENTUM in a tine layer covers the dentine of the Root.

11. The Periodontal Ligament holds the tooth in its Socket.
12. The Tongue helps to keep the food between the Chewing surfaces of the Upper and
Lower Teeth by manipulating it against the HARD PALATE, the Bony Membrane-
covered roof of the mouth. This structure is different from the SOFT PALATE, an area
located just behind the Hard Palate. (Figure 49-6)
ESOPHAGUS
1. Once the teeth and salivary glands have completed the initial processing, the food is
ready to be SWALLOWED.
2. Gathering the food together in a ball called a BOLUS; the TONGUE pushes it
toward the back of the Mouth and INTO the PHARYNX.
3. THE PHARYNX IS AN AREA AT THE BACK OF THE THROAT THAT CONNECTS
THE NOSE AND MOUTH TO THE DIGESTION AND RESPIRATORY TRACTS.
4. In the Pharynx, the GI TRACK AND THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CROSS EACH
OTHER.
5. As the tongue moves food into the Pharynx, it presses down on a SMALL FLAP of
Cartilage called the EPIGLOTTIS. When the Epiglottis is Depressed, it CLOSES the
entrance to the Respiratory Track and Guides the Food down the GI Track.


77
6. FOOD (The Bolus) MOVES FROM THE PHARYNX INTO THE ESOPHAGUS, A 25
cm LONG MUSCULAR TUBE THAT CONNECTS THE PHARYNX WITH THE STOMACH.
7. Once the Bolus enters the Esophagus, MUSCLES in the Esophagus Wall move food
toward the Stomach. The Esophagus has Two Muscle Layers: a Circular Layer that
wraps around the Esophagus and a Longitudinal Layer that runs the length of the
tube.
8. WAVES OF MUSCULAR CONTRACTIONS CALLED PERISTALSIS(payr-ih-STOL-sis)
MOVE FOOD THROUGH THE DIGESTIVE TRACK.
9. Contractions of the muscles move the Bolus to a Valve called the CARDIAC
SPHINCTER VALVE where the Esophagus joins the Stomach. The Sphincter allows
food to pass into the stomach but usually NOT Letting it move Back Up into the
Esophagus.
THE STOMACH
1. The Partially Digested food is now in the Stomach.
2. The STOMACH IS A J-SHAPED MUSCULAR SAC WITH THICK EXPANDABLE WALLS
LOCATED IN THE UPPER LEFT SIDE OF THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY, JUST BELOW
THE DIAPHRAGM
3. THE STOMACH IS INVOLVED IN BOTH MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL
DIGESTION.
4. The Stomach Walls are made of layers of Muscles that Contract in OPPOSITE
DIRECTION.
5. Mechanical Digestion occurs when the Stomach Walls Contract Strongly, Mixing and
Churning the food. These contractions are responsible for the "Growling" noises our
stomach makes, they are the loudest when we have an empty stomach.
6. Chemical Digestion in the Stomach begins with the actions of HYDROCHLORIC
ACID AND AN ENZYME CALLED PEPSIN. BOTH SUBSTANCES ARE SECRETED BY
GASTRIC GLANDS IN THE STOMACH. THESE FLUIDS THAT CARRY OUT CHEMICAL
DIGESTION IN THE STOMACH ARE KNOWN AS GASTRIC FLUIDS.

7. PEPSIN Breaks Down PROTEINS INTO SHORTER CHAINS OF AMINO ACIDS
CALLED PEPTIDES, Pepsin works best in an Acidic Environment, which is provided by
the Hydrochloric Acid.


78
8. Another fluid secreted by glands in the Stomach is MUCUS. Mucus lubricates food so
that it can travel through the digestive tract more easily.
9. Mucus also COATS the walls of the Stomach, protecting the muscle tissue from being
broken down by other digestive fluids.
10. The inner lining of the Stomach is a Thick, Wrinkled Mucous Membrane composed
of Epithelial Cells. This Membrane is dotted with small openings called GASTIC PITS,
they are the open ends of GASTRIC GLANDS that release secretions into the Stomach.
Some of these Glands secret Mucus, some secrete Digestive Enzymes, and still others
secret Hydrochloric Acid. The Mixture of these fluids form the Acidic Digestive Fluid.
11. Lives of stomach wall cells are short; they are replaced about every three days.
12. After about THREE HOURS (3-4 hours) of Mechanical and Chemical Treatment in
the Stomach, food is reduced to a SOFT PULP CALLED CHYME (KYM).
13. CHYME IS A THICK LIQUID MADE UP OF PARTIALLY DIGESTED PROTEINS,
STARCHES VITAMINS, MINERALS, AND ACIDS, AND UNDIGESTED SUGARS AND
FATS.
14. At this point, the PYLORIC SPHINCTER VALVE between the Stomach and Small
Intestine opens, allowing small amounts of Chyme to pass into the Small Intestine.
15. By the time Chyme has left the Stomach, MOST PROTEINS have been Broken down
into smaller Polypeptides. Sugars and Fats have NOT YET been Chemically altered.
Some Starch Molecules have been broken down into Disaccharides.
THE SMALL INTESTINES
1. As Chyme is pushed through the Pyloric Valve, it enters the DUODENUM, the first
part of the Small Intestine.
2. The Small Intestine performs THREE Major functions on Chyme that enters from the
Stomach.
3. THE SMALL INTESTINES DIGEST CARBOHYDRATES AND FATS,
COMPLETES THE DIGESTION OF PROTEINS, AND ABSORBS DIGESTED
NUTRIENTS.
4. The Small Intestine is long (7m), but its diameter (2.5cm) is smaller than the Large
Intestines. The Small Intestines consists of Three Parts:
A. DUODENUM - THE FIRST SECTION (25 cm)
B. JEJUNUM - THE MIDDLE SECTION (2.5 m)
C. ILEUM - MAKE UP THE REMAINING PORTION.


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5. Some of the digestive Fluids and Enzymes that digest Food in the Small Intestine
come from Glands located in the Small Intestines.
6. These Glands produce Enzymes that digest Proteins and Carbohydrates.
7. The PANCREAS, and organ located behind the stomach, secretes Pancreatic
Fluid into the Small Intestine. The Pancreatic Fluid enters the Small Intestines through
the Pancreatic Duct, which joins with the common Bile Duct just before it enters the
Intestine.
8. Pancreatic Fluid contains Enzymes that digest Proteins, Fats, and Carbohydrates.
9. Pancreatic Fluid also contains SODIUM BICARBONATE, which neutralizes the
Hydrochloric Acid in Chyme (from and acid to a base), protecting the Small Intestine.
10. The LIVER is a large brownish organ that lies above the Stomach in the
Abdominal Cavity. One of the Functions of the Liver is to Secrete a Yellow-Brown
Liquid called BILE.
11. Bile is stored in a Small Sac called the GALLBLADDER. The entrance of food into
the Small Intestines stimulates the release of Bile to the Small Intestines through a Duct.
12. Bile is produced by the Liver and Stored in the Gallbladder until needed.
13. FATS in the Small Intestine are broken down into smaller droplets by Bile.
14. One of the main functions of Bile is to dissolve Cholesterol. Bile is a salt
containing detergent and if the amount of salt in the bile is insufficient, sharp, painful
crystals can form, known as GALLSTONES.

ABSORBPTION





1. MOST NUTREINTS ARE ABSORBED INTO THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM THROUGH
THE CELLS THAT LINE THE SMALL INTESTINE.


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2. THE INTERNAL SURFACE OF THE INTESTINE IS LINED WITH FINGERLIKE
PROJECTIONS CALLED VILLI. The cells covering the Villi, in turn have extensions on
their Cell Membranes called MICROVILLI.
3. Villi increase the surface area of the lining of the small intestine, making absorption
more efficient.








4. NUTREINTS ARE ABSORBED THROUGH CAPILLARIES AND TINY LYMPH
VESSELS CALLED LACTEALS IN THE VILLI.
5. CAPILLARIES absorb the Carbohydrates (Monosaccharides) and Proteins (Amino
Acids) and are carried to the Liver.
6. The Liver Neutralizes many toxic substances in the blood and removes excess
Glucose, converting it to Glycogen for storage (FAT). The Filtered Blood then carries
the nutrients to all the parts of the body.
7. The Tiny Lymph Vessels called Lacteals absorb Glycerol and Fatty Acids, which are
carried through the Lymph Vessels and eventually to the Bloodstream through
Lymphatic Vessels near the Heart.
8. MOST OF THE NUTREINTS USED BY THE BODY ARE ABSORBED THROUGH
THE LINING OF THE SMALL INTESTINES.


LARGE INTESTINE
1. AFTER ABSORPTION IN THE SMALL INTESTINES IS COMPLETE, UNDIGESTED
MATERIAL LEAVES THE SMALL INTESTINE THROUGH A VALVE AND ENTERS THE
LARGE INTESTINE OR COLON.


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2. It is the Final Organ of Digestion and consists of Four Major Parts: ASCENDING
COLON, TRANSVERSE COLON, DESCENDING COLON, AND SIGMOID
COLON.
3. An organ called the Appendix is located near the junction of the small and large
intestine. The Appendix is a finger-shaped pouch, which does not serve any known
function. If the Appendix becomes infected with Bacteria, resulting in appendicitis, the
appendix must be removed.
4. The Large Intestine, also called the Colon, is about 6 cm wide and 1.5 m long.
5. THE LARGE INTESTINE ABSORBS WATER FROM THE MATERIAL REMAINING IN
THE DIGESTIVE TRACT.
6. WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS ARE ABSORBED ALONG WITH THE WATER. Vitamin
K.
7. When most of the water has been removed from the undigested material, a solid
waste matter, called FECES remains.
8. PERISTALSIS propels the feces through the large intestine and into The RECTUM,
the last few inches of the large intestine. Feces collected in the rectum are eliminated
through the ANUS.
9. Sometimes a Disease or Disorder prevents the Large Intestine from absorbing Enough
Water - The Result is Diarrhea, or Watery Feces. Severe Diarrhea can result in a loss of
Water, or Dehydration, that can be FATAL







THE URINARY SYSTEM


82

THE URINARY SYSTEM
The body must rid itself of the waste products of cellular activity. The process of
removing metabolic waste, called EXCRETION, is just as vital as digestion in
maintaining the body's internal environment. The Urinary System not only excretes
waste but also helps maintain Homeostasis by returning the content of water and
other substances in the blood.
OBJECTIVES: Define the term excretion, and list the functions of each major
excretory organs. Identify the major parts of the kidney. Relate the structure of a
nephron to its function. Explain how the process of filtration, reabsorption, and tubular
secretion help maintain homeostasis. Name the main parts of the urinary system.
1. THE PROCESS BY WHICH METABOLIC WASTES ARE REMOVED FROM THE BODY
IS CALLED EXCRETION.
2. METABOLIC WASTES INCLUDE EXCESS WATER AND SALTS, CARBON
DIOXIDE FROM CELLULAR RESPIRATION, NITROGENOUS COMPOUNDS
FROM THE BREAKDOWN OF PROTEINS, AND UREA.
3. THE SKIN, LUNGS, AND KIDNEYS-ALONG WITH THEIR ASSOCIATED
ORGANS-MAKE UP THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM.
4. The SKIN excretes excess water and salts, and a small amount of urea.
5. The KIDNEYS excrete the Nitrogenous Wastes, the excretion of Water is necessary to
dissolve wastes and is closely regulated by the Kidneys, the Main Organ of the Urinary
system.
6. The LUNGS excrete most of the carbon dioxide.


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THE KIDNEYS
1. THE MAIN ORGANS OF THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM ARE THE
KIDNEYS. We have Two BEAN-SHAPPED Kidneys, one on each
side of the spinal cord near the lower back, one behind the Stomach
the other behind the Liver. Together they Regulate the Chemical
Composition of Blood.
2. Two Blood Vessels Enter and Leave each Kidney. The Renal Artery
Enters each Kidney and the Renal Vein Exists each Kidney.
3. A Third Vessel, the URETER, leaves each Kidney carrying fluid to
the URINARY BLADDER.
4. Waste-laden Blood Enters the Kidney through the Renal Artery. Excess water, Urea,
and other waste products are removed from the blood and are collected in the
URETER. The most common mammalian metabolic waste is UREA. The Filtered
Blood exits through the Renal Vein.
5. UREA is a Nitrogenous product made by the Liver. Nitrogenous Wastes are initially
brought to the Liver as AMMONIA, a Chemical Compound of Nitrogen so Toxic that it
could not remain in the body without harming cells.
6. The Liver Removes Ammonia from the blood and converts it to the less harmful
substance Urea. The Urea enters the Bloodstream and is then removed by the Kidneys.
KIDNEY STRUCTURE
1. Each Kidney is a Bean-Shaped organ, about the size of a Fist.
2. The Kidney has THREE Regions; the Inner part called the RENAL MEDULLA; the
Outer part called the RENAL CORTEX and the RENAL PELVIS, a Funnel Shaped
Structure in the Center of the Kidney.
3. The Renal Cortex contains the NEPHRONS, THE BASIC FUNCTIONAL UNIT OF
THE KIDNEYS.
4. EACH NEPHRON IS A SMALL INDEPENDENT FILTERING UNIT. IN EACH KIDNEY
THERE ARE ABOUT 1 MILLION NEPHRONS.
5. Nephrons filters water and solutes from blood. Most of the Filtrate is reclaimed from
them. The rest, form an Amber Colored Liquid called URINE enters tubelike collecting
ducts. These lead to the Kidneys Central Cavity and the entrance to a Ureter.
6. Each Nephron has its own blood supply and its own collecting tubule, which leads to
the Ureter.


84
7. As blood enters a Nephron through an Arteriole, impurities are filtered out and
emptied into he collecting tubule. Purified blood leaves the nephron through a
Venule.
8. The process of Blood Purification involves Two Separate Processes-FILTRATION
AND REABSORPTION.



FILTRATION







1. When blood enters a Nephron, it flows into a network of 50 Capillaries known as a
GLOMERULUS.
2. The Glomerulus is encased in the upper end of the Nephron by a Cup-Shaped
structure called BOWMAN'S CAPSULE.
3. The Blood is under pressure and the walls of the capillaries and Bowman's Capsule
are permeable, much of the Fluid from the blood filters into Bowman's Capsule and
the material Filtered from the blood flows through the RENAL TUBULE, a long tube
with permeable walls.
4. The Renal Tube Consists of Three PARTS: THE PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED
TUBULE, THE LOOP OF HENLE, AND THE DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE.
5. MATERIALS FROM BLOOD ARE FORCED OUT OF THE GLOMERULUS AND INTO
THE BOWMAN'S CAPSULE DURING A PROCESS CALLED FILTRATION.


85
6. THE MATERIALS THAT ARE FILTERED FROM THE BLOOD ARE KNOWN AS
FILTRATE.
7. The Filtrate contains water, urea, glucose, salts, amino acids, and vitamins.
8. Plasma proteins, cells and platelets are too large to pass through the membrane;
they remain in the blood.
REABSORPTION
1. Approx. 180 liters of filtrate pass from the blood into the collecting tubules each day.
Not all of this is Excreted.
2. Most of the materials removed from the blood at Bowman's Capsule makes its way
back into the blood by a process known as REABSORPTION.
3. Approximately 99 percent of the water that is filtered into the Bowman's Capsule is
Reabsorbed into the Blood.
4. Reabsorption proceeds along the Nephron's Tubular Parts.
5. Most Reabsorption occurs in the Proximal Tubule. In this region, about 75 percent of
the Water in the Filtrate returns to the Capillaries by Osmosis.
6. Glucose and minerals are returned to the blood by Active Transport.
7. Some additional reabsorption occurs in the distal Convoluted Tubule.
8. When the filtrate reaches the distal Convoluted Tubule, some substances pass from
the blood into the filtrate through a process called SECRETION. These substance
include wastes and toxic materials. The pH of the blood is adjusted by Hydrogen Ions
that are secreted from the Blood into the Filtrate.
9. The material that remains in the distal convoluted tubule is called URINE, and
consists of EXCESS salts, water, and urea.


86
10. The Urine becomes concentrated in a section of the Nephron called the LOOP OF
HENLE, this area helps to conserve water and minimize the volume of urine.











11. Urine from the collecting ducts flows through the Renal Pelvis and into a narrow
tube called a URETER. A Ureter leads from each Kidney to the URINARY
BLADDER. Urine is collected in the Urinary Bladder and stored until it can be released
through the URETHRA.
12. At least 500 mL (17 oz) of urine must be eliminated every day because this amount
of fluid is needed to remove potential toxic materials from the body to maintain
homeostasis.
13. A normal adult eliminates from 1.5 L (1.6 qt) to 2.3 L (2.4 qt) of Urine a DAY,
Depending on the amount of water taken in and the amount of water lost through
Respiration and Perspiration.
14. Purified Blood is returned to the Circulatory System through the Renal Vein.
CONTROL OF KIDNEY FUNCTION
1. The main proposes of our Kidneys is to maintain the CHEMICAL Composition of our
Blood.
2. The Kidneys are the Master Chemist of the Blood Supply.


87
3. Two Important Things Controlled by the Kidneys are; CONCENTRATION OF
WATER IN BLOOD; AND THE LEVEL OF SALT IN OUR BLOOD.
4. Drink too much liquid, and the Kidneys will decrease the rate of reabsorption, excess
water is sent to the Urinary Bladder to be excreted.
5. Eat Salty Foods and the Kidneys will respond by returning less salt to the Blood by
Reabsorption. The excess is excreted in our Urine.
6. The Kidneys ensure that the composition of our Blood remains Constant.












INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM



88
NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES
The human body is continuously exposed to pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria.
When one of these pathogens enters the body and begins to multiply, it causes an
INFECTIOUS DISEASE. This section examines the body's Nonspecific Defenses, which are
the First Lines of Protection against invading pathogens.
OBJECTIVES: Summarize Koch's postulates for identifying a disease-causing agent.
Describe how the skin and mucous membranes protect the body against pathogens.
Describe the steps of the inflammatory response. Identify the white blood cells involved
in a nonspecific response, and describe their functions. Explain the functions of
interferon and fever.
1. Immunity may be defined as the body's ability to destroy Pathogens or other
Foreign Material and to prevent further cases of certain Infectious Diseases. This ability
is of vital importance because the body is exposed to Pathogens from the moment of
Birth.
WHAT IS DISEASE?
1. ANY CHANGE, OTHER THAN AN INJURY, THAT INTERFERES WITH NORMAL
FUNCTIONING OF THE BODY IS A DISEASE.
2. Different diseases can be recognized by their SYMPTOMS, or CHANGES THEY
PRODUCE IN THE BODY.
3. Diseases can be caused by many different things - INFECTIOUS DISEASES are
produced by PATHOGENS.
4. PATHOGENS are disease-causing microorganisms, such as Viruses, Bacteria,
Rickettsiae (rih-KEHT-see-ee), Fungi, and Protozoans.
5. When the body is Successfully Invaded by a Pathogen, we say that an INFECTION
has occurred.
6. The numbers of microorganisms in the world around us are so Large that Infection is
a Daily Event.
7. Sickness is NOT a daily event because NOT ALL Infections produce Disease.
8. Infectious Disease results only when the Growth of a Pathogen begins to Injure the
Cells and Tissues of an Infected Person.
9. The Relationship between a Pathogen and the Organism it Infects is Essentially that
of a Parasite and its Host.


89
10. A Parasite is an organism that obtains Nutrition from the body of the Host in a way
that HARMS the Host.
11. The Parasitic lifestyle of the Pathogen enables it to take advantage of the Host and
to ultimately become Dependent upon the Host Organism for its Survival.
SPREAD OF DISEASES
1. Many Pathogens are present in the Environment and require ONLY the Opportunity
to Enter the Body to Produce Disease.
2. Some Infectious Disease-such as the Common Cold, Measles, Mumps, and Influenza
(FLU)-are Spread from One Person to Another through Coughing and Sneezing
(Airborne).
3. Other Infectious Disease spread through contaminated Water Supplies or Food that
has been handled by People Infected with a Disease.
4. Other Infectious Diseases are spread by Infected Animals such as Ticks and
Mosquitoes.
5. Sexual Contact is another way in which Diseases are spread.

THE GERM THEORY OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE
1. For thousands of years people believed that Diseases were caused by evil spirits,
magic, or miasmas (vapors rising from marshes or decaying plant or animal matter).


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2. People actually Feared that those who became ill were Cursed or had brought Bad
Luck with them.
3. A New Idea developed in the nineteenth century explained the origins of Infectious
Diseases, Based on the work of French Chemist Louis Pasteur and the German
Physician Robert Koch, it was Shown that Infectious Diseases were Caused By
MICROORGANISMS.
4. THIS IDEA IS NOW KNOWN AS THE GERM THEORY OF INFECTIOUS
DISEASES.
5. Koch's experiments and observation led him to develop a series of RULES for
PROVING that a SPECIFIC TYPE of Microorganism CAUSES a SPECIFIC DISEASE.


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6. Or A STEP BY STEP METHOD FOR IDENTIFYING THE PARTICULAR PATHOGEN
RESPONSIBLE FOR A DISEASE.
7. THESE STEPS ARE CALLED KOCH'S POSTULATES:
A. The Suspected Pathogen must occur in the body of an animal with the disease
and NOT in the Body of a Healthy Animal.
B. The Suspected Pathogen Should be Isolated and Grown in a Laboratory Culture.
(Pure Culture)
C. When the microorganisms grown in pure culture are Injected into a Healthy
Animal, The Animal should develop the disease.
D. The Pathogen from the Second Animal Should be isolated and grown in the
Laboratory. It Should be the same as the Pathogen isolated from the first animal.
(Throat Culture - STREP THROAT- caused by a Bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes)
8. Koch's Postulates enabled scientist to determine whether a particular Microorganism
causes a Disease. These Postulates are still in use today in the study of Infectious
Disease.
SKIN AND MUCOUS MEMBRANES - "THE FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE"
1. THE MAIN FUNCTION OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IS TO FIGHT INFECTIOUS
DISEASE. THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IS THE BODY'S DEFENSE SYSTEM AGAINST
ATTACK.
2. PATHOGENS ARE A VIRUS OR ORGANISM THAT CAUSES AN INFECTIOUS
DISEASE.
3. INFECTIOUS DISEASE IS ANY ILLNESS CAUSED BY ORGANISMS OR VIRUSES THAT
ENTER AND REPRODUCE INSIDE THE HOST.
4. SOME COMMON INFECTIOUS DISEASES: COMMON COLD, INFLUENZA,
CHOLERA, STREP THROAT, AND MALARIA.
5. Pathogens are part of your Environment. You probably contact hundreds of
potential pathogens each day.
6. Although infectious diseases are caused by many different Pathogens, most infectious
diseases are spread in one of FOUR WAYS:
A. Through DIRECT CONTACT with an infected person (SEXUAL CONTACT).
B. Through INDIRECT CONTACT with an infected person (COUGHING OR
SNEEZING).


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C. Through contaminated food or water.
D. Through the bite of and infected animal.
7. Infectious diseases that can be spread from one person to another are called
CONTAGIOUS DISEASES.
8. THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IS OUR PRIMARY DEFENSE AGAINST DISEASE CAUSING
MICROORGANISMS.
9. THE IMMUNE SYSTEM CONSISTS OF NONSPECIFIC AND SPECIFIC DEFENSES
AGAINST INFECTIONS.
10. NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES ARE THE BODY'S FIRST LINE AGAINST DISEASE.
THEY ARE NOT DIRECTED AGAINST A PARTICULAR PATHOGEN.
11. NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES GUARD AGAINST ALL INFECTIONS, REGARDLESS OF
THEIR CAUSE.
12. SPECIFIC DEFENSES ARE ATTEMPTS BY THE BODY TO DEFEND ITSELF
AGAINST PARTICULAR PATHOGENS.
13. Since Pathogens must enter the body in order to cause disease, the body's first line of
defense is to keep pathogens out.
14. The Body's MOST IMPORTANT Nonspecific Defense is the SKIN. UNBROKEN Skin
provides a continuous layer that protects almost the whole body. Very Few Pathogens
can penetrate the layers of dead cells at the skin's surface.
15. Oil and sweat glands at the surface of the skin produce a salty an acidic
environment that kills many bacteria and other microorganisms.
16. The importance of the Skin as a Barrier against Infections becomes obvious when a
small portion of skin is broken or scraped off: Infection almost always follows.
17. Infections are a result of the penetration of the broken skin by microorganisms
normally present on the unbroken skin.
18. Pathogens also enter the body through the Mouth and Nose, but the body has
Nonspecific Defenses that protect those openings.
19. MUCOUS MEMBRANES are Epithelial Tissues that protect the interior surfaces of
the body that may be exposed to pathogens.
20. Mucous membranes serve as a barrier and secret MUCUS, a sticky fluid that traps
pathogens.


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21. MUCUS, CILIA, and HAIRS in the Nose and Throat trap Viruses and Bacteria.
Cilia in the Trachea trap Bacteria, Pathogens that make it to the Stomach are
destroyed by Stomach Acid and Digestive Enzymes.
22. Many Secretions of the Body, including MUCUS, SALIVA, SWEAT, and TEARS,
CONTAIN LYSOZYME, AN ENZYME THAT BREAKS DOWN THE CELL WALL OF
MANY BACTERIA.
THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE "THE SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE"
1. Despite the initial Defenses of the Skin and Mucous Membranes, Pathogens
sometimes Enter the Body.
2. When Pathogens enter the Body, the Immune System has a Second Line of Defense.
The Body's Second Line of Defense acts when TISSUES are Injured.
3. The injured cells release a Chemical called HISTAMINE, which starts a series of
changes called the Inflammatory Response.
4. THIS SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE IS CALLED THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE.

5. THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IS A NONSPECIFIC DEFENSE REACTION OF THE
BODY TO TISSUE DAMAGE.


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6. Histamine increases blood flow to the injured area and increases the permeability of
the surrounding capillaries, as a result, Fluid and White Blood Cells (WBC) to leak from
blood vessels into nearby tissue.
7. Pathogens are attacked by PHAGOCYTES, WHICH ARE WBCs THAT ENGULF
AND DESTROY PATHOGENS BY PHAGOCYTOSIS.
8. The most common type of Phagocyte is the, 50 to 70 percent of the White Blood
Cells in the body, is the NEUTROPHIL.
9. Neutrophils circulate freely through blood vessels, and they can squeeze between
cells in the walls of a capillary to reach the site of infection. They then engulf and
destroy any pathogens they encounter.
10. Another type of Phagocyte is the MACROPHAGE, they consume and destroy any
pathogens they encounter, they also rid the body of worn out cells and cellular debris.
11. Some Macrophages are stationed in the tissues of the body, awaiting pathogens,
while others move through the tissues and seek out pathogens.


12. NATURAL KILLER CELLS are large white blood cells that, unlike phagocytes,
attack cells that have been infected by pathogens, Not the Pathogen Themselves.
13. Natural killer Cells are particularly effective in killing Cancer Cells and Cells Infected
with Viruses.
14. A Natural Killer Cell punctures the cell membrane of its target cell, allowing water
to rush into the cell, causing the cell to burst. (CYTOLYSIS)
15. If the infection remains small and in one place, a Reddish Swollen Area develops just
beneath the skin. The area is said to be INFLAMED ("on fire"). The familiar symptoms
of inflammation caused by the release of Histamine.
16. A serious Infection may allow pathogen to spread throughout the body. The
Immune System now responds in two ways:
A. It produces more WBCs.
B. It releases chemicals that stimulate the actions of these White Cells by Increasing
Temperature. Causes a FEVER. Elevated body temperature above normal 37 degrees
C (99 F) due to Fever offers powerful protection.
17. Physicians know that a Fever and an Increase in WBCs are two indications that the
body is fighting infection.


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18. Fever is not a Disease; it is a Sign that the body is responding to an Infection.
19. Fever also serves another important function: Many diseases causing
microorganisms can survive within only a narrow temperature range. A Fever can
often Slow down or Stop the growth of some microorganisms.
20. In general, body temperatures greater than 39 degrees C (103 F) are considered
Dangerous, and those greater than 41 degrees C (105 F) are often fatal.

INTERFERON - DEFENSE AGAINST VIRUSES
1. Two Components of the Immune System fight only Viruses: INTERFERON AND
NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
2. Because these components attack many types of viruses, the are considered
Nonspecific Defenses.
3. Interferon is a Protein that interferes with the Replication of Viruses. Interferon is
released by cells that have been invaded by Viruses.
4. Although interferon cannot Save an invaded cell, it works as a warning signal for
healthy cells, in which it interferes with viral replication. These effects on a virus slow
down the progress of infection and often give the Specific Defenses of the Immune
System time to respond.
5. Natural Killer Cells, which also defend the body against Viruses, are contained in
blood and lymph.
6. These cells attack Body Cells that have been infected by Viruses. Because viruses can
only replicate in a Host Cell, Killing the Host Cell also destroys the Virus.
7. Interferon and Natural Killer Cells also help to fight against Cancer Cells.
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM (IMMUNITY) "THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE"
Although the nonspecific defenses usually keep pathogens from entering and becoming
established in the body, pathogens occasionally break through these defenses and
begin to multiply. In response, the body's specific defenses are called into action.
Unlike the nonspecific defenses, the specific defenses act against on particular
pathogen.
OBJECTIVES: Identify and describe the components of the immune system. Explain
the function of the three kinds of T cells. Describe the actions of B cells in an immune
response. Explain how a vaccine works. Contrast allergy with autoimmune disease.
Define antigen and antibody. List several specific defenses of the body.


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1. IF A PATHOGEN IS ABLE TO GET PASS THE BODY'S NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES,
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM REACTS WITH A SERIES OF SPECIFIC DEFENSES THAT
ATTACK THE DISEASE CAUSING AGENT.
2. RESPONSES OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM TO SPECIFIC PATHOGENS ARE CALLED
SPECIFIC DEFENSES.
3. THE SPECIFIC DEFENSES OF THE BODY ARE COLLECTIVELY KNOWN AS THE
IMMUNE RESPONSE.
4. A SUBSTANCE THAT TRIGGERS THE SPECIFIC DEFENSES OF THE IMMUNE
SYSTEM IS KNOWN AS AN ANTIGEN.
5. AN ANTIGEN IS A SUBSTANCE THAT A MACROPHAGE (WBC) IDENTIFIES AS
NOT BELONGING TO THE BODY.


THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
1. The body's Specific Defenses are part of the Immune System. The Immune System
has the job of fighting off invading pathogens and preventing the growth and spread
of cancers.
2. The Immune System Consists of Several Organs, as well as White Blood Cells in the
Blood and Lymph.
3. The Organs of the Immune System are scattered throughout the body; they include
the BONE MARROW, THYMUS, LYMPH NODES, TONSILS, ADENOIDS, AND SPLEEN.
4. Each organ of the immune system plays a different role in defending the body
against pathogens.
5. Bone Marrow manufactures the billions of WBC needed by the body every day.
Some newly produce WBC remain in the bone marrow to Mature and Specialize, while
others travel to the Thymus to Mature.
6. Lymph Nodes Filter Pathogens from the Lymph and expose them to WBC.
7. The Spleen, a fist-sized organ located behind the stomach, Filters Pathogens from
the Blood. It is stocked with WBC that respond to the trapped pathogens.


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8. THE WHITE BLOOD CELLS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM ARE KNOWN AS
LYMPHOCYTES. These WBC accumulate in the Lymph and Lymph Nodes, but
Lymphocytes are also found in the Spleen and Blood.
9. LYMPHOCYTES ARE WBCs THAT ACTIVATE THE IMMUNE RESPONSE. There are
TWO Main Types of Lymphocytes: B Cells and T Cells.
10. B-LYMPHOCYTES (B Cells), WHICH ARE PRODUCED AND MATURED IN THE
BONE MARROW ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR PRODUCING ANTIBODIES.
11. ANTIBODIES ARE SPECIAL PROTEINS THAT CAN BIND TO THE ANTIGEN ON
THE SURFACE OF A PATHOGEN AND HELP DESTROY IT.













RECOGNIZING PATHOGENS
1. Lymphocytes are the body's Specific Defense.
2. When the body is invaded by a pathogen, Lymphocytes launch an attack known as
an IMMUNE RESPONSE to Eliminate the Pathogen.


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3. In order to Respond to Pathogens, Lymphocytes MUST BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE IT
AS A FOREIGN INVADER AND DISTINGUISH IT FROM CELL OF THE BODY.
4. Any Substance that the Immune System recognizes as a Potential Pathogen and
provokes an Immune Response is known as an ANTIGEN.
5. A wide variety of substances can be Antigens; Pathogens or Parts of Pathogens,
Bacterial Toxins, Insect Venom, and Pollen.
6. Lymphocytes have Receptor Proteins on their Cell Membranes that Recognize and
bind to Antigens that MATCH Their Particular Three-Dimensional Shape.
7. ALL of the Receptors on an individual Lymphocyte are the SAME Shape and thus
Bind to the Same Antigen.
8. The body can defend itself against a large number of different pathogens because
the Immune system makes millions of different kinds of Lymphocytes each carrying
uniquely shaped receptors.
9. The Specificity of the Immune System is DUE TO the Specificity of the Antigen
Receptors on the Lymphocytes.

IMMUNE RESPONSE
1. An Immune Response is a TWO-PRONG Assault on a Pathogen: THE CELL
MEDIATED IMMUNE RESPONSE AND THE HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE.
2. Both parts of the Immune Response are Controlled by a Type of T CELL called a
HELPER T CELL.
3. The FIRST STEP in an Immune Response occurs when a Macrophage engulfs and
destroys a Pathogen.
4. The Macrophage then Displays Fragments of the Pathogen's Antigens on the surface
of its own Cell Membrane.
5. When a Helper T Cell with a receptor matching this Antigen encounters the
Macrophage, the Macrophage Releases a Cytokine called INTERLEUKIN-1, which in
turn triggers the Helper T Cell to release a Second Cytokine, called INTERLEUKIN-2.
CELL MEDIATED IMMUNE RESPONSE
1. Interleukin-2 Stimulates the Helper T Cells and Two other Types of T Cells - Cytotoxic
T Cells and Suppressor T Cells to Rapidly divide.


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2. IN CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY, SPECIAL DEFENSE CELLS ATTACK CELLS THAT
ARE DANGEROUS TO THE BODY.
3. CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY ATTACKS BODY CELLS THAT ARE INFECTED WITH
PATHOGENS, THAT ARE CANCEROUS, OR ATTACKS BODY CELLS FROM ANOTHER
PERSON (TRANSPLANTS).
4. THE SPECIAL DEFENSE CELLS USED IN CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY ARE T
LYMPHOCYTES, (Cytotoxic T CELLS).
5. Cytotoxic T CELL ARE WBCs THAT ATTACK AND DESTROY FOREIGN AND
DANGEROUS CELLS (Cancer). Cytotoxic T-Cells attach to foreign, antigen-bearing
cells, such as bacteria cells, and interact directly- that is, by cell-to-cell contact. This
type of response is called Cell-Mediated Immunity.
6. Suppressor T Cells help to shut down the Immune Response after the Pathogen has
been cleared from the body.
7. T Cells are made in the Bone Marrow but MATURE in the THYMUS GLAND, T
CELLS DO NOT PRODUCE ANTIBODIES.


HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE, (BODIES FLUIDS) - ANTIBODIES
1. Interleukin-2 and Antigen Presentation by a Macrophage or t Cell STIMULATES B
CELLS to divide and Differentiate into PLASMA CELLS.
2. Plasma Cells are Highly Specialized Cells that produce Defensive Proteins and
Secrete them into the Blood.
3. These Defensive Proteins are IDENTICAL to the Plasma Cell's Antigen Receptors and
are known as ANTIBODIES.
4. THE ANTIBODY MOLECULE IS THE BASIC FUNCTIONAL UNIT OF THE IMMUNE
RESPONSE.



5. An Antibody Molecule is shaped like the Letter Y and has TWO Identical ANTIGEN
BINDING SITES that precisely fit the shape of a Particular Antigen. Lock and Key.


100
6. These sites allow each Antibody to bind to TWO Antigens.
7. Because an Antibody fits precisely with an Antigen, an Antibody that binds to one
Antigen CANNOT bind to another Antigen.







8. Antibodies make Antigens CLUMP TOGETHER (AGGLUTINATION); the clumped
Antigens are not active. Macrophages ENGULF and DESTROY the Clumped Antigens.

9. Because there are so many different Pathogens in the world, your body does NOT
Automatically have antibodies against all of them.
10. When a Pathogen invades the body, a Macrophage brings the foreign Antigen to
the B Cells (PLASMA CELLS). In this way, the B Cells "LEARN" about the Antigens on
the Pathogens Surface and START to make appropriate Antibodies. The B Cells then
circulate through the body, releasing Antibodies that bind to the new Antigen.

11. The production of Antibodies from the FIRST Exposure to an Antigen is known as the
PRIMARY IMMUNE RESPONSE.
IMMUNITY
1. THE GROWTH OF B CELLS AND T CELLS IN RESPONSE TO AN INFECTION HAS A
SPECIAL CONSEQUENCE - IMMUNITY.
2. A person who is Resistant to a Specific Pathogen is said to have IMMUNITY TO IT.
2. ONCE THE BODY HAS BEEN EXPOSED TO A DISEASE, AND SURVIVED, A LARGE
GROUP OF B CELLS AND T CELLS (MEMORY CELLS) REMAINS CAPABLE OF


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PRODUCING A SECONDARY IMMUNE RESPONSE SHOULD THE PATHOGEN
REAPPEAR IN THE BODY. This is called NATURALLY ACQUIRED IMMUNITY.
3. THE BODY'S RESISTANCE TO PREVIOUSLY ENCOUNTERED PATHOGENS IS
CALLED ACQUIRED IMMUNITY.
4. A SECONDARY IMMUNE RESPONSE IS MORE POWERFUL THAN THE PRIMARY
RESPONSE, PRODUCING ANTIBODIES SO QUICKLY THAT THE DISEASE NEVER
GETS A CHANCE TO DEVELOP.
5. THE RAPID RESPONSE OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM TO A PATHOGEN IT HAS
PREVIOUSLY ENCOUNTERED IS THE SECONDARY IMMUNE RESPONSE.
6. Memory B-Cells along with Memory T-Cells produce the Secondary Immune
Response.
7. REMEMBER: THE PRIMARY IMMUNE RESPONSE OCCURS WHEN THE IMMUNE
SYSTEM FIRST ENCOUNTERS A NEW PATHOGEN.
8. THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF IMMUNITY:
A. ACTIVE IMMUNITY - The Immunity produced by a VACCINE is known an
Active Immunity because the body has the ability to mount an active immune
response against the pathogen. The injection of a WEAKENED or MILD form of a
pathogen to produce immunity is known as VACCINATION. (LONG-LASTING)
B. PASSIVE IMMUNITY - If Antibodies produced by other animals against a
pathogen are injected into the bloodstream, they produce Passive Immunity against
the pathogen as long as they remain in the Circulation, usually for several weeks.
(SHORT-TERM)


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IMMUNE DISORDERS
1. THE IMPRESSIVE POWER OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM TO DEFEND THE BODY
AGAINST A WIDE RANGE OF POTENTIAL PATHOGENS COMES AT A PRICE:
A. THE IMMUNE SYSTEM MAY OVERREACT TO AN ANTIGEN, PRODUCING
DISCOMFORT OR EVEN DISEASE.
B. THE CELLULAR NATURE OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE IS A POTENTIAL WEAK
POINT. A DISEASE ATTACKS THE LYMPHOCYTES.
2. The most COMMON Overreactions of the immune system are known as
ALLERGIES.


ALLERGIES
1. AN ALLERGY IS THE RESPONSE OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM TO A NORMALLY
HARMLESS SUBSTANCE AS IF IT WERE AN ANTIGEN.
2. Allergies result when Antigens bind to mast cells, which are a type of immune cell
found throughout the body but especially in the linings of the nasal passage.


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3. When allergy-causing antigen attaches to mast cells, the activated mast cells release
Chemicals known as HISTAMINES.
4. Histamines Increase the flow of blood and fluids to the surrounding area, and
produce sneezing, runny eyes and nose, and other irritations that makes a person with
allergies miserable.
5. Antigen on plant pollen, dust, molds, and animal fur trigger allergies.
6. One of the most serious allergic reactions is ASTHMA, a condition in which smooth
muscles contract around the passage to the lungs, making breathing difficult.
7. Asthma and Allergies can usually be treated with ANTIHISTAMINES (reverse the
effects of Histamines) Drugs and other medicines.
AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE
1. When the immune system is functioning Normally it distinguishes "SELF" from "NON-
SELF".
2. But sometimes the immune system MISTAKES its own cells for pathogens, resulting in
an AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE.
3. IN AN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE, THE IMMUNE SYSTEM ATTACKS THE TISSUE OF
THE BODY.
4. Several diseases are caused by IMMUNE disorders:
A. RHEUMATIC FEVER RESULTING FROM STREP THROAT CAUSING CELL DEATH
AND SCARRING TO THE HEART LINING AND THE HEART VALVES.
B. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS A DESTRUCTIVE INFLAMMATION OF THE JOINTS.
C. JUVENILE DIABETES REACTION AGAINST THE INSULIN PRODUCING CELLS OF
THE PANCREAS.
D. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS A NERVE DISEASE THAT RESULTS FROM THE
DESTRUCTION OF MYELIN SHEATH OF NERVE FIBERS.
AIDS - ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME
The immune system normally provides very effective protection against infectious
diseases. Its importance to our health is dramatically illustrated by the diseases in
which the immune system malfunctions. The most deadly of these diseases is AIDS, or
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Aids was first recognized as a disease in 1981,
and since then it has killed more than 300,000 Americans.


104
OBJECTIVES: Describe the course of HIV infection. Identify four ways HIV is
transmitted. Describe how HIV's rate of evolution affects the development of vaccines
and treatments.
1. AIDS STANDS FOR ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. AIDS IS
THE MOST SERIOUS STAGE OF A CONDITION THAT DISRUPTS THE NORMAL
FUNCTION OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.
2. AIDS IS NOT A Specific Disease, but a condition in which the immune system
CANNOT protect the body against a variety of Pathogens.
3. AIDS IS CAUSED BY THE HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS OR HIV. HIV
ATTACKS THE HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM AND DESTROYS THE BODY'S ABILITY TO
FIGHT INFECTION.
4. Once HIV enters the body, it attaches to receptors on the surface of a type of T Cell
known as HELPER T CELLS (T4 Cells). These cells are so named because they Help
other Lymphocytes respond to the early stages of an infection.
5. As HIV destroys Helper T Cells, the body loses its ability to fight off disease. HIV
Destroys the body's ability to defend itself.
THE TRANSMISSION OF HIV
1. HIV CAN ONLY BE SPREAD FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER ONLY THROUGH
DIRECT CONTACT OF CERTAIN BODY FLUIDS, SUCH AS BLOOD, SEMEN, OR
BREAST MILK.
2. HIV IS NOT SPREAD BY CASUAL CONTACT, SUCH AS HOLDING HANDS OR
USING DISHES PREVIOUSLY USED BY A PERSON WITH HIV.
3. IT IS ALSO NOT TRANSMITTED BY INSECTS (Mosquitoes, Fleas, or Ticks).
4. MOST OFTEN, HIV IS TRANSMITTED THROUGH SEXUAL INTERCOURSE, SHARING
NEEDLES, OR BY TRANSFUSION OF CONTAMINATED BLOOD.
5. HIV is now the fastest growing Epidemic in the world.
6. According to the United Nations AIDS Project, more than 22 Million people are
infected with HIV.
7. EDUCATING YOURSELF ABOUT HIV CAN HELP REDUCE YOUR RISK OF
GETTING THE DISEASE.
A. CONDOMS REDUCE THE RISK OF TRANSMITTING HIV FROM ONE PERSON TO
ANOTHER DURING SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.


105
B. SHARING NEEDLES WITH OTHERS IS ONE OF THE MAIN WAYS THE VIRUS IS
TRANSMITTED FROM PERSON TO PERSON.
C. YOU NEVER RISK GETTING HIV WHILE DONATING BLOOD. BLOOD IS
ROUTINELY TESTED FOR HIV, AND THIS HAS ALMOST ELIMINATED THE RISK OF
GETTING HIV FROM BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS.
8. THERE IS NO KNOWN CURE FOR AN HIV INFECTION.
9. AT PRESENT, THE BEST WAY TO AVOID AN HIV INFECTION IS TO LEARN AS
MUCH AS YOU CAN ABOUT THE WAYS HIV IS TRANSMITTED.
10. AVOID BEHAVIORS THAT PLACE YOU AT RISK OF CONTACTING THE VIRUS.

STAGES OF HIV INFECTION
1. An HIV infection progresses on a fairly predictable course. Each stage of the infection
is associated with certain symptoms, but the timing of the stages varies with different
people.
2. When first infected by the virus, a person may have FLU LIKE Symptoms or no
Symptoms.
3. Within a few weeks to several months, Antibodies to HIV begin to appear in the
blood.
4. The presence of Antibodies in the blood is used to diagnose the disease and to screen
donated blood.
5. A person is said to be HIV POSITIVE when HIV Antibodies are present in the blood.
Even when a person is diagnosed as being HIV Positive, other Symptoms of the
syndrome may not appear for months or even years.


106
6. In time, HIV attacks and destroys Helper T Cells, the helper cells that activate the
immune system to fight infection.
7. At first, an HIV Positive person may experience a phase of mild symptoms including
fever, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes.
8. WHEN THE NUMBER OF HELPER T CELLS IN THE BLOOD BECOME SO LOW
(Below 200/mL) THAT THE IMMUNE SYSTEM CANNOT FIGHT DISEASE, AN HIV
INFECTION HAS DEVELOPED IN AIDS.
9. THE LENGTH OF TIME IT TAKES FOR AN HIV INFECTION TO BECOMES AIDS
VARIES FROM PERSON TO PERSON, BUT IT MAY TAKE FROM A FEW TO 15 TO 20
YEARS. (Figure 48-11)
10. People with AIDS may have a variety of diseases. Typically people with AIDS
become sick when they are infected by pathogens that do not normally cause disease
in people with healthy immune systems. These diseases are called OPPORTUNISTIC
INFECTIONS.
11. AN HIV INFECTION IS GENERALLY CONSIDERED FATAL. HOWEVER, NOT
EVERYONE WHO HAS BEEN DIAGNOSED AS HIV POSITIVE HAS DEVELOPED AIDS.
12. PEOPLE WITH AIDS DIE WHEN THEIR BODY'S WEAKENED IMMUNE SYSTEM
CANNOT FIGHT OFF AN OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION CAUSED BY A PATHOGEN.
13. Few individuals live more than two years after being diagnosed with AIDS, usually
dying from Opportunistic Infections or Cancer.
14. Scientists trying to create Vaccines for HIV must contend with its Very Rapid Rate of
Evolution. The Genes that Code for the Virus's surface proteins Mutate Frequently.
15. HIV's rapid evolution also complicates the task of developing Treatments (Drugs) for
HIV Infection and AIDS.
16. The virus quickly becomes Resistant to drugs used against it. To avoid this problem,
scientist have begun treating patients with Three Antiviral Drugs at once.


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HUMAN (MALE AND FEMALE) REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
The gonads-testes and ovaries-are endocrine glands that secrete sex hormones.
However, the primary function of the gonads is not to produce hormones but to
produce and store gametes-sperm and eggs. Other organs in the male reproductive
system prepare sperm for the possible fertilization of an egg.
OBJECTIVES: Describe the structure of a human sperm. Identify the major parts of
the male reproductive system. Describe the function of each part of the male
reproductive system. Trace the path that sperm follow in leaving the body.
1. Plants and Animals produce NEW Individuals through a process of
REPRODUCTION.
2. Reproduction involves Special Structures that make up the REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM.
3. The Reproductive System, unlike other systems we have studied, IS NOT ESSENTIAL
to the survival of an INDIVIDUAL.


108
4. Organisms can survive and lead healthy lives WITHOUT REPRODUCING.
5. What the Reproductive System is important to is the Survival of the SPECIES.
Reproduction is absolutely essential to the continuation of the SPECIESSOME OF US
MUST REPRODUCE!
6. IN HUMANS THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM PRODUCES, STORES, NOURISHES, AND
RELEASES SPECIALIZED SEX CELLS KNOWN AS GAMETES.
7. The ways in which the Gametes are released make possible the fusion of Sperm
(Male Gametes) and Egg (Female Gametes) in the process of FERTILIZATION. From
a Fertilized Egg, or ZYGOTE, come all the cells in a human body.
SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT
1. For the First SIX Weeks after fertilization, human male and female Embryos are
Identical in appearance.








2. During the SEVENTH Week of development, major changes occur:
A. The TESTES, which are the PRIMARY Reproductive Organs of a MALE, begin to
produce Steroid Hormones (Sex) known as ANDROGENS. The tissue of the Embryo
responds to these hormones by developing into the MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS.
B. The OVARIES, or the PRIMARY Reproductive Organs of a FEMALE Embryo,
produce Steroid Hormones (Sex) known as ESTROGENS. The tissue of the Embryo
responds to these hormones by developing into the FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
ORGANS.
3. THE MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS DEVELOP FROM EXACTLY
THE SAME TISSUES IN THE EMBRYO.


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4. After birth the Testes and the Ovaries continue to produce small amounts of Sex
Hormones. These Sex Hormones continue to influence the development of the
Reproductive Organs.
5. Neither Testes or Ovaries are capable of producing Active Reproductive Cells
(GAMETES) until PUBERTY.







6. PUBERTY IS A PERIOD OF RAPID GROWTH AND SEXUAL MATURATION
DURING WHICH THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM BECOMES FULLY FUNCTIONAL.
7. AT THE COMPLETION OF PUBERTY, THE MALE AND FEMALE GONADS, OR
REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS, ARE FULLY DEVELOPED.
8. THE ONSET OF PUBERTY VARIES AMONG INDIVIDUALS. IT MAY OCCUR
ANYTIME FROM AGE 9 TO 15. GENERALLY, PUBERTY BEGINS ABOUT A YEAR
EARLIER IN FEMALES THAN IN MALES.
9. Puberty begins with a change in the Hypothalamus, the part of the Brain that
regulates the secretions of the Pituitary Gland (GONADOTROPIN RELEASING
HORMONE, GnRH). This changes causes the Pituitary Gland to produce Increased
Levels of TWO Hormones that affect the Gonads:
A. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
B. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


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1. Males begin to produce Sperm during Puberty, the adolescent stage of development
when changes in the body make reproduction possible.
2. At this time, the concentration of the hormone Testosterone is high enough to
stimulate sperm production. Testosterone is the Main Androgen (Male Sex Hormone)
produced by the Testes.
3. The TESTES (PRIMARY MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS) develop within the
Abdominal Cavity, just before birth the Testes descend through a canal into an
EXTERNAL SAC called the SCROTUM.
4. The Testes (two egg-shaped structures) remain in the Scrotum, outside the body,
where the temperature is about 3 degrees C Cooler than the body internal
temperature (27 degrees C).
5. Sperm development in the Testes Requires the Lower Temperature.
6. The Testes are clusters of hundreds of Tiny Tubules called SEMINIFEROUS (sehm-
uh-NIHF-er-uhs) TUBULES, which means "SEED BEARING". Sperm Form through
Meiosis in the specialized lining of this extensive network of tubules.
7. As the Pituitary Gland begins to release FSH and LH, these Hormones stimulate the
Testes to make the PRINCIPAL MALE SEX HORMONE TESTOSTERONE.
8. Cells that respond to Testosterone are found all over the body.
9. Testosterone produces a number of SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS that
appear in Males at Puberty Voice Deepens, Beard Grows, and Body Hair.


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10. FSH and Testosterone stimulate the development of Sperm. When large numbers
of sperm have been produced in the Testes, the development process of Puberty is
completed - THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IS NOW FUNCTIONAL.
SPERM DEVELOPMENT
1. Sperm are derived from Special Cells within the Testes that go through the process of
MEIOSIS to form HAPLOID NUCLEI found in Mature Sperm. The Chromosome
number drops from 46 to 23, Four sperm cells result from each cell that begins meiosis.
2. A Mature Sperm consists of THREE Regions:
A. HEAD - which contains the Nucleus (The 23 Chromosomes) and enzymes that
help the sperm penetrate the protective layers that surround and Egg Cell.
B. MID PIECE - packed with energy releasing Mitochondria (Energy Source). The
Mitochondria supply the energy that is required for sperm to reach an Egg.
C. TAIL Consists of a Single, Powerful FLAGELLUM that propels the Sperm.
3. Developed Sperm travel from the Seminiferous Tubules into the EPIDIDYMIS.
Within each Epididymis, a Sperm MATURES AND GAINS THE ABILITY TO SWIM AS ITS
FLAGELLUM COMPLETES DEVELOPMENT.
4. Although most Sperm remain stored in each Epididymis, some leave the Epididymis
and pass into through the VAS DEFERENS, a duct that extends from the Epididymis.
5. Each Vas Deferens enters the Abdominal Cavity, where it loops around the Urinary
Bladder and merges with the Urethra. In a Male, both Urine and Sperm exit the body
through the Urethra.
6. In the Urethra, Sperm Mix with Fluids that are secreted by Three Exocrine Glands-
the Seminal Vesicles, Bulbourethral Glands, and the Prostate Gland- to produce
SEMINAL FLUID -which Protects and Nourishes the Sperm.
7. THE COMBINATION OF SPERM AND SEMINAL FLUID IS KNOWN AS SEMEN.
8. Semen has a high concentration of Fructose to be used by Sperm as an Energy
Source.
9. To increase sperm survival, semen also contains Alkaline Fluids that help to
Neutralize the Acidic Environment of the Female's Vagina.
10. To help sperm move through the Female Reproductive system, Semen also contains
Prostaglandins that Stimulate contractions of Smooth Muscles that line the Female
Reproductive Track.


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11. BETWEEN 100 AND 200 MILLION SPERM ARE
PRESENT IN 1 milliliter OF SEMEN OR ABOUT 5
MILLION SPERM PER DROP!
12. The Vas Deferens merges with the URETHRA, the
Tube that leads to the outside of the body through the
PENIS.
13. The Penis is the Male Reproductive Organ that makes it possible for Sperm to be
delivered to the body of the Female.
14. When the Male is Sexually Excited, the Autonomic Nervous System prepares the
Male Organs to deliver Sperm (Erect).
15. Sperm are Ejected from the Penis by Contractions of Smooth Muscles Lining the Vas
Deferens. THIS PROCESS IS CALLED EJACULATION.
16. Because Ejaculation is Regulated by the Autonomic Nervous System, it is NOT
Completely Voluntary.
17. 300 - 400 million Sperm are released in the Reproductive Tract of a Female during
a single Ejaculation; the chances of a Single Sperm Fertilizing and Ovum (Egg OR
Female Gamete), if one is available, are quit GOOD.
18. Most sperm are Killed by the Acidic Environment of the Female Reproductive Track.
Only a few Sperm reach the site of Fertilization.
19. Sperm make up only 10 Percent of Semen, 90 percent is the fluid secreted by the
Three Glands.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Like the testes, the female gonads-ovaries-are endocrine glands that produce
gametes. The female reproductive system prepares the female gametes-eggs-for
possible fertilization. It also contains structures that enable fertilization to occur and
that house and nourish a developing baby.
OBJECTIVES: Compare eggs with sperm. Identify the major parts of the female
reproductive system. Describe the function of each part of the female reproductive
system. Describe the menstrual cycle and explain how it is regulated.


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1. THE PRIMARY REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF THE FEMALE ARE THE OVARIES.
2. The Ovaries are located in the Lower Abdominal Cavity; the Ovaries USUALLY
produce only ONE EGG or OVUM per month.
3. In addition to producing eggs, the female reproductive system has another
important job to perform - EACH TIME AN EGG IS RELEASED, THE BODY MUST BE
PREPARED TO NOURISH A DEVELOPING EMBRYO.
4. Puberty in females starts with changes in the Hypothalamus that causes the release
of FSH and LH from the Pituitary Gland.
5. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) stimulates cells within the Ovaries to produce the
Hormone ESTROGEN.









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6. Estrogen causes the reproductive system to complete its development, and also
produce SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS - Enlargement of Breast and
Reproductive Organs, Widening of the Hips, and growth of Body Hair.

FORMATION OF EGGS (OVA, CALLED THE OVARIAN CYCLE)
1. Each Ovary contains about 400,000 PRIMARY FOLLICLES, which are clusters of
cells surrounding a single ovum (egg).
2. During her lifetime fewer than 500 Ova (Eggs) will actually be released, averaging
one egg about every 28 days.
3. The FUNCTION of a Follicle is to prepare a Single Ovum for release into the part of
reproductive system where it can be Fertilized. Ova mature within their follicles. The
maturing eggs become large, highly complex cells, growing nearly 75,000 times Larger
than Sperm.
4. When a Follicle has completely matured, the Ovum (Egg) is released. THIS
PROCESS IS CALLED
OVULATION.







5. If TWO Eggs mature, Fraternal, or Non Identical Twins may result.
6. Ovulation begins at Puberty and USUALLY continues until a female is in her late
forties, when MENOPAUSE occurs.
7. After Menopause, Follicle Development no longer occurs and a female is no longer
capable of bearing children. (Biological Clock)
8. Without Follicles, the Ovaries Cannot Secrete enough Estrogen and Progesterone to
continue the Menstrual Cycle, and Menstruation ceases.


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9. The Follicle literally ruptures, and the Ovum is swept from the Ovary into one of the
TWO FALLOPIAN TUBES. The Fallopian Tubes provide a way for an egg to travel
from the Ovary to the Uterus.
10. The Ovum is moved through the fluid filled Fallopian Tubes by Cilia attached to the
cells that line the walls of the tube.
11. IT IS DURING ITS JOURNEY THROUGH THE FALLOPIAN TUBE THAT AN EGG CAN
BE FERTILIZED. An Egg must be fertilized within 48 hours of its release - after that, the
egg begins to break down. Unfertilized eggs dissolve in the Uterus.
12. After a FEW DAYS, the Ovum passes from the Fallopian Tube into the UTERUS.
13. The lining of the Uterus is specially designed to receive a Fertilized Ovum.
14. The lower entrance to the Uterus is called the CERVIX. A Sphincter Muscle in the
Cervix controls the opening to the Uterus.
15. Leading from the Cervix to the outside of the body is a muscular tube called the
VAGINA or Birth Canal.
16. The External Structures of the Female Reproductive System are collectively called
the VULVA. The Vulva includes the LABIA, folds of Skin and Mucous Membranes
that Cover and Protect the Opening to the Female Reproductive System.
THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE
1. In females, the interaction of the Reproductive System and the Endocrine System
takes the form of a complex series of periodic events called the Menstrual Cycle. The
Cycle takes an average of about 28 days.
2. Each month, the Uterus prepares to receive and nourish an Embryo.
3. THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE IS THE SERIES OF CHANGES THAT OCCUR IN THE
UTERUS EACH MONTH.
4. The Menstrual Cycle has FOUR Stages: THE FOLLICULAR PHASE,
OVULATION, THE LUTEAL PHASE AND MENSTRUATION.
5. These Stages are Regulated by the Hormones of the Endocrine System.

6. During the First Stage-THE FOLLICULAR PHASE, of the Menstrual Cycle, the Egg
Matures, and the Lining of the Uterus GROWS THICKER, many tiny Blood Vessels grow
into the thickened lining, in preparation for receiving a Fertilized Egg.



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7. The development of an Egg in this stage of the Cycle takes about 14 DAYS.
8. The Second Stage, OVULATION, the shortest phase in the Cycle (3-4 DAYS), is
the release of an egg from a ruptured follicle. Following
Ovulation, an egg is swept into a fallopian tube, where it
travels toward the uterus awaiting fertilization. The Egg
has enough stored nutrients to survive about 48 hours.
9. The Third Stage, LUTEAL PHASE, last about 14 Days,
the Cells of the Ruptured Follicle grow larger and fill the
cavity, forming a New Structure called a CORPUS
LUTEUM. The Corpus Luteum begins to secrete large
amounts of PROGESTERONE and ESTROGEN. The Increase levels cause the Pituitary
Gland to stop Secreting LH and FSH.
10. Progesterone causes the lining of the Uterus to become even thicker.
11. The Lining is prepared to receive the Embryo four or five days after the Egg is
released from the Ovary.
12. An Embryo that settles into the lining of the uterus, the Corpus Luteum continues to
release Hormones that causes the Uterus to maintain its thickened lining.
13. Most of the time, no embryo arrives, and the Corpus Luteum begins to produce Less
and Less Estrogen and Progesterone.
14. The Decrease in Levels of Estrogen and Progesterone causes the Blood Vessels in the
uterine lining to begin closing and then Break.
15. The Cells of the Uterine lining DO NOT receive adequate blood supply and come
loose from the inside of the uterus.
16. The mixture of Blood and the Cells that made up the lining of the uterus is called
MENSTRUAL FLUID.
17. The passage of this Fluid through the Vagina and out of the body is called
MENSTRUATION OR THE MENSTRUAL PERIOD THE LAST STAGE. IT USUALLY
LASTS FROM THREE TO SEVEN DAYS. At the end of the Period, a NEW Cycle Begins-
THE FOLLICULAR PHASE.
18. The AVERAGE Menstrual Cycle is 28 DAYS LONG.
19. Almost ALL Women START their Menstrual Period 14 DAYS AFTER Ovulation
occurs.
20. The length of the First stage of the cycle, the period when the Follicle is growing,
DIFFERS from women to women.


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GESTATION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
GESTATION
A new individual is produced when a sperm fertilizes an egg, resulting in the formation
of a zygote. During the nine-month period of Gestation, a series of changes transform
a single cell into a complex organism made of trillion of cells a human.
OBJECTIVES: Describe the processes of Fertilization, Cleavage, and Implantation.
Summarize the changes that take place during the development of an embryo. List
three stages of pregnancy and describe each stage.
FERTILIZATION
1. IN ORDER FOR AN OVUM TO BECOME FERTILIZED, SPERM MUST BE PRESENT IN
THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT- MORE SPECIFICALLY, IN A FALLOPIAN
TUBE.
2. During Ejaculation, 150 MILLION to 350 Million Sperm are deposited just a few
inches from the Fallopian Tubes, in which Fertilization CAN OCCUR.
3. Once Sperm are released, they swim through the Vagina, Cervix, and Uterus, and,
finally, up the Fallopian Tubes.
4. If Ovulation occurs anytime from 72 hours before to 48 hours after Ejaculation,
sperm may encounter an egg in one of the Fallopian Tubes.
5. Only a Single Sperm is needed to Fertilize an Ovum. Fertilization occurs when a
sperm and an egg fuse and form a Zygote.


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6. The Ovum is surrounded by a dense protective layer that contains receptor sites to
which Sperm bind.
7. This binding causes a Vesicle in the Sperm Head to rupture and release enzymes that
break down the protective layer and forms a pathway through which the Sperm
Nucleus (Head) can reach the Ovum.
8. Once a Sperm Nucleus (Head) enters the Ovum, the Tail is left outside, the Cell
Membrane changes, preventing other sperm from entering the cell.
9. The Fertilized Ovum is properly called a ZYGOTE (2N). The Zygote will go through
Cell Division (Mitosis), and the Ball of Cells (Embryo) will attached itself to the wall of
the uterus (IMPLANTATION) and begin to grow into an Embryo - Pregnancy.
8. Sperm can survive in the female reproductive tract for TWO days or longer, so there
are usually three or four days each month when Fertilization is possible.
CLEAVAGE AND IMPLANTATION











1. When an Ovum (Egg) is fertilized, the remarkable process of human development
begins.
2. During this process, a single cell no larger than a period at the end of a sentence will
undergo a series of Cell Divisions that will result in the formation of a new individual.


119
3. The first few CLEAVAGES, or MITOTIC Cell Divisions of the Zygote, take place while
the Zygote is still inside a Fallopian Tube.
4. Four Days after fertilization, the Embryo consists of a solid ball of about 50 Cells
known as the MORULA (MOR-yoo-luh).
5. As the Embryo grows, a fluid-filled cavity forms in the center, transforming it into a
BALL of Cells known as a BLASTOCYST
6. The Morula becomes a Blastocyst by the time it reaches the Uterus.
7. About 6 or 7 Days after Fertilization, the Blastocyst Burrows and Embeds itself to the
wall of the Uterus and begins to grow Inward in a process known as
IMPLANTATION. Pregnancy begins at Implantation.















PREGNANCY
1. After Implantation, the Blastocyst slowly takes on the recognizable features of the
human infant.
2. This nine month period of development is called GESTATION or PREGNANCY.
3. Pregnancy is divided into Three Equal Periods, or Trimesters.
4. A cluster of Cells gradually forms within the cavity of the Blastocyst. This cluster sorts
itself in to TWO Layers, which then produce a THIRD Layer, by a process of Cell
Migration known as GASTRULATION (gas-troo-LAY-shuhn).
5. THE RESULTS OF GASTRULATION IS THE FORMATION OF THREE CELL LAYERS
KNOWN AS THE:


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A. ECTODERM - THE OUTERMOST PRIMARY GERM LAYER IN
AN ANIMAL EMBRYO. DEVELOPS INTO THE NERVOUS SYSTEM,
EPIDERMIS, AND SWEAT GLANDS.
B. MESODERM- THE MIDDLE PRIMARY GERM LAYER IN AN
ANIMAL EMBRYO. DEVELOPS INTO THE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM, KIDNEYS, MUSCLE, BONES, SKIN, BLOOD, AND BLOOD
VESSELS.
C. ENDODERM- INNERMOST PRIMARY GERM LAYER IN AN ANIMAL EMBRYO.
DEVELOPS INTO THE LUNGS, LIVER, THE LININGS OF THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS,
AND A SOME ENDOCRINE GLANDS.
6. THESE THREE LAYERS ARE REFEREED TO AS THE PRIMARY GERM LAYERS
BECAUSE ALL OF THE ORGANS AND TISSUES OF THE EMBRYO WILL BE FORMED
FROM THEM.

7. During Implantation, the Outer Layer of Cells of the Blastocyst produces TWO
important Membranes that surround, protect, and nourish the developing Embryo -
AMNION AND THE CHORION.
A. CHORION = PLACENTA - THE CONNECTION BETWEEN MOTHER AND
DEVELOPING EMBRYO. THE PLACENTA IS AN ORGAN THROUGH WHICH
MATERIALS ARE EXCHANGED BETWEEN THE MOTHER AND THE DEVELOPING
EMBRYO.
B. AMNION = AMNIOTIC SAC - FLUID FILLED STRUCTURE THAT CUSHIONS AND
PROTECTS THE DEVELOPING FETUS IN PLACENTAL MAMMALS


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8. The Placenta is the Embryo's Organ of Respiration, Nourishment, and Excretion. The
Blood of the Mother and Embryo do NOT MIX; they flow pass each other.
9. The Nine Months of Pregnancy are often divided into THREE MONTH PERIODS
KNOWN AS TRIMESTERS.
10. Most of the Fetus's (After 8 WEEKS) development is completed by the end of the
Second Trimester. During this time, a structure known as the UMBILICAL CORD
forms. The umbilical cord, which contains TWO Arteries and ONE Vein, connects the
fetus to the Placenta.
11. STAGES OF EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT:
0-4 WEEKS - Fertilization occurs; embryo travels through Fallopian Tubes
and implants in uterine wall; Nervous System, Brain, Digestion System,
Ears, and Arms begin to form; Heart Forms and Begins to Beat at 21 Days.
5-8 WEEKS - Nostrils, Eyelids, nose, Fingers, Legs, Feet, Toes, and Bones
begin to Form; Females develop Ovaries, Males develop Testes; Head is as
large as body; Cardiovascular System is Fully Functional; about 22 mm
(less than 1 inch) long.
9-12 WEEKS - Embryo becomes a FETUS, from eight weeks until birth,
the developing child is called a Fetus. Penis in Males is distinct; growth of
Chin and other Facial Structures give the Fetus a Human Face and Profile;
Head is still Dominant, but body is lengthening; about 36 mm (1.5 inches)
long.


13-16 WEEKS - Blinking of Eyes and Sucking of Lips occurs; body begins to outgrow
Head; Mother can Feel muscular activity of Fetus; about 140 mm (5.5 inches) long.


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17-20 WEEKS - Limbs achieve final proportions; Eyelashes and Eyebrows are present;
about 190 mm (6.5 inches) long.
21-30 WEEKS - Substantial increase in weight; may survive if born at
this stage; Skin is Wrinkled and Red; about 280 mm (13 inches) long.
30-40 WEEKS - Fingernails and Toenails are present; about 360 mm
(14.5 inches) long.

CHILDBIRTH

1. About 9 Months (about 270 Days) after Fertilization, at the end of a Full Term
Pregnancy, the Fetus is ready for Birth. By this time, it has usually moved so that its
Head is against the Cervix.
2. When it is time? A Hormone known as OXYTOCIN is released from the Pituitary
Gland, that affects a group of large Involuntary Muscles that surrounds the Uterus.
3. WEAK, Irregular Contractions may occur for Several Weeks before birth. (False
Labor).
4. As these Muscles are stimulated, they begin a series of Rhythmic Contractions knows
as LABOR that Expands the opening of the CERVIX so that it will be large enough
(about 10 cm) to allow the baby to pass through it.
5. As contractions continue, they become more Powerful (PAINFUL) and more
Frequent, occurring once every minute or two.
6. Little by little, in a process (LABOR) that last from 2 to 20 hours, the baby is
FORCED toward the Vagina as labor continues.


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7. The Amniotic Sac Breaks (Breaking Water), and the fluid it contains rushes out of
the Vagina.
8. The baby is finally Forced out of the Uterus and the Vagina, Head First, still attached
to its mother by the Umbilical Cord.
9. The Baby will begin to cough or cry in order to rid its lungs of the fluid with which
they have been filled. Breathing starts almost immediately.
10. The Umbilical Cord is clamped and cut, leaving a Scar known as Navel or Belly
Button.
11. In the final contractions the Placenta, Amniotic Sac and the Uterine Lining,
collectively called AFTER BIRTH are expelled from the mother's body about 10
minutes after the baby is born.
12. The process of Childbirth is complete.






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125
ENDOCRINE GLANDS


Endocrine glands are located throughout the body and regulate many of its vital
processes. This section discusses the Hormones that each endocrine gland produces and
their effects on the Body.
OBJECTIVES: List the major endocrine glands and hormones found in the body.
Discuss the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. Describe
the function of each endocrine gland.



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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE HYPOTHALAMUS AND THE
PITUITARY GLAND
THE HYPOTHALAMUS
1. The Hypothalamus is the part of the Brain and Nervous System that regulates body
temperature, breathing, hunger and thirst. Located beneath the Thalamus in the
Brain, it Regulates Our Body's Internal Environment.
2. The Hypothalamus can also be considered the Master Switchboard for the Endocrine
System. The Hypothalamus REGULATES the Two Lobes Pituitary Gland. By Releasing -
Releasing or Releasing-Inhibiting Hormones.
3. The Hypothalamus LINKS the Nervous System to the
Endocrine System.
4. NEUROSECRETORY CELLS of the Hypothalamus
Produce hormones that EITHER are STORED in the
Pituitary Gland or REGULATE the Pituitary's Activity.
5. The Hypothalamus is continuously checking
(monitoring) conditions inside your body.
6. If your Internal Environment (Homeostasis) starts to get
out of balance, The Hypothalamus has several ways to set
things right again.
A. Send out a Nerve Signal to another part of the Brain
the Medulla to speed up or slow down your heart
rate.
B. Send out commands in the form of Hormones, thus
acting like an Endocrine Gland.
7. THE HYPOTHALAMUS AND THE PITUITARY GLAND ARE THE PRIMARY
REGULATORS OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.
THE PITUITARY GLAND - TWO LOBES - POSTERIOR AND
ANTERIOR
1. A small gland about 1 cm in diameter is connected to the Hypothalamus by a Stalk-
like Structure.
2. The Pituitary has TWO portions called the Posterior and the Anterior Pituitary.


127
3. The Posterior Pituitary Stores Two Hormones, Vasopressin or ADH and Oxytocin,
both which are Produced By and Released from the Hypothalamus.
A. ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE - (ADH) OR VASOPRESSIN Causes the
kidneys to form more concentrated urine, conserving water. Thus, the kidneys produce
urine with a High Solute Concentration.
B. OXYTOCIN Stimulates Contractions of the Uterus during Labor, also causes the
release of milk from the breast of a nursing mother.
ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND
1. Neurosecretory Cells in the hypothalamus also produce and secrete RELEASING
HORMONES, which STIMULATE Endocrine Cells of the Anterior Pituitary Lobe to
Produce and Secrete Hormones.
2. Other Hypothalamic Cells which Produce RELEASE-INHIBITING HORMONES,
which INHIBIT Production and Secretion of the Anterior Pituitary Hormones
3. Releasing Hormones and Release-Inhibiting Hormones are produced in response to
various stimuli that are processed by the Nervous system.
4. There is at Least ONE Releasing Hormone for each Anterior Pituitary Hormone.
5. The Anterior Pituitary Produces at least 7 different Hormones:




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A. GROWTH HORMONE (GH) (SOMATOTROPIN) Promotes cell division,
protein synthesis, and Bone and Muscle Growth.
B. PROLACTIN (PRL) It causes mammary gland in breast to develop and
produce milk. It also plays a role in carbohydrate and fat metabolism.
C. MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONE - stimulates the Melanocytes of
the Skin, increasing their production of the dark pigment melanin.
6. The Anterior Pituitary (Hypophysis) is sometimes called the Master Gland
because it Controls the Secretion of other Endocrine Glands.
7. The Anterior Pituitary Secretes the following Hormones, which have an Affects on
other Endocrine Glands:
A. THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH) Regulates the Thyroid to
Produce and Release Thyroxin and Triiodothyronine.
B. ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE (ACTH) Which stimulates the
Adrenal Cortex. Causes the Adrenal Cortex to Produce and Release Cortisol and
Aldosterone.
C. GONADOTROPIC HORMONES (FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE -
FSH and LUTEINIZING HORMONE - LH) - Which stimulate the gonads - the Testes
in Males and the Ovaries in Females. Causes the Gonads to Secrete Sex Hormones and
Stimulates Gamete (Sperm and Egg) Production.






THYROID GLAND
1. LOCATED AT THE BASE OF THE NECK JUST BELOW THE LARYNX.
2. THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH) REGULATES THE THYROID GLAND.


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3. PRODUCES THYROXIN, TRIIODOTHYRONINE, AND CALCITONIN
A. THYROXIN AND TRIIODOTHYRONINE STIMULATES AND MAINTAINS
METABOLIC ACTIVITIES, NORMAL HEART RATE, BLOOD PRESSURE, AND BODY
TEMPERATURE. THEY ALSO PROMOTE CARBOHYDRATE USAGE OVER FAT USAGE
FOR ENERGY.
B. CALCITONIN (C CELLS) INHIBITS RELEASE OF CALCIUM FROM BONES. OR
REGULATES THE LEVEL OF CALCIUM IN THE BLOOD.
4. IN ORDER TO PRODUCE THYROXIN AND TRIIODOTHYRONINE, THE THYROID
GLAND REQUIRES IODINE. IODIZED SALT.
5. GOITER THE SWELLING OF THE THYROID GLAND IS A RESULT OF IODINE
DEFICIENCY.
6. DECREASED LEVELS OF THYROXIN CAUSES A DECREASE IN THE CELLULAR
RESPIRATION RATE. CELLS PRODUCE LESS ENERGY AND BECOME LESS ACTIVE.

7. HYPERTHYROIDISM - TOO MUCH THYROXIN RESULTS IN NERVOUSNESS,
ELEVATED BODY TEMPERATURE, INCREASED HEART AND METABOLIC RATES,
INCREASED BLOOD PRESSURE, AND WEIGHT LOSS. HYPERTHYROIDISM CAN BE
TREATED WITH MEDICATION OR BY SURGICAL REMOVAL OF PART OF THE
THYROID GLAND.


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8. HYPOTHYROIDISM - NOT ENOUGH THYROXIN RESULTS IN LOWER
METABOLIC RATES (LETHARGY) AND BODY TEMPERATURE, LACK OF ENERGY,
AND WEIGHT GAIN. IN SOME CASES, IS ASSOCIATED WITH GOITER, OR
ENLARGEMENT OF THE THYROID GLAND. HYPOTHYROIDISM CAN BE TREATED
WITH SUPPLEMENTARY THYROXIN.
9. HYPOTHYROIDISM IN INFANTS AFFECTS NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE
SKELETON, MUSCULAR, AND NERVOUS SYSTEMS AND RESULTS IN A CONDITION
CALLED CRETINISM.
10. CRETINISM IS CHARACTERIZED BY DWARFISM AND MENTAL RETARDATION.





PARATHYROID GLANDS (4)
1. ATTACHED TO OR EMBEDDED IN THE BACK SURFACE OF THE THYROID GLAND,
TWO IN EACH LOBE.
2. PRODUCES PARATHYROID HORMONE (PTH) REGULATES THE CALCIUM
LEVELS IN THE BLOOD BY INCREASING THE REABSORPTION OF CALCIUM IN THE
KIDNEYS AND BY INCREASING THE UPTAKE OF CALCIUM FROM THE DIGESTIVE
SYSTEM.
3. PARATHYROID HORMONE IS IMPORTANT IN PROMOTING PROPER
NERVE AND MUSCLE FUNCTION AS WELL AS MAINTAINING BONE
STRUCTURE.
4. LOSS OF PARATHYROIDS CAUSES A DROP IN THE LEVEL OF CALCIUM IN
THE BLOOD, WHICH MAY RESULT IN VIOLENT MUSCULAR SPASMS KNOWN
AS TETANY.
5. CAN BE RELIEVED BY THE ADMINISTRATION OF LARGE AMOUNTS OF
PTH AND INJECTIONS OF CALCIUM.
ADRENAL GLANDS (CORTEX AND MEDULLA)


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1. ONE GLAND IS LOCATED ON TOP OF EACH KIDNEY.
2. COMPOSE OF TWO VERY DIFFERENT TYPES OF TISSUE SO IT IS DIVIDED INTO
TWO PARTS.
A. OUTER - THE ADRENAL CORTEX
B. INNER - THE ADRENAL MEDULLA
ADRENAL CORTEX
1. THE OUTER PORTION, MAKES UP 80 PERCENT OF THE MASS OF THE GLAND.
2. THE ADRENAL CORTEX RESPONDS TO ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE
(ACTH), WHICH IS SECRETED BY THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
3. PRODUCES MORE THAN TWO DOZEN HORMONES CALLED
CORTICOSTEROIDS, WHICH ARE STEROID HORMONES AND ESSENTIAL FOR
NORMAL BODY FUNCTION.
4. ALDOSTERONE REGULATES THE REABSORPTION OF SODIUM AND THE
EXCRETION OF POTASSIUM BY THE KIDNEYS. THIS AFFECTS WATER AND SALT
BALANCE IN THE BODY.
5. CORTISOL AFFECTS CARBOHYDRATE, PROTEIN AND FAT METABOLISM. IT
ALSO HELPS PEOPLE COPE WITH STRESS.
6. DECREASE ACTIVITY OF THE ADRENAL CORTEX CAN RESULT IN ADDISON'S
DISEASE - WEIGHT LOSS, LOW BLOOD PRESSURE, AND GENERAL WEAKNESS,
DEATH MAY OCCUR BECAUSE OF HEART FAILURE.
7. PEOPLE WITH ADDISONS DISEASE RECEIVE REGULAR DOSES OF ADRENAL
CORTICAL HORMONES.
8. INCREASE ACTIVITY OF THE ADRENAL CORTEX CAN RESULT IN CUSHING
SYNDROME - OBESITY, INCREASE BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS, HIGH BLOOD
PRESSURE, AND WEAKENING OF BONES.
9. TREATMENT INVOLVES DECREASING THE SECRETION OF HYPERACTIVE
HORMONE, IF POSSIBLE.
ADRENAL MEDULLA
1. THE INNER PORTION, IS A SPECIALIZED PART OF THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS
SYSTEM.


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2. SECRETS TWO AMINO ACID BASED HORMONES CALLED NEUROHORMONES -
ADRENALINE (EPINEPHRINE) AND NORADRENALINE
(NOREPINEPHRINE).
3. ADRENALINE IS MORE POWERFUL IN ITS ACTIONS AND MAKES UP 80
PERCENT OF THE TOTAL SECRETIONS.
4. "FIGHT OR FLIGHT" HORMONES - NERVE IMPULSES FROM THE SYMPATHETIC
NERVOUS SYSTEM RESULTS IN THE SECRETION OF ADRENALINE AND
NORADRENALINE.
5. ADRENALINE INCREASES HEART RATE, BLOOD PRESSURE, AND BLOOD
SUPPLY TO SKELETON MUSCLES, INCREASES THE CONVERSION OF GLYCOGEN TO
GLUCOSE AND STIMULATES THE RATE OF METABOLISM.
6. NORADRENALINE STIMULATES THE HEART MUSCLE - INCREASES RATE AND
STRENGTH OF HEARTBEAT.
REPRODUCTIVE GLANDS - GONADS
1. GONADS - THE OVARIES IN FEMALES AND THE TESTES IN MALES - ARE GAMETE-
PRODUCING ORGANS THAT ALSO PRODUCE A GROUP OF STEROID SEX
HORMONES.
2. SEX HORMONES REGULATE BODY CHANGES THAT BEGIN WITH PUBERTY.
3. PUBERTY IS THE ADOLESCENT STAGE DURING WHICH THE SEX ORGANS
MATURE AND SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS, SUCH AS FACIAL HAIR,
APPEAR.
4. WHEN SECRETED BY THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND, LUTEINIZING
HORMONE (LH) AND FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH) STIMULATE
SECRETION OF SEX HORMONES FROM THE GONADS.
5. THE FEMALE GONADS, OR OVARIES PRODUCE EGGS (OVA) AND ALSO
PRODUCE SEX HORMONES THAT AFFECT CELLS THROUGHOUT THE BODY.
6. THE OVARIES PRODUCE THE FEMALE SEX HORMONES, THE ESTROGENS AND
PROGESTERONE.
7. ESTROGENS ARE REQUIRED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF OVA AND FOR THE
FORMATION OF THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS (SECONDARY SEX
CHARACTERISTICS) ASSOCIATED WITH THE FEMALE.


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8. THESE CHARACTERISTICS INCLUDE THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FEMALE
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM, THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE BEGINS, WIDENING OF THE
HIPS, AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE BREAST. PUBERTY.
9. PROGESTERONE PREPARES THE UTERUS FOR THE ARRIVAL OF A
DEVELOPING EMBRYO - OR CONTROLS THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE.
10. MALE GONADS OR TESTES PRODUCE SPERM, AND SEX HORMONES THAT
AFFECT CELLS THROUGHOUT THE BODY.
11. TESTES PRODUCE ANDROGENS OR THE MALE SEX HORMONE.
TESTOSTERONE IS AN ANDROGEN THAT REGULATES MALE SECONDARY SEX
CHARACTERISTICS.
12. ANDROGENS ARE REQUIRED FOR NORMAL SPERM PRODUCTION AND THE
DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS (SECONDARY SEX
CHARACTERISTICS) ASSOCIATED WITH THE MALE. PUBERTY.
13. THESE CHARACTERISTICS INCLUDE THE GROWTH OF FACIAL HAIR, INCREASE
IN BODY SIZE, AND DEEPENING OF THE VOICE.
PANCREAS
1. LOCATED JUST BEHIND THE STOMACH.
2. PANCREAS IS BOTH AN EXOCRINE (DUCTS) AND ENDOCRINE GLAND.
3. THE HORMONE PRODUCING PORTION OF THE PANCREAS CONSISTS OF
CLUSTERS OF CELLS THAT RESEMBLE ISLANDS, CALLED ISLETS OF
LANGERHANS.
4. EACH ISLET IS COMPOSED OF BETA CELLS WHICH SECRETES INSULIN, AND
ALPHA CELLS WHICH SECRETES GLUCAGON.
5. THESE TWO HORMONES, INSULIN AND GLUCAGON REGULATE THE
METABOLISM OF BLOOD GLUCOSE (SUGAR) AND THE HORMONES HAVE
OPPOSITE EFFECTS. (ANTAGONISTIC HORMONES - FIGURE 51-10)
6. INSULIN STIMULATES ITS TARGET CELLS TO TAKE UP AND USE GLUCOSE. THIS
ACTION LOWERS BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS. "USE OR STORE"
7. GLUCAGON STIMULATES ITS CELLS TO BREAKDOWN STORED GLYCOGEN AND
INCREASE GLUCOSE LEVELS IN THE BLOOD.


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8. WHEN THERE IS AN UNDER SECRETION OF INSULIN, A CONDITION CALLED
DIABETES MELLITUS OCCURS.
9. TYPE I OR JUVENILE ONSET - BEFORE AGE 25, LITTLE OR NO INSULIN
PRODUCTION, REQUIRES A STRICT DIET AND DAILY INJECTIONS OF INSULIN.
10. TYPE II OR ADULT ONSET - AFTER AGE 40, PRODUCE NORMAL AMOUNTS
OF INSULIN, BUT CELLS ARE UNABLE TO RESPOND PROPERLY BECAUSE OF LACK
OF INSULIN RECEPTORS, CAN BE CONTROLLED BY DIET.
11. HYPOGLYCEMIA CAUSED BY EXCESS (HIGH) INSULIN OR LOW BLOOD SUGAR,
a Disorder in which Glucose is Stored rather than being properly delivered to the cells of
the body causing cells to starve to death. This leads to a lower blood glucose
concentration and subsequent release of Glucagon and Epinephrine (Adrenaline).
Symptoms of hypoglycemia include Lethargy, Dizziness, Nervousness, Overactivity, and
in extreme cases, Unconsciousness (Ketoacidosis or Diabetic Coma) and DEATH. To
assist someone with this problem, provide them some Sugar, such as Soda (6 oz).
12. HYPERGLYCEMIA CAUSED BY LOW INSULIN OR HIGH BLOOD SUGAR. Can
cause Nausea and Rapid Breathing, possibly leading to Oxygen Deficiency, Circulatory
and Nervous System Failure, Diabetic Coma, or even Death.

THE THYMUS GLAND
1. THE THYMUS GLAND IS LOCATED BENEATH THE STERNUM (BREASTBONE) AND
BETWEEN THE LUNGS.
2. THE THYMUS CONSISTS MOSTLY OF T-CELLS AND PLAYS A ROLE IN THE
DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.
3. THE THYMUS GLAND SECRETES THYMOSIN, AN AMINO ACID BASED
HORMONE THAT STIMULATES THE FORMATION OF T-CELLS, WHICH HELP
DEFEND THE FROM PATHOGENS.



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THE PINEAL GLAND
1. THE PINEAL GLAND IS LOCATED NEAR THE BASE OF THE BRAIN.
2. THE PINEAL GLAND SECRETES THE HORMONE MELATONIN.
3. MELATONIN CONCENTRATIONS INCREASE SHARPLY AT NIGHT
AND DECREASE DRAMATICALLY DURING THE DAY.
4. THIS CYCLIC RELEASE OF MELATONIN INDICATES THAT IT HELPS
REGULATE SLEEP.

DIGESTIVE ORGANS
1. ENDOCRINE CELLS WITHIN THE WALLS OF SOME DIGESTIVE ORGANS ALSO
SECRETE A VARIETY OF HORMONES THAT HELP DIGEST FOOD.
2. WHEN FOOD IS EATEN, ENDOCRINE CELLS IN THE STOMACH LINING SECRETE
GASTRIN, A HORMONE THAT STIMULATES OTHER STOMACH CELLS TO RELEASE
DIGESTIVE ENZYMES AND HYDROCHLORIC ACID.



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3. ENDOCRINE CELLS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE RELEASE SECRETIN, A
HORMONE THAT STIMULATES THE RELEASE OF VARIOUS DIGESTIVE
FLUIDS FROM THE PANCREAS AND BILE FROM THE LIVER.

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

The adult human body consists of approximately 206 bones, which are organized into
an internal framework called the SKELETON. Because the human skeleton is an
internal structure, biologists refer to it as an ENDOSKELETON. The variation in size
and shape among the bones that make up the skeleton reflects their different roles in
the body.
OBJECTIVES: Identify the major bones of the skeletal system. Distinguish between
the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. Explain the function and structure of
bone. Summarize how bones develop and elongate. List three classes of joints, describe
the action of each and give an example of each. Describe a common disorder that
affects the skeletal system.
THE SKELETON
1. In order to retain their SHAPE and FORM, Living Things need some type of support.
2. In Single-Celled Organisms, this support is provided by the Cell Membrane.
3. In Multicellular Animals, the support is provided by some form of a
SKELETON.
4. There are TWO TYPES of Animal Skeletons:
A. EXOSKELETON - AN OUTSIDE SKELETON, ARTHROPODS
(SPIDERS, CRUSTACEANS, INSECTS, AND CRABS).
B. ENDOSKELETON - AN INSIDE SKELETON, VERTEBRATES.
5. The Skeleton of Humans is composed of a special CONNECTIVE
TISSUE (TISSUE THAT JOINS OTHER TISSUES TOGETHER) CALLED
BONE.
6. BONES AND THEIR ASSOCIATED TISSUES - CARTILAGE,
TENDONS, AND LIGAMENTS - MAKE UP THE SKELETON SYSTEM.
7. THE HUMAN SKELETON SYSTEM CONSISTS OF 206 BONES.



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8. OR THE SKELETON SYSTEM CONSISTS OF BONES AND OTHER STRUCTURES
THAT MAKE UP THE JOINTS OF THE SKELETON.
9. THE TYPES OF TISSUE PRESENT ARE BONE TISSUE, CARTILAGE, AND
FIBEROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE, WHICH FORMS THE LIGAMENTS THAT
CONNECT BONE TO BONE.
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETON SYSTEM
1. THE BONES THAT MAKE UP THE SKELETON SYSTEM SERVES FOUR
IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS:
A. Provides a framework that Supports the Body; the muscles that are
attached to the bones move the skeleton.
B. Protects Some Internal Organs from mechanical injury; the rib cage protects
the heart and lungs OR SKULL AROUND THE BRAIN, for examples.
C. Contains and Protects the Red Bone Marrow, Hematopoiesis (Blood-
forming) tissues (Red Blood Cells or Erythrocytes). Some White Blood Cells
(Leukocytes) are also produced in Bones.
D. Provides a Storage Site of Inorganic Salts, such as CALCIUM. Calcium may
be removed from bone to maintain a normal blood calcium level, which is essentially
for BLOOD CLOTTING and PROPER FUNCTIONING OF THE MUSCLES AND NERVES.
2. Bones also provide a system of levers (rigid rods that can be moved about a fixed
point) on which a group of specialized tissues (Muscles) act to produce motion.
STRUCTURE OF BONES
1. Bones are a solid network of MOIST, LIVING CELLS (OSTEOCYTES), LIVING TISSUE.
AND FIBERS (COLLAGEN) THAT ARE SUPPORTED BY A MATRIX (DEPOSITS) OF
CALCIUM SALTS
2. The Calcium Salts give bones the STRENGTH and PROTECTIVE Functions.
3. The Function of OSTEOCYTES is to REGULATE the amount of Calcium that is
deposited in, or removed from, the Bone Matrix.
4. Each bone is surrounded by a Tough Membrane called the PERIOSTEUM, A
FIBEROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANE WHOSE COLLAGEN FIBERS MERGE
WITH THOSE OF THE TENDONS AND LIGAMENTS THAT ARE ATTACHED TO THE
BONE.


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5. The Periosteum, contains a network of Blood Vessels, which supply Oxygen, Nerves
and Nutrients to the bone.
6. The Jointed Surfaces of Bones are covered with ARTICULAR CARTILAGE, WHICH
PROVIDES A SMOOTH SURFACE FOR MOVEMENT.

7. Beneath the Periosteum is a thick layer of COMPACT BONE. One of two types of
Bone tissues.
8. Compact Bone is dense and similar in texture to Ivory; it is far from being SOLID. A
thick layer of Compact Bone enables the Shaft of Long Bones (called the Diaphysis)
to endure the large amount of stress it receives upon impact with a solid object.

9. Compact bone is composed of Cylinders OR Tubes of Mineral Crystals and Protein
Fibers called LAMELLAE.
10. In the Center of each Cylinder is a narrow channel called HAVERSIAN CANALS
THAT CONTAIN BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES.
11. Blood Vessels run through interconnected Haversian Canals, creating a network that
carries Nourishment to the Living Bone Tissue
12. The second type of Bone Tissue, SPONGY BONE, it is the Inside Layer of Compact
Bone.
13. Spongy Bone IS NOT Soft and Spongy. But actually quite strong. Near the Ends of
Bones (EPIPHYSIS) where force is applied, Spongy Bone is organized into structures
that resemble the supporting girders of a bridge.


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14. THE STRUCTURE OF SPONGY BONE HELPS ADD STRENGTH TO BONE WITHOUT
ADDING MASS. It is arranged along points of Pressure or Stress, making bones both
Light and Strong.
15. Embedded in COMPACT and SPONGY Bone are Cells known as OSTEOCYTES,
that can either deposit the calcium salts in bone or absorb them again.
16. OSTEOCYTES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR BONE GROWTH AND CHANGES IN THE
SHAPE OF BONES.
17. The Cavities of Bones contain a Soft Tissue called BONE MARROW.
18. THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF BONE MARROW FOUND IN MOST
BONES:
A. YELLOW BONE MARROW - FOUND IN MOST BONES, BUT
PRIMARILY FILLS THE SHAFTS OF LONG BONES AND IS MADE UP OF
BLOOD VESSELS, NERVE CELLS, BUT CONSISTS MOSTLY OF FAT CELLS
(ADIPOSE TISSUE). IT SERVES AS AN ENERGY RESERVE. IT CAN ALSO BE
CONVERTED TO RED BONE MARROW AND PRODUCE BLOOD CELLS
WHEN SEVERE BLOOD LOSS OCCURS.
B. RED BONE MARROW - FOUND IN SPONGY BONE, THE ENDS OF
LONG BONES, RIBS, VERTEBRAE, THE STERNUM, AND THE PELVIS -
PRODUCES RED BLOOD CELLS AND SPECIAL WHITE BLOOD CELLS
CALLED LYMPHOCYTES, AND OTHER ELEMENTS OF BLOOD
(PLATELETS).










140
CLASSIFICATION OF BONES:
BONES CANE BE CLASSIFIED AS ONE OF FOUR TYPES BASED ON THEIR
SHAPE:



1. LONG BONES - THE BONES OF THE ARMS, LEGS, HANDS, AND FEET (BUT NOT
THE WRIST OR ANKLES). The Shaft of the Long Bones is the DIAPHYSIS, and the
Ends are called EPIPHYSIS. The Diaphysis is made up of Compact Bone and is
Hallow, forming a canal within the shaft. This Marrow Canal contains Yellow Bone
Marrow, which is mostly adipose tissue. The Epiphyses are made of Spongy Bone
covered by a thin layer of Compact Bone.
2. SHORT BONES - THE BONES OF THE WRIST AND ANKLES.
3. FLAT BONES - THE RIBS, SHOULDER BLADES, HIPBONES, AND
CRANIAL BONES.
4. IRREGULAR BONES - THE VERTEBRAE AND FACIAL BONES.
5. SHORT, FLAT AND IRREGULAR BONES ARE ALL MADE OF
SPONGY BONE COVERED WITH A THIN LAYER OF COMPACT BONE.
RED BONE MARROW IS FOUND WITHIN THE SPONGY BONE.
DEVELOPMENT OF BONES


141
1. Bone growth begins long before birth. The basic Shape of a Long Bone, such as an
Arm Bone is First Formed AS CARTILAGE.
2. Cartilage is a Tough but Flexible CONNECTIVE TISSUE,
THAT UNLIKE BONE DOES NOT CONTAIN BLOOD
VESSELS.
3. Cartilage Cells must rely on the DIFFUSION of Nutrients
from tiny Blood Vessels (CAPILLARIES) in surrounding
tissue.
4. The Cells that make up Cartilage are scattered in a
Network of Fibers composed of an ELASTIC PROTEIN
called COLLAGEN.
5. CARTILAGE IS DENSE AND FIBEROUS, CAN SUPPORT
WEIGHT, BUT IS STILL EXTREMELY FLEXIBLE.
6. MANY BONES IN A NEWBORN BABY ARE COMPOSED ALMOST ENTIRELY OF
CARTILAGE. "SOFT SPOT" OF A BABIES HEAD!
7. Latter the Cartilage Cells will be Replaced by Cells that form the Bones. THE
CARTILAGE IS REPLACED DURING OSSIFICATION, OR THE PROCESS OF BONE
FORMATION.
8. Ossification begins to take place up to seven months before birth AS MINERAL
(CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS) DEPOSITS ARE LAID DOWN NEAR THE CENTER OF
THE BONE (CENTER OF OSSIFICATION) IN EACH BONE.
9. BONE TISSUE FORMS AS OSTEOCYTES SECRET MINERAL DEPOSITS THAT
REPLACE THE CARTILAGE. OR A BONE MATRIX GRADUALLY REPLACES THE
ORIGINAL CARTILAGE.
10. The Long Bones Develop AND Grow THROUGH OUT CHILDHOOD
at centers of Ossification in their EPIPHYSIS (ENDS).
11. Growth occurs in the EPIPHYSEAL DISC or PLATE (GROWTH
PLATES) AT THE JUNCTION OF THE DIAPHYSIS WITH EACH
EPIPHYSIS (AT EACH END OF THE BONE).
12. AN EPIPHYSEAL DISC IS STILL CARTILAGE, AND THE BONE
GROWS IN LENGTH AS MORE CARTILAGE IS PRODUCED ON THE
EPIPHYSIS SIDE.
13. ON THE DIAPHYSIS SIDE, OSTEOBLAST (CELLS THAT PRODUCE
BONE MATRIX, (A BLAST CELL IS A "PRODUCING" CELL, AND


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"OSTEO" MEANS BONE) TO REPLACE CARTILAGE.
14. Between the ages of 16 and 25 years, ALL of the Cartilage of the EPIPHYSEAL DISC
IS REPLACED BY BONE. THIS IS CALLED CLOSURE OF THE EPIPHYSEAL DISC, AND
THE BONE LENGTHENING PROCESS STOPS.
15. In adults, Cartilage is found in those parts of the body where FLEXIBILITY IS
NEEDED.
16. SUCH PLACES INCLUDE THE TIP OF THE NOSE, THE EXTERNAL EAR, THE VOICE
BOX (LARYNX), AND THE ENDS OF BONES WHERE JOINTS ARE FORMED.
CARTILAGE IS ALSO FOUND WHERE THE RIBS ARE ATTACHED TO THE
BREASTBONE (STERNUM), THUS ALLOWING THE RIB CAGE TO MOVE DURING
BREATHING.
17. CARTILAGE PROVIDES AN IMPORTANT COMBINATION OF STRENGTH AND
FLEXIBILITY.
SKELETAL ORGANIZATION
1. ALL THE BONES IN THE BODY MAKES UP THE SKELETON. THERE ARE 206
TOTAL BONES IN THE HUMAN BODY.
2. THE SKELETON SUPPORTS THE BODY'S WEIGHT, ENABLES IT TO MOVE, AND
PROTECTS MANY OF ITS INTERNAL ORGANS.
3. THE HUMAN SKELETON HAS TWO DIVISIONS:
A. THE AXIAL SKELETON - CONSIST OF THE SKULL,
VERTEBRATE COLUMN, AND THE RIB CAGE.
B. THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON - CONSIST OF THE
BONES OF THE ARMS AND LEGS, SHOULDER, AND THE
PELVIC GIRDLE.


AXIAL SKELETON BONES
1. The Skull consists of 8 CRANIAL BONES and 13 FACIAL
BONES. 22 TOTAL
2. The Ears consists 6 BONES, AND FLOATING IN THE


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THROAT 1 BONE THE HYOID. 7 TOTAL
3. The Vertebral Column (Spinal Column or Backbone) consists of 7 CERVICAL (NECK)
VERTEBRAE, 12 THORACIC, 5 LUMBAR, AND 5 FUSED VERTEBRAE INTO 1 SACRUM,
AND 4 TO 5 SMALL FUSED VERTEBRAE INTO 1 COCCYX (YOUR TAIL BONE). 26
TOTAL
4. THE RIB CAGE (THORACIC CAGE) CONSISTS OF THE 12 PAIRS OF RIBS- 24
BONES AND THE STERNUM, OR BREASTBONE. 25 TOTAL
APPENDICULAR SKELETON BONES
1. THE PECTORAL GIRDLE CONSISTS OF 4 BONES, AND UPPER LIMBS CONSISTS OF
60 BONES. 60 TOTAL
A. THE HANDS AND WRIST CONSISTS OF 54 SEPARATE BONES.
2. THE PELVIC GIRDLE CONSISTS OF 2 BONES AND THE LOWER LIMB CONSISTS OF
SIXTY BONES. 60 TOTAL
A. THE FEET AND ANKLES CONSISTS OF 54 SEPARATE BONES.
FRACTURES AND THEIR REPAIR
1. A FRACTURE MEANS THAT A BONE HAS BEEN CRACKED OR BROKEN. A Bone
Fracture may be a simple crack, or the Bone may actually break into two or more
pieces.
2. THERE ARE DIFFERENT TYPES OF FRACTURES CLASSIFIED AS TO THE
EXTENT OF DAMAGE:
A. SIMPLE (CLOSED) - The broken parts are still in normal anatomical position;
surrounding tissue damage is minimal (skin is not pierced).
B. COMPOUND (OPEN) - The broken end of a bone has been MOVED, and it
Pierces the Skin; there may be extensive damage to surrounding blood vessels, nerves,
and muscles.
C. GREENSTICK - The Bone Splits LONGITUDINALLY (BREAKS ALONG THE
LONG AXIS OF THE BONE). The bones of children contain more collagen than do
adults bones and tend to Splinter rather than break completely.
D. COMMINUTED - Two or more intersecting breaks create several bone
fragments.


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E. IMPACTED - The broken ends of a bone are forced into one another; many bone
fragments may be created.
F. SPONTANEOUS (PATHOLOGIC) - A bone breaks without apparent trauma;
may accompany bone disorders such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
THE REPAIR PROCESS
1. Even simple fracture involves significant bone damage that must be repaired if the
bone is to resume normal function.
2. Fragments of dead or damage bone must first be removed. This is accomplished by
OSTEOCLAST (A BONE-DESTROYING CELL; REABSORBS BONE MATRIX AS PART
OF GROWTH OR REPAIR OF BONES), WHICH DISSOLVE AND REABSORB THE
CALCIUM SALTS OF BONE MATRIX.
3. Imagine a building that has just collapsed; the ruble must be removed before
reconstruction can take place. This is what the Osteoclasts do.
4. Then NEW BONE must be produced.
5. The INNER LAYER of the PERIOSTEUM contains OSTEOBLASTS that are activated
when bone is damaged. The Osteoblasts produce bone matrix to knit the broken ends
of bone together. Holding the broken ends close to each other and keeping them
completely still speeds the healing of bones. That is why a bone fracture is often
treated by encasing the fractured limb in a cast.
6. Since most bone has a good blood supply, the repair process is usually relatively
rapid, and a simple fracture often heals within 6 weeks.
7. Other factors that influence the repair include the age of the person, general state of
health, and nutrition (a diet with sufficient calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and protein,
if any of these nutrients is lacking, bone repair will be a slower process).
OSTEOPOROSIS
1. OSTEOPOROSIS CAUSES BONES TO BECOME BRITTLE.
2. As bones grow longer, they also grow THICKER and DENSER. In young adults the
Density of bone usually remains constant as bone tissue is broken down and replaced
at a steady rate.
3. During middle age, bone replacement gradually becomes less efficient, and bones
may become LESS DENSE.



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4. THE LOSS OF BONE DENSITY IS CALLED OSTEOPOROSIS, AND CAN CAUSE
BONES TO BECOME LIGHT, BRITTLE, AND EASILY BROKEN.
5. Although both men and women lose bone as the age, Women are at a GREATER
RISK for Osteoporosis for TWO reasons:
A. Women's bones are usually smaller and lighter than men's bones.
B. The production of female sex hormones declines rapidly during Menopause
(Shutdown of menstrual and ovarian cycles). Sex hormones help to maintain bone
density; this decline in hormone production increases the rate of bone loss.
6. BONE DENSITY CAN ONLY BE INCREASED DURING YOUR TEENS AND
TWENTIES! REGULAR EXERCISE AND A HEALTHY DIET WILL MAKE YOU
HEALTHIER NOW AND WILL ALSO PAY OFF LATER.
7. THE STRONGER YOUR BONES ARE NOW, THE LESS LIKELY YOU ARE TO
AFFECTED BY OSTEOPOROSIS LATER. In the US, more than 600,000 bone fractures
a year result from Osteoporosis.
JOINTS: WHERE TWO BONES MEET
1. JOINTS, OR PLACES WHERE TWO BONES COME TOGETHER, PERMIT THE BONES
TO MOVE WITHOUT DAMAGING EACH OTHER.
2. Joints are responsible for keeping bones far enough apart so they do not rub against
each other as they move. At the same time, joints hold the bones in place.
3. THE CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS IS BASED ON THE AMOUNT OF MOVEMENT
POSSIBLE:
A. SYNARTHROSIS IS AN IMMOVABLE JOINT; THEY ARE OFTEN CALLED
FIXED JOINTS, AND ALLOW NO MOVEMENT BETWEEN BONES. These joints are
interlocked and held together by Connective Tissue, or they are fused together. The
places where the bones of the SKULL meet (SUTURE) meet are examples of
immovable joints.
B. AMPHIARTHROSIS IS A SLIGHTLY MOVABLE JOINT. (SEMI MOVABLE
JOINTS) These joints permit a small amount of movement. These bones are farther
apart from each other than immovable joint bones. The joints between the two bones
of the lower leg (TIBIA and FIBULA) and the joints of the vertebrae are examples of
slightly movable joints.
C. DIARTHROSIS IS A FREELY MOVABLE JOINT. MOST OF THE JOINTS OF
THE BODY ARE FREELY MOVABLE JOINTS.


146
4. In Freely Movable Joints, the ends of the bones are covered with a layer of Cartilage
that provides a smooth surface at the joint.
5. The joints are also surrounded by a Fibrous Joint Capsule that helps hold the bones
together and at the same time allows for movement.
6. The Joint Capsule consists of TWO Layers:
A. One of the layers of the joint capsule may thicken to form strips of
tough Connective Tissue called LIGAMENTS. LIGAMENTS ARE ATTACHED
TO THE MEMBRANES THAT SURROUND BONES AND HOLD BONES
TOGETHER AND IN PLACE.
B. THE OUTER LAYER OF THE JOINT CAPSULE PRODUCES SYNOVIAL
FLUID, WHICH FORMS A THIN LUBRICATING FILM OVER THE SURFACE
OF A JOINT AND PROTECTS THE ENDS OF BONES FROM FRICTION. This
lubricating film enables the cartilage found on the ends of the bones to slip
past each other more smoothly as the joint moves.
7. In some freely movable joints, SMALL POCKETS OF SYNOVIAL FLUID CALLED
BURSAE FORM. A BURSAE REDUCES THE FRICTION BETWEEN THE BONES OF A
JOINT AND ALSO ACTS AS A TINY SHOCK ABSORBER.
8. If a joint is injured, too much fluid moves into the bursa, causing it to swell and
become painful, a condition called BURSITIS.
9. A more serious disorder that affects the joints is ARTHRITIS or INFLAMMATION OF
THE JOINT. There are Two Forms of Arthritis that affect joints.
A. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS - It develops when the Immune System begins to
attack the body. The joints become inflamed, swollen, stiff, and deformed.
B. OSTEOARTHRITIS - Is a Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD) in which the cartilage
covering the surface of bones becomes thinner and rougher. As a result, bone surfaces
rub against each other, causing severe discomfort.
10. FREELY MOVABLE JOINTS ARE GROUPED ACCORDING TO THE SHAPES OF
SURFACES OF THE ADJACENT BONES. THERE ARE SIX TYPES OF FREELY
MOVABLE JOINTS:
A. BALL AND SOCKET JOINT - Permits circular movement - the widest range of
movement. THE SHOULDER Joint, which enables you to move your arm up, down,
forward and backward, as well as to rotate it in a complete circle.


147
B. HINGED JOINT - Permits a back-and-forth motion. The Knee enables your leg
to flex and extend. The Elbow, which allows you to move your forearm forward and
backward.
C. PIVOT JOINT - Permits rotation of one bone around another. The elbow
enables your hand to turn over. It also allows you to turn your head from side to side.
D. GLIDING JOINT - Permits a sliding motion of one bone over another. Found at
the ends of the collarbones, between wrist bones, and between anklebones.
E. SADDLE JOINT - Permits movement in two planes. This type of joint is found at
the base of the thumb.
F. ELLIPSOID JOINT - Allows for a hinge type movement in two directions. The
joints that connect fingers with the palm and toes with the soles of feet are examples.

MUSCULAR SYSTEM










Muscles make up the bulk of the body and account for about one-third of its weight.
Their ability to contract not only enables the body to move, but also provides the force
that pushes substances, such as blood and food, through the body. Without the
muscular system, none of the other organ systems would be able to function.



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OBJECTIVES: Label the major muscles of the body. Distinguish between the three
types of muscle tissue. Describe the function and composition of the muscular system.
Explain how skeletal muscles contract. Explain the relationship among muscles, bones,
and joints. Explain how muscles move bones.

1. The Skeleton and its joints support, protect, and provide flexibility for the body, but
the Skeleton CANNOT Move Itself.
2. That job is performed by the Muscle Tissue that makes up the MUSCULAR SYSTEM.
3. A MUSCLE TISSUE IS TISSUE THAT CAN CONTRACT IN A COORDINATED
FASHION AND INCLUDES MUSCLES TISSUE, BLOOD VESSELS, NERVES, AND
CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
4. Approximately 40 to 50 percent of the MASS of the Human Body is composed of
Muscle Tissue.
5. THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM IS COMPOSED OF MUSCLE TISSUE (MUSCLE FIBER)
THAT IS HIGHLY SPECIALIZED TO CONTRACT, OR SHORTEN, TO PRODUCE
MOVEMENT WHEN STIMULATED.
6. The Word Muscle is derived from the Latin word "MUS", meaning mouse.
7. Muscle tissue is found everywhere within the body, not only beneath the skin but
deep within the body, surrounding many internal organs and blood vessels.
8. The size and location of muscle tissue helps determine the shape of our bodies and
the way we move.
TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE (THREE
TYPES)
1. There are Three Types of Muscle Tissue, or
Muscles: SKELETAL, SMOOTH, AND
CARDIAC.
2. EACH TYPE HAS A DIFFERENT STRUCTURE AND PLAYS A DIFFERENT ROLE IN
THE BODY.





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SKELETAL MUSCLE
1. Skeletal Muscle is Responsible for moving parts of the
body, such as the limbs, trunk, and face.




2. SKELETAL MUSCLES ARE GENERALLY ATTACHED TO BONES AND ARE AT WORK
EVERY TIME WE MAKE A MOVE.
3. SKELETAL MUSCLES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR VOLUNTARY (CONSCIOUS)
MOVEMENT.
4. A Skeletal Muscle is made of Elongated Cells called MUSCLE FIBERS. Varying
movements require Contraction of variable numbers of Muscles Fibers in a Muscle.
5. Skeletal Muscle fibers are grouped into dense bundles called FASCICLES. A group
of Fascicles are bound together by Connective Tissue to form a MUSCLE.
6. When viewed under a microscope, Skeletal Muscles appear to have STRIATIONS
(BANDS OR STRIPES). This gives Skeleton Muscle the name of VOLUNTARY OR
STRIATED MUSCLE.
7. MOST SKELETAL MUSCLES ARE CONSCIOUSLY CONTROLLED BY THE CENTRAL
NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).
8. Skeleton Muscle Cells are LARGE and have MORE than ONE NUCLEUS. They vary
in length from 1mm to 30 to 60 cm.
9. Because they are so long and slender, they are often called MUSCLE FIBERS rather
than Muscle Cells.
10. Muscle Fiber together with the Connective Tissue, Blood Vessels, and Nerves form a
Skeletal Muscle.




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SMOOTH MUSCLES
1. SMOOTH MUSCLES ARE USUALLY NOT UNDER VOLUNTARY
CONTROL.
2. SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS ARE SPINDLE-SHAPED AND HAVE A
SINGLE NUCLEUS, ARE NOT STRIATED and Interlace to form Sheets of
smooth Muscle Tissue.
3. SMOOTH MUSCLES ARE FOUND IN MANY INTERNAL ORGANS,
STOMACH, INTESTINES, AND IN THE WALLS OF BLOOD VESSELS.
4. Smooth muscle fibers are surrounded by connective tissue, but the
connective tissue Does Not unite to form TENDONS as it does in Skeletal Muscles.
5. Most Smooth Muscle Cells can CONTRACT WITHOUT Nervous Stimulation. Because
most of its movements Cannot be consciously controlled, Smooth Muscle is referred to as
Involuntary Muscle.
6. The contractions in Smooth Muscles move food through our digestive tract, control
the way blood flows through the circulatory system, and increases the size of the pupils
of our eyes in bright light.
CARDIAC MUSCLE
1. THE ONLY PLACE IN THE BODY WHERE CARDIAC MUSCLE IS
FOUND IS IN THE HEART.
2. Cardiac Cells are Striated, but they are NOT under Voluntary Control.
3. Cardiac Muscle Contract Without Direct stimulation by the Nervous
System. A bundle of specialized muscle cells in the upper part of the
heart sends electrical signals through cardiac muscle tissue, causing the
heart to rhythmically contract and pump blood through the body.
4. The Cardiac Muscle Cell contains ONE Nucleus located near the center,
adjacent cells form branching fibers that allow Nerve Impulses to pass from cell to cell.

MUSCLE STRUCTURE
1. A Muscle Fiber is a single, Multinucleated Muscle Cell.
2. A Muscle made be made up of hundreds or even thousands of Muscle Fibers,
depending on the Muscles Size.
3. Although Muscle Fiber makes up most of the Muscle Tissue, a large amount of
Connective Tissue, Blood Vessels, and Nerves are also present.


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4. Connective Tissue Covers and Supports each Muscle Fiber and reinforces the uscle as
a whole.
5. The health of Muscle depends on a sufficient Nerve and Blood
Supply. Each Skeletal Muscle has a Nerve Ending that controls its
activity.
6. Active Muscles use a lot of Energy and require a continuous supply
of Oxygen and Nutrients, which are supplied by Arteries. Muscles
produce large amounts of Metabolic Waste that must be removed by
Veins.
7. Muscle Fibers consist of Bundles of threadlike structures called
MYOFIBRILS.
8. Each Myofibril is made up of TWO Types of Protein Filaments-
Thick ones and Thin ones.
9. The THICK FILAMENTS are made up of a PROTEIN called
MYOSIN.
10. The THIN FILAMENTS are made of a PROTEIN called ACTIN.
11. Myosin and Actin Filaments are arranged to form overlapping
patterns, which are responsible for the Light and Dark Bands that can be seen in
Skeletal (Striated Appearance) Muscle.
12. Thin Actin Filaments are Anchored at their Midpoints to a structure called the Z-
LINE.
13. The Region From one Z-line to the next is called a SARCOMERE the Functional
Unit of Muscle Contractions.




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MECHANISM OF MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS
1. The Sarcomere is the functional unit of
Muscle contractions.
2. When Muscle Cells Contract, the light and
dark bands contained in Muscle Cells get closer
together.
3. This happens because when a Muscle
Contracts, Myosin Filaments and Actin
filaments interact to shorten the length of a
Sarcomere.



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4. When Myosin Filaments and Actin Filaments come near each other, many knob
(heads) like projections in each Myosin Filament form CROSS-BRIDGES with an Actin
Filament.
5. When the Muscle is Stimulated to Contract, the Cross-bridges MOVE, PULLING the
Two Filaments past each other.
6. After each Cross-bridge has moved as far as it can, it releases the Actin Filament and
returns to its original position. The Cross-bridge then attaches to the Actin Filament at
another place and the cycle is repeated. This action Shortens the Length of the
Sarcomere.
7. The synchronized shortening of Sarcomeres along the full length of a Muscle Fiber
causes the Whole Fiber, and hence the Muscle, to Contract.
8. WHEN THOUSANDS OF ACTIN AND MYOSIN FILAMENTS INTERACT IN THIS
WAY, THE ENTIRE MUSCLE CELL SHORTENS.
9. THIS CONCEPT IS THE SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY.
10. Muscle Contractions require Energy, which is supplied by ATP. This Energy is used
to Detach the Myosin Heads from the Actin Filaments.

11. Because Myosin Heads must Attach and Detach a number of times during a Single
Muscle Contraction, Muscle Cells must have a Continuous Supply of ATP.
12. Without ATP the Myosin Heads would stay Attached to the Actin Filaments,
keeping Muscles Permanently Contracted.
13. A Muscle Contraction, like a Nerve Impulse, is an All-or-None Response- either
Fibers Contract or they Remain Relaxed.


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14. The force of a Muscle Contraction is determined by the number of Muscle fibers that
are Stimulated. As more fibers are activated, the force of the contraction Increases.
15. Some Muscles, such as the muscles that hold the body in an upright position and
maintain posture, are nearly always at least Partially Contracted.
CONTROL OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION
1. Muscles are useful only if they Contract in a Controlled fashion.
2. Motor Neurons connect the CNS to Skeleton Muscle Cells (EFFECTORS);
Impulses (ACTION POTENTIALS) from Motor Neurons Control the
Contraction of Skeleton Muscle Cells.
3. The point of contact between a Motor Neuron and a Muscle Cell is called the
NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION.
4. Vesicles, or pockets, in the AXON TERMINALS of the Motor Neuron release molecules
of the NEUROTRANSMITTER ACETYLCHOLINE.
5. These molecules Diffuse across the SYNAPSE, producing and IMPULSE in the Cell
Membrane of the Muscle Cell.
6. The impulse causes the release of Calcium ions within the cell. The Calcium Ions
affect regulatory proteins that allow Actin and Myosin Filaments to interact and form
cross-bridges.
7. A Muscle Cell WILL remain in a state of CONTRACTION until the production of
Acetylcholine STOPS.
8. An ENZYME called ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE, also produced at the
Neuromuscular Junction, DESTROYS ACETYLCHOLINE, permits the reabsorption of
Calcium Ions into the Muscle Cell, and Terminates the Contraction.
9. You can have a Weak or Strong Contraction depending on what you are trying to
accomplish. The BRAIN (frontal lobes of the cerebrum) decides what and how many
Muscles Cells need to Contract. Blinking your eye would be a Weak Contraction, but
lifting heavy weights, the brain would signal most Muscle Cells to Contract.
10. MUSCLE SENSE IS THE BRAINS ABILITY TO KNOW WHERE OUR MUSCLES ARE
AND WHAT THEY ARE DOING. Permits us to perform everyday activities without
having to concentrate on muscle position.


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HOW MUSCLES AND BONES INTERACT
1. Skeleton Muscles generate Force and produce Movement only by CONTRACTING or
PULLING on Body Parts.
2. Individual Muscles can only PULL; they CANNOT PUSH.
3. Skeleton Muscles are joined to bone by TOUGH CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CALLED TENDONS.
4. TENDONS ATTACH MUSCLE TO BONE; THE ORIGIN IS THE MORE
STATIONARY BONE, THE INSERTION IS THE MORE MOVABLE BONE.
5. Tendons are attached in such a way that they PULL on the Bones and
make them work like LEVERS. The movements of the Muscles and
Joints enable the Bones to act as LEVERS.
6. The Joint functions as a FULCRUM (The fixed point around which the lever moves)
and the Muscles provide the FORCE to move the Lever.
7. Usually there several Muscles surrounding each Joint that PULL in DIFFERENT
DIRECTIONS.


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8. MOST SKELETAL MUSCLES WORK IN PAIRS.
9. When one Muscle or set of Muscles CONTRACTS, the other RELAXES.
10. The Muscles of the upper arm are a good example of this dual action:
ANTAGONISTIC MUSCLES. FLEXOR, A MUSCLE THAT BENDS A JOINT.
EXTENSOR, A MUSCLE THAT STRAIGHTENS A JOINT.
A. When the BICEPS Muscle (on the front of the upper arm, FLEXOR) CONTRACTS,
it BENDS OR FLEXES THE ELBOW JOINT.
B. When the TRICEPS Muscle (on the back of the upper arm, EXTENSOR)
CONTRACTS, it opens, or extends, the elbow joint.
C. A controlled movement requires contraction by both muscles.
11. ANTAGONISTIC MUSCLES ARE OPPONENTS, MUSCLES WHICH
HAVE OPPOSING OR OPPOSITE FUNCTIONS. A muscle pulls when it
contracts, but exerts no force when it relaxes and CANNOT PUSH.
When one muscle Pulls a bone in one direction, another muscle is needed
to PULL the bone in the other direction.
12. SYNERGISTIC MUSCLES ARE THOSE WITH THE SAME FUNCTION,
OR THOSE THAT WORK TOGETHER TO PERFORM A PARTICULAR
FUNCTION. They also stabilize a joint to make a more precise
movement possible.
13. A normal characteristic of all Skeleton Muscles is that they remain in
a state of PARTIAL CONTRACTION.
14. At any given time, some Muscles are being Stimulated while other
are not. This causes a TIGHTENED, or FIRMED, Muscle and is known as
MUSCLE TONE.
15. Muscle Tone is responsible for keeping the back and legs straight and
the head upright even when you are relaxed.
16. EXERCISE IS THE KEY TO MAINTAINING GOOD MUSCLE TONE WITHIN YOUR
BODY.
17. MUSCLES THAT ARE EXERCISED REGULARLY STAY FIRM AND INCREASE IN SIZE
BY ADDING MORE MATERIALS TO THE INSIDE OF MUSCLE FIBERS.
18. MUSCLE FATIGUE is a Physiological Inability of a muscle to contract. Muscle
fatigue is a result of a relative depletion of ATP. When ATP is absent, a state of
continuous contraction occurs. This causes severe muscle cramps.


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19. OXYGEN DEBT is a temporary Lack of Oxygen. When this occurs Muscles will
switch from the normal Aerobic Respiration to a form of Anaerobic Respiration called
Lactic Acid Fermentation. As the oxygen becomes Depleted, the muscle cells begin to
switch. Oxygen debt leads to the accumulation of Metabolic Waste (Lactic Acid) in the
muscle fibers, resulting in muscle fatigue, pain, and even cramps. Eventually, the lactic
acid diffuses into the blood and is transported to the Liver. So if you ever experienced
Soreness after prolong exercise, it may have been caused by Oxygen Debt - Your body
could not provide your Muscles the Oxygen they needed to function properly
THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
The integumentary system, consisting of the skin, hair and nails, act as a barrier to
protect the body from the outside world. It also functions to retain body fluids, protect
against disease, eliminate waste products, and regulate body temperature.
OBJECTIVES: Identify the structures that make up the integumentary system.
Describe the functions of the skin. Distinguish between the two layers that form the
skin. Compare the structure of hair with that of nails. Identify two types of glands
found in the skin, and describe their function.
1. SKIN AND ITS ACCESSORY ORGANS-THE HAIR, NAILS, AND A
VARIETY OF GLANDS, MAKE UP THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM.
2. The Skin is the human body's Largest Organs.
3. The word INTEGUMENT comes from a LATIN word that means
to COVER.
4. THE MOST IMPORTANT FUNCTION OF THE INTEGUMENTARY
SYSTEM IS PROTECTION.
5. IT PERFORMS THIS FUNCTION BY: (The FIVE Main Functions of
the Integumentary System)
A. SERVING AS A BARRIER AGAINST INFECTION AND
INJURY.
B. HELPING TO REGULATE BODY TEMPERATURE.
C. REMOVING WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE BODY.
D. PROVIDING PROTECTION AGAINST ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION FROM
THE SUN.


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E. PRODUCING VITAMIN D.






6. Because the skin contains several types of Sensory Receptors, it serves as the gateway
through which Sensations such as PRESSURE, HEAT, COLD, AND PAIN ARE
TRANSMITTED TO THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.
7. The Skin is composed of Two Main Layers - The EPIDERMIS and DERMIS.
EPIDERMIS
1. The OUTER most layer of Skin is known as the EPIDERMIS. It is composed of many
sheets of Flattened, Scaly Epithelial Cells. This is a thin outer layer of skin.
2. Its layers are made of Mostly DEAD CELLS.
3. Most of the cells of the Epidermis undergo rapid cell division (MITOSIS).
4. As new cells are produced, they push Older cells to the surface of the skin. The older
cells become Flattened, Lose their Cellular Contents and begin making KERATIN.
5. KERATIN IS A TOUGH FIBROUS PROTEIN AND FORMS THE BASIC STRUCTURE
OF HAIR, NAILS, AND CALLUSES.
6. In animals keratin forms cow horns, reptile scales, bird feathers, and porcupine quills.
7. Eventually, the Keratin-producing Cells (KERATINCYTES) DIE AND FORM A
TOUGH, FLEXIBLE WATERPROOF COVERING ON THE SURFACE OF THE SKIN. Our
thickest Epidermis in on the palms and soles.
8. THIS OUTER LAYER OF DEAD CELLS IS SHED OR WASHED AWAY ONCE EVERY 14
TO 28 DAYS.
9. The Epidermis contains MELANOCYTES, CELLS THAT PRODUCE MELANIN, A
DARK BROWN PIGMENT.


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10. BOTH LIGHT SKINNED AND DARK SKINNED PEOPLE HAVE ROUGHLY THE
SAME NUMBER OF MELANOCYTES, THE DIFFERENCE IN OUR SKIN COLOR IS
CAUSED BY THE AMOUNT OF MELANIN THE MELANOCYTES PRODUCE AND
DISTRIBUTE.
11. The Amount of Melanin produced in Skin depends on TWO Factors - Heredity and
the Length of Time the Skin is Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation (Tanning).
12. Melanin is important for protection, by absorption of Ultraviolet Radiation from the
sun. All people, but especially people with Light Skin, need to minimize exposure to
the sun and protect themselves from its Ultraviolet Radiation, which can Damage DNA
in Skin Cells and lead to deadly forms of Skin Cancer such as MELANOMA CANCER.
13. THERE ARE NO BLOOD VESSELS IN THE EPIDERMIS, WHICH IS WHY A SMALL
SCRATCH WILL NOT CAUSE BLEEDING.
DERMIS
1. THE DERMIS IS THE INNERMOST THICK LAYER OF THE SKIN COMPOSED OF
LIVING CELLS.
2. The Dermis lies beneath the Epidermis and contains BLOOD VESSELS, NERVE
ENDINGS, GLANDS, SENSE ORGANS, SMOOTH MUSCLES, AND HAIR FOLLICLES.
3. The Dermis helps us to control our body temperature:
A. On a cold day when the body needs to conserve heat, the Blood Vessels in the
Dermis NARROW.
B. On hot days, the Blood Vessels WIDEN, warming the skin and increasing heat loss.
4. Tiny Muscle fibers attach to Hair Follicles contract and pull hair upright when you
are cold or afraid, producing what is commonly called Goose Bumps.
5. Beneath the Dermis is the HYPODERMIS, (SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER), A LAYER
OF FAT AND LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT INSULATES THE BODY AND ACTS
AS AN ENERGY RESERVE.
6. The Dermis contains TWO major types of GLANDS: SWEAT GLANDS AND
SEBACEOUS, OR OIL GLANDS.
7. These Glands PASS through the Epidermis and RELEASE THEIR PRODUCTS AT THE
SURFACE OF THE SKIN.
8. SWEAT GLANDS PRODUCE THE WATERY SECRETIONS KNOWN AS SWEAT,
WHICH CONTAINS SALT, WATER, AND OTHER COMPOUNDS.


160
9. These secretions are stimulated by nerve impulses that cause the production of sweat
when the temperature of the body is raised. They help to cool the body.
10. SEBACEOUS GLANDS, (OIL GLANDS) PRODUCE OILY SECRETION KNOWN AS
SEBUM THAT SPREADS OUT ALONG THE SURFACE OF THE SKIN AND KEEPS THE
KERATIN RICH EPIDERMIS FLEXIBLE AND WATERPROOF.
11. The production of Sebum is controlled by Hormones.
12. Oil Glands are usually connected by Tiny Ducts (Exocrine Glands) to Hair Follicles.
Sebum coats the surface of the skin and the shafts of hair, preventing excess water loss
and lubricating and softening the Skin and Hair.
13. Sebum is mildly toxic to some Bacteria - protection.
14. If the Ducts of Oil Glands become clogged with excessive amounts of Sebum, Dead
Cells, and Bacteria, the Skin disorder ACNE can result.
15. When first wearing new shoes, the skin of the foot may be subject to friction. This
will separate layers of Epidermis, or separate the Epidermis from the Dermis, and tissue
fluid may collect, causing a BLISTER.
16. If the skin is subjected to pressure, the rate of mitosis will increase and create a
thicker Epidermis; we call this a CALLUS.
BURNS
1. FLAMES, HOT WATER OR STEAM, SUNLIGHT, ELECTRICITY, OR CORROSIVE
CHEMICALS MAY CAUSE BURNS OF THE SKIN.
2. THE SEVERITY OF BURNS RANGES FROM MINOR TO FATAL AND THE
CLASSIFICATION OF BURNS IS BASED ON THE EXTENT OF DAMAGE.
3. FIRST-DEGREE BURN- ONLY THE SUPERFICIAL EPIDERMIS IS BURNED, AND IS
PAINFUL BUT NOT BLISTERED. Causes death of Epidermal Cells.
4. SECOND-DEGREE BURN- DEEPER LAYERS EPIDERMIS ARE EFFECTED, COULD
HAVE INFLAMMATION, BLISTERS, AND THE BURNED SKIN IS OFTEN PAINFUL.
5. THIRD DEGREE BURN- THE ENTIRE EPIDERMIS IS CHARRED OR BURNED
AWAY, AND THE BURN MAY EXTEND INTO THE DERMIS. OFTEN SUCH A BURN IS
NOT PAINFUL AT FIRST, IF THE RECEPTORS IN THE DERMIS HAVE BEEN
DESTROYED.


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6. EXTENSIVE THIRD-DEGREE BURN- POTENTIAL LIFE-THREATENING BECAUSE OF
LOSS OF SKIN, WITHOUT THIS NATURAL BARRIER, LIVING TISSUE IS EXPOSED TO
THE ENVIRONMENT AND IS SUSCEPTIBLE TO INFECTION
AND DEHYDRATION.

HAIR AND NAILS
1. HAIR IS PRODUCED BY CELLS AT THE BASE OF STRUCTURES CALLED HAIR
FOLLICLES.
2. Hair Follicles are tubelike pockets of Epidermal Cells that extend into the Dermis.
3. Individual hairs are actually large columns of DEAD Cells that have filled with
KERATIN..
4. Rapid cell growth at the base of the Hair Follicle in the HAIR ROOT causes hair to
grow longer. Hair gets its color from Melanin.
5. Hair Follicles are in close contact with Sebaceous Glands. The oily secretions of these
Glands help maintain the condition of each individual hair.
6. Hair protects and insulates the body.
7. Most individual hairs grow for several years and then fall out.
8. NAILS GROW FROM AND AREA OF RAPIDLY DIVIDING CELLS KNOWN AS THE
NAIL MATRIX or NAIL ROOT
9. THE NAIL MATRIX IS LOCATED NEAR THE TIPS OF THE FINGERS AND TOES.
10. During Cell division, the Cells fill with Keratin and produce a tough, strong platelike
nail that covers and Protects the tips of the fingers and toes.
11. Nails rest on a Bed of tissue filled with Blood Vessels, giving the nails a Pinkish Color.
12. Nails grow at a rate of 0.5 to 1.2 mm per day, with fingernails growing faster than
toenails.


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