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being given increased study. From a practical standpoint, it is impossible

at present to build up the illumination level in a window sufficient to over-
come completely the veiling glare produced by bright sky reflections, sunlit
light-colored buildings, and other adverse conditions. Studies have indi-
cated that when the average reflected brightness is twice the brightness
behind the window glass, the reflection is at the threshhold of producing
deleterious veiling glare. Many architectural methods have been devel-
oped for the practical solution of this problem. These include sloping
windows, which reflect lower brightness areas such as those of which the
brightness can be controlled by awnings, marquees, or canopies. (See
Fig. 10-51.)
FIG. 10-51. By proper orientation and shading of glass surfaces, the brightness
of reflected images in the pedestrian field of view may be reduced below that which
interferes with viewing the window display.
The trend in education toward greater dependence on visual techniques
emphasizes the importance of lighting in schools. Illumination aids mate-
rially in the accomplishment of the visual tasks encountered by students
and teachers and, in so doing, is beneficial in preserving good vision, aiding
impaired vision, minimizing visual strain and fatigue, and increasing the
over-all efficiency of the educational process.
Also, it is recognized that the provision of a model environment for
health and happy living and work at the formative stage in a child's de-
velopment is one of the contributions which classroom experiences can
make to his general education. By using the techniques available today,
light sources, equipment, materials, and proper natural and electric il-
lumination in combination with high-reflectance room and furniture finishes
can provide attractively colorful and cheerful, yet comfortable and efficient,
seeing conditions for students and teachers.
Despite the existence of these techniques and the availability of the
equipment and materials required to put them into practice, many schools
make poor use of natural illumination and have no provision for electric
School routine has much to do with this indifference toward lighting.
Ordinarily, the hours that a classroom is used each day are few, and inten-
tionally most school buildings are constructed, located, and oriented to
make available as much daylight as possible. However, it is only within