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## Basics of Reservoir Engineering Module II

II.2 Material Balance Concepts
The Material Balance Concept
What will happen if we
remove 10 scf of air
from each tire?
Tractor Tire
Pressure = 45 psia
Bicycle Tire
Pressure = 45 psia
The Material Balance Concept
Tractor Tire
Pressure = 34 psia
Bicycle Tire
Pressure = 14.6 psia
What is Material Balance ?
Relationship between reservoir pore volume, reservoir
pressure, and cumulative production/injection
Applications
Estimate volume of hydrocarbons in place
Estimate average reservoir pressure
Estimate average fluid saturations in reservoir
Material Balance Applications
Given Find
Volume of fluids produced
Average reservoir pressure
Fluid PVT relationships
Original hydrocarbons In place
Volume of fluids produced
Original hydrocarbons In place
Fluid PVT relationships
Average reservoir pressure
Average fluid saturations
Outline
Basic theory and concepts
Material balance analysis
Volumetric oil reservoirs
Volumetric gas reservoirs
Aquifer driven reservoirs
Development of the Equation
The reservoir is filled with fluid (oil, gas, water) at all times;
therefore, as fluids are produced:
The change in reservoir pore volume =
the change in reservoir oil volume
+ the change in reservoir free gas volume
+ the change in reservoir water volume
How Does the Reservoir Remain Filled With Fluids During
Production?
Fluid expansion
Pore volume compression
Natural water influx
Fluids (water and/or gas) injection
Fluid and Rock Properties
Solution gas/oil ratio (R
s
)
Oil formation volume factor (B
o
)
Gas formation volume factor (B
g
)
Total formation volume factor (B
t
)
Formation compressibility (c
f
)
Water compressibility (c
w
)
Solution Gas/Oil Ratio (R
s
)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Pressure, psia
S
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

G
a
s
-
O
i
l

R
a
t
i
o
,

s
c
f
/
s
t
b
Bubblepoint Pressure
Undersaturated
Saturated
Oil Formation Volume Factor (B
o
)
1.000
1.050
1.100
1.150
1.200
1.250
1.300
1.350
1.400
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Pressure, psia
O
i
l

F
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

V
o
l
u
m
e

F
a
c
t
o
r
,

r
b
/
s
t
b
Bubblepoint Pressure
Undersaturated
Saturated
Gas Formation Volume Factor (B
g
)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Pressure, psia
G
a
s

F
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

V
o
l
u
m
e

F
a
c
t
o
r
,

r
b
/
M
c
f
Compressibility
Coefficient of isothermal compressibility (c)
dp
dv
v
c
i
1
=
p
v
v
c
i

=
1
p c v v
i
=
Basic Nomenclature
OIP/GIP oil/free gas in place
N/G original OIP/GIP [ Also known as OOIP and OGIP ]
N
p
cumulative oil production
G
p
cumulative gas production
W
p
cumulative water production
W
i
cumulative water influx/injection
G
i
cumulative gas injection
Note:
All except for OIP/GIP are at standard conditions
Basic Nomenclature
B
o,w,g
formation volume factor of oil, water, and gas, respectively
c
f,o,w
compressibility of formation, oil, and water, respectively
R
s
solution gas-oil ratio
R
p
cumulative GOR
S
w,wi
average and connate water saturation
m ratio of initial free gas volume to initial oil volume at reservoir
conditions
Subscript i when used with fluid properties denotes initial
conditions
Basic Nomenclature
Free Gas
Oil + Solution Gas
Water
N
p
G
p
W
p
Sw = V
wi
/V
pi
m = V
gi
/V
oi
G
i
W
i
V
p
V
g
V
o
V
w
Derivation of MBE -
Undersaturated Oil Reservoir
Assumptions
P > P
b
No original or final gas cap
No water influx or production
Derivation of MBE -
Undersaturated Oil Reservoir
Oil volume
(N-N
p
)B
o
Oil volume
NB
oi
N
p
G
p
Rock and water
expansion
Original conditions Later conditions
Derivation of MBE -
Undersaturated Oil Reservoir
From definition of compressibility
Thus, change in reservoir water volume due to pressure
change:
p
V
V dp
dV
V
c
w
wi
T
w
w
w

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1 1
p V c V
wi w w
=
Derivation of MBE -
Undersaturated Oil Reservoir
As pressure decreases, matrix supporting structure collapses
into pore space
Thus, change in pore volume due to pressure change:
p
V
V dp
dV
V
c
p
pi
T
p
p
f

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1 1
p V c V
pi f p
=
Derivation of MBE -
Undersaturated Oil Reservoir
Total change in water volume and pore volume:
Note that
Thus
( )
total pi f wi w p w
V p V c V c V V = + = +
pi wi wi
p w w
V S V
V S V
=
=
( ) p V c S c V
pi f wi w total
+ =
Derivation of MBE -
Undersaturated Oil Reservoir
Also
Thus
wi
oi
pi
S
NB
V

=
1
( ) p c S c
S
NB
V
f wi w
wi
oi
total
+

=
1
Derivation of MBE -
Undersaturated Oil Reservoir
The volumetric balance becomes
Solving for N:
( ) ( ) p c S c
S
NB
B N N NB
f wi w
wi
oi
o p oi
+

=
1
( )
oi i
wi
f wi w
oi o
o p
B p p
S
c S c
B B
B N
N

+
+
=
1
Derivation of MBE -
Undersaturated Oil Reservoir
To simplify, note:
If V
sc
is volume of oil at standard conditions
p
V
V dp
dV
V
c
T
o

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1 1
|
|
.
|

\
|

i
oi o
oi i
sc i sc
sc i
p p
B B
B p p
V V V V
V V p
V
V
1 1 1
Derivation of MBE -
Undersaturated Oil Reservoir
Then
Substituting
( ) p p B c B B
i oi o oi o
=
( ) p p
S
c S c
c B
B N
N
i
wi
f wi w
o oi
o p

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
+
=
1
Derivation of MBE -
Undersaturated Oil Reservoir
Define
Finally
wi
f wi w oi o
wi
f wi w
o e
S
c S c S c
S
c S c
c c

+ +
=

+
+ =
1 1
( ) p p c B
B N
N
i e oi
o p

=
Material Balances - Exercise 1
Determine the OOIP for the undersaturated reservoir given the data
N
p
= 1.4*10
6
STB
B
o
= 1.46 RB/STB
B
oi
= 1.39 RB/STB
c
w
= 3.71*10
-6
1/psi
c
f
= 3.52*10
-6
1/psi
S
wi
= 32%
The reservoir was discovered at an initial pressure of 4,300 psi. Pressure has
declined to 2,450 psi
Also calculate N, assuming c
f
= 0 and compare results
Derivation of MBE -
Saturated Oil Reservoir
Assumptions
P P
b
No original gas cap
No water influx or production
Negligible rock and water expansion
Derivation of MBE -
Saturated Oil Reservoir
Oil volume
(N-N
p
)B
o
Oil volume
NB
oi
N
p
G
p
Gas Volume
Original conditions Later conditions
Derivation of MBE -
Saturated Oil Reservoir
Determine final free gas volume by performing a gas balance
Original dissolved gas = NR
si
Final dissolved gas = (N-N
p
)R
s
Gas produced = G
p
Therefore
Final free gas = NR
si
- (N-N
p
)R
s
- G
p
Convert to reservoir conditions
Final free gas = (NR
si
- (N-N
p
)R
s
G
p
) B
g
/ 5.614
Derivation of MBE -
Saturated Oil Reservoir
The volumetric balance becomes:
Solving for N
( ) ( ) | |
p s p si
g
o p oi
G R N N NR
B
B N N NB + =
614 . 5
( )
( )
oi
g
s si o
g
p s p o p
B
B
R R B
B
G R N B N
N
+

=
614 . 5
614 . 5
Derivation of MBE -
Saturated Oil Reservoir
To simplify, note that
Also, since no gas evolved at P
b
( )
p
p
p
g
s si o T
N
G
R
B
R R B B
=
+ =
614 . 5
Ti oi
B B =
Derivation of MBE -
Saturated Oil Reservoir
Finally
( )
Ti T
g
si p T p
B B
B
R R B N
N

+
=
614 . 5
General MBE
) )( )( 1 (
1
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
R iR f w w
wi
oi
gi
gi g
oi g s si oi o
g i w e i p g s p p o p
P P c c S m
S
B
B
B B
mB B R R B B
B G B W W W B R N G B N
N
+ +

+ +
+ +
=
Material Balance Analysis
Data requirements
Assembling the data set
Data QC
Black oil material balance
Water influx
Material Balance Analysis
Data requirements
Estimates of average reservoir pressure vs time
Reservoir fluid PVT relationships
Reservoir cumulative production and injection volumes
Average Reservoir Pressure
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
0 50 100 150 200 250
Hours Since Shut-In
B
o
t
t
o
m
-
H
o
l
e

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a
Fluid PVT Relationships
Methods for obtaining relationships
Reservoir fluid study (laboratory analysis)
Correlations
Cumulative Production/Injection Data
Source
Operator records of monthly production and injection
Potential errors
Date of first record date of first production
Inaccurate reporting of noncommercial phases
Wrong set of wells
Data Preparation
Convert all pressure data to common datum
Plot pressure vs. time for all wells
Calculate cumulative production/injection from reservoir
Assemble fluid PVT data
Converting Pressures to Common Datum
) (
measured datum f
measured datum
h h
p p
+
=

Plot of Pressure vs. Time
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
Jan-90 Jan-91 Jan-92 Jan-93 Jan-94
Date
M
e
a
s
u
r
e
d

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a
Well #1
Well #2
Well #3
Well #4
Black Oil Material Balance
Straight line analysis techniques (Havlena-Odeh)
Assumptions
Analysis techniques
Common pitfalls
Basic Assumptions
Volumetric reservoir model
Closed system (no fluid influx across boundary of
reservoir)
Measured pressures represent average reservoir pressure
Black oil fluid PVT relationships are accurate
Reservoir Models
Reservoir
Volumetric Reservoir
Reservoir Models
Reservoir Aquifer
Aquifer Driven Reservoir
Reservoir Models
Compartmental Reservoir
Reservoir 3 Reservoir 1 Reservoir 2
Straight-Line Analysis Techniques
The material balance equation as a straight line
Introduced by Havlena and Odeh
Typical straight-line techniques
OOIP vs. cumulative oil production
F vs. E
total
F/E
O
vs. Eg/E
o
MBE as a Straight Line
) (
fw g o
E mE E N F + + =
or
total
NE F =
MBE as a Straight Line
( )
w p g s p p o p
B W B R N G B N F + + =
g s si oi o o
B R R B B E ) ( ) ( + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1
gi
g
oi g
B
B
B E
( ) p
S
c S c
B m E
wi
f wi w
oi fw

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
+ =
1
1
Typical Straight-Line Techniques
F/E
total
vs. Cumulative Oil Production
OOIP vs. Cum Oil - Example Reservoir
3,000
3,500
4,000
4,500
5,000
5,500
6,000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
Cum Oil Production, Mstb
O
O
I
P
,

M
s
t
b
OOIP = 4,833.9 Mstb (32.3%)
OGIP = 6,187.3 MMscf (49.2%)
Typical Straight-Line Techniques
F vs. E
total
F vs. Etotal - Example Reservoir
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
Etotal, rb/stb
F
,

M
r
b
OOIP = 5,034.8 Mstb (31.0%)
OGIP = 6,444.5 MMscf (47.3%)
Current Pressure = 0 psiCurrent
P 1 069 8 i
Typical Straight Line Techniques
F/E
o
vs. E
g
/E
o
F/Eo vs. Eg/Eo - Example Reservoir
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01
Eg/Eo
F
/
E
o
,

M
s
t
b
Measured Data
Common Pitfalls
Using Only One Analysis Technique
F vs. Etotal - Example Reservoir
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
Etotal, rb/stb
F
,

M
r
b
OOIP = 5,034.8 Mstb (31.0%)
OGIP = 6,444.5 MMscf (47.3%)
Current Pressure = 0 psiCurrent
P 10698 i
OOIP vs. Cum Oil - Example Reservoir
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
40,000
45,000
50,000
55,000
60,000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
Cum Oil Production, Mstb
O
O
I
P
,

M
s
t
b
F/Eo vs. Eg/Eo - Example Reservoir
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01
Eg/Eo
F
/
E
o
,

M
s
t
b
Measured Data
Common Pitfalls
Incorrect Reservoir Model
OOIP vs. Cum Oil - 9700 ft Sand
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
400,000
0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000
Cum Oil Production, Mstb
O
O
I
P
,

M
s
t
b
OOIP = 101,567.4 Mstb (58.4%)
OGIP = 238,413.0 MMscf (57.3%)
OOIP vs. Cum Oil - 9700 ft Sand
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
400,000
0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000
Cum Oil Production, Mstb
O
O
I
P
,

M
s
t
b
OOIP = 250,566.0 Mstb (23.7%)
OGIP = 588,163.3 MMscf (23.2%)
Volumetric Reservoir Aquifer Driven Reservoir
Common Pitfalls
Best-Fit Lines Used Inappropriately
Pressure History Match from Black Oil Model- 9700 ft Sand
2000.0
2500.0
3000.0
3500.0
4000.0
4500.0
5000.0
0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000
Cumulative Oil Production, Mstb
R
e
s
e
r
v
o
i
r

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a
Input Pressure
Calculated Pressure
Pressures not built up
F vs. Etotal - 9700 ft Sand
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Etotal, rb/stb
F
,

M
r
b
OOIP = 99,968.4 Mstb (59.4%)
OGIP = 237,519.4 MMscf (57.5%)
Current Pressure = 0 psiCurrent
Pressure = 2,215.7 psi
Incorrect
Correct
Improper Selection Of Wells
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
M
e
a
s
u
r
e
d

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a
Well #1
Well #2
Well #3
Well #4
Well #2 not in same reservoir
0
Jan-90 Jan-91 Jan-92 Jan-93 Jan-94
Date
Physically Impossible Results
Cumulative production > original in-place volumes
Negative saturations
Material Balances - Exercise 2
It is planned to initiate a water injection scheme in the reservoir
whose PVT properties are defined. The intention is to
maintain pressure at the level of 2,700 psia (p
b
= 3,330 psia).
If the current producing gas-oil ratio of the field is 3,000
scf/STB, what will be the initial water injection rate required
to produce 10,000 STB/d of oil?
Material Balances - Exercise 3
An undersaturated reservoir producing above the bubble point had an initial pressure of 5,000
psia, at which pressure the oil volume factor was 1.510 RB/STB. When the pressure had
dropped to 4,600 psia, owing to the production of 100,000 STB of oil, the oil formation
volume factor was 1.520 RB/STB. The connate water saturation was 25%, water
compressibility 3.2x10
-6
psi
-1
, and, based on an average porosity of 16%, the rock
compressibility was 4.0x10
-6
psi
-1
. The average compressibility of the oil between 5,000
and 4,600 psia relative to the volume at 5,000 psia was 17x10
-6
psi
-1
.
Material Balances - Exercise 3 (continued)
Geologic evidence and the absence of water production indicated a volumetric reservoir.
Assuming this was so, what was the calculated initial oil in place?
It was desired to inventory the initial stock tank barrels in place at a second production
interval. When the pressure had dropped to 4,200 psia, formation volume factor 1.531
RB/STB, 205,000 STB had been produced. If the average oil compressibility was
17.65x10
-6
psi
-1
, what was the initial oil in place?
When all cores and logs had been analyzed, the volumetric estimate of the initial oil in place
was 7.5 million STB. If this figure is correct, how much water entered the reservoir when
the pressure declined to 4,600 psia?
Material Balances - Exercise 4
The cumulative oil production, N
p
, and cumulative gas-oil ratio,
R
p
, as functions of the average reservoir pressure over the
first 10 years of production for a gas cap reservoir follow.
Use the Havlena-Odeh approach to solve for the initial oil
and gas (both free and solution) in place.
Material Balances - Exercise 5
Using the following data, determine the original oil in place by
the Havlena-Odeh method. Assume that there is no water
influx and no initial gas cap. The bubble-point pressure is
1,800 psia.
Gas Reservoir Material Balance
Straight-line analysis techniques
Development
Assumptions
Analysis techniques
Common pitfalls
Gas Reservoir MBE
The change in reservoir pore volume =
the change in reservoir gas volume
+ the change in reservoir water volume
Gas Reservoir MBE
p c
S
GB
V
f
wi
gi
p

=
1
Change in Reservoir
Pore Volume
Change in Reservoir
Gas Volume
g p gi g
B G G GB V ) ( =
p c S
S
GB
V
w w
wi
gi
w

=
1
Change in Reservoir Water Volume
w g p
V V V + =
Gas Reservoir MBE
Gas Reservoir MBE
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
= p
S
c c S
B
GB
G G
wi
f w w
g
gi
p
1
1
w g p
V V V + =
Gas Reservoir MBE
Gas Reservoir MBE
sc
sc
g
PT
Tz P
B =
Since:
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
= p
S
c c S
z p
z p
G G G
wi
f w w
i
p
1
1
) / (
) / (
Gas Reservoir MBE
G
G
z
p
z
p
p
S
c c S
z
p
p
i i wi
f w w
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

1
1
Gas Reservoir MBE
More common forms of the gas reservoir material
balance equation are:
( )
i
p
i
e
z
p
G
G
z
p
p c
z
p
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
= 1
i
p
i
z
p
G
G
z
p
z
p
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
Common Gas Reservoir Models
Volumetric dry gas reservoir
Volumetric wet gas reservoir
Volumetric highly compressible wet gas reservoir
Water influx gas reservoirs
Volumetric Dry Gas Reservoirs
Gas
Gas
Gas
Initial Conditions Later
i
p
i
z
p
G
G
z
p
z
p
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
Volumetric Dry Gas Reservoirs
Assumptions of volumetric dry gas reservoir model
Hydrocarbon pore volume does not change
Only dry gas in reservoir
Only dry gas produced
No water influx
Volumetric Wet Gas Reservoirs
Gas + Condensate
Gas Gas
T = 2
Initial Conditions
i eq
eq p
i
z
p
G
G
z
p
z
p
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
,
Geopressured Wet Gas Reservoirs
Gas + Condensate
Gas
Gas
T = 2 Initial Conditions
( )
i eq
eq p
i
e
z
p
G
G
z
p
p c
z
p
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
,
1
Geopressured Wet Gas Reservoirs
Assumptions of geopressured wet gas reservoir model
Constant formation and water compressibility
Only dry gas in reservoir
Only dry gas and condensate are produced
No water influx - or water influx from a small aquifer
Straight-Line Analysis Techniques
OGIP vs. cumulative gas production
p/z vs. cumulative gas production
p/z vs. cumulative equivalent gas production
p/z(1-c
e
p) vs. cumulative equivalent gas production
Roach plot
OGIP vs. Cumulative Gas Production
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 45,000
Equivalent Gas Production, MMscf
O
G
I
P
,

M
M
s
c
f
Geopressured Wet Gas Reservoir Model
Volumetric Dry Gas Reservoir Model
Volumetric Wet Gas Reservoir Model
p/z vs. Cumulative Gas Production
0.0
1000.0
2000.0
3000.0
4000.0
5000.0
6000.0
7000.0
0 10000000 20000000 30000000 40000000 50000000 60000000 70000000 80000000 90000000
Cumulative Gas Prod, Mscf
P
/
Z
,

p
s
i
a
OGIP = 87,674,457 Mscf
Cumulative Recovery = 4.7% OGIP
Ultimate Recovery = 77.6% OGIP
Current Pressure = 8,305.7psi
p/z vs. Cumulative Equivalent Gas Production
0.0
1000.0
2000.0
3000.0
4000.0
5000.0
6000.0
7000.0
0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000
Cumulative Equivalent Gas, MMscf
P
/
Z
,

p
s
i
a
OGIPeq = 88,507,934 Mscf
Cumulative Recovery = 6.7% OGIPeq
Ultimate Recovery = 79.3% OGIPeq
Current Pressure = 7,881.1 psi
p/z(1-c
e
P) vs. Cumulative Equivalent Gas
Production
0.0
1000.0
2000.0
3000.0
4000.0
5000.0
6000.0
7000.0
0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000
Cumulative Equivalent Gas, MMscf
(
P
/
Z
)
(
1
-
C
e

p
)
,

p
s
i
a
OGIPeq = 76,419,899 Mscf
Cumulative Recovery = 7.7% OGIPeq
Ultimate Recovery = 91.8% OGIPeq
Current Pressure = 8,077.7 psi
Common Pitfalls in Gas Reservoir Material Balance
Wrong reservoir model
Best-fit lines used inappropriately
Improper selection of wells
Physically impossible results
Aquifer Driven Reservoirs
Aquifer
Reservoir
Aquifer Driven Reservoir Models
Small aquifer reservoir model
Limited aquifer reservoir model
Infinite aquifer reservoir model
Small Aquifer Model
Assumes water flows into reservoir instantaneously
Applies only to very small aquifers
(V
p, aq
< 3V
p,res
)
Small Aquifer Model
Replace S
w
in volumetric model with the following relationship:
aq p res p
aq p w res p
w
V V
V S V
S
, ,
, ,
+
+
=
Limited and Infinite Aquifer Models
Aquifer water can expand faster than it can flow into the reservoir
Solutions to the diffusivity equation provide water influx as a
function of reservoir pressure and time
Properties of the aquifer are seldom known
Provides nonunique estimate of original hydrocarbons in place
Limited and Infinite Aquifer Solutions
Van Everdingen and Hurst method
Carter and Tracy method
Fetkovich method
d
d
d
d
d d
d
t
p
r
p
r r
p

1
2
2
Aquifer Geometries
Linear Aquifer Model
r
o
Reservoir
Aquifer

r
e
Aquifer
Reservoir
w
L
Outer Boundary Conditions
Limited aquifer
No flow (closed aquifer)
Constant pressure (aquifer recharge at outcrop)
Infinite aquifer