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2.

Equations & Inequalities


Factorizing Quadratic Equations
The Quadratic Formula
k- Substitution
Simultaneous Equations
Completing the Square
Word Problems
Quadratic Inequalities
The Number System
Nature of Roots
1
Factorizing Quadratic Equations
Standard form: ax + bx + c = 0
Solve for x:

1) x = 25
=
x = + 5
or x - 25 = 0
(x 5)(x +5) = 0
x = 5 or x = -5
Difference of Squares
Two answers when you take the square root
2
Solve for x:

2) x - 5x + 4 = 0
Trinomial
(x-4)(x-1) = 0
x = 4 or x = -1
3) 2x(x - 2) = 16
2x - 4x = 16
2x - 4x 16 = 0
2(x - 2x 8) = 0
2(x 4)(x+2) = 0
x = 4 or x = -2
First take out a
common factor
before factorizing
the trinomial
3
Solve for x:

4) x - 2x = 1
x - 2x 1 = 0
This trinomial cant be
factorized

Now what ???
Standard form of a
Quadratic Equation
4
THE Quadratic Formula
5
4) x - 2x = 1
x - 2x 1 = 0
So, if we look at the previous example
ax => a = 1
bx => b = -2
c => -1
Quadratic Formula Calculator
6
Solve for x:

5)
LCD: x + 2x =>
complicated!
Let x + 2x = k
k - 6 = k
k - k 6 = 0
(k - 3)(k + 2) = 0
k = 3 or k = -2
Times through by
LCD = k
Have we solved
for x yet?
Rather let repeated
expression = k
k- Substitution
7
So, we said Let x + 2x = k

AND weve just solved for k k = 3 or k = -2
x + 2x = k
x + 2x = 3
x + 2x - 3 = 0
(x + 3)(x - 1) = 0
x = -3 or x = 1
OR
8
x + 2x = k
x + 2x = -2
x + 2x + 2 = 0
Cant be
factorized
The Quadratic
Formula!
a = 1
b = 2
c = 2
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Simultaneous Equations
1. Solve for x and y: 2y = 4x
y - 3y x = 2
2y = 4x
y = 2x
1
Subst.
into
y - 3y x = 2
(2x) - 3(2x) x = 2
4x - 6x x 2 = 0
4x - 7x - 2 = 0
(4x + 1)(x 2) = 0

2
1
3
3
2
x = - or x = 2
Are we done
yet? 10
Solve for x and y: 2y = 4x
y - 3y x = 2
1
Subst. x = - or x = 2 into simplest equation
2y = 4x
2y = 4(- )
2y = -1
y = -
2
or 2y = 4x
2y = 4(2)
2y = 8
y = 4
Dont forget to solve for y!
11
Simultaneous Equations
2. Solve for x and y: -2 + y 2x = 0
xy = 12
-2 + y 2x = 0
y = 2x + 2
1
Subst.
into
xy = 12
x(2x+2) = 12
2x + 2x 12 = 0
x + x - 6 = 0
(x + 3)(x 2) = 0

2
1
3
3
2
x = -3 or x = 2
Are we done
yet? 12
Solve for x and y: -2 + y 2x = 0
xy = 12
1
Subst. x = -3 or x = 2 into simplest equation
xy = 12
(-3)y = 12
y = -4

2
or xy = 12
(2)y = 12
y = 6
Dont forget to solve for y!
Solving a hyperbola
and a straight line
Solving a circle
and a straight line
13
Solve for x by Completing the Square
Graphical Representation of Completing the Square
Add half the
coefficient of
x & square it
3 terms form the
perfect square
Take the
square root
Two answers!
Completing the Square Method
14
Add half the
coefficient of
x & square it
3 terms form the
perfect square
Take the
square root
Two answers!
NB! Coefficient of x
2
must
be 1 before completing
the square.
Practice Completing the Square
15
Exercise
Solve for x by completing the square:

1. x
2
+ 6x + 1 = 0

2. x
2
5x = - 3

3. 2x
2
+ 8x 4 = 0

4. 3x
2
= 9x - 2

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Completing the Square & The
Quadratic Formula
The Quadratic Formula Proof
Solving Quadratic Equations
Different Methods of Solving Quadratic Equations
Quadratic Equation Problems
17
Quadratic Word Problems
1. A farmer has a chicken enclosure which
has an area of 12m
2
. If he increases the
length by 5m and the breadth by 1m, then the
area of the enclosure is 3 times larger than
the original enclosure.

a) If the length is x metres,
write down an expression
for the breadth, in terms of x.




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19
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Speed,
Distance &
Time Word
Problem
21
Quadratic Inequalities
Solving Quadratic Inequalities Part 1
22
Solving Quadratic Inequalities Part 2
23
Solving Quadratic Inequalities
Graphically
24
The Number System
There are 7 number systems that are used at
school level
Natural numbers N
Whole numbers N
o

Integers Z
Rational numbers Q
Irrational numbers Q
-1

Real numbers R
Non real numbers R
-1

Each number system comprises the system
above it PLUS an additional set of numbers
.
Visualizing
the Number
Systems
25
Natural Numbers

N = { 1;2;3; }
If we ADD
zero (0) to
Natural
Numbers,
we get
Sets of Natural Numbers
26
Whole Numbers

N
0
= { 0;1;2;3; }
If we ADD
negative
numbers to
Whole
Numbers,
we get
27
Integers

Z = { ; -2;-1;0;1;2;3; }
If we ADD
fractions to
Integers,
we get
28
Rational Triangle Tree
29
Real Numbers (R)
.
Have a place on the number line
30
Complex Numbers
.
All numbers real or imaginary

Imaginary or non real numbers
do not have a place on a two
dimensional number line




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Summary: The Number System
Add
Natural nos N = { 1;2;3; } 0
Whole nos N
0
= { 0;1;2;3; } Negatives
Integers Z = {... -2;-1;0;1;2; ..} Fractions
Rational
nos
Q In the form a/b
ie 4/1; 2.4 =2 2/5
Irrational Q
-1
1.247386:
Real nos R Have a place on
the number line
32
Exercise
Classify the following:
Integer Z

Non real R
-1
Irrational Q
-1

Rational R

Rational R
Number Systems Game
33
Nature of Roots
34
The discriminant
35
36
37
Nature of roots examples
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