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CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 MOTIVATION AND OVERVIEW

Digital cameras differ from traditional cameras in many ways. But the basic
difference is that they use solid state image sensors to convert light to digital pictures
rather than capturing the image on film. Digital imaging has actually been around for
a long period of time, but it has been used for other purposes.
The history of digital technology began very early. NASA began dealing with digital
imaging technology as far back as the 1960s, just as it did with many inventions that
have become public domain, and NASA used it to convert signals from analogue to
digital. Very soon, other governmental sectors saw the opportunities and advantages
of this emerging digital technology and they began a similar program involving spy
satellites. Today similar applications are available for free to anyone with internet
access. For example Google's satellite maps show the whole world and even the
moon.
1.12 DEVELOPMENT OF DIGITAL CAMERAS

The true digital cameras did not simply emerge as a new consumer product. There
was several other products developed fist, which led to its creation.
Digital cameras as we know them today first became available for consumers around
the mid-70s. At that time, Kodak developed a number of solid state image sensors
which converted available light into digital images. The target customers for the new
Kodak digital cameras were both professionals and hobbyists.
From that point on the camera industry began to develop faster and the ability to
connect to the home computer to download pictures was introduced. The development


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was combined with software to manipulate and edit pictures, and special printers
dedicated to digital photography.

1.13 HOW DO DIGITAL CAMERAS WORK?

In the digital world, data, or information, is represented by strings of 1's and 0's. In
this case these digits translate to the individual pixels or basic units that combine to
make up the image you see. When the capture button on the camera is pressed, a
charge coupled device (also known as a CCD) creates an electron equivalent of the
captured light which in turn ends up converting the pixel value into a digital value.
Each picture is stored in the camera's memory until it is downloaded to its destination,
usually a computer or a CD. Usually, the form of camera memory is a memory card
which can be replaced. Indeed, this is one of the great advantages over traditional
cameras you dont have to buy films.

1.14 IMPORTANT FEATURES TO LOOK FOR IN A DIGITAL CAMERA

Resolution is one of the most important features and in many cases it is one of the
top features that determine a camera's price. Resolution is a measure of detail that a
specific camera will capture. The basic unit of measurement when referring to digital
camera resolution is the pixel. The higher the number of pixels the better the is
camera, because a higher level of detail is captured.
Digital cameras are rated in megapixels (millions of pixels). A 1.0 megapixel camera
is considered not to be of quality while a 5.0 megapixel camera is often used in
professional digital photography when creating studio grade portraits or taking
pictures. The lens is very important when it comes to digital cameras because it
focuses directly into what you intend to use the digital camera for. A lens that has a
fixed focus and fixed zoom should just be used for simple snapshots. Zoom lenses
come in two forms: the optical zoom lens and the digital zoom lens. The optical
zoom is preferable because it zooms by changing the actual focal length of the lens


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whereas the digital zoom uses an interpolation algorithm to zoom; it infers
information by evaluating neighbor information. This results in a grainy photo.
Replaceable lenses are found on many higher end cameras. The good thing about
them is that they increase the camera's versatility. There can be found: zoom lenses,
close-up lenses, color lenses for effects, and panoramic lenses.
How many useful digital camera accessories are available for a particular model? As
already mentioned above, some cameras, like Kodak, offer a docking system which
not only is the interface to the computer but also doubles as a battery charger when
the camera is not in use, ensuring that it starts off with a full charge when needed.
Choosing a digital camera is not easy, but if you have decided which particular
model you need, you will enjoy taking digital pictures wherever you go to: on
vacation, at a family dinner, at a party with friends, at school, etc.

1.2 LITERATURE SURVERY

The technology that is being used in this topic is image processing. This topic
mainly deals with the method to detect a hidden camera and the ways by which we
can neutralize it. An image can be defined as a two dimensional
function,f(x,y),where x and y are spatial coordinates and amplitude of f at any
points(x, y) is called intensity. The field of image processing refers to processing
refers to processing digital images by means of a digital computer. Image
processing can be used in the field like x-ray imaging, gamma imaging, imaging in
the microwave band etc.

1.21 IMAGE SEGMENTATION

Segmentation is a process that partitions an image into regions. If we wish to segment
an image based on color, and, in addition,we want to carry out the process on
individual planes ,it is natural to think first of HSI color space because color is
conveniently represented in the hue image. Segmentation is one area in which better
results can be obtained by using RGB color vectors.


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1.22 THRESHOLDING
Because of its intuitive properties, simplicity of implementation, and computational
speed, image Thresholding enjoys a central position in applications of image
segmentation . Consider an image f(x, y), composed of light objects on a dark back
ground, in such a way that object and background pixels have intensity values grouped
into two dominant modes. At any point (x, y) in the image at which f(x, y)>T is called
an object point ; otherwise the point is called a background point. When T is a constant
applicable over an entire image ,the process given in this is referred to as global
Thresholding. When the value of T changes over an image, we use the tem variable
Thresholding. The term local or regional Thresholding is used sometimes to denote
variable Thresholding in which value of T at any point (x,y) in aimage depends on
properties of a neighborhood of (x,y).






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CHAPTER-2
EXISTING SYSTEM
2.1 INTRODUCTION

A new method for the problem of digital camera identification from its images based
on the sensors pattern noise. For each camera under investigation, we first determine
its reference pattern noise, which serves as a unique identification fingerprint. This is
achieved by averaging the noise obtained from multiple images using a denoising
filter. To identify the camera from a given image, we consider the reference pattern
noise as a spread spectrum watermark, whose presence in the image is established
using a correlation detector. Experiments on approximately 320 images taken with
9consumer digital cameras are used to estimate false alarm rates and false rejection
rates. Additionally, we study how the error rates change with common image
processing, such as JPEG compression or gamma correction.

2.2 EXPLANATION

As digital images and video continue to replace their analogcounterparts, the
importance of reliable, inexpensive, and fast identification of digital image origin
will only increase. Reliable identification of the device used to acquire particular
digital image would especially prove useful in the court for establishing the origin of
images presented as evidence. In the same manner as bullet scratches allow forensic
examiners to match a bullet to a particular barrel with reliability high enough to be
accepted in courts, a digital equivalent of bullet scratches should allow reliable
matching of a digital image to a sensor. In this paper, we propose to use the sensor
pattern noise as the tell-tale scratches and show that identification is possible even
from processed images.


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We have developed a new approach to the problem of camera identification from
images. Our identification method uses the pixel non-uniformity noise which is a
stochastic component of the pattern noise common to all digital imaging sensors
(CCD, CMOS, including Fovea X3, and JFET).The presence of this noise is
established using correlation as in detection of spread spectrum watermarks. We
investigated the reliability of camera identification from images processed using
JPEG compression, gamma correction, and a combination of JPEG compression and
in-camera resampling. Experimental results were evaluated using FAR and FRR error
rates. We note that the proposed method was successful in distinguishing between two
cameras ofthesame brand andmodel.Techniques, are described here may help
usalleviate the computational complexity of brute force searches by retrieving some
information about applied geometrical Operations. The searches will, however,
inevitably increase the FAR. We would like to point out that the problem of camera
identification should be approached from multiple directions, combining the evidence
from other methods, such as the feature-based identification , which is less likely to be
influenced by geometrical transformations.

2.3 FORGING AND MALICIOUS PROCESSING


Since camera identification techniques are likely to be used in the court, we need to
address malicious attacks intended to fool the identification algorithm, such as
intentionally removing the pattern noise from an image to prevent identification or
extracting the noise and copying it to another image to make it appear as if the image
Was taken with a particular camera. We distinguish two situations: 1) the attacker is
informed and has either the camera or many images taken by the camera or 2) the
attacker is uninformed in the sense that he only has access to one image.






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CHAPTER-3
PROPOSED SYSTEM

3.1 INTRODUCTION

The system locates the camera, and then neutralizes it. Every digital camera has an
image sensor known as a CCD, which is retro reflective and sends light backing
directly to its original source at the same angle. Using this property and algorithms of
image processing the camera is detected. Once identified, the device would beam an
invisible infrared laser into the camera's lens, in effect overexposing the photo and
rendering it useless. Low levels of energy neutralize cameras but are neither a health
danger to operators nor a physical risk to cameras. Digital cameras differ from
traditional cameras in many ways. But the basic difference is that they use solid state
image sensors to convert light to digital pictures rather than capturing the image on
film. Digital imaging has actually been around for a long period of time, but it has
been used for other purposes.


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CCD
Test Image
Recorder
Scanning
Infrared Emitter
Image
Processing Unit
Camera Locator
Infrared Laser
Beam
Projector
Overexposure
IR Laser Beam
Timing and Control
DETECTOR UNIT DISABLING UNIT

3.2 DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE




Fig 3.1BLOCK DIAGRAM

3.3 RETRO REFLECTION BY CCD
A retro reflector is a device or surface that reflects light back to its source with a
minimum scattering of light and at same angle. An electromagnetic wave front is
reflected back along a vector that is parallel to but opposite in direction from the
wave's source. The device or surface's angle of incidence is greater than zero. The
CCD of the camera exhibits this property due to its shape. This forms the principle for
this device.



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Fig 3.2: Retro reflection by CCD



3.4 CAMERA DETECTION

3.4.1SCANNING

The entire area to be protected is scanned by using infrared light. Infrared LED is
used for producing them. The circuitry required for producing infrared beams are
simple and cheap in nature. The scanning beams sweep through the vertical and
horizontal direction of the area, to ensure no camera escapes from the device.

3.4.2 WAVELENGTH

The infrared beam used here has the center wavelength of 800-900 nm. This
wavelength falls under the near infrared classification. The reason for choosing near
infrared are the molar absorptivity in the near IR region is typically quite small and it
typically penetrate much farther into a sample than mid infrared radiation so that the
retro reflections would be of high intensity. The generation of NIR is achieved using
IR LED. Due to the retro reflective property of the CCD the part of the light gets retro
reflected by it and the infrared beam does not have any effect on the other objects hit
the area other than the CCD.





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Fig 3.3: Plot of Reflectance vs. Wavelength of Near IR Standard

3.4.3 TEST IMAGE CAPTURE

The area being scanned by the infrared beams are simultaneously recorded. The
preprocessing image being acquired is called as the test image. It forms the basis of
the further steps of the process. The test image is obtained by use of high resolution
camcorders. The response of the test image capture should be very fast in order to
sense even a small change of position of the camera. The camcorder should have a
wide angle of capture so that it can capture a wide test image to cover the entire area.
The retro reflected beams also have the same properties of the near IR. Therefore,
they are visible to the camcorders and invisible to human eyes.


3.5 IMAGE PROCESSING

It is most important aspect of the device. The raw image for image processing is the
test image being streamed lively. The detection of the camera is accomplished in this
stage only. The image processing for detection can be done in two steps.



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We have coded an algorithm in Mat lab software to perform the image processing
operation.

3.5.1 DETECTION OF RETRO REFLECTING AREA

The camera is detected by the differentiation of the retro reflecting area from the rest
of the test image. The camera lens also appears red in color and the rest part appears
normal. This key point is used for differentiation.

3.5.2 THRESHOLDING

During the Thresholding process, individual pixels in an image are marked as
object pixels if their value is greater than some threshold value (assuming an object
to be brighter than the background) and as background pixels otherwise. The
separate RGB Components are determined and a threshold value is set.
1. An initial threshold (T) is chosen; this can be done randomly or according to
any other method desired.
2. The image is segmented into object and background pixels as described above,
creating two sets:
1. G
1
= {f(m , n):f(m ,n)>T} (object pixels)
2. G
2
= {f(m ,n):f(m ,n)T} (background pixels) (note, f(m ,n) is the value
of the pixel located in the m
th
column, n
th
row)
3. The average of each set is computed.
1. m
1
= average value of G
1

2. m
2
= average value of G
2

4. A new threshold is created that is the average of m
1
and m
2

1. T = (m
1
+ m
2
)/2


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5. Go back to step two, now using the new threshold computed in step four, keep
repeating until the new threshold matches the one before it (i.e. until
convergence has been reached).
This iterative algorithm is a special one-dimensional case of the k-means clustering
algorithm, which has been proven to converge at a local minimummeaning that a
different initial threshold may give a different final result.
K-means clustering is a method of vector quantization, originally from signal
processing, that is popular for cluster analysis in data mining. K-means clustering
aims to partition n observations into k clusters in which each observation belongs to
the cluster with the nearest mean, serving as a prototype of the cluster. This results in
a partitioning of the data space into Voronoi cells. K-means clustering tends to find
clusters of comparable spatial extent, while the expectation-maximization mechanism
allows clusters to have different shapes.
Demonstration of the standard algorithm



Fig 3.4:
K initial "means" (in this case k=3) are randomly generated within the data
domain (shown in color).




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Fig 3.5:
K clusters are created by associating every observation with the nearest mean.
The partitions here represent theVoronoi diagram generated by the means.



Fig 3.6:
The centroid of each of thek clusters becomes the new mean.


Fig 3.7:
figure of convergence.
As it is a heuristic algorithm, there is no guarantee that it will converge to the global
optimum, and the result may depend on the initial clusters. As the algorithm is usually
very fast, it is common to run it multiple times with different starting conditions.
However, in the worst case, k-means can be very slow to converge: in particular it has
been shown that there exist certain point sets, even in 2 dimensions, on which k-
means takes exponential time, that is 2
(n)
, to converge. These point sets do not seem


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to arise in practice: this is corroborated by the fact that the smoothed running time
of k-means is polynomial.
The "assignment" step is also referred to as expectation step, the "update step"
as maximization step, making this algorithm a variant of the generalized expectation-
maximization algorithm.
3.5.3 COMPLEXITY
Regarding computational complexity, finding the optimal solution to the k-means
clustering problem for observations in d dimensions is:
NP-hard in general Euclidean space d even for 2 clusters
NP-hard for a general number of clusters k even in the plane
If k and d (the dimension) are fixed, the problem can be exactly solved in
time O(n
dk+1
log n), where n is the number of entities to be clustered
3.5.4 COLOR SEGMENTATION
We need to detect only the red infrared part of the image. This is done by means of
color segmentation. The RGB Components are filtered separately and finally the red
area is detected. The following algorithm was used for the purpose

Img=imread('sample.jpg');
%imshow(img)
img=imfilter(img,ones(3,3)/9);
%img=imresize(img,0.1);
%Decomposetoseparatecolorcomponents
xr=img(:,:,1);
[N,M]=size(img);
m=4;


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w=1/m;
F=fftshift(fft(double(img)));
fori=1:N
forj=1:M
r2=(i-round(N/2))^2+(j-round(N/2))^2;
if(r2>round((N/2*w)^2))
F(i,j)=0;
end;
end;
end;
Idown=real(ifft2(fftshift(F)));
3.6 DISABLING OF DIGITAL CAMERA
3.6.1OVEREXPOSE

Once the camera lens has been located it has to be over exposed. A photograph may
be described as overexposed when it has a loss of highlight detail, i.e. when the bright
parts of an image are effectively all white, known as "blown out highlights". Since the
infrared beam is of high intensity rather than the other light incident on the lens from
the image, the camera tends to be overexposed. The auto focusing mechanism of the
camera adjusts the position of the lens to focus on the infrared beam. This causes non-
focusing of the camera on the image that is to be prevented from capturing.
Example of overexposure by infrared laser


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Fig 3.9 : Effect of over-exposure

3.7 SURROUNDING ADAPTIVE OVEREXPOSURE BEAM WAVELENGTH
The wavelength of the infrared beam being emitted intermittently is not constant. The
wavelength is altered according to the lighting nature of the environment. This is
achieved by using a sensor which is based on photo detector. If the surrounding is
dark the beam of center wavelength of 900-980 nm is emitted. . If the surrounding is
bright the beam of center wavelength of 800-900 nm is emitted.


Fig3.8 : Normal exposure


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3.8 OBSERVATIONS

Fig 3.10:shows the photo captured normally without using the camera disabling
device



Fig 3.11: shows the photo captured after using the camera disabling device
It is observed that the image quality has been decreased to a great extent. This could
be used to diminish the clarity and the visibility of the image being captured.


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CHAPTER-4
APPLICATION
4.1SIMPLIFIED DESIGN FOR USE IN THEATRES



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Fig 4.1:Design used in theatre
The film industry losses about 3 billion dollar a year due to movie piracy. This is the
method that can deployed to prevent piracy.Infra-red light emitting diodes are placed
behind the theatre screen. The beams are emitted intermittently. The wavelength of
the beam and the timing is varied continuously using the timing and control unit. This
beam can be detected by the camera CCD sensors. Since the beams is of high
intensity and narrow the auto focusing feature the camera gets detoriated . So the
video which is being tried to capture on the camera falls out of focus. The quality of
the image therefore obtained is of poor clarity. Thereby, the aim of pirating the movie
is destructed. Thence the infrared beam does not fall within the visible range of the
human sight it remains invisible to the human eyes. Therefore, the overexposure beam
does not affect the movie being played on the screen.
1 Camera Disabling Device
2- Theatre Screen
3- Camera used for piracy
4- Theatre Projector
4.2 Merits
The circuitry and devices used for this technique are simple in nature. The type of
radiation is proven to be not harmful to humans. It can be implemented easily in any
type of rooms, buildings, theatres etc. without any alteration to the existing area.
Since the method uses a low cost technology it can be implemented at a
comparatively less expense.


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CHAPTER-5
CONCLUSION
The device explained above can thus be used to disable and detect hidden cameras
and provides protection to all surroundings. The device explained above can prove to
be essential to all environments like theatres, lockers, private areas, anti-espionage
systems, defense secrecy etc. This technology if developed to a good extent it would
be of great help prevents piracy, maintain national secrecy in etc.





























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REFERENCES



[1]. Optical principles and technology for engineers - James EStewart
[2]. Infrared optics and zoom lenses By Allen Mann
[3]. Digital image processing using MatlabBy Rafael C.Gonzlez, Richard
Eugene Wood
[4]. Blythe, P. and Fridrich, J: Secure Digital Camera, Digital Forensic.
[5]. Digital Image processing: algorithms and systems San Jose,Jaakko Astola,
Karen Egiazarian, Edward R. Dougherty