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Modeling of Mechanical Systems

- Damping
- Modelling_and_Analysis of Dinamic Mechanical Systems
- Dynamic System Modelling and Control
- Block Foundation
- Physics - Concepts and Formulas
- l5 Quasi Static
- EB Fundamental of Vibration
- Theory of Machines.pdf
- 2DOF_1
- 1 Free Vibration Damping for Class
- 6. Williamson Govardhan 08
- Mechanical Vibration Forced Undamped
- The Harmonic Oscillatory Movement
- Assignment Control principle
- Tuned Mass Dampers (Technical University of Denmark)
- p16
- Response of a Stable Second Order System
- MEEG_5113b.ppt
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K. Craig 1

Mechanical System Modeling

Dr. Kevin Craig

Professor of Mechanical Engineering

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 2

References for Mechanical Systems

System Dynamics, E. Doebelin, Marcel Dekker,

1998. (This is the finest reference on system

dynamics available; many figures in these notes

are taken from this reference.)

Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Dynamic

Systems, W. Palm, 2

nd

Edition, Wiley, 1999.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics, 7

th

Edition, F. Beer, E.R. Johnston, and W. Clausen,

McGraw Hill, 2004.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 3

Mechanical System Elements

Three basic mechanical elements:

Spring (elastic) element

Damper (frictional) element

Mass (inertia) element

Translational and Rotational versions

These are passive (non-energy producing) devices

Driving Inputs

force and motion sources which cause elements

to respond

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 4

Each of the elements has one of two possible

energy behaviors:

stores all the energy supplied to it

dissipates all energy into heat by some kind of

frictional effect

Spring stores energy as potential energy

Mass stores energy as kinetic energy

Damper dissipates energy into heat

Dynamic Response of each element is important

step response

frequency response

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 5

Spring Element

Real-world design situations

Real-world spring is neither pure nor ideal

Real-world spring has inertia and friction

Pure spring has only elasticity - it is a

mathematical model, not a real device

Some dynamic operation requires that spring

inertia and/or damping not be neglected

Ideal spring: linear

Nonlinear behavior may often be preferable and

give significant performance advantages

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 6

Device can be pure without being ideal (e.g.,

nonlinear spring with no inertia or damping)

Device can be ideal without being pure (e.g., device

which exhibits both linear springiness and linear

damping)

Pure and ideal spring element:

K

s

= spring stiffness (N/m or N-m/rad)

1/K

s

= C

s

= compliance (softness parameter)

( )

( )

s 1 2 s

s 1 2 s

f K x x K x

T K K

= =

= =

s

s

x C f

C T

=

=

K

s

x f

f

x

C

s

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 7

Energy stored in a spring

Dynamic Response: Zero-Order Dynamic System

Model

Step Response

Frequency Response

Real springs will not behave exactly like the

pure/ideal element. One of the best ways to

measure this deviation is through frequency

response.

2 2

s s

s

C f K x

E

2 2

= =

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 8

Spring Element

( ) ( )

( )

0

s

2 2

x

s 0 s 0

s

0

Differential Work Done

f dx K x dx

Total Work Done

K x C f

K x dx

2 2

= =

= = =

K. Craig 9

Frequency Response

Of

Spring Elements

( )

( )

0

s 0

f f sin t

x C f sin t

=

=

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 10

Zero-Order Dynamic System Model

Step Response Frequency Response

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 11

More Realistic Lumped-Parameter Model for a Spring

K

s

K

s

M

B B

f, x

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 12

Linearization

for a

Nonlinear Spring

( )

( )

( )

0

0

0

2

2

0

0 0

2

x x

x x

0 0

x x

x x

df d f

y f (x ) x x

dx dx 2!

df

y y x x

dx

=

=

=

= + + +

+

( )

0

0 0

x x

df

y y x x

dx

y Kx

=

+

=

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 13

Real Springs

nonlinearity of the

force/deflection curve

noncoincidence of the

loading and unloading

curves (The 2

nd

Law of

Thermodynamics

guarantees that the area

under the loading f vs. x

curve must be greater

than that under the

unloading f vs. x curve.

It is impossible to recover

100% of the energy put

into any system.)

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 14

Several Types of Practical

Springs:

coil spring

hydraulic (oil) spring

cantilever beam spring

pneumatic (air) spring

clamped-end beam spring

ring spring

rubber spring (shock mount)

tension rod spring

torsion bar spring

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 15

Spring-like Effects in

Unfamiliar Forms

aerodynamic spring

gravity spring (pendulum)

gravity spring (liquid

column)

buoyancy spring

magnetic spring

electrostatic spring

centrifugal spring

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 16

Damper Element

A pure damper dissipates all the energy supplied

to it, i.e., converts the mechanical energy to

thermal energy.

Various physical mechanisms, usually associated

with some form of friction, can provide this

dissipative action, e.g.,

Coulomb (dry friction) damping

Material (solid) damping

Viscous damping

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 17

Pure / ideal damper element provides viscous

friction.

All mechanical elements are defined in terms of

their force/motion relation. (Electrical elements

are defined in terms of their voltage/current

relations.)

Pure / Ideal Damper

Damper force or torque is directly proportional

to the relative velocity of its two ends.

1 2

dx dx dx

f B B

dt dt dt

= =

1 2

d d d

T B B

dt dt dt

= =

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 18

Forces or torques on the two ends of the

damper are exactly equal and opposite at all

times (just like a spring); pure springs and

dampers have no mass or inertia. This is NOT

true for real springs and dampers.

Units for B to preserve physical meaning:

N/(m/sec)

(N-m)/(rad/sec)

Transfer Function

( )

2

2

2

2

dx d x

Dx D x

dt dt

x x

(x)dt x dt dt

D D

Differential

Operator

Notation

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 19

Operational Transfer Functions

We assume the initial conditions are zero.

Damper element dissipates into heat all

mechanical energy supplied to it.

Force applied to damper causes a velocity in same

direction.

f BDx

T BD

=

=

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

f T

D BD D BD

x

x 1 1

D D

f BD T BD

( )( )

2

dx dx

Power force velocity f B

dt dt

= =

K. Craig 20

Power input to the device is positive since the force

and velocity have the same sign.

It is impossible for the applied force and resulting

velocity to have opposite signs.

Thus, a damper can never supply power to another

device; Power is always positive.

A spring absorbs power and stores energy as a force

is applied to it, but if the force is gradually relaxed

back to zero, the external force and the velocity now

have opposite signs, showing that the spring is

delivering power.

Total Energy Dissipated

( ) ( )

2

dx dx

P dt B dt B dx f dx

dt dt

= = =

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 21

Damper Element

Step Input Force

causes instantly

(a pure damper

has no inertia) a

Step of dx/dt

and a

Ramp of x

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 22

Frequency

Response

of

Damper

Elements

( )

( )

( )

0

t

0 0

0

0

f f sin t

dx

B

dt

1

x x f sin t dt

B

f

1 cos t

B

=

=

=

=

0

x

f 0

f

A 1

B

A f B

= =

K. Craig 23

Sinusoidal Transfer Function

M is the amplitude ratio of output over input

is the phase shift of the output sine wave with

respect to the input sine wave (positive if the

output leads the input, negative if the output lags

the input)

( )

x 1

D

f BD

=

D i ( )

x 1

i M

f i B

= =

( )

x 1 1

i M 90

f i B B

= = =

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 24

Real Dampers

A damper element is used to model a device

designed into a system (e.g., automotive shock

absorbers) or for unavoidable parasitic effects

(e.g., air drag).

To be an energy-dissipating effect, a device

must exert a force opposite to the velocity;

power is always negative when the force and

velocity have opposite directions.

Lets consider examples of real intentional

dampers.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 25

Viscous (Piston/Cylinder) Damper

A relative velocity between the

cylinder and piston forces the

viscous oil through the clearance

space h, shearing the fluid and

creating a damping force.

2

2 2

2

2 1

2 1

3

2

6 L h R R

B R R h

h

h 2

R

2

=

= fluid viscosity

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 26

Simple Shear Damper

And

Viscosity Definition

fluid viscosity

shearing stress F/ A

velocity gradient V/ t

2A

F V

t

F 2A

B

V t

= =

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 27

Examples

of

Rotary Dampers

3

D L

B

4t

=

4

0

D

B

16t

=

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 28

Commercial Air Damper

laminar flow

linear damping

turbulent flow

nonlinear damping

(Data taken with valve shut)

Air Damper

much lower viscosity

less temperature dependent

no leakage or sealing problem

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 29

Eddy-Current Damper

Motion of the conducting

cup in the magnetic field

generates a voltage in the

cup.

A current is generated in

the cups circular path.

A current-carrying

conductor in a magnetic

field experiences a force

proportional to the current.

The result is a force

proportional to and

opposing the velocity.

The dissipated energy

shows up as I

2

R heating of

the cup.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 30

Temperature Sensitivity

Of

Damping Methods

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 31

Other Examples

of

Damper Forms

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 32

The damper element can also be used to represent

unavoidable parasitic energy dissipation effects in

mechanical systems.

Frictional effects in moving parts of machines

Fluid drag on vehicles (cars, ships, aircraft, etc.)

Windage losses of rotors in machines

Hysteresis losses associated with cyclic stresses in

materials

Structural damping due to riveted joints, welds,

etc.

Air damping of vibrating structural shapes

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 33

Hydraulic Motor Friction

and its Components

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 34

Coulomb Friction: Modeling and Simulation

In most control systems, Coulomb friction is a

nuisance.

Coulomb friction is difficult to model and

troublesome to deal with in control system design.

It is a nonlinear phenomenon in which a force is

produced that tends to oppose the motion of

bodies in contact in a mechanical system.

Undesirable effects: hangoff and limit cycling

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 35

Hangoff (or dc limit cycle) prevents the steady-

state error from becoming zero with a step

command input.

Limit Cycling is behavior in which the steady-state

error oscillates or hunts about zero.

What Should the Control Engineer Do?

Minimize friction as much as possible in the design

Appraise the effect of friction in a proposed control

system design by simulation

If simulation predicts that the effect of friction is

unacceptable, you must do something about it!

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 36

Remedies can include simply modifying the design

parameters (gains), using integral control action, or

using more complex measures such as estimating the

friction and canceling its effect.

Modeling and simulation of friction should contribute

significantly to improving the performance of motion

control systems.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 37

Modeling Coulomb Friction

V

F

f

F

slip

F

stick

" Stiction" Coulomb

Friction Model

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 38

Case Study to Evaluate Friction Model

m

k

F

f

V

0

V

m = 0.1 kg

k = 100 N/m

F

stick

= 0.25 N

F

slip

= 0.20 N (assumed independent of velocity)

V

0

= step of 0.002 m/sec at t = 0 sec

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 39

Friction Model in Simulink

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 40

Simulink Block Diagram

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 41

Example with Friction Model

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 42

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

time (sec)

2

*

p

o

s

i

t

i

o

n

,

v

e

l

o

c

i

t

y

,

0

.

1

*

F

r

i

c

t

i

o

n

F

o

r

c

e

Position, Velocity, Friction Force vs. Time

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 43

Inertia Element

A designer rarely inserts a component for the

purpose of adding inertia; the mass or inertia

element often represents an undesirable effect

which is unavoidable since all materials have

mass.

There are some applications in which mass itself

serves a useful function, e.g., accelerometers and

flywheels.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 44

Useful Applications

of

Inertia

Flywheels are used as

energy-storage devices or as

a means of smoothing out

speed fluctuations in engines

or other machines.

Accelerometer

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 45

Newtons Law defines the behavior of mass

elements and refers basically to an idealized

point mass:

The concept of rigid body is introduced to deal

with practical situations. For pure translatory

motion, every point in a rigid body has identical

motion.

Real physical bodies never display ideal rigid

behavior when being accelerated.

The pure / ideal inertia element is a model, not

a real object.

( )( )

forces mass acceleration =

K. Craig 46

Rigid and Flexible Bodies: Definitions and Behavior

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 47

Newtons Law in rotational form for bodies

undergoing pure rotational motion about a single

fixed axis:

The concept of moment of inertia J also considers

the rotating body to be perfectly rigid.

Note that to completely describe the inertial

properties of any rigid body requires the

specification of:

Its total mass

Location of the center of mass

3 moments of inertia and 3 products of inertia

( )( )

torques moment of inertia angular acceleration =

K. Craig 48

Rotational Inertia

J (kg-m

2

)

( )( )

( )( ) ( )

tangential force

mass acceleration

2 rL dr r

=

=

( )

R

2 2

3 2

0

R MR

total torque 2 L r dr R L J

2 2

= = = =

K. Craig 49

Moments of Inertia

For

Some Common Shapes

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 50

How do we determine J for complex shapes

with possibly different materials involved?

In the design stage, where the actual part exists only

on paper, estimate as well as possible!

Once a part has been constructed, use experimental

methods for measuring inertial properties. How?

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 51

Experimental Measurement

Of

Moment of Inertia

( )

2

2

2

s

2

2

s

2

0 n 0

s

n

n

n

d

torques J J

dt

d

K J

dt

K d

0

dt J

cos t ( 0)

K

rad/sec

J

f cycles/sec

2

= =

+ =

= =

s

2

2

n

K

J

4 f

=

K. Craig 52

Actually the oscillation will gradually die out

due to the bearing friction not being zero.

If bearing friction were pure Coulomb friction,

it can be shown that the decay envelope of the

oscillations is a straight line and that friction

has no effect on the frequency.

If the friction is purely viscous, then the decay

envelope is an exponential curve, and the

frequency of oscillation does depend on the

friction but the dependence is usually negligible

for the low values of friction in typical

apparatus.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 53

Inertia Element

Real inertias may be

impure (have some

springiness and friction)

but are very close to

ideal.

( ) ( )

2 2

x 1 1

D D

f MD T JD

= =

Inertia Element stores

energy as kinetic energy:

2 2

Mv J

or

2 2

K. Craig 54

A step input force applied to a mass initially at

rest causes an instantaneous jump in

acceleration, a ramp change in velocity, and a

parabolic change in position.

The frequency response of the inertia element is

obtained from the sinusoidal transfer function:

At high frequency, the inertia element becomes very

difficult to move.

The phase angle shows that the displacement is in a

direction opposite to the applied force.

( )

( )

2 2

x 1 1

i 180

f M

M i

= =

K. Craig 55

Useful Frequency Range

for

Rigid Model

of a

Real Flexible Body

A real flexible body

approaches the

behavior of a rigid body

if the forcing frequency

is small compared to

the bodys natural

frequency.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 56

Analysis:

( )

( ) ( )

i o o

2

o o i

2

o i n

2 2

n

i i

2 2 2

o o

2

n

n n

2AE

x x ALx

L

L

x x x

2E

D 2E

1 x x

L

x x 1 1 1

D i

D x x

i

1

1 1

=

+ =

+ =

= = =

+

+

K. Craig 57

max

is the highest frequency for which the real

body behaves almost like an ideal rigid body.

Frequency response is unmatched as a technique

for defining the useful range of application for all

kinds of dynamic systems.

( )

o

2

i

max

n

max n

x 1

i 1.05

x

1

0.308 E

0.218

L

= =

= =

96200 cycles/min

for a 6-inch

steel rod

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 58

Motion Transformers

Mechanical systems often include mechanisms

such as levers, gears, linkages, cams, chains, and

belts.

They all serve a common basic function, the

transformation of the motion of an input member

into the kinematically-related motion of an output

member.

The actual system may be simplified in many

cases to a fictitious but dynamically equivalent

one.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 59

This is accomplished by referring all the

elements (masses, springs, dampers) and driving

inputs to a single location, which could be the

input, the output, or some selected interior point of

the system.

A single equation can then be written for this

equivalent system, rather than having to write

several equations for the actual system.

This process is not necessary, but often speeds the

work and reduces errors.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 60

Motion Transformers

Gear Train Relations:

m

m

m

m

N

N

N

T

T

N

N N

=

2

1

1

2

1

T

m

N

1

N

2

m

T

m

m

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 61

Translational Equivalent

for

A Complex System

x

1

, x

2

,

are

kinematically related

Refer all elements and

inputs to the x

1

location

and define a fictitious

equivalent system

whose motion will be

the same as x

1

but will

include all the effects

in the original system.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 62

Define a single equivalent spring element

which will have the same effect as the three

actual springs.

Mentally apply a static force f

1

at location x

1

and write a torque balance equation:

( )

1 s 2

1 1 s1 1 1 1 s2 2

1 1

1 se 1

2

2

se s1 s2 s

2

1 1

x K L

f L K x L x K L

L L

f K x

L 1

K K K K

L L

= + +

=

+ +

K. Craig 63

The equivalent spring constant K

se

refers to a

fictitious spring which, if installed at location

x

1

, would have exactly the same effect as all the

springs together in the actual system.

To find the equivalent damper, mentally

remove the inertias and springs and again apply

a force f

1

at x

1

:

( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2

2

2 1

1 1 1 1 2

1 1

1 e 1

2

2

e 1 2

2

1 1

f L x B L x B L B

L x

x B L x B B

L L

f B x

L 1

B B B B

L L

= + +

= + +

=

+ +

K. Craig 64

Finally, consider only the inertias present.

While the definitions of equivalent spring and

damping constants are approximate due to the

assumption of small motions, the equivalent

mass has an additional assumption which may

be less accurate; we have treated the masses as

point masses, i.e., J = ML

2

.

( ) ( )

( )

2 2

1 1 1

1 1 1 1 2 2

1 1 1

1 e 1

2

2

e 1 2

2

1 1

x x x

f L M L M L J

L L L

f M x

L 1

M M M J

L L

+ +

+ +

K. Craig 65

To refer the driving inputs to the x

1

location we

note that a torque T is equivalent to a force T/L

1

at the x

1

location, and a force f

2

is equivalent to

a force (L

2

/L

1

)f

2

.

If we set up the differential equation of motion

for this system and solve for its unknown x

1

,

we are guaranteed that this solution will be

identical to that for x

1

in the actual system.

Once we have x

1

, we can get x

2

and/or

immediately since they are related to x

1

by

simple proportions.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 66

Rules for calculating the equivalent elements

without deriving them from scratch:

When referring a translational element (spring,

damper, mass) from location A to location B, where

As motion is N times Bs, multiply the elements

value by N

2

. This is also true for rotational elements

coupled by motion transformers such as gears, belts,

and chains.

When referring a rotational element to a

translational location, multiply the rotational

element by 1/R

2

, where the relation between

translation x and rotation (in radians) is x = R .

For the reverse procedure (referring a translational

element to a rotational location) multiply the

translational element by R

2

.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 67

When referring a force at A to get an equivalent

force at B, multiply by N (holds for torques).

Multiply a torque at by 1/R to refer it to x as a

force. A force at x is multiplied by R to refer it as a

torque to .

These rules apply to any mechanism, no matter

what its form, as long as the motions at the two

locations are linearly related.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 68

Mechanical Impedance

When trying to predict the behavior of an

assemblage of subsystems from their calculated or

measured individual behavior, impedance methods

have advantages.

Mechanical impedance is defined as the transfer

function (either operational or sinusoidal) in which

force is the numerator and velocity the

denominator. The inverse of impedance is called

mobility.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 69

Mechanical Impedance for the Basic Elements

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

s

S

B

M

K f

Z D D

v D

f

Z D D B

v

f

Z D D MD

v

=

=

=

K. Craig 70

Measurement of impedances of subsystems can be

used to analytically predict the behavior of the

complete system formed when the subsystems are

connected. We can thus discover and correct

potential design problems before the subsystems

are actually connected.

Impedance methods also provide shortcut

analysis techniques.

When two elements carry the same force they are said

to be connected in parallel and their combined

impedance is the product of the individual impedances

over their sum.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 71

For impedances which have the same velocity, we say

they are connected in series and their combined

impedance is the sum of the individual ones.

Consider the following systems:

Paral l el Connect i on

Seri es Connect i on

f , v

x

1

, v

1

B

K

K

f , v

B

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 72

Parallel Connection

Series Connection

( )

K

B

f KB

D

D

K

v BD K

B

D

= =

+

+

( )

f K BD K

D B

v D D

+

= + =

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 73

Force and Motion Sources

The ultimate driving agency of any mechanical

system is always a force not a motion; force causes

acceleration, acceleration does not cause force.

Motion does not occur without a force occurring

first.

At the input of a system, what is known, force or

motion? If motion is known, then this motion was

caused by some (perhaps unknown) force and

postulating a problem with a motion input is

acceptable.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 74

There are only two classes of forces:

Forces associated with physical contact between two

bodies

Action-at-a-distance forces, i.e., gravitational, magnetic,

and electrostatic forces.

There are no other kinds of forces! (Inertia force is a

fictitious force.)

The choice of an input form to be applied to a system

requires careful consideration, just as the choice of a

suitable model to represent a component or system.

Here are some examples of force and motion sources.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 75

Force and Motion Inputs

acting on a

Multistory Building

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 76

A Mechanical Vibration

Shaker:

Rotating Unbalance

as a

Force Input

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 77

Electrodynamic Vibration Shaker as a Force Source

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 78

Force Source

Constructed from a

Motion Source

and a

Soft Spring

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 79

Energy Considerations

A system can be caused to respond only by the source

supplying some energy to it; an interchange of energy

must occur between source and system.

If we postulate a force source, there will be an

associated motion occurring at the force input point.

The instantaneous power being transmitted through this

energy port is the product of instantaneous force and

velocity.

If the force applied by the source and the velocity

caused by it are in the same direction, power is supplied

by the source to the system. If force and velocity are

opposed, the system is returning power to the source.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 80

The concept of mechanical impedance is of some help

here.

The transfer function relating force and velocity at the

input port of a system is called the driving-point

impedance Z

dp

.

We can write an expression for power:

dp

dp

f

Z (D) (D)

v

f

Z (i ) (i )

v

=

=

2

dp dp

f f

P fv f

Z Z

= = =

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 81

If we apply a force source to a system with a high value

of driving-point impedance, not much power will be

taken from the source, since the force produces only a

small velocity. The extreme case of this would the

application of a force to a perfectly rigid wall (driving-

point impedance is infinite, since no motion is produced

no matter how large a force is applied). In this case the

source would not supply any energy.

The higher the driving-point impedance, the more a real

force source behaves like an ideal force source.

The lower the driving-point impedance, the more a real

motion source behaves like an ideal motion source.

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 82

Real sources may be described accurately as

combinations of ideal sources and an output impedance

characteristic of the physical device.

A complete description of the situation thus requires

knowledge of two impedances:

The output impedance of the real source

The driving-point impedance of the driven system

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 83

Mechanical System Examples

Problem Statement

Develop the equivalent rotational

model of the rack-and-pinion gear

system shown. The applied torque T is

the input variable, and the angular

displacement is the output variable.

Neglect any twist in the shaft.

Bearings are frictionless. The pinion

gear mass moment of inertia about its

CG (geometric center) is I

p

.

( )

2 2 2

m s p r

I I I m R cR kR T + + + + + =

Rack-and-Pinion Gear System

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 84

Problem Statement

A load inertia I

5

is driven through a

double-gear pair by a motor with inertia

I

4

, as shown. The shaft inertias are

negligible. The gear inertias are I

1

, I

2

,

and I

3

. The speed ratios are

1

/

2

= 2

and

2

/

3

= 5. The motor torque is T

1

and the viscous damping coefficient c =

4 lb-ft-sec/rad. Neglect elasticity in the

system, and use the following inertia

values (sec

2

-ft-lb/rad): I

1

= 0.1, I

2

= 0.2,

I

3

= 0.4, I

4

= 0.3, I

5

= 0.7. Derive the

mathematical model for the motor shaft

speed

1

with T

1

as the input.

( ) ( )

2 2 2 2

4 1 5 3 2 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

I I I I I c T

5 2 5 2

+ + + + + =

Multi-Gear System

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 85

Physical System

Physical Model

Problem Statement

A dynamic vibration absorber consists of

a mass and an elastic element that is

attached to another mass in order to

reduce its vibration. The figure is a

representation of a vibration absorber

attached to the cantilever support. For a

cantilever beam with a force at its end, k

= Ewh3/4L3 where L = beam length, w =

beam width, and h = beam thickness. (a)

Obtain the equation of motion for the

system. The force f is a specified force

acting on the mass m, and is due to the

rotating unbalance of the motor. The

displacements x and x2 are measured

from the static equilibrium positions

when f = 0. (b) Obtain the transfer

functions x/f and x

2

/f.

( ) [ ]

( )

[ ]

2

2 2

4 2

2 2 2 2 2

2 2

4 2

2 2 2 2 2

m D k x

F mm D m k k mk D kk

x k

F mm D m k k mk D kk

+

=

+ + + +

=

+ + + +

Dynamic Vibration Absorber

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 86

Rigid Body Dynamics: Kinematics

Reference Frames

R - Ground xyz

R

1

- Body x

1

y

1

z

1

( )

1 1 1

1 1 1

R R R R P R A R R AP R AP

R R R P R P

a a r r

a 2 v

= + +

+ +

y

z

O

P

x

R

x

1

y

1

z

1

R

1

A

( )

1 1

R R R P R A R AP P

v v r v = + +

Note: For any vector

q

1

1

R R

R R

dq dq

q

dt dt

= +

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 87

R

R

1 R

2

O

= 30

r = 0.06 m

Rigid-Body Kinematics Example

Given:

Find:

Reference Frames:

R ground: xyz

R

1

shaft: x

1

y

1

z

1

R

2

disk: x

2

y

2

z

2

x

1

y

1

x

2

y

2

O

z

1

y

z

y

1

O

1

1 2

R R

R R

1

5i constant

4k constant

= =

= =

R P

a

1

1

1

i i

1 0 0

j 0 cos sin j

0 sin cos

k k

=

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 88

( )

2 2 2

2 2 2

R R R R P R O R R OP R OP

R R R P R P

a a r r

a 2 v

= + +

+ +

2

2

R O

R P

R P

a 0

a 0

v 0

=

=

=

Point P fixed in R

2

(disk)

( )

( )

( )

2 1 1 2

2

2

1

R R R R R R

1

R R R R

R R

1

R

R R

1

1

1 1 1

5i 4k

d d

5i 4k

dt dt

dk

0 4 4 k

dt

4 5i k 20j

= + = +

= = +

= + =

= =

( )

20 jcos ksin = +

( ) ( )

OP

1 1

r r cos i r sin j = +

K. Craig 89

After Substitution and Simplification:

( ) ( ) ( )

R P

1 1 1

a 16r cos i 41r sin j 40r cos k = + +

Alternate Solution:

( )

1 1 1

1 1 1

R R R R P R O R R OP R OP

R R R P R P

a a r r

a 2 v

= + +

+ +

1

1

1

R O

R R

R R R

R R

a 0

5i constant

d

0

dt

=

= =

= =

( ) ( )

OP

1 1

r r cos i r sin j = +

K. Craig 90

( )

1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2

R R R R R R R R P O OP OP

a a r r

= + +

(P is fixed in R

2

)

( )

1

1 2

1 1 2 1

1 2

1 1 1 2

1

R O

R R

1

R R R R

R R

1

R R R R P O OP

R O

a 0

4k

d d

4k 0

dt dt

v v r

v 0

=

=

= = =

= +

=

( ) ( )

OP

1 1

r r cos i r sin j = +

( ) ( ) ( )

R P

1 1 1

a 16r cos i 41r sin j 40r cos k = + +

(same result)

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 91

Rigid Body Dynamics: Kinetics

Linear Momentum

Angular Momentum about point C

Equations of Motion

Point C: mass center of a rigid body of mass m.

Reference Frames

R - Ground xyz

R

1

- Body x

1

y

1

z

1

R C

L m v =

y

1

y

z

O

x

R

x

1

z

1

R

1

A

C

y

1

1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

R R

x x x x y x z x

R R

y y x y y y z y

R R

z z x z y z z z

H I I I

H I I I

H I I I

=

1 1 1

x 1 y 1 z 1

H H i H j H k = + +

R R C

R

d v

F m

dt

dH

M

dt

=

=

K. Craig 92

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 93

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 94

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 95

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 96

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 97

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 98

Mechanical System Modeling

K. Craig 99

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