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14-18 I E S LIGHTING HANDBOOK

vailing practice, especially in color work, is to read illumination, and to


make allowance for unusually high or low subject reflectance. This
practice probably is sound where most of the illumination comes from near
the camera. In other cases, and these are frequent in lighting installations,
it is probably better to read brightness, and to make sure that the meter
cell is close enough to the subject to receive light only from the illuminated
area of interest.
If the whole brightness range is to be reproduced, the exposure meter can
be used to scan the subject and thereby aid in obtaining proper illumination
for a desirably limited brightness range.
Approximate exposure guide for
interiors. The following data may be
found convenient for rough survey pictures, or if an exposure meter is not
at hand. The use of film having an exposure index (tungsten-filament
source) of 64 is assumed. A tripod or other camera support is needed.
For brightly illuminated stores, offices, drafting rooms, and other such
interiors, expose 2 seconds at //16. For interiors of average brightness
such as homes, factories, schools, etc., expose 10 seconds at //16. For
dimly lighted storage rooms, basements, and some restaurants, expose 3
minutes at //16. If there is any doubt as to the brightness class of the
subject at hand, make a series of three pictures differing in exposure. One
should have the suggested time, the other two should have
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and 4 times
as much. One or more of the series usually will be printable.
Photographing installations to include luminaires. One type of picture
frequently desired is that of an illuminated office, store, factory, or other
interior with the luminaires appearing in the photograph. The presence
of these bright objects extends the brightness range of the subject, and it
is this high brightness range that demands a departure from usual pho-
tographic technique.
The camera should take film at least 4 by 5 inches in size, preferably
larger. A coated camera lens is desirable but not vital. Such a lens
tends to eliminate "flare" around the luminaires in a picture, and it pro-
duces better shadow detail than an untreated lens.
A low-contrast sheet film should be used, and it should be exposed 4
times the normal determined by a photographic exposure meter measuring
illumination at table height. The films should be developed two-thirds of
the normal time.
The negative should be printed in the usual manner except that some
"dodging" may be necessary.
It may be desirable to add a small amount of supplementary illumination
to the room. The desirability of supplementary illumination depends on
the purpose of the photograph. In any case it assists in obtaining negatives
which can be printed more readily. The brightness range reproducible in
a photographic print is definitely limited, and such a print may not do full
justice to a room that is lighted in a visually satisfactory manner. The
print may make the darker areas seem too dark. On the other hand, if
the illumination is truly uniform, then the effect will be reproduced quite
well in the print. If supplementary illumination is desirable, the use is