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ADV-885E-PAC-1-EU-Metric V1 (2/5/13) CONFIDENTIAL 1

Where to look for information on Raw Water

and Wastewater programs?
Use this address https://Connections.nalco.com/Pages/default.aspxto access the Nalco database
CONNECTIONS, which is in Microsofts SharePoint. In Connections you can find:
The Raw Water/Wastewater Technology Manual Book 1 and the Raw Water/Wastewater Application
Best Practices Manual Book 315 on the landing page.
Specific information under OFFERINGS /APPLICATIONS/PAC-1.
Product selection guides, CPPs and Product Samples under OFFERINGS /Chemistry
Equipment Catalog under OFFERINGS /Equipment
You can also search by any term or sentence or you can post your question in the water treatment
EMEA Raw Water/Wastewater Systems
PAC-1 METRIC Quick Reference Guide
Nalco offering is based on value. This value is delivered through specific know-how, and best-in-class chemicals, equipment and
controlling and monitoring tools. We differentiate with innovative solutions from our competitors.
Delivering value to your customers must be related to measured Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) like solids (sludge) production,
treatment costs, effluent water permit issues and energy costs.
Activated sludge troubleshooting
flow chart for high effluent solids
and BOD. See Best Practices
Manual for complete document
NALCO Chemical
1.1 - Water based 1A
1.2 - Oil based 1A
1.3 - Glycol based 1A
2.1 - Inorganic 1C
2.2 - Ultrion 1C
2.3 - Organic 1C
2.4 - Iron 1C
2.5 - Ferralyte 1C
2.6 - Nalmet 1M
3.1 - Latex Cationic Std. 1F
Core Shell linear 1F
Core Shell Structured 1F
3.2 - Ultimer Cationic 1F
3.3 - Dry Cationic 1F
4.1 - Latex Anionic Std. 1F
Core Shell 1F
4.2 - Ultimer Anionic 1F
4.3 - Dry Anionic 1F
5.1 - Latex Nonionic 1F
6.2 - Bioaugmentation 1R
Nutrients 1R
6.3 - Odor control 1S
6.5 - Cleaner 1K
6.6 - Demulsification 1P
ADV-885E-PAC-1-EU-Metric V1 (2/5/13) CONFIDENTIAL 2
Discovery Questions:
1. What are the key areas that I could look at
and would be the most benefit to you?
2. Before we get into the details, could you give
me an overview of the operation and identify
possible pinch points? (Do a plant survey.)
3. If you could improve two things, what would
they be?
4. How may I assist you in achieving your
5. Where can I make the greatest impact?
6. What was the original hydraulic and solids
loading design?
7. What are the current hydraulic and solids
8. Is automation important to you?
9. What operational/chemical goals do you have?
10. May I bench test our products and find the
most cost effective product for the application?
11. If I meet your goals, will you award me the
Wastewater Rules-of-Thumb:
1. Coagulants typically reduce turbidity while
flocculants are used to floc discrete solids and
increase settling rate. Coagulants can be used
to lower flocculant dosage in some cases.
2. Wastewater is a controllable process; need
measurements and knowledgeable operators
to maintain control and thus efficiency.
3. Sludge Volume Index of <120 represents
good settling, >150 is poor settling.
4. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels of <0.2 ppm
is considered anaerobic, <0.5 ppm is anoxic,
>1ppm is oxic.
5. Aeration basins function best with DO levels
of 1 to 2 ppm. Greater than 2 ppm may be
wasting energy and costing the customer
more in electric costs than is necessary.
6. Nutrient requirements for an activated sludge
system is 100:5:1 (BOD:NH3:PO4).
7. Product selection is not like PAC-2 or 3
where the selection can be based on a water
analysis. It requires bench testing.
8. Conventional clarifier hydraulic loading =
0.25 to 1 gpm/ft
= 0.61 to 2.44m
9. Solids contact clarifier hydraulic loading =
0.5 to 2.5 gpm/ft
= 1.22 to 6.1m
10. High rate clarifier hydraulic loading =
15-20 gpm/ft
= 37 to 49m
Sales Drivers:
1. Cost of solids handling and disposal ($/DT).
2. Cost of treating the water ($/m
3. Energy costs (aeration basin is the largest
user of electricity in a WWP).
4. Value Added Projects ROI based studies
and efficiency improvements.
If you are really serious:
1. Prepare yourself for bench testing.
2. Find value tools to help you identify ROI
(PAC-1 Sales and Service Tools) in the CPP
database plus others.
3. Learn the customers system.
4. Obtain product samples, jar tester (Check
Catalog) and dewatering test kit (you have to
prepare it yourself).
5. Test, Compare, Discuss.repeat!
Polymer Make-Down Guidelines:
1. Coagulants 1-5% (use within 3 hours)
2. Flocculants 0.3-0.75% (30 minute age)
3. Antifoam feed neat.
Bench Test Equipment:
1. Test kit
2. Product Samples
3. Syringes, 8oz (200ml), bottles, 5-gal bucket
4. Computer with test sheet (PAC-1 S&ST) or
ADV-885E-PAC-1-EU-Metric V1 (2/5/13) CONFIDENTIAL 3
Jar Test:
1. Make down product samples
2. Obtain fresh test water sample
3. Place 500ml of test water in beaker and place
in gang-stirrer. Start stirrer at 80-100%.
4. Dose polymer to jar and mix on high speed
for 30 to 60 sec.
5. Slow stirrer speed to 30-40% and continue
mixing for 5 to 15 minutes.
6. Coagulation should be visible, if not add
more polymer.
7. Once the better products are identified, re-
run the jars using only one dosage of
polymer. Record results for graphing.
8. Testing Strategy: Evaluate one product from
each product family.
a. Continue testing using the all the
products from the best product
b. Evaluate the competitors product
for comparison.
c. Demonstrate superior performance
for operators and supervisors to see.
9. Ask for a trial to determine true performance
and economics of the program.
Coagulant Selection Guidelines:
Al based emulsions and raw water
Organic all types of water
- Higher turbidity may need higher organic polymer
- Flocculant is typically anionic and dosages are
typically 0.1 to 3 ppm
Sludge Dewatering Test:
1. Make down product samples
2. Obtain fresh sample of sludge prior to
chemical addition
3. Place 200 ml of sludge into test cylinder add
appropriate amount of polymer, stopper and
invert 5 to 7 times
4. Pour onto filter cloth and time the drainage at
5, 10 and 15 seconds. Record drainage
volumes and note clarity of filtrate and cake
5. Evaluate flocculants noting that the lower the
cationic charge, the less costly the product.
a. Test each polymer at 4 or more
different dosages.
b. Evaluate the competitor product for
comparison. Graph and calculate
relative cost performance
Flocculant Selection Guidelines:
Primary paper mill sludges low to medium cat.
charge flocculants
Paper mill sludges with high secondary sludge
medium cat. Charge flocculants
Food plant and secondary sludges medium to
high cat. Charge flocculants
ADV-885E-PAC-1-EU-Metric V1 (2/5/13) CONFIDENTIAL 4
Common PAC-1 Calculations.
Compare results against historical trend and design data.
See also reference values in the PAC-1 technical manual.
Detention Time (DT)
DT = Volume/Flow rate
V(rectangular) = (L)(W)(D)
V(circular) = 3.14(r
V = Clarifier Volume
L = length, W = width, D = depth, r = radius
Clarifier Rise Rate- gpm/ft
, m
RR = Influent flow/Clarifier surface area
Solids Loading (SL) - lb/day/ft
or kg/day/m
SL = (Solids/Day)/Surface area of unit
Sludge Volume I ndex (SVI )
SVI = (Settled volume/MLSS) 1000
(Typical: 100-150 mL/g)
MLSS = Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids, mg/L
SVI = Sludge Volume Index, mL/g
Settled Volume = mL/L
Food to Microorganism Ratio (F/M)
F/M = Influent BOD/Aeration basin MLSS
Mean Cell Retention Time (Sludge Age)

Wasted TSS + Effluent TSS
MCRT = Mean Cell Retention Time days
= Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids
Aeration Basin, lb (kg)
= Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids
Clarifier, lb/d (kg/d)
TSS = Total Suspended Solids
Waste Activated Sludge Flow (WAS)
) - TSS
= Total Suspended Solids - Clarifier, lb (kg)
= Total Suspended Solids - Effluent, lb/d
WAS = Waste Activated Sludge, lb/d (kg/d)
Solids capture (SC)
SC = [(CS)(IS-FS)/(IS)(CS-ES)]100
CS = Cake Solids (%)
IS = Influent Solids (%)
FS = Filtrate Solids (%)
ES = Effluent Solids (%)
Thickener Efficiency % (E)
Should be about 95%
= Thickened sludge withdrawal, m
= Thickened sludge solids, %
= sludge feed flow rate, m
= sludge feed solids, %
Polymer cost (PC)
PC = (Usage)(Price)/Solids
PC = Polymer cost, $/ton
Usage = Polymer Used, lb (kg)
Price = Polymer Price, $/lb ($/kg)
Solids = Solids dewatered, ton
ADV-885E-PAC-1-EU-Metric V1 (2/5/13) CONFIDENTIAL 5
Antifoam Products
When selecting an antifoam product, the three most
common ways of performing the selection is to use the
antifoam recirculation test rig, use the air stone test
method or run a quick 15 liter bucket trial.
Dosages depend on conditions: 2-30 ppm.
Since the causes of foaming are not easily defined, you
will need to determine the best product for your
customer. This will require some testing by either a
bench method or a quick trial. In general, one of the
Nalco core product will perform well. Check
CONNECTIONS for more information.
Bench Test Methods:
1. Shake Test Method
2. Air-Stone Aeration Method
3. Antifoam Recirculator Kit
Selling bioaugmentation is different that other PAC-1
areas. This type of product is not bench tested, but
used to help a secondary system recover from a toxic
shock or help establish the right kind of bacteria to
improve BOD removal and settling in the secondary
clarifier. Thus, when your customer buys a
bioaugmentation product from you, he or she is basing
this purchase on trust in your abilities and on Nalcos
reputation of delivering results. The more difficult
question is often around dosage. There is a dosage
calculator available in CONNECTIONS (search by
bioaugmentation dosage calculator an excel file)
In addition, utilize the MICROSOLUTIONS
biomass analysis services to obtain a profession report
on the health and status of the secondary system.
Metals Removal (NALMET

) This fast growing

area is impacting all customers in a variety of
industries. Metal contamination can be caused by
incidental corrosion of equipment, concentration
effects of cooling towers and/or boilers and the
customers manufacturing processes. Nalco has the
products and knowledge to address these issues
through a Mechanical, Operational and Chemical
(MOC) approach to problem solving. Metal
regulatory limits for water discharge are becoming
more restrictive and many customers need to address
these issues now. The Nalco NALMET

product line
is a unique chemistry that can chelate and precipitate
the metals usually in one step. Like other PAC-1
applications, bench testing is needed to determine the
appropriate product and dosage required. However,
measuring the treatment program performance is
difficult as we cannot see the residual metals and are
required to get a water analysis to determine if the
treatment worked. The main competition in this area
is hydroxide precipitation (see figure) and often fails
as there could be several different metals in the water
that need to be removed or there are chelants that keep
the metals solubilized.
function where
chelants or other
dispersants are
involved and
provide a larger
floc so that the
separation is
easier. The limitation is mostly that these products
work with mono and divalent metals, but not trivalent
metals. See CONNECTIONS database for additional
Odor Control
Odor control is essentially nascence abatement and is
used by our customers when odor complaints become
an issue. Objectionable odor is subjective and often
agreement on odor abatement is subjective as well.
Odor control has three major objectives:
1. Control hazardous gases
2. Minimize corrosion caused by vapors
3. Abate unpleasant odors
Control of hazardous gases is the primary concern.
Gases such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, carbon
dioxide, and methane may be present in hazardous
concentrations at a wastewater treatment facility.
However, some odor control approaches only address
the odor, not the gas present that may be the cause of
the odor. Care needs to be taken when applying these
programs as the odor of a dangerous gas is often used
by people as an indicator of a potentially dangerous
situation. Thus, odor neutralizers and masking agents
are not recommended for controlling odor in an
enclosed space where a potentially dangerous gas
could accumulate.
1. Waste Water Clarification
Biological Treatment Antifoams based on Water and Oil
Secondary Treatment Antifoams based on Water
Primary Clarification Antifoams based on Water, Oil and Glycols
2. Process Applications
Processes General Antifoams based on Oil and Glycol
Automotive Industry Antifoams based on Oil and Glycol, but
Silicone free
ADV-885E-PAC-1-EU-Metric V1 (2/5/13) CONFIDENTIAL 6
Sometimes odor can be addressed by a pH adjustment:

156 (Search in Connections by TF-

156) is an excellent summary of odor and treatments.
Industrial and institutional cleaners are chosen based
on what you want the cleaner to remove.
Heavy oil and grease Alkaline cleaner, solvent
based cleaner, surfactant based cleaner
Carbonate scale Acid based cleaner
Iron scale Sulfite plus chelant cleaner, strong acid
Polymer spills:
Water based liquids absorb with absorbent
material like saw dust or kitty litter. Wash down
the area with plenty of water.
Emulsion Polymers Absorb the spilled polymer
with absorbent material like saw dust or kitty
litter. Polyclean 7 can be used to fluidize the
residual product on the floor and can be absorbed
or washed away with plenty of water.
* Note - Always dispose for spilled polymer in
accordance with local laws.
Bulk Tanks
Thickened residual polymer in a bulk tank add
Polyclean 7, recirculate and pump out.
Very little polymer in the tank, wash out with
plenty of water and dry before adding new
Gelled polymer can be removed by carefully
adding caustic or bleach to the gelled polymer.
The polymer will be broken down and can be
rinsed out. Allow 12 to 24 hours for the polymer
to break down.
How concentration affect cleaning time:
How Temperature affects cleaning time:
ADV-885E-PAC-1-EU-Metric V1 (2/5/13) CONFIDENTIAL 7