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SENTENCE PATTERN

When writing an essay, you must try to vary your sentences. If your sentences have no variation, then your writing will be
monotonous. You must learn to spice up your writing by using a mixture of sentences such as Simple, Compound and
Complex sentences.
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Simple Sentence
1. A simple Sentence has one subject and one predicate.
2. A simple Sentence contains one independent clause and no subordinate clauses.
3. A simple sentence may have a compound subject, a compound verb, or both.
Examples: James works as a teacher.

Subject Predicate
(one independent clause)
Serena sells postcards.

Subject verb

Serena and Shirley buy and sell postcards.

Subjects

verbs

Exercise: Circle each subject and underline each verb in the following sentences.
Example: Claudia smiled sweetly and motioned the guests inside.
1. Carmen and her aunt skated at the pond after school.
2. The boy and his mother took a train to Kuala Lumpur.
3. The pattern of every snowflake is unique.
4. Ted and Mark boarded a ferry to Langkawi Island last week.
5. Jeff did badly in the examination.
6. I read the draft of the paper and did a thorough revision.
7. Emily Dickinson published very few poems in her lifetime.
8. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have rings.
9. I enjoy watching football.
10.
We congratulated Rosa on her achievement.
11.
My favourite snack is a sandwich and milk.
12.
Karen and Erica trained hard and won the singing competition.
13.
This months school newspaper includes a list of new books in the library.
14.
He sat down and looked out onto the peaks below.
15.
The gale blew on and off for another 48 hours.
16.
My friend Julie and I had spent a day in Monte Carlo.
17.
Malaysias Marine locations are its lifeline.
18.
Pollution has seriously degraded Penangs beaches and seas.

19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Organic food is gradually becoming more popular.


The businessman is very rich and kind.
We waste energy in our daily activities.
The report describes the advantages of solar power.
Many environmentalists and scientists oppose nuclear power.
Many people have already turned to renewable energy sources 25. Glass roofs and skylights should
be carefully designed.

EXERCISE 2 Write ten simple sentences based on the picture below

(Hint for teachers -Give your students some spelling or vocabulary words to make sentences with)
1) _______________________________________________________________________
2) _______________________________________________________________________
3) ______________________________________________________________________
4) ______________________________________________________________________
5) ______________________________________________________________________
6) _______________________________________________________________________
7) _______________________________________________________________________
8) _______________________________________________________________________
9) _______________________________________________________________________
10) ______________________________________________________________________

Compound Sentence
A compound sentence is a sentence with 2 simple sentences joined by a conjunction
eg : ( and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet).
Examples:
1. My brother does the dishes and takes out the trash.
2. The boy entered the room but he did not see Mr. Jonathan.
3. I was tired so I went to sleep.

Exercise: Rewrite each of the following pairs of simple sentences as one compound sentence.
Example: Ants are small. They are powerful. (but)
Ants are small but powerful.
1. We can go to a movie. We can watch a videotape at home. (or)
__________________________________________________________________
2. Sally wrote a poem about her mother. She did not show it to her. (but)
__________________________________________________________________
3. Dark clouds gathered above the paddy field. Rain fell steadily. (and)
____________________________________________________________________
4. The talk show host was silly. His show had a large audience. (but)
_____________________________________________________________________
5. Some students played in the field. Other students went to the library.(but)
_____________________________________________________________________
6. Last night the house felt chilly. I drank not tea and curled up with a book. (so)
_____________________________________________________________________
7. Suddenly, Bobbie ran to the window. We wondered what she saw. (and)
_____________________________________________________________________
8. You can wait for me at the entrance. You can go in and find us a seat. (or)
_____________________________________________________________________
9. Ipoh is the capital city of the State of Perak. It lies in the valley of the Kinta River. (and)
_____________________________________________________________________

10.

Fossil fuels are non-renewable. We need to find alternative energy sources. (so)
_______________________________________________________________________

11.

Many scientists have hailed nuclear power as a cheap source of electricity. Environmentalists have stressed its
danger.(but)
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

12.

She did her homework earlier. She watched her favourite TV programme. (so)
_____________________________________________________________________

13.

We decided to stay at home. It rained heavily. (as)


_____________________________________________________________________

14.

My sister slept earlier. My mother could do her house chores. (so)


_____________________________________________________________________

15.

Jane was saddened by the news. She managed to fight back the tears. (but)
_____________________________________________________________________

Compound Sentences
EXERCISE 2
Based on the same picture in EXERCISE 1, write 10 compound sentences.
1) ________________________________________________________________________
2) ________________________________________________________________________
3) ________________________________________________________________________
4) ________________________________________________________________________
5) ________________________________________________________________________
6) ________________________________________________________________________
7) ________________________________________________________________________
8) ________________________________________________________________________
9) ________________________________________________________________________
10) ______________________________________________________________________

Complex Sentence
A complex sentence is a sentence or phrase joined by one or more simple sentences. A complex sentence always has a
connector such as since, because, after, although or when or a relative pronoun such as who, which, that.
Examples
1.
2.
3.

because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon
while he waited at the train station
after they left on the bus

Below are some of the most common connectors and relative pronouns used:
after
even
unless
wherever

although
though
until
while

as
if
when

because
since
whenever

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Exercise: Combine the two sentences by using the word in brackets so that they become a complex sentence.
1. The careless girl forgot to pay for her food. She was called by the canteen operator. (who)
_____________________________________________________________________
2. The Scouts took the wrong road. They managed to find their way home. (who)
_____________________________________________________________________
3. The debate team became the champion. The teacher was happy. (when)
_____________________________________________________________________
4. She thinks this is the spot. Her mother was snatched. (where)
_____________________________________________________________________
5. Loreal borrowed five storybooks. They were books about animals. (which)
_____________________________________________________________________
6. We decided to have lunch at the food court. There are many types of food served. (where)
_____________________________________________________________________
7. My grandmother is 79 years old. I gave her a beautiful pendent. (whom)
_____________________________________________________________________

EXERCISE 2
Based on the same picture, convert your original ten simple sentences into complex sentences.
1) _____________________________________________________________________
2) ____________________________________________________________________
3) ___________________________________________________________________
4) ___________________________________________________________________
5) ___________________________________________________________________
6) ____________________________________________________________________
7) ____________________________________________________________________
8) ____________________________________________________________________
9) ___________________________________________________________________
10) __________________________________________________________________

before
though
whereas

Exercise 3 :
Combine the following sentences into complex sentences to write a story about Jared. Write in one paragraph.
His name is Jared.
He's a basketball player.
He often travels around Malaysia.
He plays away games in different cities Malaysia.
He travels by airplane.
He usually sleeps on the plane.
He stays up late after games.
He is an excellent scorer.
Fans love his abilities.
Coaches love his abilities.
Every week he plays a home game.

He has a large house in Kuala Lumpur.


The house is beautiful.
The game is played in Glover Stadium.
The game is usually sold out.
Glover Stadium is old.
Glover Stadium doesn't have enough seats for all the
fans.
The fans wait in line to buy tickets.
The fans often pay more than RM60 for a ticket.
The fans are unhappy about the ticket prices.
The fans love Jared.

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__________________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 4
Now write using the three types of sentences you have learned.
Step 1:
First, construct sentences for the points given below using simple sentences.

EFFECTS:
Air pollution
lung and heart diseases
fog and haze
bad for eyes
toxic gases blacken building
Water Pollution
unsafe for swimming
sea creatures and plants die
oil spills
reduce food supply
Noise pollution
hearing affected
damage to ear

CONTROL:
Control of pollution needs cooperation
of government
public
individual

Based on the short notes given, write an article on Effects of Pollution for your school magazine.
When writing the article:
1. you may use all the notes given
2. elaborate on the given notes to make it more interesting
3. make sure it is not less than 120 words
1. Pollution today is getting from bad to worse.
2. There is air, water and noise pollution
3. The environment is becoming a dirty and an unhealthy place to be in.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
Step 2: Combine the sentences

1. Pollution today is getting from bad to worse.

Introduction:

2. There is air, water and noise pollution.

Use simple sentences

3. The environment is becoming a dirty and an unhealthy place to be in.


4. Air pollution has bad effects on our health.

First paragraph:

5. It makes us sick and unhealthy.

Effect : Air pollution

6. City people are exposed to the dirty air.

combine sentences: No 4 and 5


using for (compound)

7. They often suffer from lung and heart diseases.

No 6, and No 7 using who and


No 8 using because (complex)

8. The polluted air is bad for the lungs and chest.

No. 9 and No. 10 using which


(complex)

9. Pollution causes fog and haze.


10. They are bad for the eyes.
11. The toxic gases from vehicles on the road and factories blacken buildings.
12.

They do damage to the concrete and walls.

No. 11 and No 12 using and


(compound)

Second paragraph:
13. Polluted water is unsafe.
14. It is unsafe for swimming.
15. It causes the water to be dirty.

16. One can suffer from skin diseases and eye and ear irritation.
17. Sea creatures and plants die after oil spills.
18. The oil may take years to clean up.

19. Thus, they reduce the available seafood supply

Effect : Water pollution


combine sentences:
No 13 and No. 14.Begin with No
13 with when (complex)
combine with No 15 using as
(compound)
combine with No 16 which
(complex)
No 17 and No 18 using as
(compound)
No 19 simple sentence .Begin
sentence with Thus

Third paragraph:
Effect: Noise pollution
20 In addition, noise pollution does damage to the ears.
21. It causes hearing problems.
22. The damage can be permanent.

Combine sentences:
No 20 and No 21 using and
(compound) and No 23 using
which

. 23 There are many practical ways to help protect the environment.


. 24 Each of us can do our parts.
. 25 The fight against pollution requires cooperation of the government public and
all individuals.
. 26 It is everybodys responsibility.

Conclusion:
Combine sentences: No 23 and
No 24 using in which(complex)
No 25 and No26 using as.
(compound)

Step 3:
Write the Article in paragraph
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