Você está na página 1de 25

SAILING THE PLANETS:

PLANETARY EXPLORATION FROM GUIDED BALLOONS

7 th Annual Meeting of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts

DR. ALEXEY PANKINE GLOBAL AEROSPACE CORPORATION

SAILING THE PLANETS

1
1

MARS ROVERS ARE A GREAT SUCCESS…

Spirit view from Husband Hill summit (NASA/JPL)

MARS ROVERS ARE A GREAT SUCCESS… Spirit view from Husband Hill summit (NASA/JPL) … but their

… but their range is very limited

SAILING THE PLANETS

Columbia Hills surroundings (NASA/JPL/MSSS)

2

DARE – NEW PLATFROM FOR PLANETRAY EXPLORATION

An airplane will last for just a few hours

Airships propulsion systems make them prohibitively heavy

Ordinary balloons are at the mercy of the winds

Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DARE) - guided long-duration balloon platforms

Mars Express/ESA-GAC

NEW ARCHITECTURE FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

KEY ELEMENTS:

Long-Duration Planetary Balloon Platforms

Balloon Flight Path Guidance

Autonomous Navigation & Control

Lightweight Power Generation & Energy Storage

Miniaturized Science Sensors

Small Deployable Science Packages

Communication Relay Orbiter (MTO)

Synergy Between Platforms Comprising Architecture

MARS DARE PLATFORM SCHEMATICS

Superpressure balloon (Al top, white paint bottom, D=20-70 m)

Gondola:

 

Science payload (~100 kg)

Power generation & energy storage

Communications

Microprobes

BGS deployment system (a winch)

Tether (5-11 km)

Balloon Guidance System (BGS)

MARS DARE PLATFORM SCHEMATICS Superpressure balloon (Al top, white paint bottom, D=20-70 m) Gondola: Science payload
MARS DARE PLATFORM SCHEMATICS Superpressure balloon (Al top, white paint bottom, D=20-70 m) Gondola: Science payload

DARE ARCHITECTURE APPLICATIONS AND EXPLORATION CAPABILITIES

EXPLORATION CAPABILITIES

Global planetary coverage

Heavy, power-intensive payloads (90 kg and 200 W in 3 to 10 years, 170 kg and 400 W >10 years)

Long flight duration: 700 days (1 Mars year)

Targeted overflight of surface sites and precise delivery of science probes

Proximity to surface enables high- resolution imaging, elemental, magnetic and gravity surveys not possible or challenging from orbit

In situ atmospheric chemistry and circulation

Landing sites reconnaissance, navigation beacon emplacement

SAILING THE PLANETS

EXPLORATION CAPABILITIES Global planetary coverage Heavy, power-intensive payloads (90 kg and 200 W in 3 to

Olivine outcrop and DS-2 landing ellipse (NASA/JPL/ASU)

EXPLORATION CAPABILITIES Global planetary coverage Heavy, power-intensive payloads (90 kg and 200 W in 3 to

Water ice lake inside a crater on Mars (ESA)

7

FRACTIONATION OF METHANE ISOTOPES IN THE ATMOSPHERE

Methane-making organisms discriminate between isotopes as they feed on a global reservoir of CO2

Measure the C 12 /C 13 ratio in the methane.

If it is different from the isotope ratio in the CO 2 , it would offer strong evidence for a biological source.

DARE enables planetary-wide search for surface biological sources

Tunable Laser Spectrometer for Atmospheric and Sub-surface gas measurements on Mars (NASA JPL)

SURFACE TARGETS FOR HIGH- RESOLUTION IMAGING Very small craters Boulders Dichotomy boundary Layers in canyon/crater walls
SURFACE TARGETS FOR HIGH-
RESOLUTION IMAGING
Very small craters
Boulders
Dichotomy boundary
Layers in canyon/crater walls
Origins of the outflow channels
10 cm
10
km

EMPLACEMENT OF SURFACE NETWORKS ON MARS

Single DARE platform can carry tens of mini-labs

Meteorological & seismological networks

Surface labs locations

NetLander Surface Module (ESA)

EMPLACEMENT OF SURFACE NETWORKS ON MARS Single DARE platform can carry tens of mini-labs Meteorological &

SAILING THE PLANETS

EMPLACEMENT OF SURFACE NETWORKS ON MARS Single DARE platform can carry tens of mini-labs Meteorological &

Mars Microprobe (NASA) as an example of a mini-lab

10

MARS SAMPLE RETURN ASSIST

MARS SAMPLE RETURN ASSIST Multiple rovers collect samples at different sites Samples and transferred to Sample

Multiple rovers collect samples at different sites

Samples and transferred to Sample Return Vehicle by DARE platform

Science results: several samples from distinct sites

SAILING ACROSS MARTIAN EQUATOR

Simulated DARE trajectory over elevation contour map

DARE trajectory over MOLA topography (NASA)

90-day late Southern spring, 1 m/s control velocity

Objective: navigate from Southern to Northern midlatitudes

DARE AT VENUS, TITAN, JUPITER

DARE AT VENUS, TITAN, JUPITER VENUS - Targeted overflight of surface sites and precise delivery of
DARE AT VENUS, TITAN, JUPITER VENUS - Targeted overflight of surface sites and precise delivery of

VENUS

  • - Targeted overflight of surface sites and precise delivery of geophysical probes

  • - Wind profiles and atmospheric composition at multiple locations

TITAN

  • - Global measurements of winds, gas abundances, surface chemistry with probes

DARE AT VENUS, TITAN, JUPITER VENUS - Targeted overflight of surface sites and precise delivery of

JUPITER

  • - Solar-Infrared Montgolfier balloons

  • - Sample with probes distinct regions of the atmosphere (Great Red Spot, belt/zone)

KEY TECHNOLOGIES

KEY TECHNOLOGIES

Three technological time horizons:

Current (0-3 years, TRL 8-9), Near (3-10 years, TRL 3-6), Far (beyond 10, TRL 1-3)

Advanced Balloon Materials Balloon Guidance System (BGS) Entry, Descent and Inflation (EDI) Navigation & Guidance in Mars winds Mars Balloon performance modeling

MARS DARE BALLOON

Low-mass high-strength envelope material

composite material

1-µm Mylar/38-Denier PBO thread/3- µm PE film

areal density of 0.012 kg/m 2

Nano-tubes fabric in future?

Superpressure sphere

Al top, white bottom to prevent CO 2 condensation

MARS DARE BALLOON Low-mass high-strength envelope material composite material 1- µ m Mylar/38-Denier PBO thread/3- µ

Mars balloon concept

MARS DARE BALLOON Low-mass high-strength envelope material composite material 1- µ m Mylar/38-Denier PBO thread/3- µ

SAILING THE PLANETS

Composite Mars balloon material

16

BALLOON GUIDANCE SYSTEM (BGS)

BALLOON GUIDANCE SYSTEM (BGS) Dual-wing BGS Single-wing BGS BGS is an aerodynamic surface suspended on a

Dual-wing BGS

BALLOON GUIDANCE SYSTEM (BGS) Dual-wing BGS Single-wing BGS BGS is an aerodynamic surface suspended on a

Single-wing BGS

BGS is an aerodynamic surface suspended on a tether several km below the balloon

Tether could be Zylon fiber, 5 to 20 times stronger than steel, by weight. 10 km long tether weighs 0.5 kg

Variation in atmospheric wind and density with altitude result in a sideways lifting force

1 m 2 BGS creates sideways control velocity of 1-2 m/s in typical Martian winds and 8 km tether

BGS wing operates at low Reynolds numbers at Mars (~1000), lift coefficients of 0.6-1.4

Single-wing and Dual-wing BGS designs are being studied

ENTRY, DESCENT & INFLATION (EDI)

Parachute deploys Inflation commences Parachute cut-off Inflation equipment jettisoned Platform ascends to floating altitude The BGS
Parachute deploys
Inflation commences
Parachute cut-off
Inflation equipment jettisoned
Platform ascends to floating altitude
The BGS is deployed

Altitude profile

SYSTEM TRADES AND EXAMPLE DESIGN

PAYLOAD VS. ALTITUDE

PAYLOAD VS. ALTITUDE Height of atmospheric density levels lower by 4 km in dusty atmosphere DARE

Height of atmospheric density levels lower by 4 km in dusty atmosphere

DARE to float 2-3 km above southern highlands in dust storm

6 km at τ=3

M=87 kg, R=17.2 m

Altitude of 10 km at normal conditions

ALTITUDE CHANGE AFTER PROBE RELEASE

Releasing 30 kg of probes raises altitude by 3 km Increase in super-pressu re can be
Releasing 30 kg of probes raises altitude by 3 km
Increase in super-pressu re can be relieved by
venting 1 kg of gas (out of 8 kg)

ENTRY VEHICLE

Delta 7326 launch rocket, 616 kg Mars injection capability 340 kg Pathfinder-type entry vehicle EDI hardware
Delta 7326 launch rocket, 616 kg Mars injection capability
340 kg Pathfinder-type entry vehicle
EDI hardware 200 kg, balloon flight system 140 kg

BALLOON FLIGHT SYSTEM

BALLOON FLIGHT SYSTEM SAILING THE PLANETS 23

GONDOLA DESIGN

SUMMARY

DARE enables revolutionary planetary exploration capabilities at Mars and other planets

DARE addresses NASA's Mars Exploration Program (MEP) goals by returning unique measurements in critical science themes