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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab

(DE)COLONIALITY AFF
****Afrmative****................................................................3
1AC...................................................................................... 4
2AC Ext: Coo!iai"m #oot Ca$"e o% &ioe!'e.........................12
2AC Ext: #(etori' )ro'ee*" A'tio!.......................................14
2AC Ext: At E+i"temi' Di"o,e*ie!'e....................................1-
2AC Ext: Coo!iai"m #oot Ca$"e o% .e!o'i*e........................1/
2AC Ext: Coo!iai"m #oot Ca$"e o% 0armi!1........................21
2AC Ext: Deveo+me!t2Coo!iai"m......................................23
2AC Ext: Deveo+me!t2De%ore"tatio!..................................23
2AC Ext: Coo!iait4 *e"tro4 "o'iet4.....................................25
2AC Ext: Coo!iai"m Ca$"e" )overt4....................................26
2AC Ext: Coo!iai"m27tr$'t$ra &ioe!'e.............................31
2AC Ext: Ex+oratio! mea!" '(a!1e" i! mi!*"et...................33
2AC Ext: #(etori' +ro'ee*" a'tio!........................................3-
AT: Im+eriai"m #oot Ca$"e.................................................36
AT: Im+eriai"m .oo*..........................................................41
AT: Ca+...............................................................................43
AT: A!t(ro..........................................................................43
AT: 8io+oiti'" #oot Ca$"e...................................................45
AT: Native".........................................................................46
AT: .e!*er 9.......................................................................31
AT: #oot Ca$"e De,ate 8a*: #oot Ca$"e De,ate .oo*...........34
AT: Coo!iai"m .oo*...........................................................33
AT: #a'e 9..........................................................................36
AT: Frame;or<:To+i'ait4.....................................................--
AT: Limit"...........................................................................-5
****Ne1ative****..................................................................-6
NE.: Coo!iai"m .oo*........................................................5=
NE.: Coo!iai"m Not #oot Ca$"e.........................................53
NE.: Coo!iai"m28etter E*$'atio!......................................5-
1
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
NE.: &i'timi>atio! 8a*........................................................55
NE.: 7+ea<i!1 %or ot(er" ,a*............................................../=
NE.: .o,ai>atio! root Ca$"e o% "tr$'t$ra vioe!'e............./3
NE.: Im+eriai"m .oo*......................................................../3
NE.: Coo!iai"m <e4 to Demo'ra'4.....................................//
NE.: E$ro'e!tri"m .oo*......................................................6=
NE.: At 8AD......................................................................62
NE.: &a1$e At" 8a*...........................................................64
NE.: ?o*er!it4 1oo*..........................................................63
NE.: )ra1mati"m <e4 to 7ove.............................................66
NE.: )ra1mati"m ,a*........................................................1==
2
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
****Afrmative****
3
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
1AC
T@E I?)E#IALI7TIC 8E@A&IO# IN @O?O 7A)IEN7 @A7 8EEN
@A#DA0I#ED INTO OB# .ENE7 7INCE T@E DA0N OF
E&OLBTION. 0IT@ T@E OCEAN 8EIN. T@E NE0 F#ONTIE# FO#
@B?AN DE&ELO)?ENTC @B?AN INDBI#Y IN OCEAN @A7
EEE?)LIFIED A COLONIALI7T A))#OAC@ TO0A#D7 OCEANIC
EN.A.E?ENT 8Y )O7ITIN. T@E? A7 A 7TANDIN. #E7E#&E.
7tei!erC 12Steiner !i"har#$ %&n Colu'bus Day It(s )i'e to !ethin* &ur (+ani,est Destiny($%)he
-u.n/ton 0ost$ )he-u.n/ton0ost$"o' 1 &"t$ 2012$ 2eb$ 24 June 2014$
3htt45//666$hu.n/ton4ost$"o'/ri"har#7steiner/on7"olu'bus7#ay7its7ti'e78b81943442$ht'l:$
)o#ay is Colu'bus Day "elebratin/ the %#is"o;ery o, the <e6 2orl#$% As this e;ent set o= a 6a;e o,
"on>uest en;iron'ental #e;astation an# e'4ire buil#in/ that "ontinues to#ay this see's a /oo# ti'e to
re?e"t on this history an# #is"uss a better 6ay ,or6ar# ,or 21st "entury hu'anity$
I! to*a4F" 'amor to *eveo+ o$r G!a %ro!tier" AA t(e Ar'ti'C t(e
*ee+ "eaC a!* o$ter "+a'e AA itF" ea"4 to (ear e'(oe" o% voi'e"
%rom 'e!t$rie" +a"t 'ai!1 %or t(e ;e"t;ar* ex+a!"io! o%
H'ivii>atio!H a" a *ivi!e4 or*ai!e* H?a!i%e"t De"ti!4.H )he only
thin/ 'issin/ is the "o;ere# 6a/ons$T(e term H?a!i%e"t De"ti!4H ;a" Gr"t
$"e* ,4 Io$r!ai"t Io(! 7$iva! i! 1/43 ;riti!1 t(at it ;a":
Ht(e ri1(t o% o$r ma!i%e"t *e"ti!4 to over"+rea* a!* to
+o""e"" t(e ;(oe o% t(e 'o!ti!e!t ;(i'( )rovi*e!'e (a" 1ive!
$".H )he 4hrase "a4ture# the e@4ansionist ,er;or an# 'essiani" ;ision that ha# been in 4lay ,or
"enturies an# 6as 4erha4s the Arst e@4ression o, the Bin/oisti" %A'eri"an e@"e4tionalis'% hear# in
A'eri"an 4oliti"s to#ay$T(i" im+eriai"ti' ,e(avior i! @omo "a+ie!" (a*
,ee! (ar*A;ire* i!to o$r 1e!e" at t(e *a;! o% ($ma!
evo$tio! an# 4laye# out in the "o'4etiti;e re4la"e'ent o, <ean#erthals by Cro +a/non 30000
years a/o$ At that ti'e Cro +a/non(s beha;ioral traits 77 ;iolen"e a//ression "o'4etition /ree# an#
#o'ination 77 4re;aile#$ Cut 6hat 'ay ha;e been a#a4ti;e in the u44er 0aleolithi" is "learly not to#ay as
these sa'e traits 'ay be our ulti'ate un#oin/$ Des4ite this trouble# history there ha;e been /li''ers o,
ho4e$ &ut o, the ashes o, 22II the Dnite# <ations 6as born$ At(o$1( t(ere ;ere +reA
exi"ti!1 territoria 'aim" i! o!e o% t(e a"t $!to$'(e* re1io!"
o% t(e ;or* AA A!tar'ti'a AA t(e B.7. +ro+o"e* to ma!a1e t(e
area a" a B.N. Tr$"tee"(i+C a" t(e H'ommo! (erita1e o%
ma!<i!*.H T(e 1636 A!tar'ti' Treat4 re"erve* t(e re1io!
ex'$"ive4 %or +ea'e%$C !o!Aextra'tiveC "'ie!tiG' +$r+o"e"C a
mo*e %or 1o,a 'oo+eratio!. B!%ort$!ate4C t(i" 1oo*;i ;a"
"(ortAive* a" ($ma!it4 oo<e* to;ar* it" !ext %ro!tier" $ T(e
!ext %ro!tier to*a4 i" t(e *ee+ o'ea!. T(e va"t a,4""a +ai!C
'overi!1 -=J o% t(e Eart( "$r%a'eC i" i!ter"e'te* ,4 *ee+
o'ea! tre!'(e" the lon/est 'ountain ran/e on Earth a!* rare (4*rot(erma
ve!t e'o"4"tem". ?ari!e e'oo1i"t Fre* .ra""e "a4" t(at t(e
*ee+A"ea ma4 riva tro+i'a rai!%ore"t" i! term" o% "+e'ie"
+re"e!tC ;it( +er(a+" 1= miio! "+e'ie". )re"e!t4C ar1e
(4*ro'ar,o! re"ervoir" are ,ei!1 *eveo+e* i! t(e *ee+
;ater" o% t(e .$% o% ?exi'oC 8ra>iC a!* 0e"t A%ri'a $ A #oFen
4
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
state/4ri;ate "onsortia intereste# in 'inin/ 4oly'etalli" ('an/anese) no#ules hol# seabe# e@4loration
leases bet6een CaBa an# -a6aii an# the In#ian &"ean$ Co'4anies are intereste# in 'inin/ "obalt7ri"h
"rusts on 0a"iA" sea'ounts an# <autilus +inerals is set to be/in the Arst e;er "o''er"ial 'inin/ o, #ee47
sea hy#rother'al ;ents o= 0a4ua <e6 Guinea$ An# ;e !o; (ave t(e "tam+e*e to
*eveo+ t(e Ar'ti'C ;(ere 1o,a 'ar,o! emi""io!" (ave 'a$"e*
a 'ata"tro+(i' o"" o% Ar'ti' "ea i'e. Oi a!* 1a" +roKe't" are
$!*er;a4 in Greenlan# <or6ay !ussia Cana#a an# Alas*a ;it( ma!4 more
+a!!e*$ )here are 4roBe"ts a"ross the Ar"ti" to 'ine uraniu' "oal #ia'on#s /ol# "o44er ni"*el
Fin" an# other 'inerals$ Ar"ti" shi44in/ is stea#ily in"reasin/ as sea i"e 'elts$ Current D$S$ Ar"ti" 4oli"y
issue# in the last 6ee* o, the Cush a#'inistration is essentially an in#ustrial #e;elo4'ent 'ani,esto 6ith
only "ursory 'ention o, en;iron'ental 4rote"tion$ A,ter assertin/ that %hi/h le;els o, un"ertainty re'ain
"on"ernin/ the e=e"ts o, "li'ate "han/e an# in"rease# hu'an a"ti;ity in the Ar"ti"% the 4oli"y states that
%the Dnite# States 'ay e@er"ise its so;erei/n ri/hts o;er natural resour"es su"h as oil natural /as
'ethane hy#rates 'inerals an# li;in/ 'arine s4e"ies% on the Ar"ti" seabe#$ It "alls ,or the D$S$ to Boin the
lan# /rab ,or 'ore "ontinental shel, seabe# to %assert a 'ore a"ti;e an# in?uential national 4resen"e to
4rote"t its ar"ti" interests an# 4roBe"t sea 4o6er throu/hout the re/ion% an# that an Ar"ti" )reaty si'ilar
to that ,or the Antar"ti" is %not a44ro4riate or ne"essary$%Clearly t(ere i" a ,etter ;a4 to
1over! o$r a"t %ro!tier". T(e Gr"t t(i!1 ;e !ee* i" a
Htimeo$t.H 0e !ee* a ot more "'ie!'eC a!* more *ei,erate
t(i!<i!1 a,o$t ;(et(er t(i" %ro!tier *eveo+me!t ;i (e+C or
(i!*erC o$r L$e"t %or a "$"tai!a,e %$t$re. 2e nee# to re*in#le that
"oo4erati;e s4irit 6ith 6hi"h the Antar"ti" 6as 4rote"te# H0 years a/o$ )o better 'ana/e #e;elo4'ent in
outer s4a"e the Dnite# <ations shoul# establish a D$<$ &uter S4a"e En;iron'ent Co''ission to o;ersee
all hu'an a"ti;ity in s4a"e an# a s4e"iA" En;iron'ental 0roto"ol to the 19IJ &uter S4a"e )reaty$For
t(e *ee+ "eaC ;e !ee* a 'oratoriu' on all 'ineral #e;elo4'ent 6ithin national an#
international 6aters until 6e ha;e a ,etter $!*er"ta!*i!1 o% t(e ri"<" a!*
im+a't"M ar1e +rote'te* area" o% t(e *ee+ o'ea! +erma!e!t4
%ree %rom a!4 'ommer'ia *eveo+me!tK an# an In#e4en#ent En;iron'ental
Co''ission to o;ersee all e@4loration an# #e;elo4'ent$ For the Ar"ti" 6e nee# an Ar"ti" )reaty (si'ilar to
the Antar"ti") 4rote"tin/ the re/ion ,or 4ea"e,ul non7e@tra"ti;e 4ur4oses an# as the %"o''on herita/e o,
all hu'an*in#$% All 6aters outsi#e o, "urrent 2007'ile Buris#i"tions o, the "oastal states shoul# be
4rote"te# as a /lobal san"tuary 6here oil an# /as 'ineral an# Ashery #e;elo4'ent are 4rohibite#$ As
6ell 'any sensiti;e areas 6ithin national Buris#i"tions shoul# be "ontribute# to the Ar"ti" san"tuary$ )he
D$<$ shoul# "on;ene an Ar"ti" Coun"il in"lu#in/ not Bust the ei/ht "oastal states "urrently re4resente# but
also In#i/enous 0eo4les o, the Ar"ti" an# other /o;ern'ents 6ith interests in the Ar"ti" as e>ual ;otin/
'e'bers$ )he Ar"ti" is too i'4ortant to /lobal "li'ate re/ulation an#
bio#i;ersity to lea;e to the 4aro"hial 6hi's o, the "oastal states or
in#ustrialists$ An# i!"tea* o% ex+oiti!1 t(e e!er14 a!* mi!era
re"o$r'e" i! t(e"e %ro!tier area"C ;e 'a! "im+4 i!'rea"e t(e
ef'ie!'4 ;it( ;(i'( ;e $"e e!er14 a!* materia"C a!* ";it'(
to "$"tai!a,e ater!ative"C t(ere,4 eimi!ati!1 t(e !ee* to
ex+oit t(e"e !o!Are!e;a,eC %ro!tier re"o$r'e" ato1et(er $
O$r 21"t 'e!t$r4 '(ae!1e i" ;(et(er ;e 'a! tra!"'e!* o$r
a11re""iveC *omi!eeri!1 )aeoit(i' +ro1rammi!1C or !ot. I!
a++roa'(i!1 o$r G!a %ro!tier"C ;e "(o$* 'are%$4 'o!"i*er
o$r motivatio!"C !ee*"C a!* 1oa"C a!* ma<e "$re ;e a++roa'(
t(e"e %ro!tier" i! a 'oo+erativeC "$"tai!a,e ma!!erC or !ot at
a.
0IT@IN T@E LA7T T0O DECADE7C B.7. EE)LO#ATION OF T@E
OCEAN @A7 INC#EA7ED 7B87TANTIALLY. T@I7 INC#EA7ED
INDBI#Y OF T@E OCEAN ALON. 0IT@ OT@E# @B?AN
H
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
ACTI&ITIE7 @A&E CONT#I8BTED TO EE)LOITATION OF T@E
OCEAN AND IT7 NATB#AL #E7OB#CE7. T@I7 EE)LOITATION
LEAD7 TO CLI?ATE C@AN.EC OCEAN ACIDIFICATION AND
FB#T@E# AT?O7)@E#IC DE)LETION.
@ermio!e N12C -E!+I&<E is a Collaborati;e 0roBe"t ,un#e# un#er the Euro4ean Co''ission(s Fra'e6or*
Se;en 0ro/ra''e at the <ational &"eano/ra4hy Centre Southa'4ton$ A""esse# I/2H/14 htt45//666$eu7
her'ione$net/learnin/
Dee47sea e@4loration over t(e a"t t;o *e'a*e" has sho6n t(at t(e *ee+A
"ea e!viro!me!t (a" alrea#y ,ee! im+a'te* ,4 ma!. #e"o$r'e"
%rom t(e *ee+ are i!'rea"i!14 ex+oite* a!* 'ear "i1!" o%
*ire't a!* i!*ire't a!t(ro+o1e!i' im+a't" are !o; vi"i,e in 'any
#ee47sea e"osyste's$ Dire't im+a't" o% ($ma! a'tivitie" reate to
exi"ti!1 or %$t$re ex+oitatio! o% *ee+A"ea re"o$r'e" (e$/$ Asheries
hy#ro"arbon e@tra"tion 'inin/ bio4ros4e"tin/) to "ea,e* $"e" (e$/$ 4i4elines "able layin/
"arbon se>uestration) a!* to +o$tio! (e$/$ "onta'ination ,ro' lan#7base# sour"es/a"ti;ities
6aste #is4osal #u'4in/ noise i'4a"ts o, shi44in/ an# 'ariti'e a""i#ents)$ I!*ire't im+a't"
reate to 'imate '(a!1eC o'ea! a'i*iG'atio! a!* atmo"+(eri'
o>o!e *e+etio!. T(i" rai"e" a series o, 'o!'er!" ,e'a$"e *ee+A"ea
+ro'e""e" a!* e'o"4"tem" are not only im+orta!t %or t(e mari!e
;e, o% i%e but t(e4 a"o %$!*ame!ta4 'o!tri,$te to 1o,a
,io1eo'(emi'a +atter!" t(at "$++ort a i%e o! Eart($ +oreo;er they
4ro;i#e #ire"t /oo#s an# ser;i"es that are o, /ro6in/ e"ono'i" si/niA"an"e$ +ost o, to#ayLs
un#erstan#in/ o, the #ee4 o"eans "o'es ,ro' the natural s"ien"es su44le'ente# by #ata ,ro' in#ustry$
Cut "o'ioAe'o!omi' re"ear'( i! "$++ort o% the sustainable use an#
'o!"ervatio! o% *ee+A"ea re"o$r'e" i" a11i!1 ,e(i!*. T(ere i"
a "lear !ee* to i*e!ti%4 t(e "o'ieta an# e"ono'i" im+i'atio!" o%
($ma! a'tivitie" a!* im+a't"C a!* to i!ve"ti1ate t(e <e4
"o'ioe'o!omi' a!* 1over!a!'e i""$e" reate* to t(e
'o!"ervatio!C 'ana/e'ent an# sustainable use o% t(e *ee+A"ea" $
T@E TO)IC IN IT OF IT7ELF #EAC#EATE7 T@E @I7TO#ICAL
COLONIAL E)I7TO?OLO.Y 8Y DE)LOYIN. T@E OCEAN A7 A
#E7OB#CE FO# @B?ANN7 TO EE)LOIT AND 8ENEFIT.
@I7TO#ICALLY T@E LAN.BA.E OF DE&ELO)?ENT 7ET7 T@E
)#ECEDENT FO# COLONIAL EE)LO#ATION AND DE&ELO)?ENT.
IT I7 E77ENTIAL TO #EIECT COLONIAL IDEOLO.Y 8Y
INTE##O.ATIN. @O0 DE&ELO)?ENT AND EE)LOITATION A#E
INEET#ICA8LY LIN9ED.
8ar<er 166/MDr$ Dru"illa Car*er is the 2o'enLs Stu#ies Chair at -ollins Dni;ersity$ NDualis's
Dis"ourse an# De;elo4'ent$O -y4atia 13$3P
T(e a!1$a1e o% *eveo+me!t e"ono'i"s rea*" i<e a "ha4ter in t(e
E!i1(te!me!t *ream a *ream t(at +romi"e* an or#erly +ro1re""
%rom +overt4 a!* i1!ora!'e to +ro"+erit4 a!* mo*er!it4$ It is a
#is"ourse in,use# 6ith the Enli/hten'ent i#eal o, inno"ent *no6le#/e an i#eal that 'as*s the
instru'ental role that *eveo+me!t (a" +a4e* i! mai!tai!i!1 1o,a
"tr$'t$re" o% !eo'oo!iai"m a!* *e+e!*e!'4$ I!"tea* o%
+ro1re"" a!* +ro"+erit4C m$'( o% t(e ;or* (a" ex+erie!'e*
I
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
+ro%o$!* +overt4C 1ro;i!1 i!'ome i!eL$ait4C (i1( *e,t
,$r*e!"C a!* e!viro!me!ta *e1ra*atio!$ Cy the 1910s eve!
t(e +ro+o!e!t" o% *eveo+me!t ha# a1ree* t(at t(eir +oi'ie"
(a* ,ee! lar/ely $!"$''e""%$$ 0oli"y inter;entions #esi/ne# to ,oster e"ono'i" /ro6th
an# alle;iate 4o;erty 6ere aban#one# in ,a;or o, neoliberal ortho#o@ies (Es"obar 199H J3794)$
)rivati>atio!C tra*e i,erai>atio!C a!* G"'a a$"terit4 ;ere t(e
!e; "trate1ie" t(at ;o$* e!a,e %reeAmar<et 'a+itai"m to
;or< it" ma1i'$ ?i""i!1 ,ro' this analysis ho6e;er ;a" a!4 a;are!e"" o%
t(e roe t(at *eveo+me!t r(etori' a!* +oi'ie" +a4e* i!
+ro*$'i!1 $!*er*eveo+me!tC ex+oitatio!C a!* o++re""io!$(1)
T@E LAN.BA.E OF T@E TO)ICC BNDE# T@E .BI7E OF OEE)LO#E
AND DE&ELO)P ENCOB#A.E7 COLONIALI7?. T@E7E EB#O)EAN
CONCE)T7 OF EE)LO#ATION AND DE&ELO)?ENT ENCOB#A.E7
AND #EDBI#E7 COLONIALI7?.
Na4arC Jayan$ %SQ+0&SID+5 !E7F!A+I<G I<)E!<A)I&<AL LA2 F&! )-E 21S) CE<)D!Q5 &r#ers o,
Inhu'anity$% Hein Online SW 9$2 (1666): n$ 4a/$ 2eb$ 2I June 2014$ Dni;ersity o, 2ar6i"* S"hool o,
La6
7i!'e t(e *emi"e o% t(e "olonial le/iti'iFation o, the % 'ivii>i!1H mi""io!C
H*eveo+me!tH (a" 'ome to ex+re"" t(e "onte'4orary '(ae!1e o%
,ri!1i!1 t(e ,e!eGt" o% H'ivii>atio!% an# hu'an 4ro/ress to t(e
+o+$atio!" o% t(e ;or*. It is it a++ear"C t(e +rimar4 +$r+o"e o%
($ma! e!*eavor to ,e 'oe'tive4 $!*erta<e! ,4 a an# sun#ry
6ithin the "onte@t o% a ($ma!it4Aem,ra'i!1C H!e;CH +o"tA'oo!iaC
H;or*Aor*erHAA another %ne6 be/innin/$% )hrou/h 'any u4s an# #o6ns throu/h 'any ,ailures
an# too ,e6 su""esses t(e "+irit o% *eveo+me!t a" a 1reat ($ma!
'a$"e (a" ,ee! <e+t aive. No; ;e m$"t *o ever4t(i!1 ;e 'a!
to Ft$r! t(at "+irit i!to +ra'ti'aC vi"i,e +ro1re"" %or +eo+e in
A,ri"a an# 4eo4le ever4;(ere. De;elo4'ent is e;eryone(s Bob$ <o 'ore ,un#a'ental "ause
e@ists to#ay$ I belie;e that 6e stan# at the start o, a ti'e o, uni>ue a"hie;e'ent$19 7o ma!4
+o""i,e a$*ie!'e" "ta!* to ,e i*e!tiGe* ,4 t(i" a++ea o% t(e
,or'er Se"retary7General o, the Dnite# <ations ,or t(e HKo,H o% H*eveo+me!t.H To
t(e ea*er" o% t(e ;or* i" ma*e t(e +ea to revitai>e eQort"
to;ar* the i'4le'entation o, *eveo+me!t i!itiative"$ )o the #oubters o, the
%#e;elo4'ent% 4roBe"t is 'a#e the reassuran"e that no6 #es4ite the %'any u4s an# #o6ns% the s4irit
an# ;ision o, #e;elo4'ent still rin/s true an# Ar'$ )o hi'sel, an# his sta= o, the #e;elo4'ent7relate#
institutions o, the D< 4erha4s the au#ien"e ,or 6hi"h the state'ent is truly inten#e# is 'a#e the
reassertion that this 6or* o, #e;elo4'ent is an i'4ortant one$ T(e4C t(e *eveo+me!t
;or<er"C (ave t(e (i"tori' roe o% e!"$ri!1 t(e reai>atio! o%
t(i" vi"io! o% ($ma! +ro1re""C an# so 'u"h ,utility an# e;en ,ailure 'ay be erase# or
,or/otten throu/h a rene6e# "o''it'ent to "arry on 4ersistently 6ith their tas*s$ All this e@4ression o,
an/st an# ho4e is o, "ourse nothin/ ne6$ Li*e a so"ial ritual 4laye# out 6ith "onsistent re/ularity 6e
ha;e be"o'e ,a'iliar 6ith these /atherin/s o, %#e;elo4'entalists% at 6hi"h they a#'inister healthy
'easures o, both a#'onish'ents ,or 4ast ,ailures an# en"oura/e'ents ,or ,uture ho4e$ An# li*e in all
rituals 4ro"esses o, %re'e'berin/% 6hi"h are the 4ubli" ,a"e o, 4ro"ee#in/s are a""o'4anie# by the
e>ually i'4ortant 4ro"esses o, %,or/ettin/$% !e4eate# an# re'e'bere# are the %,ailures% the
"o''it'ents to %hu'anity% the "on#itions o, su=erin/ that are #ee'e# %intolerable% an# the
arti"ulations o, ho4e in ,uture %a"tion$% I/nore# an# ,or/otten are the ;iolen"e o, the ,ailures the
,rau#ulen"e o, the "o''it'ents the 4ro"esses o, in?i"te# su=erin/ #ee'e# ne"essary an# the
arti"ulations o, #es4air about 4ast a"tions$ Still the ritual 4er,or's a re/enerati;e 4ur4ose$ It re"asts ane6
the 4roBe"t o, #e;elo4'ent 6ith all its "i;iliFational i'4ortan"e an# reassures its 4ra"titioners o, their
J
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
histori" 'ission to %or#er% so"iety$ Cut 6hat is the 'essa/e /i;en to the %;i"ti's% o, #e;elo4'ent7those
6ho althou/h inten#e# as the beneA"iaries o, this uni;ersal 4roBe"t ha;e ha# to su=er the %'any ,ailures
an# too ,e6 su""esses% as these rituals are ena"te#R 20 )o the' is 'a#e a 4lea ,or 4atien"e an# a
rearti"ulation o, a ;ision ,or to'orro6$ For the' ho6e;er 4erha4s a #i=erent e@4erien"e o,
#e;elo4'ental ('is)or#erin/s 4ersists one 6hi"h bears a stri*in/ rese'blan"e to the earlier 4hase o,
"olonial or#erin/$ 2hile on"e "olonialis' 6as blatant in its #ehu'aniFin/ o, so"ial relationshi4s
not6ithstan#in/ the "lai's o, the %"i;iliFin/ 'ission% no6 that sa'e *e($ma!i>atio! ta<e"
+a'e $!*er t(e a''e+ta,e i, not #esirable 1$i"e o% 1o,ai>e*
*eveo+me!t. T(e H+oorH (a" 'ome to re+a'e t(e H"ava1e/nati;eK%
the %e@4ert "onsultant% the %'issionaryK% %trainin/ se'inars% 'ass %ba4tiFin/K% the han#4hone in the
4o"*et the "ross on the altar$ Cut so'e thin/s7the ,orei/ner(s #e/ree attire "onsu'er ite's et"$7 #on(t
"han/e$ An# 6hat o, the %"o'4ra#or elites% that ban# o, 'inority 'er"enaries 6ho sy'boliFe# to the
"olonialist all that 6as /oo# about 6hat it 'eant to be the ser;ile %"i;iliFe#% 6ho ser;e# as the ,aith,ul
'outh4ie"es o, the 'asterR )o#ay 'any /o by the na'es o, %/o;ern'ent ,un"tionaries% an#
%entre4reneurs$% #e1e!erate* ,4 t(e"e 'o!tem+orar4 i*eoo1i'a
;ea+o!" o% t(e *e"ire* ($ma! 'o!*itio!C t(e +ro'e""e" o%
or*eri!1 o, "reatin/ or#ers o, inhu'anity 'arr4 o! ;it( vioe!'e i!ta't.
Contrary to assu'4tions o, a la"* o, or#er an# non7in"lusion 'any o, the H'o!*itio!"H o%
($ma! "$Qeri!1 t(at K$"ti%4 *eveo+me!ta i!terve!tio!"R
re"$t %rom a ver4 'o!"i*era,e amo$!t o% or*eri!1 an# ,or"e#
in"lusion$ )ro'e""e" o% or*eri!1 as 'oer'ive 'omma!*C are vi"i,e
i! t(e +er+et$atio! an# e@a"erbation o% %oo* i!"e'$rit4 re"$ti!1 %rom
"tr$'t$re" i!"tit$te* *$ri!1 t(e 'oo!ia +erio* a!* 'arrie*
t(ro$1( to t(e 1o,ai>i!1 +ra'ti'e" o% i!ter!atio!a a1riA
,$"i!e"" (the /lobaliFation o, hun/er)21 the im+a't o% t(e i!va"io! o%
tra!"!atio!a 'or+oratio!" o! t(e e!viro!me!ta a!* "o'ia
%a,ri'R o% 'omm$!itie" (t(e 1o,ai>atio! o% e'o'i*e)22 the so"ietal
#isinte/rationS resultin/ ,ro' stru"tural a#Bust'ent 4oli"ies an# t(e im+erative" o% t(eR
tra!"!atio!a e'o!omi' "4"tem (t(e 1o,ai>atio! o%
im+overi"(me!t)C23 a!* t(e re"$ti!1 *e"tr$'tio! o% "o'ia
*iver"it4 t(ro$1( t(e (omo1e!i>atio! o% %4o4% an# 'o!"$mer
'$t$re (the /lobaliFation o, so"ial alienation)$ T(e"e (ave a 'o!tri,$te* to
t(e mar1i!ai>atio! o% +o+$atio!" %oo;i!1 hal, a "entury o, (vioe!t)
H*eveo+me!t.H24 -o6 'any 'ore %ne6 be/innin/s% o, %#e;elo4'ent% are ne"essary be,ore
the e'bo#ie# %6orl#% that is the result o,S all this or#erin/ is re"o/niFe# as a ,a'iliar one ,ro' earlier
ti'esR A%ter Gve *e'a*e" o% H*eveo+me!t % the ,ollo6in/ #es"ri4tion by FrantF
Fanon o, the 'oo!ia 'o!*itio! "ti ri!1" tr$e o% t(e 'o!tem+orar4
H+o"tA'oo!iaCH H1o,ai>e*H !ei1(,or(oo*C a!* o, its inhabitants5 )he
settler(s to6n is a stron/ly7built to6n all 'a#e o, stone an# steel$ It is a bri/htly7lit to6nK the streets are
"o;ere# 6ith as4halt an# the /arba/e "ans s6allo6 all the lea;in/sS unseen un*no6n an# har#ly
thou/ht about$ )he settler(s ,eet are ne;er ;isible e@"e4t 4erha4s in the seaK but there you(re ne;er "lose
enou/h to see the'$ -is ,eet are 4rote"te# byS stron/ shoes althou/h the streets o, his to6n are "lean an#
e;en 6ith no holes or stones$ )he settler(s to6n is a 6ell7,e# to6n an easy7/oin/ to6nK its belly is al6ays
,ull o, /oo# thin/s$$$$ )he to6n belon/in/ to the "oloniFe# 4eo4le or at least the nati;e to6n $ $ $ is a 4la"e
o, ill ,a'e 4eo4le# by 'en o, e;il re4ute$ )hey are born there it 'atters little 6here or ho6K they #ie
there it 'atters not 6here nor ho6$ It is a 6orl# 6ithout s4a"iousnessK 'en li;e there on to4 o, ea"h
other an# their huts are built one on to4 o, the other$ )he nati;e to6n is a hun/ry to6n star;e# o, brea#
o, 'eat o, shoes o, "oal o, li/ht$ )he nati;e to6n is a "rou"hin/ ;illa/e a to6n on its *nees a to6n
6allo6in/ in the 'ire$ It is a to6n o, ni//ers an# #irty arabs$ )he loo* that the nati;e turns on the settler(s
to6n is a loo* o, lust a loo* o, en;yK it e@4resses his #rea's o, 4ossession7all 'anner o, 4ossession5 to sit
at the settler(s table to slee4 in the settler(s be# 6ith his 6i,e i, 4ossible$ )he "oloniFe# 'an is an en;ious
'an$ An# this the settler *no6s ;ery 6ellK 6hen their /lan"es 'eet he as"ertains bitterly al6ays on the
#e,ensi;e %)hey 6ant to ta*e our 4la"e$% It is true ,or t(ere i" !o !ative ;(o *oe"
1
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
!ot *ream at ea"t o!'e a *a4 o% "etti!1 (im"e% $+ i! t(e
"etterF" +a'e $2H
C@AN.IN. LA07 AND )B8LIC )OLICIE7 0ILL NOT C@AN.E OB#
O#IENTATION TO0A#D7 OCEAN7. 0E ?B7T FI#7T #EAE&ALBATE
AND C@AN.E:DE&ELO) OB# #ELATION7@I) 0IT@ OCEAN7 AND
OT@E# #E7OB#CE7 8EFO#E 0E CAN C#EATE ANY )B8LIC
)OLICY T@AT ENCOB#A.E7 INTE#ACTION7 0IT@ T@E OCEAN.
8Y )A#TICI)ATIN. IN E)I7TE?IC DI7O8EDIENCE
?i1!oo 2==- M2alter D$ +i/nolo 0ro,essor o, Cultural Stu#ies at Du*e Dni;ersity CitiFenshi4
Kno6le#/e an# the Li'its o, -u'anity A'eri"an Literary -istory 11$2 (200I) 3127331P
I 6ill #es"ribe the ;eile# "onne"tions as the lo/i" o, "oloniality an# the sur,a"e that "o;ers it I 6ill #es"ribe
as the rhetori" o, 'o#ernity$ T(e r(etori' o% mo*er!it4 i" t(at o% "avatio!C
;(erea" t(e o1i' o% 'oo!iait4 i" a o1i' o% im+eria
o++re""io!. T(e4 1o (a!* i! (a!*C a!* 4o$ 'a!!ot (ave
mo*er!it4 ;it(o$t 'oo!iait4K the unAnishe# 4roBe"t o, 'o#ernity "arries o;er its
shoul#ers the unAnishe# 4roBe"t o, "oloniality$ I 6ill "on"lu#e by su//estin/ the nee# to #e"oloniFe
%*no6le#/e% an# %bein/% an# a#;o"atin/ that the (#e"olonial) %hu'anities% shall ha;e a ,un#a'ental role
to 4lay in this 4ro"ess$ )ruly %/lobal "itiFenshi4% i'4lies o;er"o'in/ the i'4erial an# "olonial #i=eren"es
that ha;e 'a44e# an# "ontinue to 'a4 /lobal ra"is' an# /lobal 4atriar"hy$ C(a!1i!1 t(e a;
a!* +$,i' +oi'ie" ;o!Ft ,e o% m$'( (e+ i! t(i" +ro'e"". 0(at
i" !ee*e* i" t(at t(o"e ;(o '(a!1e t(e a; a!* +$,i' +oi'4
'(a!1e t(em"eve"$ )he 4roble' is ho6 that 'ay ta*e 4la"e i, 6e 6oul# li*e to a;oi#
the 'issionary Feal ,or "on;ersionK t(e i,era a!* !eoi,era ,eie% i! t(e
tri$m+(a mar'( o% 0e"ter! 'ivii>atio! a!* o% mar<et
*emo'ra'4K an# the 'oral i'4erati;es an# ,or"e# beha;ior i'4ose# by so"ialis'$ As I #o not
belie;e in a ne6 abstra"t uni;ersal that 6ill be /oo# ,or the entire 6orl# t(e L$e"tio! i" (o;
+eo+e 'a! '(a!1e t(eir ,eie% t(at t(e ;or* to*a4 i" i<e it i"
a!* t(at it ;i ,e o!4 t(ro$1( t(e H(o!e"tH +roKe't" o%
C(ri"tia!"C i,era"C a!* ?arxi"tA"o'iai"t" t(at t(e ;or* 'o$*
,e ,etter %or aC a!* 'iti>e!"(i+ ;i ,e a ,e!e*i'tio! %or a.
T(e '(a!1e" I am t(i!<i!1 a,o$t are ra*i'a tra!"%ormatio!" i!
t(e !at$rai>e* a""$m+tio!" o% t(e ;or* or*er. )he naturaliFe#
assu'4tions I a' thin*in/ about are i'4erialT"olonial an# they ha;e sha4e# the 6orl# in 6hi"h 6e li;e in
the 4ast A;e hun#re# years 6hen Christianity an# "a4italis' "a'e to/ether an# "reate# the "on#itions ,or
the sel,7,ashione# narrati;e o, %'o#ernity$% -en"e t(e tra!"%ormatio!" I a' thin*in/ about
reL$ire a! e+i"temi' *e'oo!ia "(i%t. Not a H!e;CH a H+o"tCH or
a H!eoCH ;(i'( are a '(a!1e" ;it(i! t(e "ame mo*er! 'oo!ia
e+i"temoo14C ,$t a decolonial (an# not either a %#e"onstru"tion%) ;(i'(
mea!" a *ei!<i!1 %rom t(e r$e" o% t(e 1ame (e$/$ the #e"oloniFation o,
the 'in# in </u/i 2a )h(ion/o(s ;o"abulary) in 6hi"h #e"onstru"tion itsel, an# all the %4osts7% ,or sure are
"au/ht$ Dei!<i!1 *oe"!Ft mea! to ,e Ho$t"i*eH o% eit(er
mo*er!it4 or C(ri"tia!C Li,eraC Ca+itai"tC a!* ?arxi"t
(e1emo!4 ,$t to *i"e!1a1e %rom t(e !at$rai>e* a""$m+tio!"
t(at ma<e o% t(e"e %o$r ma'ro!arrative" %une 4ensee uni>ue% to use I/na"io
!a'onet(s e@4ression$2 T(e *e'oo!ia "(i%t ,e1i!" ,4 $!veii!1 t(e
im+eria +re"$++o"itio!" t(at mai!tai! a $!iver"a i*ea o%
9
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
($ma!it4 a!* o% ($ma! ,ei!1 t(at "erve" a" a mo*e a!* +oi!t
o% arriva an# by "onstantly un#ers"orin/ the ,a"t that o44resse# an# ra"ialiFe# subBe"ts #o not "are
an# are not A/htin/ ,or %hu'an ri/hts% (base# on an i'4erial i#ea o, hu'anity) but to re/ain the %hu'an
#i/nity% (base# on a #e"olonial i#ea o, hu'anity) that has an# "ontinues to be ta*en a6ay ,ro' the' by
the i'4erial rhetori" o, 'o#ernity (e$/$ 6hite Euro"entere# heterose@ual an# Christian/se"ular)$
)LAN: T@E BNITED 7TATE7 FEDE#AL .O&E#N?ENT 7@OBLD
7B87TANTIALLY DE&ELO) IT7 EE)LO#ATION OF T@E OCEAN
0E ?B7T EE)LO#E E&E#Y IN7TANCE OF COLONIAL
EE)LO#ATION T@#OB.@ @I7TO#ICAL ANALY7I7 IN O#DE# TO
EN.A.E IN A DEACOLONIAL T@IN9IN. T@AT 7@IFT7 T@E 0AY
0E EN.A.E 0IT@ #EAL 0O#LD I77BE7. T@I7 E)I7TE?IC
DI7O8EDIENCE ALLO07 A #EF#AI?IN. OF INTE#ACTION 0IT@
T@E OCEAN.
?i1!oo (0ro,essor o, Literature in Du*e Dni;ersity Joint A44oint'ents in Cultural Anthro4olo/y an#
!o'an"e Stu#ies) 2=12
2alter NE4iste'i" Disobe#ien"e an# the De"olonial &4tion5 A
+ani,estoO )rans'o#ernity5 Journal o, 0eri4heral Cultural 0ro#u"tion o, the Luso7-is4ani" 2orl# I27
I3 <D2 //DDI13
2e "oul# "ontinue the ar/u'ent by in"lu#in/ +ahat'a Gan#hi a'on/ the A/ures 6ho are "entral to the
#e"olonial turn$ )o 'ention hi' here is i'4ortant ,or the ,ollo6in/ reason5 Cu/oano an# Gan#hi are unite#
at #istin"t 4oints on the 4lanet by the Critish E'4ire$ 2a'an 0u'a an# Cu/oano are unite# by the
"ontinuity o, 2estern Euro4ean i'4erialis's in A'eri"a$ 2e "oul# "ontinue 6ith FrantF Fanon an# "onne"t
hi' to Cu/oano throu/h the i'4erial 6oun# o, the A,ri"ans an# also throu/h the i'4erial "o'4li"ity
bet6een S4ain En/lan# an# Fran"e (in s4ite o, their i'4erial "on?i"ts)$ 2ith this I 6oul# li*e to hi/hli/ht
the ,ollo6in/5 t(e 1e!eao14 o% *e'oo!ia t(i!<i!1 i" "tr$'t$re* i!
t(e +a!etar4 "+a'e o% 'oo!ia:im+eria ex+a!"io! 'o!trar4 to
t(e 1e!eao14 o% E$ro+ea! mo*er!it4 t(at i" "tr$'t$re* i! t(e
tem+ora traKe'tor4 o% a re*$'e* "+a'e ,ro' Gree"e to !o'e to 2estern
Euro4e an# to the Dnite# States$ T(e 'ommo! eeme!t ,et;ee! 0ama!
)$maC C$1oa!oC .a!*(iC a!* Fa!o! i" t(e ;o$!* i!Si'te* ,4
t(e 'oo!ia *iQere!'e (e$/$ t(e 'oo!ia ;o$!* )$ T(e *e'oo!ia
t$r! (i.e.C t(e e+i"temi' *i"o,e*ie!'e ) o, 2a'an 0u'a an# o, Cu/oano too<
+a'e o! t(e (ori>o! o% mo!ar'(ie"C +rior to t(e emer1e!'e o%
t(e mo*er! (bour/eois) "tate a!* the e'er/en"e o, the three se"ular im+eria
i*eoo1ie": "onser;atis' liberalis' an# so"ialis'/+ar@is'$2J T(e4 o+e!e* $+ t(e
*e'oo!ia o+tio! a!* o! t(e (ori>o! o% ,ot(C t(eoo14 ;a" t(e
L$ee! o% <!o;e*1e$ A se"on# 4art o, this 'ani,esto (in 4ro/ress) e@4lores the #e"olonial
horiFon (Gan#hi Cabral Du Cois Fanon AnFal#Ua In#i/enous so"ial 'o;e'ents in Coli;ia an# E"ua#or
A,ro so"ial 'o;e'ents in Colo'bia an# E"ua#or the 2orl# So"ial Foru' an# the So"ial Foru' o, the
A'eri"as et"$) on the horiFon o, the i'4erial 'o#ern state$ T(e 1e!eao14 o%
*e'oo!ia t(i!<i!1 i" +$riAver"a (not uni7;ersal)$ As su"h ea'( <!ot o!
t(e ;e, o% t(i" 1e!eao14 i" a +oi!t o% *eAi!<i!1 a!* o+e!i!1
t(at reAi!tro*$'e" a!1$a1e"C memorie"C e'o!omie"C "o'ia
or1a!i>atio!"C a!* at least #ouble "$,Ke'tivitie" 5 t(e "+e!*or a!* t(e
mi"erie" o% t(e im+eria e1a'4C a!* t(e i!*ei,e %oot+ri!t o%
;(at exi"te* t(at (a" ,ee! 'o!verte* i!to t(e 'oo!ia ;o$!*M
i! t(e *e1ra*atio! o% ($ma!it4C i! t(e i!%eriorit4 o% t(e
+a1a!"C t(e +rimitive"C t(e $!*erA*eveo+e*C t(e !o!A
10
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
*emo'rati'. O$r +re"e!t "it$atio! as*s *ema!*" a *e'oo!ia
t(i!<i!1 t(at arti'$ate" 1e!eao1ie" "'attere* t(ro$1(o$t t(e
+a!et a!* oQer" Oot(erP e'o!omi'C +oiti'aC "o'iaC "$,Ke'tive
mo*aitie"$ )his 4ro"ess is in 4ro/ress an# 6e see it e;ery #ay in s4ite o, the ba# ne6s that
arri;es ,ro' the +i##le East ,ro' In#onesia ,ro' Katrina an# ,ro' the interior 6ar in 2ashin/ton$
ACT7 OF E)I7TE?IC DI7O8EDIENCE BNCO&E# T@E IN&I7I8LE
&OILENCE OF ?ODE#NITY AND C#EATE 7)ACE FO#
ALTE#NATI&E )E#7)ECTI&E7 AND ET@ICAL EN.A.E?ENT.
8EFO#E 0E DI#ECTLY EN.A.E 0IT@ OCEAN7 0E ?B7T
7ITBATE OB#7EL&E7 ET@ICALLY.
?i1!oo (0ro,essor o, Literature in Du*e Dni;ersity Joint A44oint'ents in Cultural Anthro4olo/y an#
!o'an"e Stu#ies 2alter NE4iste'i" Disobe#ien"e an# the De"olonial &4tion5 A +ani,estoO
)rans'o#ernity5 Journal o, 0eri4heral Cultural 0ro#u"tion o, the Luso7-is4ani" 2orl# 4H74I <D2 //DDI13)
2=12
Cut the basi" ,or'ulation o, #e"olonial #elin*in/ (e$/$ #es4ren#i'iento) 6as a#;an"e# by AnVbal WuiBano
in his /roun#7brea*in/ arti"le NColoniali#a# y 'o#erni#a#/ra"ionali#a#O (1991) MColoniality an#
'o#ernity/rationalityP$ )he ar/u'ent 6as that on the one han# a! a!a4ti' o% t(e imit"
o% E$ro'e!tri"m (a" a (e1emo!i' "tr$'t$re o% <!o;e*1e a!*
,eie%") i" !ee*e* $ Cut that analyti" 6as "onsi#ere# ne"essary rather
than su."ient$ It 6as ne"essary WuiBano asserte# N#es4ren#erse #e las ;in"ula"iones #e
la ra"ionali#a#7'o#erni#a# "on la "oloniali#a# en 4ri'er tXr'ino y en #eAniti;a "on to#o 4o#er no
"onstitui#o en la #e"isiYn libre #e /entes libresO NIt i" !e'e""ar4 to extri'ate
o!e"e% %rom t(e i!<a1e" ,et;ee! ratio!ait4:mo*er!it4 a!*
'oo!iait4 Arst o, all a!* #eAnitely %rom a +o;er ;(i'( i" !ot
'o!"tit$te* ,4 %ree *e'i"io!" 'a#e by ,ree 4eo4leOP$4 NDes4ren#erseO 'eans
e4iste'i" #e7lin*in/ or in other 6or#s e4iste'i" #isobe#ien"e$ E+i"temi' *i"o,e*ie!'e
ea*" $" to *e'oo!ia o+tio!" a" a "et o% +roKe't" t(at (ave i!
'ommo! t(e eQe't" ex+erie!'e* ,4 a t(e i!(a,ita!t" o% t(e
1o,e t(at ;ere at t(e re'eivi!1 e!* o% 1o,a *e"i1!" to
'oo!i>e t(e e'o!om4 (a++ro+riatio! o% a!* a!* !at$ra
re"o$r'e")C a$t(orit4 ('ana/e'ent by the +onar"h the State or the Chur"h) a!*
+oi'e a!* miitar4 e!%or'eme!t ("oloniality o, 4o6er) to 'oo!i>e
<!o;e*1e" (a!1$a1e"C 'ate1orie" o% t(o$1(t"C ,eie%
"4"tem"C et'.) a!* ,ei!1" (subBe"ti;ity)$ N Dei!<i!1P i" then !e'e""ar4
,e'a$"e t(ere i" !o ;a4 o$t o% t(e 'oo!iait4 o% +o;er %rom
;it(i! 0e"ter! (Gree* an# Latin) "ate/ories o, t(o$1(t$ Conse>uently *eAi!<i!1
im+ie" e+i"temi' *i"o,e*ie!'e rather than the "onstant sear"h ,or Nne6nessO (e$/$
as i, +i"hel Fou"aultLs "on"e4t o, ra"is' an# 4o6er 6ere NbetterO or 'ore Na44ro4riateO be"ause they are
Nne6erOZthat is 4ost7'o#ernZ6ithin the "hronolo/i"al history or ar"haeolo/y o, Euro4ean i#eas)$
E+i"temi' *i"o,e*ie!'e ta<e" $" to a #i=erent 4la"e to a *iQere!t
O,e1i!!i!1O (not in Gree"e but in the res4onses to the N"on>uest an# "oloniFationO o, A'eri"a
an# the 'assi;e tra#e o, ensla;e# A,ri"ans) to "+atia "ite" o% "tr$11e" a!*
,$i*i!1 rather than to a ne6 te'4orality ;it(i! t(e "ame "+a'e (,ro' Gree"e to
!o'e to 0aris to Lon#on to 2ashin/ton DC)$ I 6ill e@4lore the o4enin/ u4 o, these s4a"esZthe s4atial
4ara#i/'ati" brea*s o, e4iste'i" #isobe#ien"eZin 2a'an 0u'a #e Ayala an# &ttabah Cu/oano$ )he
basi" ar/u'ent (al'ost a syllo/is') that I 6ill #e;elo4 here is the ,ollo6in/5 i% 'oo!iait4 i"
'o!"tit$tive o% mo*er!it4 sin"e the sal;ationist rhetori" o, 'o#ernity 4resu44oses the
o44ressi;e an# "on#e'natory lo/i" o, "oloniality (,ro' there "o'e the #a'nXs o, Fanon) t(e! t(i"
11
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
o++re""ive o1i' +ro*$'e" a! e!er14 o% *i"'o!te!tC o% *i"tr$"tC
o% reea"e ;it(i! t(o"e ;(o rea't a1ai!"t im+eria vioe!'e.
T(i" e!er14 i" tra!"ate* i!to *e'oo!ia +roKe't" that as a last resort
are also "onstituti;e o, 'o#ernity$ ?o*er!it4 i" a t(reeA(ea*e* (4*ra eve!
t(o$1( it o!4 revea" o!e (ea*: t(e r(etori' o% "avatio! a!*
+ro1re""$ Coo!iait4 o!e o% ;(o"e %a'et" i" +overt4 an# the
4ro4a/ation o, AIDS in A,ri"a *oe" !ot a++ear i! t(e r(etori' o% mo*er!it4
a" it" !e'e""ar4 'o$!ter+artC ,$t rat(er a" "omet(i!1 t(at
ema!ate" %rom it. For exam+e t(e ?ie!!i$m )a! o, the Dnite#
<ations hea#e# by KoA Anan a!* t(e Eart( I!"tit$te at Colu'bia Dni;ersity hea#e# by
Je=rey Sa"hs ;or< i! 'oa,oratio! to e!* +overt4 (as the title o, Sa"hLs boo*
announ"es)$H Cut 6hile t(e4 L$e"tio! t(e $!%ort$!ate 'o!"eL$e!'e" o%
mo*er!it4 !ever %or a mome!t i" t(e i*eoo14 o% mo*er!it4 or
t(e ,a'< +it" t(at (i*e it" r(etori' ever L$e"tio!e*5 the
"onse>uen"es o, the ;ery nature o, the "a4italist e"ono'yZby 6hi"h
su"h i#eolo/y is su44orte#Zin its ;arious ,a"ets sin"e the 'er"antilis' o, the si@teenth "entury ,ree
tra#e o, the ,ollo6in/ "enturies the In#ustrial !e;olution o, the nineteenth "entury an# the te"hnolo/i"al
re;olution o, the t6entieth "entury$ &n the other han# #es4ite all the #ebate in the 'e#ia about the 6ar
a/ainst terroris' on one si#e an# all ty4es o, u4risin/s o, 4rotests an# so"ial 'o;e'ents it is ne;er
su//este# that t(e o1i' o% 'oo!iait4 that (i*e" ,e!eat( t(e r(etori'
o% mo*er!it4 !e'e""ari4 1e!erate" t(e irre*$'i,e e!er14 o%
($miiate*C viiGe*C %or1otte!C or mar1i!ai>e* ($ma! ,ei!1".
De'oo!iait4 i" there,ore t(e e!er14 t(at *oe" !ot ao; t(e
o+eratio! o% t(e o1i' o% 'oo!iait4 !or ,eieve" t(e %air4 tae"
o% t(e r(etori' o% mo*er!it4$ )here,ore *e'oo!iait4 (a" a varie*
ra!1e o% ma!i%e"tatio!"Zso'e un#esirable su"h as those that 2ashin/ton to#ay
#es"ribes as NterroristsOZa!* *e'oo!ia t(i!<i!1 i"C then t(i!<i!1 t(at
*eAi!<" a!* o+e!" (#e7lin*in/ an# o4enin/ in the title "o'e ,ro' here) to t(e
+o""i,iitie" (i**e! ("oloniFe# an# #is"re#ite# su"h as the tra#itional barbarian 4ri'iti;e
'ysti" et"$) ,4 t(e mo*er! ratio!ait4 that is 'ounte# an# e!'o"e* ,4
'ate1orie" o% Gree* Latin an# the si@ 'o#ern im+eria E$ro+ea! a!1$a1e".
12
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
2AC Ext: Coo!iai"m #oot
Ca$"e o% &ioe!'e
EE)#O)#IATION LEAD7 TO &IOLENCEC @I7TO#Y )#O&E7
7ar1e"o! 11/J/13
(N[iolen"e as De;elo4'ent5 lan# e@4ro4riation an# ChinaLs urbaniFationO
Sally Sar/eson in#e4en#ent 6riter ,o"use# on Chinese history 6ith 2 other 4ubli"ations J <o;e'ber
2013 A""esse# on I/2H/14 htt45//asia4a"iA"$anu$e#u$au/"a47e;ents/201371170J/;iolen"e7#e;elo4'ent7
lan#7e@4ro4riation7an#7"hinaLs7urbaniFation\$DI4B]ha4>a/J2-)
Ex+a!atio!" o% t(e vioe!'e o''$rri!1 *$ri!1 a!*
ex+ro+riatio! i! C(i!a +re*omi!a!t4 'e!tre o! 'om+eti!1
a'tor"N eQort" to 'a+t$reC re*i"tri,$te or *e%e!* i!'ome %rom
a!* *eveo+me!tC or vioe!'e a" a *iQere!tiator o% +oiti'a
e'oo14 a!* a 'ata4"t o% via1er"N +oiti'i>atio!. T(e"e
ex+a!atio!" a""$me a) instru'ental anta/onis' bet6een rational unitary "olle"ti;e a"tors
an# b) t(at vioe!'e i" o% imite* tem+ora *$ratio! a!* "+atia a!*
"o'ia rea'(.R To 'o!'e+t$ai>e vioe!'e i! a ;a4 t(at i" !ot
"oe4 i!"tr$me!taC or e+i+(e!ome!a a!* *i"'rete I buil# on
Es"obarLs 4ro4osition that ;iolen"e is "onstituti;e o, #e;elo4'ent to ar/ue ,or an alternati;e ;ie65
[iolen"e authoriFes an# "onstitutes an in"lusi;e on/oin/ 4roBe"t o, urban #e;elo4'ent in China$ It
authoriFes #e;elo4'ent be"ause the rural s4a"es surroun#in/ urban "entres are "hara"teriFe# as
institutionally inse"ure #isor#erly e"ono'i"ally un#er74ro#u"ti;e an# in"o'4atible 6ith urban 'o#ernity.
It 'o!"tit$te" *eveo+me!tC ,e'a$"e it i!vove" a! i*eoo14 o%
$r,a! im+roveme!tC t(e 1over!me!tA*ire'te* tra!"%ormatio!
o% +ro+ert4 ri1(t" a!* a!* $"eC t(e reor1a!i>atio! o%
1over!i!1 or1a!i>atio!" a!* '(a!1e" i! via1er"N +oiti'a a!*
e'o!omi' "$,Ke'tivit4. T(e 'o!'$*i!1 "e'tio! o% t(e "emi!ar
,rieS4 *emo!"trate" t(e 1e!erai>a,iit4 a!* a!a4ti'a a!*
met(o*oo1i'a $tiit4 o% t(e 'o!'e+t o% vioe!'e a"
*eveo+me!t ,4 a++4i!1 it to t(ree Tmo"t *iQere!tN 'a"e" o%
a!* ex+ro+riatio! i! C(i!a: 0$<a! a!* t(e T$r,a! via1e" o%
.$a!1>(o$C i! .$a!1*o!1 +rovi!'eC a!* U(eKia!1N" To!1xia!1
COLONIALITY EN7B#E7 A )A#ADI.? OF &IOLENCE
AND 0A#. T@I7 &IOLENT NATB#E OF
COLONIALITY C#EATE7 A NE&E# ENDIN.
O))#E7I&E B7AT@E? DIC@OTO?Y.
<elson ?a*o!a*oATorre" asso"iate 4ro,essor o, "o'4arati;e literature at
!ut/ers T/ MAgainst War: Views from the Underside of Modernity 4$ 23J71P //DDI13
13
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
In this 6or* I ha;e atte'4te# to 'a*e e@4li"it the subtle "o'4li"ities bet6een #o'inant e4iste'olo/i"al an#
anthro4olo/i"al i#eals an# the e@er"ise o, ;iolen"e$ )he 6or*s o, Le;inas Fanon an# Dussel o44ose 6hat I ha;e
'ae* a +ara*i1m o% vioe!'e a!* ;ar$ )his #o'inant 4ara#i/' i"
'(ara'teri>e* ,4 ma<i!1 i!vi"i,e or i!"i1!iG'a!t t(e
'o!"tit$tive %or'e o% i!ter ($ma! 'o!ta't %or t(e %ormatio! o%
"$,Ke'tivit4C o% <!o;e*1eC a!* o% ($ma! reait4 i! 1e!era$
T(e reatio! ;it( o,Ke't" C ;(et(er +ra'ti'a or t(eoreti'aC
ta<e" +rima'4 over t(e reatio! ,et;ee! ($ma! ,ei!1"$ T(e
Gr"t motivatio! %or t(i" ;a4 o% t(i!<i!1 i" to attai! <!o;e*1eC
tr$t(C 'om+re(e!"io!C or a*eL$ate $!*er"ta!*i!1$ T(e "e% i"
t(ere,4 ta<e! to ,e +rimari4 a mo!a*C a tra!"'e!*e!ta e1oC
or a! a$to!omo$" a!* %ree ($ma! ,ei!1 %or ;(om t(e reatio!
;it( t(e Ot(er te!*" to re+re"e!t o!4 a! $!*e"ira,e *eto$r
i! t(e +roKe't o% a*eL$ate4 re+re"e!ti!1 t(e ;or*$ T(e "e%
,e'ome" aer1i' to t(e Ot(er C a!* t(e i!ter"$,Ke'tive 'o!ta't
i" t(e! a''o$!te* %or eit(er i! e+i"temoo1i'a 'ate1orie" or i!
'o!'e+t" tie* to a t(eoreti'a a++roa'($ T(i" +(io"o+(i'a
a!t(ro+oo14 e!*" $+ e1itimati!1 t(e "$+eriorit4 o% t(eor4
over +raxi" a!* 'o!tem+atio! over i,eratio!$ &ne o, 'y "entral 4oints is that
o!'e a 'ivii>atio! ,e1i!" to 'o!'eive t(e ($ma!it4 o% t(e ($ma! i!
t(e"e term" it ;i eit(er 'ommit vioe!'e ;it( 1oo* 'o!"'ie!'eC
G!* it"e% i!'a+a,e o% o++o"i!1 vioe!'e C or e1itimi>e i*ea"
o% +ea'e t(at are 'om+i'it ;it( vioe!'e$ I tra"e #o'inant the'es surroun#in/ the
#is"ussion o, the "risis or so7"alle# 'alaise o, Euro4e ba"* to the alle/ian"e o, 2estern "i;iliFation to 4ra"ti"es that obey
the lo/i"s o4ene# u4 by a "<e;e* vi"io! o% t(e ($ma!$ Su"h a ;ision 'om,i!e"
'aim" %or a$to!om4 a!* %ree*om ;it( t(e +ro*$'tio! o% t(e
'oor i!e or t(e "4"temati' *iQere!tiatio! ,et;ee! 1ro$+"
ta<e! a" t(e !orm o% t(e ($ma! a!* ot(er" "ee! a" t(e
ex'e+tio! to it. T(e "oA'ae* *i"'over4 o% t(e Ne; 0or*
,e'ame a 'r$'ia +oi!t i! t(e e"ta,i"(me!t o% t(i" vi"io!: it
orie!te* 0e"ter! ($ma!i"m i! a ra*i'a4 *e($ma!i>i!1
*ire'tio!$ Fro' then on 0e"ter! ($ma!i"m ar1$e* %or t(e 1or4 o%
?a! a!* t(e mi"er4 o% +arti'$ar 1ro$+" o% ($ma! ,ei!1"
"im$ta!eo$"4$ In#ee# ?a! ,e'ame t(e mo"t 1orio$" a" (e ;a"
a,e to 'aim reative i!*e+e!*e!'e %rom .o* a!* "$+eriorit4
over t(e "$++o"e*4 e"" t(a! ($ma! ot(er" at t(e "ame time.
T(e reatio!"(i+ ,et;ee! (im+eria) ?a! a!* .o* (a" ,ee!
am,i1$o$" %or t(e mo"t +artC ,$t !ot "o t(e reatio! ,et;ee!
?a! a!* (i" i!%erior "$,Aot(er". It i" a" i% t(e +ro*$'tio! o% t(e
H e"" t(a! ($ma! H %$!'tio!e* a" t(e a!'(or o% a +ro'e"" o%
a$to!om4 a!* "e%Aa""ertio!$ T(e +ara*i1m o% ;ar at Arst re"on"ile# to
an# to so'e e@tent 4ro'ote# by i'4erial Christen#o' e1itimate" ;ar a1ai!"t .o*C
!at$reC a!*C +arti'$ar4C t(e e"" t(a! ($ma! ot(er"$ )he relationshi4
6ith Go# an# nature ho6e;er "an ;ary$ 0(at t4+i'a4 remai!" 'o!"ta!t %or t(e
;arri!1 +ara*i1m i" t(e a""ertio! o% t(e 'oor i!e$ T(e
*i"ti!'tio! ,et;ee! .o*C ?a!C a!* t(e !o!A($ma! +re'e*e"
t(e re*$'tio! o% "$,Ke'tivit4 to a totait4 or it" !at$rai>atio!.
14
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
A!* it ;a" t(e 'oo!i>e* a!* t(e mo*er! "ave ;(o
ex+erie!'e* t(e "4"temati' !e1atio! o% (er a!* (i"
"$,Ke'tivit4C o!1 ,e%ore +o"itivi"mC !at$rai"mC or
+(io"o+(ie" o% (i"tor4 "$,"$me* "$,Ke'tivit4 i! ar1er
%rame;or<" or a!o!4mo$" me'(a!i"m". I! mo*er!it4C t(e
ra'iai>e* ot(er" ta<e t(e +a'e o% e!emie" i! a +er+et$a ;ar
o$t o% ;(i'( mo*er! i*ea" o% %ree*om a!* a$to!om4 1et t(eir
+ro+er "e!"e . T(i" i" t(e %o$!*atio! o% mo*er!it4 a" a
+ara*i1m o% ;ar a!* t(e "o$r'e o% ma!4 o% it" +at(oo1ie"C
'ri"e"C a!* evi" .
1H
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
2AC Ext: #(etori' )ro'ee*"
A'tio!
#@ETO#IC I7 9EY TO ACTION. #@ETO#IC INFLBENCE7
T@E DECI7ION7 T@AT A#E ?ADE 8Y
IDNI&IDBAL7. 8Y BNDE#7TANDIN. T@E
E)I7TO?OLO.Y OF T@E ?ODE#NC 0E CAN
LEA#N @O0 TO CO?8AT OB# CB##ENT
IDEALO.Y T@AT IB7TIFIE7 COLONIALI7?.
.ro"%o1$e i! 2==3 M!a'on asso"iate 4ro,essor in the #e4art'ent o, ethni" stu#ies at the
uni;ersity o, Cali,ornia at Cer*eley Criti"al GlobaliFation Stu#ies e#ite# by !i"har# A44elbau' an# 2illia'
!obinson 211719 P
So ,ar t(e (i"tor4 o% t(e mo*er!V"olonial "a4italist 4atriar"hal ;or*A"4"tem
(a" +rivie1e* t(e "ulture *no6le#/e an# e+i"temoo14 +ro*$'e* ,4
t(e 0e"t (S4i;a* 1911K +i/nolo 2000)$ <o "ulture in the 6orl# re'aine# untou"he# by Euro4ean
'o#ernity$ )here is no absolute outsi#e to this syste'$ T(e 'onolo/is' an# mo!oAto+i'
1o,a *e"i1! o% t(e 0e"t reate" to ot(er '$t$re" a!* +eo+e"
%rom a +o"itio! o% "$+eriorit4 a!* i" *ea% to;ar* t(e "os'olo/ies an#
e+i"temoo1ie" o% t(e !o!A0e"ter! ;or*. T(e im+o"itio! o%
C(ri"tia!it4 i! or*er to 'o!vert the so7"alle# "ava1e" ^ an# barbarians in the
si@teenth "entury %oo;e* ,4 t(e i'4osition o, %;(ite ma!F" ,$r*e!H a!*
H'ivii>i!1 mi""io!% in the ei/hteenth an# nineteenth "entury t(e im+o"itio! o%
t(e H*eveo+me!tai"t +roKe't% in the t6entieth "entury a!* 'ore re"ently the
i'4erial 4roBe"t o, 'ilitary inter;entions un#er the rhetori" o, #e'o"ra"y an# hu'an
ri/hts in the t6enty7Arst "entury ha;e all been i'4ose# by 'ilitaris' an#
;iolen"e$ )6o res4onses to the Euro"entri" "olonial i'4osition are )hir#
2orl# nationalis's an# ,un#a'entalis's$ <ationalis' 4ro;i#es
Euro"entri" solutions to a Euro"entri" /lobal 4roble'$ It re4ro#u"es an internal
"oloniality o, 4o6er 6ithin ea"h nation7state an# reiAes the nation7state as the 4ri;ile/e# lo"ation o, so"ial
"han/e (Gros,o/uel 199I)$ Stru//les abo;e an# belo6 the nation7state are not
"onsi#ere# in nationalist 4oliti"al strate/ies$ +oreo;er nationalist
res4onses to /lobal "a4italis' rein,or"e the nation7state as the 4oliti"al
institutional ,or' 4er e@"ellen"e o, the 'o#ernZ"olonial "a4italist 4atriar"hal 6orl#7
syste'$ In this sense nationalis' is "o'4li"it 6ith Euro"entri" thin*in/
an# 4oliti"al stru"tures$ &n the other han# )hir# 2orl# ,un#a'entalis's o,
#i=erent *in#s res4on# 6ith an essentialist %4ure outsi#e s4a"e% or
%absolute e@teriority% to 'o#ernity$ )hey are anti'o#ern ,or"es that re4ro#u"e the binary
o44ositions o, Euro"entri" thin*in/$ )hey res4on# to the i'4osition o, Euro"entri" 'o#ernity 6ith an
anti'o#ernity that is as hierar"hi"al authoritarian an# anti#e'o"rati" as the ,or'er$ A 4lausible
solution to the Euro"entri" ;s$ ,un#a'entalist #ile''a is 6hat 2alter
+i/nolo ,ollo6in/ Chi"ana thin*ers su"h as Gloria AnFal#ua (191J) "alls %"riti"al bor#er
1I
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
thin*in/% (+i/nolo 2000)$ Criti"al bor#er thin*in/ is the e4iste'i" res4onse
o, the subaltern to the Euro"entri" 4roBe"t o, 'o#ernity$ Instea# o,
reBe"tin/ the institutions o, 'o#ernity an# retreat into a ,un#a'entalist
absolutis' bor#er e4iste'olo/ies re#eAnes 'o#ernity ,ro' the
"os'olo/ies an# e4iste'olo/ies o, the subaltern lo"ate# in the
o44resse# an# e@4loite# si#e o, the "olonial #i=eren"e$ 2hat bor#er
thin*in/ 4ro#u"es is a re#eAnition o, "itiFenshi4 #e'o"ra"y hu'an
ri/hts an# hu'anity beyon# the narro6 #eAnitions i'4ose# by
Euro4ean 'o#ernity$ Cor#er thin*in/ is not anti'o#ernK it is the
'o#ern res4onse o, the subaltern to Euro"entri" 'o#ernity
1J
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
2AC Ext: At E+i"temi'
Di"o,e*ie!'e
E)I7TE?IC DI7O8EDIENCE I7 A DELIN9IN. )A#ADI.?
T@AT 7E)E#ATE7 INDI&IDBAL7 F#O? COLONIAL
E)I7TO?OLO.Y AND ?ODE#NITY 8Y #EAE&ALBTIN.
@E.E?ONIC #ELATION7@I)7. DELIN9IN. A7 A ?ODE OF
T@IN9IN.C O)EN7 B) &A#IOB7 )O77I8ILITIE7 TO
ET@ICALLY EN.A.E 0IT@ OCEAN7.
?i1!oo (0ro,essor o, Literature in Du*e Dni;ersity Joint A44oint'ents in Cultural
Anthro4olo/y an# !o'an"e Stu#ies) 2=12
2alter NE4iste'i" Disobe#ien"e an# the De"olonial &4tion5 A +ani,estoO
)rans'o#ernity5 Journal o, 0eri4heral Cultural 0ro#u"tion o, the Luso7-is4ani" 2orl#
4H74I <D2 //DDI13
Cut the basi" ,or'ulation o, #e"olonial #elin*in/ (e$/$ #es4ren#i'iento) 6as
a#;an"e# by AnVbal WuiBano in his /roun#7brea*in/ arti"le NColoniali#a# y
'o#erni#a#/ra"ionali#a#O (1991) MColoniality an# 'o#ernity/rationalityP$ )he
ar/u'ent 6as that on the one han# a! a!a4ti' o% t(e imit" o%
E$ro'e!tri"m (as a he/e'oni" stru"ture o, *no6le#/e an# belie,s) i"
!ee*e*$ Cut that analyti" 6as "onsi#ere# ne"essary rather than su."ient. It
;a" !e'e""ar4 WuiBano asserte# N#es4ren#erse #e las ;in"ula"iones #e la
ra"ionali#a#7'o#erni#a# "on la "oloniali#a# en 4ri'er tXr'ino y en #eAniti;a
"on to#o 4o#er no "onstitui#o en la #e"isiYn libre #e /entes libresO MNIt i"
!e'e""ar4 to extri'ate o!e"e% %rom t(e i!<a1e" ,et;ee!
ratio!ait4:mo*er!it4 a!* 'oo!iait4 Arst o, all a!* #eAnitely %rom
a +o;er ;(i'( i" !ot 'o!"tit$te* ,4 %ree *e'i"io!" ma*e ,4 %ree
+eo+eOP$4 NDes4ren#erseO 'eans e4iste'i" #e7lin*in/ or in other 6or#s
e4iste'i" #isobe#ien"e$ E+i"temi' *i"o,e*ie!'e ea*" $" to *e'oo!ia
o+tio!" a" a "et o% +roKe't" t(at (ave i! 'ommo! t(e eQe't"
ex+erie!'e* ,4 a t(e i!(a,ita!t" o% t(e 1o,e t(at ;ere at t(e
re'eivi!1 e!* o% 1o,a *e"i1!" to 'oo!i>e t(e e'o!om4
(a44ro4riation o, lan# an# natural resour"es) a$t(orit4 ('ana/e'ent by the
+onar"h the State or the Chur"h) a!* +oi'e a!* miitar4 e!%or'eme!t
("oloniality o, 4o6er) to 'oo!i>e <!o;e*1e" (lan/ua/es "ate/ories o,
thou/hts belie, syste's et"$) a!* ,ei!1" (subBe"ti;ity)$ NDei!<i!1P i" then
!e'e""ar4 ,e'a$"e t(ere i" !o ;a4 o$t o% t(e 'oo!iait4 o% +o;er
%rom ;it(i! 0e"ter! (Gree* an# Latin) "ate/ories o, t(o$1(t$
Conse>uently *eAi!<i!1 im+ie" e+i"temi' *i"o,e*ie!'e rather than
the "onstant sear"h ,or Nne6nessO (e$/$ as i, +i"hel Fou"aultLs "on"e4t o, ra"is'
an# 4o6er 6ere NbetterO or 'ore Na44ro4riateO be"ause they are Nne6erOZthat
is 4ost7'o#ernZ6ithin the "hronolo/i"al history or ar"haeolo/y o, Euro4ean
i#eas)$ E+i"temi' *i"o,e*ie!'e ta<e" $" to a #i=erent 4la"e to a
*iQere!t O,e1i!!i!1O (not in Gree"e but in the res4onses to the N"on>uest
an# "oloniFationO o, A'eri"a an# the 'assi;e tra#e o, ensla;e# A,ri"ans) to
11
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
"+atia "ite" o% "tr$11e" a!* ,$i*i!1 rather than to a ne6 te'4orality
;it(i! t(e "ame "+a'e (,ro' Gree"e to !o'e to 0aris to Lon#on to
2ashin/ton DC)$ I 6ill e@4lore the o4enin/ u4 o, these s4a"esZthe s4atial
4ara#i/'ati" brea*s o, e4iste'i" #isobe#ien"eZin 2a'an 0u'a #e Ayala an#
&ttabah Cu/oano$ )he basi" ar/u'ent (al'ost a syllo/is') that I 6ill #e;elo4
here is the ,ollo6in/: i% 'oo!iait4 i" 'o!"tit$tive o% mo*er!it4 sin"e
the sal;ationist rhetori" o, 'o#ernity 4resu44oses the o44ressi;e an#
"on#e'natory lo/i" o, "oloniality (,ro' there "o'e the #a'nXs o, Fanon) t(e!
t(i" o++re""ive o1i' +ro*$'e" a! e!er14 o% *i"'o!te!tC o%
*i"tr$"tC o% reea"e ;it(i! t(o"e ;(o rea't a1ai!"t im+eria
vioe!'e. T(i" e!er14 i" tra!"ate* i!to *e'oo!ia +roKe't" that as
a last resort are also "onstituti;e o, 'o#ernity$ ?o*er!it4 i" a t(reeA
(ea*e* (4*ra eve! t(o$1( it o!4 revea" o!e (ea*: t(e r(etori'
o% "avatio! a!* +ro1re""$ Coo!iait4 o!e o% ;(o"e %a'et" i"
+overt4 an# the 4ro4a/ation o, AIDS in A,ri"a *oe" !ot a++ear i! t(e
r(etori' o% mo*er!it4 a" it" !e'e""ar4 'o$!ter+artC ,$t rat(er a"
"omet(i!1 t(at ema!ate" %rom it. For exam+e t(e ?ie!!i$m
)a! o, the Dnite# <ations hea#e# by KoA Anan a!* t(e Eart( I!"tit$te at
Colu'bia Dni;ersity hea#e# by Je=rey Sa"hs ;or< i! 'oa,oratio! to e!*
+overt4 (as the title o, Sa"hLs boo* announ"es)$H Cut 6hile t(e4 L$e"tio!
t(e $!%ort$!ate 'o!"eL$e!'e" o% mo*er!it4 !ever %or a mome!t
i" t(e i*eoo14 o% mo*er!it4 or t(e ,a'< +it" t(at (i*e it"
r(etori' ever L$e"tio!e*5 the "onse>uen"es o, the ;ery nature o, the
"a4italist e"ono'yZby 6hi"h su"h i#eolo/y is su44orte#Zin its ;arious ,a"ets
sin"e the 'er"antilis' o, the si@teenth "entury ,ree tra#e o, the ,ollo6in/
"enturies the In#ustrial !e;olution o, the nineteenth "entury an# the
te"hnolo/i"al re;olution o, the t6entieth "entury$ &n the other han# #es4ite all
the #ebate in the 'e#ia about the 6ar a/ainst terroris' on one si#e an# all
ty4es o, u4risin/s o, 4rotests an# so"ial 'o;e'ents it i" ne;er su//este# that
t(e o1i' o% 'oo!iait4 that (i*e" ,e!eat( t(e r(etori' o%
mo*er!it4 !e'e""ari4 1e!erate" t(e irre*$'i,e e!er14 o%
($miiate*C viiGe*C %or1otte!C or mar1i!ai>e* ($ma! ,ei!1".
De'oo!iait4 i" there,ore t(e e!er14 t(at *oe" !ot ao; t(e
o+eratio! o% t(e o1i' o% 'oo!iait4 !or ,eieve" t(e %air4 tae" o%
t(e r(etori' o% mo*er!it4$ )here,ore *e'oo!iait4 (a" a varie*
ra!1e o% ma!i%e"tatio!"Zso'e un#esirable su"h as those that 2ashin/ton
to#ay #es"ribes as NterroristsOZa!* *e'oo!ia t(i!<i!1 i"C then
t(i!<i!1 t(at *eAi!<" a!* o+e!" (#e7lin*in/ an# o4enin/ in the title "o'e
,ro' here) to t(e +o""i,iitie" (i**e! ("oloniFe# an# #is"re#ite# su"h as
the tra#itional barbarian 4ri'iti;e 'ysti" et"$) ,4 t(e mo*er! ratio!ait4
that is 'ounte# an# e!'o"e* ,4 'ate1orie" o% Gree* Latin an# the si@
'o#ern im+eria E$ro+ea! a!1$a1e".
19
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
2AC Ext: Coo!iai"m #oot
Ca$"e o% .e!o'i*e
C&L&<IALIS+ IS )-E !&&) CADSE &F C&L&<IALIS+$
C&L&<IALIS+ S)!I0S C&DIES &F )-EI! I<)!E<SIC [ALDE
A<D +A!KS )-E+ I< )E!+S &F D)ILA)!IA< 0D!0&SE$
&<CE )-IS 0!&CESS &F DE[ALDA)I&< -AS -A00E<ED
A<D +ADE CE!)AI< C&DIES E]0E<DACLE E])E!+I<A)I&<
&F )-ESE C&DIES IS I<E[I)ACLE$
?i1!oo a!* To"ta!ova 9 M2alter D$ Do"tor o, se'ioti"s an# literary theory 4ro, o,
#e"oloniality at Du*e Dni;ersity +a#ina Do"tor o, literature an# 4ost"olonial stu#ies 4ro,essor at 0eo4leLs
Frien#shi4 Dni;ersity o, !ussia N)i'es ,or re7thin*in/ re7learnin/ an# net6or*in/ February Inter;ie6
htt45//*ristinaboFi"$6or#4ress$"o'/#e"oloniFation7inter;ie6/P
2hat i, any is the #i=eren"e bet6een "oloniFation an# /eno"i#eR 0ro, +i/nolo5 )here is a #i=eren"e
thou/h I ne;er really thou/ht o, it$ )he Arst thin/ that "o'es to 'in# is that 1e!o'i*e i" a
'o!"eL$e!'e o% 'oo!iai"m$ Another >uestion is "an this be "lai'e# ,or all /eno"i#esR 0ro,
)lostano;a5 -olo"aust ,or e@a'4le$ 0ro, +i/nolo5 &oh$ LetLs start the other 6ay roun#$ O!e o% t(e
%eat$re" o% 'oo!iait4 i" it" 'o!!e'tio! to e'o!om4 ,a"e* o!
*i"+e!"a,iit4 o% ($ma! i%eC ;(i'( i" "ee! a" a 'ommo*it4: 4o$ "e
"$1ar or 4o$ "e "ave". .e!o'i*e mea!" ;e *o !ot 'are. T(ere%oreC
1e!o'i*e i" +o""i,e ,e'a$"e 'ertai! ($ma! ive" are *i"+e!"a,e$
Ira>i li;es are 'ore #is4ensable than A'eri"an li;es$ -olo"aust ho6e;er 6as base# on stri44in/ hu'an
li,e o, le/al ri/hts as -annah Aren#t 6rites$ So it 6as not about the #is4ensability o, hu'an li,e in ter's o,
e"ono'y but it 4resente# bareness o, li,e in relation to the state an# la6$ For ;(ite E$ro+ea!
,o$r1eoi"ie C(ri"tia!" t(e rea4 (orri,e +art o% (oo'a$"t ;a" !ot
t(e 'rime it"e% ,$t t(e %a't t(at it ;a" 'ommitte* a1ai!"t ;(ite
+eo+e $"i!1 t(e te'(!iL$e E$ro+e ear!e* i! it" 'oo!ie". E'o!omi'
*i"+e!"a,iit4 o% ($ma! i%e t(at ,$i* t(e "4"tem o% t(e e'o!om4
i,era" a!* ?arxi"t" 'a 'a+itai"m 'ame ,a'< o! t(e eve o% t(e
"tate$ Je6s 6ere internally in,erior$ I 6ill not say that all /eno"i#es ha;e been a "onse>uen"e o,
"oloniality but I 6oul# 'a*e these t6o "onne"tions$ )he thir# one "oul# be !6an#a$ )here
'oo!iai"t"C e"+e'ia4 o% t(e "e'o!* ;ave a%ter t(e E!i1(te!me!t
'reate* t(e i*ea o% !atio!a i*e!tit4. 8e%ore t(ere exi"te*
'omm$!itie" o% %ait(C !ot o% ,irt(. .e!o'i*e t(ere ;a" t(ere%ore a
'o!"eL$e!'e o% 'o!*itio!" 'oo!iai"t" e%t ,e(i!*$ 2e "oul# thin* o, other
/eno"i#es _ -o6 "an 6e thin* StalinLs /eno"i#eR 0ro, )lostano;a5 I 6as Bust thin*in/ about it$ It 6as not
,ra'e# in ra"ial ter's thou/h 'any s"holars to#ay >uestion this$ )hey as* i, StalinLs /eno"i#es 6ere
"onne"te# 6ith 4eo4leLs ethni" ori/ins an# ra"e or only 6ith "lass$ )here 6as no ra"ial #is"ourse in So;iet
Dnion but "ri'es 6ere o,ten "o''itte# on ra"ial /roun#s T nobo#y has e;er 4ut !ussian in Bail ,or
nationalisti" reasons 6hile all other nationals 6ere i'4risone# i, their belie, in the So;iet i#ea 6as not
stron/ enou/h$ I thin* it 6as base# on ra"e althou/h it 6as 'as*e# as a "lass A/ht$ 0ro, +i/nolo5 7o
t(ere i" t(e $!*er4i!1 !otio! o% *i"+e!"a,iit4 o% ($ma! i%e a" a!
e'o!omi' 'ate1or4C ;(ie 1e!o'i*e o! t(e eve o% t(e "tate a"o
i!'$*e" t(e i*ea o% eimi!atio! o% a! e!em4. 8e it @iterN" Ar4a!
"tate or 7tai!N" 'omm$!i"t "tate. 0ro, )lostano;a5 8$t @iter trie* to
20
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
ma<e Ie;" e'o!omi'a4 ef'ie!t a" ;e. I! 'o!'e!tratio! 'am+"
t(ere ;a" t(e ?'Do!a*N" o1i' W ,e%ore Ie;" ;ere <ie* t(e4 too<
ever4t(i!1 o% $"e a!* va$e %rom t(em W 'ot(e"C (airC teet( X 7tai!
ma*e e!emie" ,$i* t(i!1"C "ometime" $"ee"". T(e4 (ave ,$it t(e
?o"'o; 7tate $!iver"it4. 0(at a,o$t t(e 1e!o'i*e a" a too %or era*i'atio! o% '$t$re
or rei1io!Y 0ro, +i/nolo5 I thin* this in in"lu#e# in the notion o, #is4ensability o, the hu'an li,e T be it
or/ans or so'ethin/ else$ A!ot(er t(i!1 i" i% t(e"e are $"e* to +re"e!t t(e
e!em4 4o$ ;a!t to era*i'ate. I"am or t(e 'rimi!a i!"i*e t(e
"o'iet4C or t(e Comm$!i"t" i! t(e B7 *$ri!1 t(e Co* 0ar. T(ere
"eem to ,e t;o t4+e" o% 1e!o'i*e W o!e motivate* ,4 e'o!omi'" W
a!* (ere ;e *o !ot (ave t(e !otio! o% a! e!em4 X it i" K$"t a too.
0ro, )lostano;a5 Qou #o not *ill on 4ur4ose it is a "onse>uen"e o, use$ 0ro, +i/nolo5 Qes you ha;e a horse
to 6or* or you ha;e a sla;e to 6or*$ -e is not your ene'y T on the "ontrary it is use,ul T it is a tool$ Qou
buy it sell it use it$ A #i=erent *in# o, /eno"i#e is 6hen you ha;e to era#i"ate$ -o6e;er era#i"ation #oes
not ne"essarily i'4ly /eno"i#e$ In "olonial 0eru there 6as era#i"ation o, i#eolo/y$ )hey #i# not *ill they
Bust "on;erte# to Christianity$ )hey 6ante# to "on>uer souls$ 0ro, )lostano;a5 T(at i" ;(4 I t(i!<
'oo!iait4 i" ;i*er a!* *ee+er t(a! 1e!o'i*e. Yo$ 'a! eave +eo+e
aive ,$t 4o$ ;i+e ever4t(i!1 o$t o% t(eir mi!*" to +$t "omet(i!1
e"e t(ere. I! a ;a4 t(i" i" a"o a 1e!o'i*e W 4o$ eave t(em t(eir
+(4"i'a ive" ,$t 4o$ ta<e a;a4 t(eir i!"i*e X 0ro, +i/nolo5 0e 'a it
e+i"temi' o,otom4. No; t(at I t(i!< o%C t(e 'ea!i!1 o% i*eoo14
mi1(t (a* ,ee! a %oreAr$!!er o% @iterN" ;or<. Ex'e+t t(at I!*ia!" o%
t(e time ;ere !ot t(e me!a'e %or C(ri"tia! t(eoo1ia!" i<e Ie;"
;ere %or @iter$ Christians are ;ery "lear o, 6ho their ene'ies are T at that 'o'ent in history it
6as Isla' an# 0rotestants$ Catholi"s "ontrolle# the /a'e but they 6ante# a #an/erous ene'y ea/er to
#estroy the' T this 6as also the Cush #is"ourse a,ter the 9/11$ 0ro, )lostano;a5 )his is a ;ery A'eri"an
#is"ourse$ It is the only 6ay ho6 to *ee4 A'eri"a to/ether an# ,or' its national i#entity$ )o be to/ether
a/ainst so'eone$ In Euro4e I thin* there is bi//er "o''on base o, reli/ion roots "ulture _
.ENOCIDE I7 A NECE77A#Y )#OCE77 OF COLONIALI7? 8Y
0I)IN. OBT NATI&E )O)BLATION7 AND COLONIUIN.
FO#EI.N 7)ACE7.
A(me* 4:11
(NColonial Dyna'i"s o, Geno"i#e I'4erialis' I#entity an# +ass
[iolen"eO Journal o, Conli"t )rans,or'ation ` Se"urity Dr$ <a,eeF
+osa##e> Ah'e# Critish author an in;esti/ati;e Bournalist an# an
international se"urity s"holar A""esse# on I/2I/14 A4ril 2011)
Co!ve!tio!a *eG!itio!" o% 1e!o'i*eC i! +arti'$ar t(e B!ite*
Natio!" Co!ve!tio! "ta!*ar*C are "tateAorie!te* a!* +rimor*iai"t.
.e!o'i*e i" "ee! +rimari4 a" t(e o$t'ome o% extremi"t i*eoo14
i!<e* to $!*emo'rati' mo*er! ,$rea$'rati' !atio!A"tate"C ;(o"e
(omo1e!i>i!1 "tr$'t$re" 1e!erate 'o!Si't ;it( +reAexi"ti!1 mi!orit4
1ro$+". )he D< #eAnition o, /eno"i#e i'4oses un6arrante# 4oliti"iFe# "onstraints on Le'*inLs 6i#er
ori/inal so"iolo/i"al "on"e4tualiFation o, /eno"i#e as a "olonial ,or'$ For Le'*in +er+etrator" o%
1e!o'i*e 'o$* ,e "tate" a" ;e a" *e'e!trai>e* a!*A*i"+er"e*
1ro$+" su"h as settler7"olonists$ )he nee# ,or a return to Lem<i!N" @i"tori'a
7o'ioo1i'a t(eor4 o% 1e!o'i*eC !o; i!'rea"i!14 re'o1!i>e* amo!1
1e!o'i*e "'(oar"C *emo!"trate" !ot mere4 t(at "+e'iG' 'a"e" o%
E$ro+ea! im+eria vioe!'e 'a! +ote!tia4 ,e $!*er"too* a"
21
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
1e!o'i*aC ,$t t(at t(i" i" +re'i"e4 ,e'a$"e 1e!o'i*e 'a! ,e"t ,e
$!*er"too* a" a! extreme %orm o% 'oo!i>atio!$ Se;eral s"holars ha;e
no6 'a#e a stron/ "ase that 6hile this #oes not 'ean that all "olonialis' is /eno"i#al it is une>ui;o"ally
"lear that /eno"i#es are "o'4rise# o, #istin"ti;ely 'oo!ia *4!ami'". T(e"e 'oo!ia
*4!ami'" emer1e *$e to t(e ra*i'ai>atio! o% i*e!tit4 +oiti'" i!
t(e 'o!text o% (i"tori'a4 "+e'iG' "o'ioA+oiti'a 'o!te"tatio!"
ea*i!1 to maKor "o'ia 'ri"e"C ;(i'( *rive t(e 'o!"tr$'tio! o%
!e; ,i%$r'ate* Oi!"i*eP a!* Oo$t"i*eP 1ro$+ i*e!titie". T(i"
"+ea<" to t(e !ee* %or a !e; re"ear'( a1e!*a i! .e!o'i*e 7t$*ie"C
%o'$"i!1 "+e'iG'a4 o! t(e *4!ami'" t(at i!< "o'ioA+oiti'a 'ri"i"
;it( ex'$"io!ar4 i*e!tit4 'o!"tr$'tio!" a!* re1re""ive +oiti'a
+ro1ram"C ;(i'( e1itimi>e ma"" vioe!'e. 84 i*e!ti%4i!1 (o; a!*
;(e! "o'ia 'ri"e" 'a! ea* to t(e TOt(eri>atio!N o% 'omm$!itie"C it
ma4 ,e'ome +o""i,e to *eveo+ more ro,$"t ear4 ;ar!i!1 "4"tem"
%or 1e!o'i*e +reve!tio!.
COLONIUATION OF T@E A?E#ICA7 7@O07 T@E .ENOCIDAL
LO.IC OF COLONIALI7?
0o%e =- ()atri'<C La Tro,e #e"ear'( Feo; i! @i"tor4 at La Tro,e B!iver"it4C A$"traia
a!* a$t(or o% Settler Colonialism and the Transformation of Anthropology: The Politics and
Poetics of an Ethnographic Event C H7etter 'oo!iai"m a!* t(e eimi!atio! o% t(e !ativeHC
(a;aii.e*$C De'em,er 2==-C +1 3C
(tt+:::;;;.(a;aii.e*$:am"t:+;o%e:)0o%eArti'e":)0o%eZEimi!atio!Native.+*%C C@)
T(e o1i' o% eimi!atio! !ot o!4 re%er" to t(e "$mmar4
iL$i*atio! o% I!*i1e!o$" +eo+eC t(o$1( it i!'$*e" t(at. I!
'ommo! ;it( 1e!o'i*e as !a4haeal Le'*in "hara"teriFe# itI settler 'oo!iai"m
(a" both !e1ative an# 4ositi;e *ime!"io!"$ <e/ati;ely it "trive" %or t(e
*i""o$tio! o% !ative "o'ietie". 0ositi;ely it ere't" a ne6 'oo!ia
"o'iet4 o! t(e ex+ro+riate* a!* ,a"eZas I 4ut it settler 'oo!i>er"
'ome to "ta4: i!va"io! i" a "tr$'t$re !ot a! eve!t.J In its 4ositi;e
as4e"t eimi!atio! i" a! or/aniFin/ +ri!'i+a o% "etterA'oo!ia "o'iet4
rat(er t(a! a o!eAoQ (an# su4erse#e#) o''$rre!'e. )he 4ositi;e out"o'es o, t(e
o1i' o% eimi!atio! 'a! i!'$*e of'ia4 e!'o$ra1e*
mi"'e1e!atio!C t(e ,rea<i!1A*o;! o% !ative tite i!to aie!a,e
i!*ivi*$a %ree(o*"C !ative "itiFenshi4 '(i* a,*$'tio!C rei1io$"
'o!ver"io!C re"o'iai>atio! i! tota i!"tit$tio!" "$'( a"
mi""io!" or ,oar*i!1 "'(oo"C a!* a ;(oe ra!1e o% 'o1!ate
,io'$t$ra a""imiatio!". A t(e"e "trate1ie"C i!'$*i!1
%ro!tier (omi'i*eC are '(ara'teri"ti' o% "etter 'oo!iai"m. So'e
o, the' are 'ore "ontro;ersial in /eno"i#e stu#ies than others$
22
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
2AC Ext: Coo!iai"m #oot
Ca$"e o% 0armi!1
IG<&!I<G )-E CASIS &F C&L&<IALIS+ I< )-E CLI+A)E C!ISIS
D&&+S +A<AGE!IAL S&LD)I&<S )& SE!IAL 0&LICQ
FAILD!E T E0IS)E+IC E<GAGE+E<) )-!&DG- DELI<KI<G
IS C!DCIAL )& S&L[E E<[I!&<+E<)AL C!ISIS
?a!$eANavarrete 1= [Da;i# !esear"h Sta= Kin/Ls Colle/e Lon#on$ CA En;iron'ental
S"ien"es e"olo/i"al e"ono'i"s an# /eo/ra4hy$ N0o6er realis' an# the i#eal o, hu'an e'an"i4ation in a
"li'ate o, "han/eO 2I!Es Cli'ate Chan/e [ol$ 1 <o;e'ber/De"e'ber 2010P
Cimate '(a!1e i" o%te! +ortra4e* a" a ma!a1eme!t a!* +oi'4
+ro,em.1= T(i" +o"itio!i!1 o$t"i*e t(e evo$tio! o% "o'io+oiti'a
"tr$'t$re" (a" t(e a*va!ta1e o% *i"'$""i!1 miti1atio! a!*
a*a+tatio! a" $!+ro,emati'a4 'arrie* o$t %romC a!* ,4C t(e"e
"tr$'t$re"C ;it(o$t '(ae!1i!1 t(em i! a!4 "i1!iG'a!t %a"(io!. T(i"
im+ie" a! a,"tra'tio! o% 'imate '(a!1e a" a! exter!a t(reat to
"o'ia "ta,iit4C a!* a! o,Ke't o% "t$*4 t(at 'a! t(e! ,e ee1a!t4
'om+artme!tai>e* i!to *iQere!t t4+e" o% ri"<. In a##ition miti1atio!
a!* a*a+tatio! 'a! ,e !eat4 *eG!e* a" "trate1ie" to re*$'e overa
t(reat a!* 'o+e ;it( ri"<" "o t(at ($ma!it4N" *eveo+me!t 'a!
'o!ti!$e $!aQe'te*. Lea;in/ the 'essiness o, 4oliti"s outsi#e the e>uation allo6s ,or the
e'4hasis on te"hnolo/ies tar/ets in#e@es a""ountin/ s"he'es an# strate/ies that "an be translate#
into e@4li"it 4oli"ies or a"tions$ )he bhu'an #i'ensionL o, "li'ate "han/e "an then be stu#ie# by sin/lin/7
out the 4arts o, the so"ial ,abri" that nee# to be ba#a4te#L or b4roo,e#L so that the syste' as a 6hole
'ore or less in its "urrent state "an 6eather "li'ate "hallen/es$ Dn,ortunately t(i" "im+i"ti'
vie; %ai" to a'<!o;e*1e t(e i!'rea"i!1 +e!etratio! o% 'imate
'(a!1e i!to a t(e *ime!"io!" o% ($ma! i%e$11 In ,a"t a 1ro;i!1 ,o*4
o% em+iri'a ;or< revea" a more 'om+i'ate* +i't$re t(a! t(at
+ortra4e* ,4 a+oiti'a +oi'4 a++roa'(e"$12 2ILL 0&LI)ICAL !EALIS+ D& )-E J&CR
A reai"t a1e!*a to "t$*4 'imate '(a!1e +oiti'" i" 'o!"oi*ati!1
aro$!* t(e !otio!" o% 1o,a e!viro!me!ta 1over!a!'e a!*
re1ime".13 Go;ernan"e re,ers to the 6iel#in/ o, 4o6er an# authority by both /o;ern'ent institutions
an# other so"ial a"tors in or#er to in?uen"e an# ena"t 4ubli" #e"isions an# a"tions$ In#ee# the !otio!
o% 1over!a!'e "tret'(e" +ontes>uieuLs b"he"*s7an#7balan"esL thesis ,e4o!* the three
4o6ers o, *emo'rati' 1over!me!t (e@e"uti;e le/islati;e an# Bu#i"iary) to i!'$*e t(e
roe o% +rivate a'tor" or mar<et"C a!* 'ivi "o'iet4. T(e"e T!e;N
+oiti'a a'tor" are t(e! reiGe* a" T"ta<e(o*er"N ;(o (ave +arti'$ar
i!tere"t"C re"o$r'e"C va$e"C a!* '$t$re". A""or#in/ly 4oliti"s "an be "on;eniently
re4resente# as sta*ehol#ersL ne/otiation an# a""o''o#ation to6ar# sol;in/ s4e"iA" 4roble's su"h as
e'ission re#u"tions or shiel#in/ #e;elo4'ent ,ro' #isasters$ )his a44roa"h to a""ountin/ ,or 4oliti"s 'ay
a#;o"ate a#Bust'ents o, /o;ernan"e stru"tures an# the e'er/en"e o, ne6 re/i'es but these
a#Bust'ents are BustiAe# in ter's o, 4roble'7sol;in/ 4er,or'an"e$ )hus t(e et(i'a *ime!"io!
o% +o;er *i"tri,$tio! i" ,ro$1(t to t(e ,a'<1ro$!*C "o t(at atte!tio!
'a! ,e *ire'te* to;ar* 1oa "etti!1C +ro,em "ovi!1C a!* +oi'4
23
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
o$t'ome". As note# abo;e 4oliti"al realis' assu'es a 4essi'isti" stan"e o, hu'an nature$
A$t(orit4 i" !ee*e* to 'o!tro +eo+eN" e1oi"ti' !at$re a!* +reve!t
t(e (armi!1 o% ot(er" a!* t(e e!viro!me!t. A" a 'o!"eL$e!'eC
'oer'io!C a!*:or e1itimatio! t(ro$1( 'o!"e!t are +re'o!*itio!" %or
or*er a!* "e'$rit4. )he su""ess o, 4oliti"al syste's is 'easure# in ter's o, stability an#
"onsensus bet6een rulers an# rule# rather than i#eals o, ,airness Busti"e or ,ree#o'$ Corru4tion an#
o44ression ,ro' rulers "an be a;oi#e# throu/h a44ro4riate b"he"*s an# balan"esL or /oo# /o;ernan"e$
)his realist 4osition is 4arti"ularly "on;enient in ;ali#atin/ the liberal state la6 an# the institution o,
4ro4erty as /rantors o, or#er$ In ,a"t i! t(e +re"e!t (i"tori'a mome!tC t(i" reai"t
"ta!'e o%te! ea*" to !eoi,era e'o!omi' ratio!aitie"C ;(i'( are
'ommo!4 a""$me* to +rovi*e t(e ,a"i" %or 'oAor*i!ati!1 'o!Si'ti!1
i!tere"t" i! mo*er! 'a+itai"t "o'ietie"$ At the "ore o, realis' is the assu'4tion that
so"iety is 4oliti"ally in a b"lose to e>uilibriu'L state orbitin/ aroun# a liberal #e'o"rati" attra"tor$ )he
notion o, an attra"tor e;o*es a sense o, Anal #estination the en# o, 4oliti"al history to6ar# 6hi"h 2estern
so"ieties 4er"ei;e the'sel;es to ha;e been ten#in/ #urin/ the last "enturies$ )his se'i7e>uilibriu' 4oliti"s
allo6s ,or the "on"e4tualiFation o, 4o6er as an intrinsi" >uality o, 4rototy4i"al a"tors an# institutions
rather than an out"o'e o, unstable histori"al 4ro"esses an# so"ial stru//les$ As a result 'imate
+oiti'" 'a! ,e re+re"e!te* a" t(e !e1otiatio! ,et;ee! a 1ive! "et
o% "o'ia a'tor" ;(oC i! t(e i1(t o% !e; "'ie!tiG' G!*i!1" a!*
te'(!oo1i'a ,rea<t(ro$1("C rearra!1e mar<et"C !orm"C
i!"tit$tio!"C re1$atio!"C or *e'i"io!Ama<i!1 +ro'e*$re". Justi"e an#
,airness belon/ to the 4oli"y 4ro"ess rather than bein/ intrinsi" to so"ial stru"tures$ )hus bunrealisti"L
i#ealist as4irations ,or uni;ersal Busti"e or e'an"i4ation "an be reoriente# to6ar# 4ra/'ati" tar/ets su"h
as the i'4le'entation o, trans4arent in"lusi;e an# a""ountable 4oli"ies e;en i, "arrie# out in a "onte@t
o, ine>uality an# 'ere re4resentati;e #e'o"ra"y$ )he sta/in/ o, international "li'ate ne/otiations is a
"ase in 4oint$ Deveo+e* 'o$!trie"C *eveo+i!1 'o$!trie"C 'or+oratio!"C
"'ie!ti"t"C a!* !o!1over!me!ta or1a!i>atio!" are to %oo; +reA
a""i1!e* roe" a!* ,ar1ai! o$r ;a4 o$tC ;it(o$t eve! *i"'$""i!1 t(e
+o""i,iit4 o% ateri!1 +o;er or +$r"$i!1 a!4 %orm o% "o'ia
tra!"%ormatio!. Instea# the #ebate is "entere# on national e'ission tar/ets te"hnolo/i"al
in"enti;es settin/ a 4ri"e ,or "arbon an# the trans,er o, e"ono'i" resour"es to "o'4ensate those 6ho 6ill
bear the hi/hest "osts$
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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
2AC Ext:
Deveo+me!t2Coo!iai"m
T@E DI7COB#7E OF ODE&ELO)?ENTP ENCOB#A.E7
COLONIALI7?. @I7TO#ICALLY DE&ELO)?ENT
@A7 8EEN B7ED TO C#EAT COLONIAL
CONDITION7 T@AT )E#)ETBATE &IOLENCE 7BC@
A7 DE@B?ANIUATION 8Y E#ADICATIN.
DIFFE#ENCE AND EE)LOITIN. #E7OB#CE7.
Na4arC Jayan$ %SQ+0&SID+5 !E7F!A+I<G I<)E!<A)I&<AL LA2 F&! )-E 21S) CE<)D!Q5 &r#ers o,
Inhu'anity$% Hein Online SW 9$2 (1666): n$ 4a/$ 2eb$ 2I June 2014$ Dni;ersity o, 2ar6i"* S"hool o,
La6
Sin"e the #e'ise o, the "olonial le/iti'iFation o, the %"i;iliFin/% 'ission
%#e;elo4'ent% has "o'e to e@4ress the "onte'4orary "hallen/e o, brin/in/
the beneAts o, %"i;iliFation% an# hu'an 4ro/ress to the 4o4ulations o, the 6orl#$
It is it a44ears the 4ri'ary 4ur4ose o, hu'an en#ea;or to be
"olle"ti;ely un#erta*en by all an# sun#ry 6ithin the "onte@t o, a hu'anity7
e'bra"in/ %ne6% 4ost7"olonial %6orl#7or#er%77 another %ne6 be/innin/$% )hrou/h
'any u4s an# #o6ns throu/h 'any ,ailures an# too ,e6 su""esses the s4irit o, #e;elo4'ent as a
/reat hu'an "ause has been *e4t ali;e$ <o6 6e 'ust #o e;erythin/
6e "an to (turn that s4irit into 4ra"ti"al ;isible 4ro/ress ,or 4eo4le in
A,ri"a an# 4eo4le e;ery6here$ De;elo4'ent is e;eryone(s Bob$ <o 'ore ,un#a'ental "ause e@ists to#ay$ I belie;e
that 6e stan# at the start o, a ti'e o, uni>ue a"hie;e'ent$19 So 'any 4ossible au#ien"es stan#
to be i#entiAe# by this a44eal o, the ,or'er Se"retary7General o, the Dnite# <ations ,or the
%Bob% o, %#e;elo4'ent$% )o the lea#ers o, the 6orl# is 'a#e the 4lea to
re;italiFe e=orts to6ar# the i'4le'entation o, #e;elo4'ent initiati;es$ )o the #oubters
o, the %#e;elo4'ent% 4roBe"t is 'a#e the reassuran"e that no6 #es4ite the %'any u4s an# #o6ns% the s4irit an# ;ision
o, #e;elo4'ent still rin/s true an# Ar'$ )o hi'sel, an# his sta= o, the #e;elo4'ent7relate# institutions o, the D< 4erha4s
the au#ien"e ,or 6hi"h the state'ent is truly inten#e# is 'a#e the reassertion that this 6or* o, #e;elo4'ent is an
i'4ortant one$ )hey the #e;elo4'ent 6or*ers ha;e the histori" role o,
ensurin/ the realiFation o, this ;ision o, hu'an 4ro/ress an# so 'u"h ,utility an#
e;en ,ailure 'ay be erase# or ,or/otten throu/h a rene6e# "o''it'ent to "arry on 4ersistently 6ith their tas*s$ All this
e@4ression o, an/st an# ho4e is o, "ourse nothin/ ne6$ Li*e a so"ial ritual 4laye# out 6ith "onsistent re/ularity 6e ha;e
be"o'e ,a'iliar 6ith these /atherin/s o, %#e;elo4'entalists% at 6hi"h they a#'inister healthy 'easures o, both
a#'onish'ents ,or 4ast ,ailures an# en"oura/e'ents ,or ,uture ho4e$ An# li*e in all rituals 4ro"esses o, %re'e'berin/%
6hi"h are the 4ubli" ,a"e o, 4ro"ee#in/s are a""o'4anie# by the e>ually i'4ortant 4ro"esses o, %,or/ettin/$% !e4eate#
an# re'e'bere# are the %,ailures% the "o''it'ents to %hu'anity% the "on#itions o, su=erin/ that are #ee'e#
%intolerable% an# the arti"ulations o, ho4e in ,uture %a"tion$% I/nore# an# ,or/otten are the ;iolen"e o, the ,ailures the
,rau#ulen"e o, the "o''it'ents the 4ro"esses o, in?i"te# su=erin/ #ee'e# ne"essary an# the arti"ulations o, #es4air
about 4ast a"tions$ Still the ritual 4er,or's a re/enerati;e 4ur4ose$ It re"asts ane6 the 4roBe"t o, #e;elo4'ent 6ith all its
"i;iliFational i'4ortan"e an# reassures its 4ra"titioners o, their histori" 'ission to %or#er% so"iety$ Cut 6hat is the
'essa/e /i;en to the %;i"ti's% o, #e;elo4'ent7those 6ho althou/h inten#e# as the beneA"iaries o, this uni;ersal
4roBe"t ha;e ha# to su=er the %'any ,ailures an# too ,e6 su""esses% as these rituals are ena"te#R 20 )o the' is 'a#e a
4lea ,or 4atien"e an# a rearti"ulation o, a ;ision ,or to'orro6$ For the' ho6e;er 4erha4s a #i=erent e@4erien"e o,
#e;elo4'ental ('is)or#erin/s 4ersists one 6hi"h bears a stri*in/ rese'blan"e to the earlier 4hase o, "olonial or#erin/$
2hile on"e "olonialis' 6as blatant in its #ehu'aniFin/ o, so"ial relationshi4s not6ithstan#in/ the "lai's o, the %"i;iliFin/
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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
'ission% no6 that sa'e #ehu'aniFation ta*es 4la"e un#er the a""e4table i, not
#esirable /uise o, /lobaliFe# #e;elo4'ent$ )he %4oor% has "o'e to re4la"e
the %sa;a/e/nati;eK% the %e@4ert "onsultant% the %'issionaryK% %trainin/ se'inars% 'ass %ba4tiFin/K% the
han#4hone in the 4o"*et the "ross on the altar$ Cut so'e thin/s7the ,orei/ner(s #e/ree attire "onsu'er ite's et"$7
#on(t "han/e$ An# 6hat o, the %"o'4ra#or elites% that ban# o, 'inority 'er"enaries 6ho sy'boliFe# to the "olonialist all
that 6as /oo# about 6hat it 'eant to be the ser;ile %"i;iliFe#% 6ho ser;e# as the ,aith,ul 'outh4ie"es o, the 'asterR
)o#ay 'any /o by the na'es o, %/o;ern'ent ,un"tionaries% an# %entre4reneurs$% !e/enerate# by these
"onte'4orary i#eolo/i"al 6ea4ons o, the #esire# hu'an "on#ition the
4ro"esses o, or#erin/ o, "reatin/ or#ers o, inhu'anity "arry on 6ith ;iolen"e inta"t$
Contrary to assu'4tions o, a la"* o, or#er an# non7in"lusion 'any o, the %"on#itions% o, hu'an
su=erin/ that Busti,y #e;elo4'ental inter;entionsS result ,ro' a ;ery
"onsi#erable a'ount o, or#erin/ an# ,or"e# in"lusion$ 0ro"esses o, or#erin/ as
"oer"i;e "o''an# are ;isible in the 4er4etuation an# e@a"erbation o, ,oo#
inse"urity resultin/ ,ro' stru"tures institute# #urin/ the "olonial 4erio#
an# "arrie# throu/h to the /lobaliFin/ 4ra"ti"es o, international a/ri7
business (the /lobaliFation o, hun/er)21 the i'4a"t o, the in;asion o, transnational
"or4orations on the en;iron'ental an# so"ial ,abri"S o, "o''unities
(the /lobaliFation o, e"o"i#e)22 the so"ietal #isinte/rationS resultin/ ,ro' stru"tural a#Bust'ent
4oli"ies an# the i'4erati;es o, theS transnational e"ono'i" syste' (the
/lobaliFation o, i'4o;erish'ent)23 an# the resultin/ #estru"tion o,
so"ial #i;ersity throu/h the ho'o/eniFation o, %4o4% an# "onsu'er "ulture
(the /lobaliFation o, so"ial alienation)$ )hese ha;e all "ontribute# to the 'ar/inaliFation
o, 4o4ulations ,ollo6in/ hal, a "entury o, (;iolent) %#e;elo4'ent$%24 -o6 'any 'ore
%ne6 be/innin/s% o, %#e;elo4'ent% are ne"essary be,ore the e'bo#ie# %6orl#% that is the result o,S all this or#erin/ is
re"o/niFe# as a ,a'iliar one ,ro' earlier ti'esR A,ter A;e #e"a#es o, %#e;elo4'ent% the
,ollo6in/ #es"ri4tion by FrantF Fanon o, the "olonial "on#ition still rin/s true o, the
"onte'4orary %4ost7"olonial% %/lobaliFe#% nei/hborhoo# an# o, its inhabitants5
)he settler(s to6n is a stron/ly7built to6n all 'a#e o, stone an# steel$ It is a bri/htly7lit to6nK the streets are "o;ere# 6ith
as4halt an# the /arba/e "ans s6allo6 all the lea;in/sS unseen un*no6n an# har#ly thou/ht about$ )he settler(s ,eet
are ne;er ;isible e@"e4t 4erha4s in the seaK but there you(re ne;er "lose enou/h to see the'$ -is ,eet are 4rote"te# byS
stron/ shoes althou/h the streets o, his to6n are "lean an# e;en 6ith no holes or stones$ )he settler(s to6n is a 6ell7,e#
to6n an easy7/oin/ to6nK its belly is al6ays ,ull o, /oo# thin/s$$$$ )he to6n belon/in/ to the "oloniFe# 4eo4le or at least
the nati;e to6n $ $ $ is a 4la"e o, ill ,a'e 4eo4le# by 'en o, e;il re4ute$ )hey are born there it 'atters little 6here or
ho6K they #ie there it 'atters not 6here nor ho6$ It is a 6orl# 6ithout s4a"iousnessK 'en li;e there on to4 o, ea"h other
an# their huts are built one on to4 o, the other$ )he nati;e to6n is a hun/ry to6n star;e# o, brea# o, 'eat o, shoes o,
"oal o, li/ht$ )he nati;e to6n is a "rou"hin/ ;illa/e a to6n on its *nees a to6n 6allo6in/ in the 'ire$ It is a to6n o,
ni//ers an# #irty arabs$ )he loo* that the nati;e turns on the settler(s to6n is a loo* o, lust a loo* o, en;yK it e@4resses
his #rea's o, 4ossession7all 'anner o, 4ossession5 to sit at the settler(s table to slee4 in the settler(s be# 6ith his 6i,e i,
4ossible$ )he "oloniFe# 'an is an en;ious 'an$ An# this the settler *no6s ;ery 6ellK 6hen their /lan"es 'eet he
as"ertains bitterly al6ays on the #e,ensi;e %)hey 6ant to ta*e our 4la"e$% It is true ,or there is no nati;e
6ho #oes not #rea' at least on"e a #ay o, settin/ hi'sel, u4 in the
settler(s 4la"e$2H
2I
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
2AC Ext:
Deveo+me!t2De%ore"tatio
!
COLONIALI7? CAB7ED DEFO#E7TATION T@#OB.@
EE)LOITATI&E )OLICIE7 A7 IT #ELATE7 TO
CLI?ATE C@AN.E AND .LO8AL 0A#?IN.. FO#
EEA?)LEC T@E ?ADA.A7CA#N7 DO?E7TIC
ECONO?Y @A7 8EEN TAILO#ED TO0A#D7
CON7B?)TION FO# 0E7TE#N EE)AN7ION AND
8ENEFIT.
0#? T=3
2!+ is the 2orl# !ain,orest +o;e'ent +a#a/as"ar5 Colonialis' as the histori"al root "ause o,
#e,orestation (2!+) I72H714 htt45//666$6r'$or/$uy/ol#site/bulletin/II/+a#a/as"ar$ht'l\to4
?a*a1a"'arF" (i"tori' +ro,em o% *e%ore"tatio! 'a! ,e i!<e*
to t(e *etrime!ta +oi'ie" o% t(e 'oo!ia "tate i! term" o% a!*
$"e a!* a1ri'$t$re. T(e *e%ore"tatio! +ro,em i! ?a*a1a"'ar
,e1a! ;(e! it ;a" a!!exe* a" a Fre!'( 'oo!4 i! 1/6-. A!
$!'ertai! +oiti'a 'imate a!* %ami!e %oo;e* t(i" a!!exatio!
an# 'any o, the +ala/asy ?e# to the 6oo#s ,or sur;i;al$ )hese ,ar'ers starte# 4ra"ti"in/ the
'etho# o, shi,tin/ "ulti;ation as a 'eans o, sur;i;al. +a#a/as"ar(s #o'esti" e"ono'y
,ro' the be/innin/ o, "olonial ti'es has been /eare# to6ar# e@4ort
4ro'otion$ E@4orts "onsiste# 4ri'arily o, "o=ee but ri"e an# bee, 6ere sol#
abroa# as 6ell $ Co=ee 6as ori/inally 4lante# on only the east "oast but e@4an#e# a"ross
the islan# 6hen it be"a'e a44arent that 4ro#u"ers 6ere able to /enerate lar/e 4roAts$
Ce"ause o, this e@4ansion o, "o=ee the islan#(s e"ono'i" #e;elo4'ent 6as une;en$ !i"e
shorta/es resulte# as early as 1911 be"ause o, the e@"ess #e'an# ,or labor in the "o=ee
se"tor an# the nation(s %,oo# se"urity% be/an to ero#e$ !i"e 6as also 'ore ;ulnerable to
"han/es in the 6eather an# "y"lones 6hi"h e@a"erbate# the shorta/es. 0easants that
on"e 6or*e# "ulti;atin/ the nation(s ri"e 'o;e# into re/ions 6here they 6ere
able to "ulti;ate "o=ee be"ause o, the hi/her 6a/es$ )hese 4easants 6oul#
then "lear a##itional lan# so that they "oul# 4ra"ti"e shi,tin/ "ulti;ation an#
/enerate enou/h ,oo# to subsist$ In res4onse to the in"reasin/ shi,tin/ "ulti;ation or
ta;y as it is "alle# lo"ally the Go;ernor General 4rohibite# it(s 4ra"ti"e in 1909$ )he state(s
obBe"ti;e o, this ban 6as to try an# sa;e 6hat 6as le,t o, the nation(s ,orest as 6ell as i'4ose
%rational ,orest resour"e 'ana/e'ent%$ -o6e;er the lan# set asi#e by the state ,or the
nation(s ri"e "ulti;ation 6as ine."ient be"ause o, soil 4roble's$ )he 4oli"y 6as there,ore
ine=e"ti;e in erasin/ +a#a/as"ar(s ri"e 4ro#u"tion 4roble'$ )he /o;ern'ent also thou/ht that
the ban 6oul# /i;e the' a /reater ability to "olle"t ta@es be"ause it 6oul# be easier to lo"ate
"itiFens i, they 6ere ,or"e# to re'ain in one 4la"e$ )he +ala/asy inter4retation o, the ban 6as
al'ost entirely o44osite o, the state(s intentions$ )hey ;ie6e# 6a/e 6or* as e>ui;alent to
ensla;e'ent an# 'any re;olts too* 4la"e$ <ot only #i# the +ala/asy i/nore the ban but they
ille/ally burne# 'any a"res o, ,orest in 4rotest$ %)he ban ele;ate# the 4ra"ti"e o, ta;y to a
2J
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
sy'bol o, in#e4en#en"e an# liberty ,ro' "olonial rule$% )he +ala/asy ;ie6e# shi,tin/
"ulti;ation as a sa"re# 'eans o, sur;i;al that they 6ere tau/ht by their an"estors$ )he ,orest
#e/ra#ation 4roble' be"a'e e;en 'ore serious 6hen the state #e"i#e# to
o4en u4 the islan#(s ,orests to lo//in/ "on"essions in 1921$ +any ;ie6e# it
as ironi" that the state allo6e# 'assi;e "lear "uttin/ on "on"essions 6hile
the ban on shi,tin/ "ulti;ation 6as still in e=e"t$ +ore than Bust the "lai'e#
lan#s 6ere ruine# ho6e;er be"ause 'any o6ners "lear7"ut lan#s beyon#
their "on"essionary li'its$ )he Forest Ser;i"e 6as unable to re/ulate the
"on"essions be"ause o, shorta/es in labor an# %a la"* o, 4oliti"al 6ill$% +u"h
o, the ille/al ,ellin/ o, trees 6as "o'4letely o;erloo*e# an# the Anes that
6ere le;ie# ,or ;iolation o, the 4er'its 6ere ,ar lo6er than the a"tual
#a'a/es$ )he "o'bination o, these #etri'ental /o;ern'ent 4oli"ies 'eant
that %rou/hly J0c o, the 4ri'ary ,orest 6as #estroye# in the 30 years
bet6een 119H an# 192H%$ It is interestin/ to note that the 'u"h 4ubli"iFe# %4o4ulation
/ro6th% issue #i#n(t be"o'e a ,a"tor in ,orest #e/ra#ation in +a#a/as"ar until 1940 6hen
;a""ines 6ere intro#u"e# that lo6ere# the #eath rate$ Durin/ the ne@t 40 years the 4o4ulation
in"rease# ra4i#ly ,ro' 4$2 'illion to 9$2 'illion an# so'e 4 'illion he"tares o, ,orests 6ere
"leare# #urin/ this 40 year 4erio# as "o'4are# to bet6een 3 an# J 'illion he"tares in the 40
year 4erio# ,ro' 1900 throu/h 1940$ +u"h o, this #e,orestation 6as ho6e;er still lin*e# to
"on"essions e@4ort 4ro'otion an# inse"ure lan# tenure rather than on 4o4ulation /ro6th in
itsel,$ E;en 'ore interestin/ly 'u"h o, the 4ro"ess #es"ribe# abo;e "an be easily 'irrore#
6ith 6hat has ha44ene# in 'any other ,or'er Euro4ean "olonies throu/hout the tro4i"s
6here the histori"al root "auses o, #e,orestation are "learly lin*e# to the e@4ro4riation an#
e@4loitation o, natural resour"es ,or the beneAt o, the "olonial 4o6ers$ +ost o, those "olonies
ha;e no6 be"o'e ,or'ally in#e4en#ent but not 'u"h see's to ha;e "han/e# in the
unsustainable e"ono'i" 'o#el inherite# ,ro' "olonial rule 6hi"h "ontinues 4ro#u"in/ "hea4
an# abun#ant ra6 'aterials at the e@4ense o, 4eo4le an# their en;iron'ent ,or the beneAt o,
the <orth$
21
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
2AC Ext: Coo!iait4 *e"tro4
"o'iet4
COLONIALITY ?EAN7 A 0O#LD OF A87OLBTE
DO?INATION AND TOTAL &IOLENCE. ECONO?IC
EN.A.E?ENT I7 IB7T ANOT@E# TOOL OF
.ENOCIDE BNLE77 0E FI#7T ADD#E77 T@E
8#BTALITY OF COLONIAL #ELATION7@I)7
Ce"aire 33 (Ai'X CXsaire 4oliti"ian ,ro' +artini>ue 19HH
Dis"ourse on Colonialis' Dis"ours sur le "olonialis')
I see "learly 6hat 'oo!i>atio! (a" *e"tro4e*: t(e 6on#er,u I!*ia!
"i;iliFations A R a!* !eit(er Deterri!1 !or #o4a D$t'( !or 7ta!*ar*
Oi ;i ever 'o!"oe me %or t(e R A>te'" a!* t(e I!'a". R I "ee 'ear4
t(e 'ivii>atio!"M 'o!*em!e* to +eri"( at a %$t$re *ateC i!to ;(i'( it
(a" R i!tro*$'e* a +ri!'i+e o% r$i!: t(e 7o$t( 7ea i"a!*"C Ni1eriaC
N4a"aa!*. I "ee e"" 'ear4 R t(e 'o!tri,$tio!" it (a" ma*e. R
7e'$rit4Y C$t$reY T(e r$e o% a;Y In the 'eanti'e I loo* aroun#
an# 6here;er S there are 'oo!i>er" a!* 'oo!i>e* %a'e to %a'eC I "ee
%or'eC ,r$tait4C 'r$et4C "a*i"mC R 'o!Si'tC a!*C i! a +aro*4 o%
e*$'atio!C t(e (a"t4 ma!$%a't$re o% a %e; t(o$"a!* R "$,or*i!ate
%$!'tio!arie"C H,o4"CH arti"a!"C of'e 'er<"C a!* i!ter+reter"
!e'e""ar4 %or t(e R "moot( o+eratio! o% ,$"i!e"". R I "+o<e o%
'o!ta't. R 8et;ee! 'oo!i>er a!* 'oo!i>e* t(ere i" room o!4
%or %or'e* a,orC i!timi*atio!C R +re""$reC t(e +oi'eC taxatio!C
t(e%tC ra+eC 'om+$"or4 'ro+"C 'o!tem+tC mi"tr$"tC R
arro1a!'eC "e%A'om+a'e!'4C ";i!i"(!e""C ,rai!e"" eite"C
*e1ra*e* ma""e". R No ($ma! 'o!ta'tC ,$t reatio!" o%
*omi!atio! a!* "$,mi""io! 6hi"h turn the S "oloniFin/ 'an into a
"lass7roo' 'onitor an ar'y ser/eant a 4rison /uar# a sla;e S #ri;er
an# the in#i/enous 'an into an instru'ent o, 4ro#u"tion$ S +y turn to
state an e>uation5 "oloniFation d %thin/7iA"ation$% S I hear the stor'$
)hey tal* to 'e about 4ro/ress about %a"hie;e'ents% #iseases S
"ure# i'4ro;e# stan#ar#s o, li;in/$ S I am ta<i!1 a,o$t "o'ietie"
*rai!e* o% t(eir e""e!'eC '$t$re" tram+e* $!*er%ootC R i!"tit$tio!"
$!*ermi!e*C a!*" 'o!G"'ate*C rei1io!" "ma"(e*C ma1!iG'e!t
arti"ti' R 'reatio!" *e"tro4e*C extraor*i!ar4 +o""i,iitie" ;i+e* o$t$ S
)hey thro6 ,a"ts at 'y hea# statisti"s 'ilea/es o, roa#s "anals an#
railroa# S tra"*s$ S I a' tal*in/ about thousan#s o, 'en sa"riA"e# to the
Con/o7&"ean2S $ I a' tal*in/ S about those 6ho as I 6rite this are
#i//in/ the harbor o, Abi#Ban by han#$ I a' tal*in/ S about 'illions o,
'en torn ,ro' their /o#s their lan# their habits their li,e7,ro' li,e
,ro' S the #an"e ,ro' 6is#o'$ S 2S A railroa# line "onne"tin/
29
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
CraFFa;ille 6ith the 4ort o, 0ointe7<oire$ ()rans$)S 7 I 7 I am ta<i!1
a,o$t miio!" o% me! i! ;(om %ear (a" ,ee! '$!!i!14 i!"tie*C ;(o
R (ave ,ee! ta$1(t to (ave a! i!%eriorit4 'om+exC to trem,eC <!eeC
*e"+airC a!* ,e(ave R i<e S$!<e4". R T(e4 *a>>e me ;it( t(e
to!!a1e o% 'otto! or 'o'oa t(at (a" ,ee! ex+orte*C t(e R a'rea1e
t(at (a" ,ee! +a!te* ;it( oive tree" or 1ra+evi!e". R I am ta<i!1
a,o$t !at$ra e'o!omie" t(at (ave ,ee! *i"r$+te* A (armo!io$" a!*
R via,e e'o!omie" a*a+te* to t(e i!*i1e!o$" +o+$atio! A a,o$t
%oo* 'ro+" *e"tro4e*C R ma!$tritio! +erma!e!t4 i!tro*$'e*C
a1ri'$t$ra *eveo+me!t orie!te* "oe4 to;ar* t(e R ,e!eGt o% t(e
metro+oita! 'o$!trie"C a,o$t t(e ooti!1 o% +ro*$'t"C t(e ooti!1 o%
ra; R materia".
30
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
2AC Ext: Coo!iai"m Ca$"e"
)overt4
COLONIALI7? CAB7E7 )O&E#TY. 0@EN COLONIAL
)O0E#7 ENTE# FO#EI.N NATION7C T@EY
DE7T#OY NATI&E ECONO?IE7 T@AT A#E
DE#I&ED F#O? T@O7E 7)ECIFIC CBLTB#E7.
T@E7E COLONIUED NATION7 FIND IT I?)O77I8LE
TO 8OBNCE 8AC9.
)overtie" T13
0o;erties$or/ is an in,or'ational 6ebsite about 4o;erty in A,ri"a an# ho6 it o""urre# Causes o, 0o;erty
&ri/ins o, a 2orl#6i#e 0la/ue (0o;erties) I72I714
htt45//666$4o;erties$or//"auses7o,74o;erty$ht'l
T(e 'a$"e" o% +overt4 are L$ite over;(emi!1 at Gr"t 1a!'e:
%rom 'oo!iai"m to i!*$"triai>atio!C %rom +oiti'a i!"tit$tio!"
to 1eo1ra+(4C 'orr$+tio! a!* "o o!. 8$t t(e4 are extreme4
i!tere"ti!1 to oo< at i% 4o$ ;a!t to ,etter $!*er"ta!* (o; "o
ma!4 'o$!trie" are ;(ere t(e4 are to*a4 . Ea"h "ause is roote# in a
ra#i"ally #i=erent 4heno'enon an# ea"h nee#s a s4e"iA" solution$ -erita/e is un>uestionably
an essential ,a"tor a'on/ the "auses o, 4o;erty$ ?o"t 'o$!trie" t(at "tarte*
t(eir mo*er! (i"tor4 ;it( 1reat i!eL$aitie" evove* i!to
"o'ietie" t(at o%te! mai!tai!e* "$'( +atter! o% ,ia"e* ;eat(
*i"tri,$tio!. A!* 'o!ver"e4 %or 'o$!trie" t(at ,e1a! ;it(
more or e"" eL$a "o'ietie". 7oC 'o$!trie" t(at ex+erie!'e*
'oo!i>atio! a!* "aver4 o%te! (a* tro$,e 1etti!1 ri* o% t(e
i!(erite* i!"tit$tio!" a!* *i"'rimi!atio!. Ot(er" i<e Ca!a*a or
t(e B7 o! t(e ot(er (a!* (ave ,ee! *oi!1 m$'( ,etter "i!'e
t(e!. I! t(e 'a"e o% 'oo!i>e* 'o$!trie" "$'( a" 8ra>iC 7o$t(
A%ri'a or t(e Cari,,ea! i"a!*"C t(e remai!i!1 ;(ite
+o+$atio! o%te! i!(erite* o;!er"(i+ o% 'a+ita a!* mea!" o%
+ro*$'tio! o!'e t(e 'o$!tr4 ,e'ame i!*e+e!*e!t. T(e %ormer
'oo!ie" i! Lati! Ameri'a ;ere ex+oite* to ex+ort t(eir %a!'4
mi!era (e$/$ /ol# ` iron ore) a!* a1ri'$t$ra re"o$r'e"$ )hey ha;e su=ere#
lar/e7s"ale inBusti"e as both lan# an# N'an4o6erO 6ere seiFe# by the s4anish an# 4ortu/uese
e'4ires$ I! Nort( Ameri'aC t(e +eo+e "tarte* o$t more or e""
%rom t(e "ame +oi!t ;(i'( 'reate* t(e 1ro$!*" %or e""
i!eL$ait4 i! t(e Gr"t 1== 4ear". )hat is i, 6e ,or/et ,or a 'inute about the
%re#u"tion% (rea# %'assa"re%) o, the <ati;e A'eri"an 4o4ulation to a 'ore 'ana/eable siFe$
I! Ca!a*a a!* t(e Nort(er! +art o% t(e B7C t(ere ;a" a"o !o
+arti'$ar a'tivit4 t(at ;a" "$ite* %or maKor ex+ort" (li'ite#
31
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
e"ono'ies o, s"ale) a!* t(ere%ore t(ere ;a" !o !ee* %or ($1e
amo$!t" o% ;or<er". T(i" i! t$r! re*$'e* t(e a++ea o% "aver4
a!* t($" era"e* %rom t(e "tart o!e o% t(e 'ommo! 'a$"e" o%
+overt4 t(at 'o$!trie" o%te! i!(erit. ItN" i!tere"ti!1 to reai>e
(o; +oiti'"C 1eo1ra+(4 a!* e'o!omi'" are i!tert;i!e* a!*
i!S$e!'e t(e evo$tio! o% a 'o$!tr4 (rather than hu'anisti" i#eals_) A4art
,ro' <e6 eealan# an# AustraliaC E$ro+ea! 'oo!ie" 1e!era4 i!vove*
o!4 a %e; !$m,er o% E$ro+ea!" t(at ;ere !ee*e* to ta<e 'are
o% a*mi!i"trativeC miitar4 a!* +oiti'a aQair". T(e4 ;ere !ot
rea4 ,$i*i!1 a!4 i*ea 'o$!tr4C !or ;or<i!1 to1et(er to;ar*"
"ome 'ommo! 1oa. T(e "e1re1atio! ,et;ee! E$ro+ea!" a!*
o'a" (or 'i@e# "o''unities) (a" o%te! remai!e* t($" %ar o!e o% t(e
mai! 'a$"e" o% +overt4 a!* i!eL$aitie". T(e o!1 a"ti!1
"4"tem 'reate* ,4 t(e E$ro+ea!"C 1ivi!1 a t(e +o;er (e"ono'i"
an# 4oliti"al) to a "ma mi!orit4C ;a" +a""e* o! %or 'e!t$rie" a!*
i!to t(e 2=t( 'e!t$r4. T(e !e;4 %orme* !atio!" t(e! (a*
1reat tro$,e 1etti!1 ri* o% me'(a!i"m" a!* i!"tit$tio!" t(at
imite* a''e"" to "o'ia a"'e!"io! a!* ;ere reti'e!t to %$!*
+$,i' "ervi'e" (s"hool hos4itals_) t(at ;ere e""e!tia to t(e 1ro;t(
o% t(e !atio! a" a ;(oe. For a! exam+e o% +reAexi"ti!1
i!eL$aitie" i! t(e Ameri'a"C 4o$ 'a! K$"t (ave a oo< at a!*
o;!er"(i+ +er (o$"e(o* i! 16== a!* reai>e t(at i! ?exi'o
o!4 2.3J o% (o$"e(o*" o;!e* a o% t(e a!* i! t(e 'o$!tr4.
O! t(e Nort(er! "i*e o% t(e ,or*erC at t(e "ame 4earC 53J o%
(o$"e(o*" o;!e* a!* i! t(e B7 a!* more t(a! /3J i!
Ca!a*a.
32
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
2AC Ext:
Coo!iai"m27tr$'t$ra
&ioe!'e
COLONIALITY #E7BLT7 IN A )#OCE77 OF
7OCIALIUATION T@AT CODIFIE7 8ODIE7 IN A
7Y7TE? OF DE&ALBATION T@AT LA8EL7 CE#TAIN
8ODIE7 A7 &ALBA8LE AND OT@E#7 A7
IN&AL&BA8LE. T@I7 CODIFICATION ALLO07 FO#
T@E EE)ENDA8ILITY OF CE#TAIN 8ODIE7 0@IC@
IB7TIFIE7 &A#IOB7 AT#OCITIE7 7BC@ A7
?B#DE#C #A)EC AND .ENOCIDE.
?a*o!a*oATorre" 2==5 M<elson 0ro,essor o, Co'4arati;e Literature at !ut/ers 0hD
in !eli/ious Stu#ies N&< )-E C&L&<IALI)Q &F CEI<GS Contributions to the #e;elo4'ent o, aS Con"e4tO
200J htt45//#@$#oi$or//10$1010/09H02310I011I2H41P
I*ea" o% ;arC 'o!L$e"tC a!* 1e!o'i*e (ere ,ri!1 $+ a!ot(er
%$!*ame!ta S a"+e't o% 'oo!iait4$21 T(e L$e"tio! a,o$t ;(et(er t(e
i!*i1e!o$" +eo+e" o% S t(e Ameri'a" (a* "o$ or !ot ;a" %rame*
aro$!* t(e L$e"tio! o% K$"t ;ar$ InS the #ebates that too* 4la"e in [alla#oli# in the si@teenth "entury Se4ufl;e#aS ar/ue#
a/ainst Las Casas that the S4anish ha# the obli/ation to en/a/e in a BustS 6ar a/ainst subBe"ts 6ho in their in,eriority 6oul# not a#o4t by the'sel;esS the su4erior
Christian reli/ion an# "ulture$29 &n"e 'ore K$"t i<e it (a++e!" S i! re"+e't to t(e L$e"tio!
a,o$t t(e ($ma!it4 o% t(e "o 'ae* Ameri!*ia!"C t(e S o$t'ome o%
t(e *i"'$""io! i" !ot a" im+orta!t a" t(e L$e"tio! it"e%. T(e S
T*i"'over4N a!* 'o!L$e"t o% t(e Ameri'a" ;a" !o e"" t(a! a!
o!too1i'a eve!t S ;it( ma!4 im+i'atio!" the 'ost #ra'ati" o, 6hi"h 6ere establishe# by theS attitu#es an#
>uestions that e'er/e# in the "onte@t$ Cy the ti'e 6hen theS >uestion about en/a/in/ in a Bust 6ar a/ainst the A'erin#ians 6as ans6ere#S the "on>uerors ha# alrea#y
establishe# a 4arti"ular 6ay o, relatin/ to theS 4eo4les that they en"ountere#$ An# the 6ay in 6hi"h they 4ursue# su"hS relations #i# not "orres4on# to the ethi"al
stan#ar#s that 6ere ,ollo6e# inS their "ountries o, ori/in$ In#ee# as Syl;ia 2ynter ar/ues Co$m,$"N" S re*eG!itio! o% t(e
+$r+o"e o% a!* a" ,ei!1 o!e %or $"C ;(ere,4 %or $" mea!t %or $"
;(o ,eo!1 to t(e ream o% ?a! vi"Aa\Avi" t(o"e o$t"i*e t(e ($ma! S
oe'$me!e area*4 i!tro*$'e" t(e ex'e+tio!a '(ara'ter t(at et(i'" i"
1oi!1 to S ta<e i! t(e Ne; 0or*$30 As 6e *no6 "$'( ex'e+tio!a "it$atio!
1ra*$a4 S o"t it" ex'e+tio!ait4 a!* ,e'ame !ormative i! t(e
mo*er! ;or*. Cut be,oreS it /aine# su"h a 6i#es4rea# a""e4tan"e an# be"a'e "onstituti;e o, a ne6S rei/nin/ e4iste'e t(e
ex'e+tio!ait4 ;a" "(o;! i! t(e ;a4 i! ;(i'( S 'oo!i>er" ,e(ave* i!
reatio! to t(e i!*i1e!o$" +eo+e" a!* ,a'< "ave"$S A!* t(i"
,e(avior 'oi!'i*e* more ;it( t(e <i!* o% a'tio!" "(o;! at ;arC t(a! S
;it( t(e et(i'" t(at re1$ate* ive ;it( ot(er E$ro+ea! C(ri"tia!"$S
0(e! t(e 'o!L$eror" 'ame to t(e Ameri'a" t(e4 *i* !ot %oo;
t(e 'o*e R o% et(i'" t(at re1$ate* ,e(avior amo!1 "$,Ke't" o%
33
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
t(e 'ro;! i! t(eir R <i!1*om.31 T(eir a'tio!" ;ere re1$ate* ,4
t(e et(i'" or rat(er t(e !o!Aet(i'" R o% ;ar. &ne "annot ,or/et that 6hile early Christians "riti"iFe#
sla;ery in theS !o'an E'4ire later Christians "onsi#ere# that ;an>uishe# ene'ies in 6ar S "oul# le/iti'ately be ensla;e#$32 In#ee# in the An"ient 6orl# an# the
+i##leS A/es it 6as ,or the 'ost 4art le/iti'ate to ensla;e# so'e 4eo4le 4arti"ularlyS 4risoners o, 6ar an# the ;an>uishe#$ 0(at (a++e!" i!
t(e Ameri'a" i" a S tra!"%ormatio! a!* !at$rai>atio! o% t(e !o!A
et(i'" o% ;arC ;(i'( re+re"e!te* a S "ort o% ex'e+tio! to t(e et(i'"
t(at re1$ate !orma 'o!*$'t i! C(ri"tia! S 'o$!trie"C to a more
"ta,e a!* o!1A"ta!*i!1 reait4 o%*am!atio!$ Dam!atio!C R i%e i!
(eC re%er" (ere to mo*er! %orm" o% 'oo!iai"m ;(i'(
'o!"tit$te a R reait4 '(ara'teri>e* ,4 t(e !at$rai>atio! o% ;ar
,4 mea!" o% t(e !at$rai>atio! R o% "aver4C !o; K$"tiGe* i!
reatio! to t(e ver4 +(4"i'a a!* o!too1i'a R 'o!"tit$tio! o%
+eo+e ,4 virt$e o% Tra'eN a!* !ot to t(eir %ait( or ,eie%$33S T(at
($ma! ,ei!1" ,e'ome "ave" ;(e! t(e4 are va!L$i"(e* i! a ;ar
tra!"ate" S i! t(e Ameri'a" to t(e "$"+i'io! t(at t(e 'o!L$ere*
+eo+eC a!* t(e! !o!E$ro+ea! +eo+e" i! 1e!eraC are 'o!"tit$tive4
i!%erior a!* t(at t(ere%ore t(e4 S "(o$* a""$me a +o"itio! o% "aver4
a!* "er%*om$ Se4ufl;e#a #ra6s on AristotleS to Busti,y this 4osition but he 6as 'ore than anythin/ translatin/ intoS "ate/ories i#eas that 6ere alrea#y
be"o'in/ "o''on sense$ Later the i#ea 6asS /oin/ to be soli#iAe# in res4e"t to the sla;ery o, 4eo4le ,ro' A,ri"a an#S be"o'e stable until to#ay un#er the tra/i" reality
o, #i=erent ,or's o, ra"is'$S Coo!iait4 I a' su//estin/ here 'a! ,e $!*er"too* a" a
ra*i'ai>atio! a!* R !at$rai>atio! o% t(e !o!Aet(i'" o% ;ar$ T(i"
!o!Aet(i'" i!'$*e* t(e +ra'ti'e" S o% eimi!ati!1 a!* "avi!1 'ertai!
"$,Ke't" e.1.C i!*i1e!o$" a!* ,a'< a" S +art o% t(e e!ter+ri"e o%
'oo!i>atio!$ T(e (4+er,oi' ex+re""io! o% 'oo!iait4 S i!'$*e"
1e!o'i*eC 6hi"h is the 4aro@ys' o, the e/o "o/ito a 6orl# in 6hi"hS the e/o "o/ito e@ists alone$ 0arC (o;everC i" !ot
o!4 a,o$t <ii!1 or S e!"avi!1. 0ar i!'$*e" a +arti'$ar treatme!t
o% "ex$ait4 a!* o% %emi!it4: S ra+e$ Coo!iait4 i" a! or*er o% t(i!1"
t(at +$t +eo+e o% 'oor $!*er t(e S m$r*ero$" a!* ra+i"t "i1(t o% a
vi1ia!t e1o$ A!* t(e +rimar4 tar1et" o% ra+e S are ;ome!. 8$t me! o%
'oor are a"o "eei!1 t(ro$1( t(e"e e!"e". ?e! o% R 'oor are
%emi!i>e* a!* ,e'ome %or t(e e1o 'o!L$iro %$!*ame!ta4
+e!etra,e "$,Ke't".34 I 6ill e@4an# 'ore on the se;eral #i'ensions o, 'ur#er an# ra4eS 6hen I elaborate the e@istential as4e"t o,
the analyti"s o, the "oloniality o,S Cein/$ )he 4oint that I 6ant to 'a*e here is that ra'iai>atio! ;or<" t(ro$1( S
1e!*er a!* "ex a!* t(at t(e e1o 'o!L$iro i" 'o!"tit$tive4 a +(ai'
e1o a" S ;e.3H Enri>ue Dussel 6ho sub'its the thesis o, the 4halli" "hara"ter o, theS e/o "o/ito also 'a*es lin*s albeit in#ire"tly 6ith the reality o,
6ar$S An# thus in the be/innin/ o, 'o#ernity be,ore Des"artes #is"o;ere#$$$a terri,yin/ anthro4olo/i"al #ualis' in Euro4e the S4anish S "on>uista#ors arri;e# in
A'eri"a$ T(e +(ai' 'o!'e+tio! o% t(e S E$ro+ea!Ame*ieva ;or* i" !o;
a**e* to t(e %orm" o% "$,mi""io! o% S t(e va!L$i"(e* I!*ia!"$ b?ae"N
Cartolo'ef #e las Casas 6rites are S re*$'e* t(ro$1( Tt(e (ar*e"tC mo"t (orri,eC a!*
(ar"(e"t "er%*omNM ,$t S t(i" o!4 o''$r" ;it( t(o"e ;(o (ave
remai!e* aiveC be"ause 'any o,S the' ha;e #ie#K ho6e;er bi! ;ar t4+i'a4 t(e4 o!4 eave
aive 4o$!1 S me! ('oFos) a!* ;ome!$S 3IS Joshua Gol#stein "o'4le'ents this a""ount by #e4i"tin/ "on>uest as anS e@tension
o, the ra4e an# e@4loitation o, 6o'en in 6arti'e$3J -e ar/ues that S to un#erstan# "on>uest one nee#s to e@a'ine5 (1) 'ale se@uality as a "ause o, S a//ressionK (2) the
,e'iniFation o, ene'ies as sy'boli" #o'ination an# (3)S #e4en#en"e on e@4loitin/ 6o'enLs labor$ +y ar/u'ent is that t(e"e t(ree S t(i!1"
'ome to1et(er i! t(e i*ea o% ra'e t(at ,e1a! to emer1e i! t(e
'o!L$e"t S a!* 'oo!i>atio! o% t(e Ameri'a"$ ?i"a!t(ro+i' "<e+ti'i"m
+o"it" it" tar1et" a" S ra'iai>e* a!* "ex$ai>e* "$,Ke't"$ O!'e
va!L$i"(e*C t(e4 are "ai* to ,e S i!(ere!t4 "erva!t" a!* t(eir ,o*ie"
'ome to %orm +art o% a! e'o!om4 o% S "ex$a a,$"eC ex+oitatio!C a!*
'o!tro$ T(e et(i'" o% t(e e1o 'o!L$iro 'ea"e* to S ,e o!4 a "+e'ia
'o*e o% ,e(avior %or +erio*" o% ;ar a!* ,e'ome" i! t(e S Ameri'a"
34
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
a!* 1ra*$a4 t(e mo*er! ;or* ,4 virt$e o% mi"a!t(ro+i' S
"<e+ti'i"mC t(e i*ea o% ra'eC a!* t(e 'oo!iait4 o% +o;er a stan#ar# o,S "on#u"t that
re?e"ts the 6ay thin/s are a 6ay o, thin/s ;(o"e !at$rai>atio! S rea'(e" it" 'imax ;it( t(e
$"e o% !at$ra "'ie!'e to vai*ate ra'i"m i! t(e S !i!etee!t( 'e!t$r4$ )he
6ay thin/s su44ose#ly are e'er/e ,ro' the i#ea o,S ho6 a 6orl# is "on"ei;e# to be in "on#itions o, 6ar an# the "o#e o, beha;iorS that is 4art o, it$ 2hat ha44ens in
'o#ernity is that "$'( a vie; o% t(e ;or* S a!* 'o*e o% 'o!*$'t i" tra!"%orme*
t(ro$1( t(e i*ea o% ra'e a!* ,e'ome" S !at$rai>e*$ T($" t(e
treatme!t o% va!L$i"(e* +eo+e" i! 'o!*itio!" o% ;ar i" S +er'eive*
a" e1itimate o!1 a%ter ;ar i" over$ Later on it 6onLt be theirS a//ression or o44osition but t(eir
Tra'eN ;(i'( K$"tiGe" 'o!ti!$e* "er%*omC S "aver4C a!* ra+e$ )his re4resents a brea*
6ith the Euro4ean 'e#ie;alS tra#ition an# its ethi"al "o#es$ 2ith the initial e@4loitation o, A,ri"a an# theS "oloniFation o, the A'eri"as in the A,teenth "entury t(e
emer1i!1 mo*er!it4 S 'ome" to ,e "(a+e* ,4 a +ara*i1m o% ;ar.3/ S
Cuil#in/ on the 6or* o, Dussel Gor#on WuiBano an# 2ynter I arti"ulate#S in this se"tion 6hat I see as three "ontributions to the un#erstan#in/ o,S "oloniality an# ra"e5
(1) the un#erstan#in/ o, ra"e as 'isanthro4i" s*e4ti"is'S (2) the interrelation o, ra"e an# /en#er an# (3) the un#erstan#in/ o, ra"e an#S /en#er "on"e4tions in
'o#ernity as the result o, the naturaliFation o, the ethi"sS o, 6ar$ T(e ive* ex+erie!'e o% ra'iai>e* +eo+e
i" *ee+4 to$'(e* ,4 t(e S e!'o$!ter ;it( mi"a!t(ro+i' "<e+ti'i"m an#
,4 t(e 'o!"ta!t e!'o$!ter ;it( S vioe!'e a!* *eat( . T(e a!1$a1e
t(at t(e4 $"e (a" a"o area*4 ,ei!1 "(a+e* ,4 R $!*er"ta!*i!1
o% t(e ;or* a" a ,atte Ge* i! ;(i'( t(e4 are +erma!e!t4 R
va!L$i"(e*. <o6 that 6e ha;e an i#ea about the basi" "on#itions o, li,e in theS "olonial si#e o, the
'o#ern 6orl# or in the #ar* si#e o, the "olor7line 6e "an tryS to An# a 'ore 4re"ise 4hiloso4hi"al
arti"ulation o, these e@4erien"es an# thus toS lay out the ,un#a'entals ,or a #is"ourse about the
"oloniality o, bein/$ CutS ;(ie ;e (ave ex+ore* to "ome exte!t t(e mea!i!1 o% t(e i*ea o%
'oo!iait4C S ;e (ave!Nt *o!e t(e "ame ;it( t(e i*ea o% T,ei!1N$ 2e shall #o that ne@t$S 2hat is
bein/RS As I 'a#e "lear at the outset -ei#e//erLs ,un#a'ental ontolo/y in,or's theS "on"e4tion o, Cein/
that I 6ant to elaborate here$ -is 6or* 4arti"ularly hisS 192J 'a/nus o4us Cein/ an# )i'e is not the
4oint o, #e4arture to thin* aboutS the "oloniality o, Cein/ but it is at least 6hen s4elle# out in the "onte@t
o, theS 4heno'enolo/i"al tra#ition an# its hereti" e@4ressions an ines"a4ableS re,eren"e 4oint$ I *o !ot
t(i!< t(at @ei*e11erN" 'o!'e+tio! o% o!too14 a!* S t(e +rima'4 t(at (e 1ive" to t(e L$e"tio!
o% ,ei!1 !e'e""ari4 +rovi*e t(e ,e"t S ,a"i" %or t(e $!*er"ta!*i!1 o% 'oo!iait4 or
*e'oo!i>atio!C ,$t (i" a!a4"e" o% S ,ei!1Ai!At(eA;or* "erve a" a "tarti!1 +oi!t to
$!*er"ta!*i!1 "ome <e4 S eeme!t" o% exi"te!tia t(o$1(tC a tra*itio! t(at (a" ma*e im+orta!t
i!"i1(t" S i!to t(e ive* ex+erie!'e o% 'oo!i>e* a!* ra'iai>e* +eo+e".39 !eturnin/ toS
-ei#e//er "an 4ro;i#e ne6 "lues about ho6 to arti"ulate a #is"ourse on theS "olonial as4e"ts o, 6orl#
'a*in/ an# li;e# e@4erien"e$S -ei#e//erLs ontolo/y is "hara"teriFe# by the i#ea that Cein/ is not a
bein/S an entity or a thin/ but the Cein/ o, bein/s that is so'ethin/ li*e the /eneralS horiFon o,
un#erstan#in/ ,or all bein/s$40 -e re,ers to the #istin"tion bet6eenS Cein/ an# bein/s as the ontolo/i"al
#i=eren"e$S 41 A""or#in/ to -ei#e//erS 2estern 4hiloso4hy 4arti"ularly 2estern 'eta4hysi"s is
"hara"teriFe# by theS ,or/et,ulness o, Cein/ an# by a #enial o, the ontolo/i"al #i=eren"e$ 2esternS
'eta4hysi"s has e>ually betraye# the un#erstan#in/ o, Cein/ by "on"ei;in/S Cein/ in ter's o, the
/o#hea# or #i;inity$ -e "alls this ten#en"y ontotheolo/y 6hi"h is ,or hi' 6hat ,un#a'ental ontolo/y
nee#s to o;er"o'e$42S In a##ition to ar/uin/ ,or the "ru"ial i'4ortan"e o, the ontolo/i"alS #i=eren"e
-ei#e//er 'a*es the 4oint that the ans6er to the >uestion o, the 'eanin/ o, Cein/ ne"essitates a ne6
ra#i"al 4oint o, #e4arture$ Go# "annotS stan# as the be/innin/ o, ontolo/y any'ore$ )hin/s as su"h are o,
not 'u"hS hel4 either sin"e their 'eanin/ is 4artly in#e4en#ent o, the' an# surely theyS #o not /ras4
their o6n 'eanin/$ In ,a"t there is only one bein/ ,or 6ho' theS >uestion o, Cein/ is si/niA"ant5 the
hu'an bein/$ Sin"e -ei#e//erLs ai' is toS be/in 4hiloso4hy ane6 he #oes not 6ant to use +an or any
*no6n "on"e4tS to re,er to hu'an bein/s$ )hey all "arry the tra"e o, 'eta4hysi"s an# o,S
e4iste'olo/i"ally7"entere# 4hiloso4hy 6hi"h 6oul# ;itiate his e=orts toS es"a4e ,ro' the'$ )he "on"e4t
that he uses to re,er to hu'an bein/s7>uabein/s ,or 6ho' their o6n bein/ is in >uestion is Dasein$ Dasein
literallyS 'eans bbein/ thereL$ )hus Dasein is si'4ly the bein/ 6ho is there$ ForS -ei#e//er ,un#a'ental
ontolo/y nee#s to elu"i#ate the 'eanin/ o, bbein/S thereL an# throu/h that arti"ulate i#eas about Cein/
itsel,$S -ei#e//erLs Arst re?e"tion about Dasein is that it e*7sist 6hi"h 'eans that itS is 4roBe"te# to the
,uture$43Cut Dasein is also bthro6n thereL$ Dasein e*7sist in aS "onte@t 6hi"h is #eAne# by a history an#
6here there are la6s an# establishe#S "on"e4tions about so"ial intera"tion subBe"ti;ity the 6orl# an# so
on$ <o6S throu/h the analysis o, Dasein -ei#e//er #is"o;ers that ,or the 'ost ti'e itsS subBe"ti;ity
ta*es the sha4e o, a "olle"ti;e anony'ous A/ure5 the &ne or theS )hey$ )he )hey "oul# be "o'4are# to
6hat <ietFs"he re,erre# to as the her# orS the 'ass o, 4eo4le$44&n"e -ei#e//er has elaborate# his ;ie6
o, the )hey the restS o, 4art I o, Cein/ an# )i'e ta*es on the >uestion o, ho6 "an Dasein relateS
authenti"ally to itsel, by 4roBe"tin/ its o6n'ost 4ossibilities not those #eAne#S by the )hey$ @ei*e11erN"
re"+o!"e i" t(at a$t(e!ti'it4 'a! o!4 ,e a'(ieve* ,4 S re"o$te!e""C a!* t(at re"o$te!e"" 'a!
o!4 emer1e i! a! e!'o$!ter ;it( t(e S +o""i,iit4 ;(i'( i" i!e"'a+a,4 o!eN" o;!C t(at i"C
*eat(. I! *eat( o!e i" %$4 S irre+a'ea,e: !o o!e 'a! *ie %or o!eC or o!e %or a!ot(er. Deat( i"
3H
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
a "i!1$ar S i!*ivi*$ai>i!1 %a'tor. T(e a!ti'i+atio! o% t(e *eat( a!* t(e a''om+a!4i!1 S a!xiet4
ao; t(e "$,Ke't to *eta'( (er"e% %rom t(e T(e4C to *etermi!e (er S o;!mo"t +o""i,iitie"C
a!* to re"o$te4 *eG!e (er o;! +roKe't o% e<A"i"te!'e.43 S 2hile the anti"i4ation o, #eath 4ro;i#es
the 'eans ,or the a"hie;e'ent o,S authenti"ity at an in#i;i#ual le;el a Fuhrer or lea#er be"a'e ,or
-ei#e//er theS 'eans to a"hie;e authenti"ity at a "olle"ti;e le;el$ !esoluteness at a "olle"ti;eS le;el
"oul# only e'er/e by ;irtue o, a lea#er$ Fro' here that -ei#e//er "a'eS to 4raise -itlerLs role in Ger'any
an# be"a'e an enthusiasti" 4arti"i4ant in theS <aFi a#'inistration$ 2ar in so'e 6ay 4ro;i#e# a 6ay to
"onne"t these t6oS i#eas5 the 6ars o, the ;ol* (4eo4le) in the na'e o, their lea#er 4ro;i#e theS "onte@t
,or a "on,rontation 6ith #eath an# thus to in#i;i#ual authenti"ity$S T(e +o""i,iit4 o% *4i!1
%or t(e 'o$!tr4 i! a ;ar ,e'ome" a mea!" %or S i!*ivi*$a a!*
'oe'tive a$t(e!ti'it4$4I )his 4i"ture to be sure see's toS re?e"t 'ore the 4oint o, ;ie6 o, the ;i"tor in 6ar than that o, the
;an>uishe#$S 8$t it "oul# be sai# that t(e va!L$i"(e* 'a! a"o a'(ieve a$t(e!ti'it4
t(ro$1( S t(e 'o!%ro!tatio! ;it( *eat( i! ;ar$ Anybo#y "an$ Qet the 'issin/ ,a"tor here is the ,ollo6in/5
i, the 4re;ious a""ount o, "oloniality in relation to the nonethi"s o, 6ar is 4lausible then it 'ust be a#'itte# that t(e e!'o$!ter ;it( S
*eat( i" !o extraAor*i!ar4 aQairC ,$t a 'o!"tit$tive %eat$re o%
t(e reait4 o% R 'oo!i>e* a!* ra'iai>e* "$,Ke't" . T(e 'oo!i>e* i"
t($" !ot or*i!ar4 Da"ei!C S a!* t(e e!'o$!ter ;it( t(e +o""i,iit4 o%
*eat( *oe" !ot (ave t(e "ame im+a't S or re"$t" t(a! %or "omeo!e
;(o"e mo*e o% aie!atio! i" t(at o% S *e+er"o!ai>atio! ,4 t(e O!e or
T(e4$ #a'iai>e* "$,Ke't" are 'o!"tit$te* i! S *iQere!t ;a4" t(a!
t(o"e t(at %orm "eve"C ot(er"C a!* +eo+e"$ Deat( i" !ot "o S m$'( a!
i!*ivi*$ai>i!1 %a'tor a" a 'o!"titit$ve %eat$re o% t(eir reait4 . It i"
t(e R e!'o$!ter ;it( *ai4 %orm" o% *eat( not the )hey ;(i'( a]i't"
t(em$ T(e S e!'o$!ter ;it( *eat( a;a4" 'ome" too ateC a" it ;ereC
"i!'e *eat( i" area*4 S ,e"i*e t(em. For this reason #e"oloniFation #era"ialiFation an# #es7/enera""iofn (in su'
*e'oo!iait4) emer1e !ot t(ro$1( a! e!'o$!ter ;it( o!eN" S o;!
mortait4C ,$t %rom a *e"ire to eva*e *eat( oneLs o6n but e;en 'oreS ,un#a'entally that o, others$ In
short 6hile a ;an>uishe# 4eo4le in 6ar "oul#S a"hie;e authenti"ity ,or subBe"ts 6ho are not "onsi#ere# to be 4art o, btheS 4eo4leL the situation is #i=erent$ For
"ome "$,Ke't" mo*er!it4 '(a!1e* t(e R ;a4 o% a'(ievi!1
a$t(e!ti'it4: t(e4 area*4 ive ;it( *eat( a!* are !ot eve! R
T+eo+eN. 2hat -ei#e//er ,or/ot is that i! mo*er!it4 8ei!1 (a" a 'oo!ia "i*eC S a!*
t(at t(i" (a" %arArea'(i!1 'o!"eL$e!'e". )he "olonial as4e"t o, Cein/ thatS is its ten#en"y to sub'it
e;erythin/ to the li/ht o, un#erstan#in/ an#S si/niA"ation rea"hes an e@tre'e 4atholo/i"al 4oint in 6ar an# its naturaliFation throu/h the i#ea o, ra"e in 'o#ernity$
T(e 'oo!ia "i*e o% 8ei!1 "$"tai!" S t(e 'oorAi!e. -ei#e//er ho6e;er looses ,ro' ;ie6 the
4arti"ularS 4re#i"a'ent o, subBe"ts in the #ar*er si#e o, this line an# the si/niA"an"e o,S their li;e# e@4erien"e ,or theoriFation o, Cein/ an# the 4atholo/ies o,S
'o#ernity$ Ironi"ally @ei*e11er re"o/niFes the e@isten"e o, 6hat he "allsS b4ri'iti;e DaseinL but in no 6ay he "onne"te# it 6ith "oloniFe# Dasein$4JS
Instea# he too< E$ro+ea! ?a! a" (i" mo*e o% Da"ei!C a!* t($" t(e
'oo!i>e* S a++eare* a" a T+rimitiveN$ -e ,or/ot that i% t(e 'o!'e+t o% ?a! i"
a +ro,emC i" R !ot o!4 ,e'a$"e it i" meta+(4"i'aC ,$t a"o
,e'a$"e it *oe" a;a4 ;it( t(e i*ea R t(atC i! mo*er!it4C ;(at
o!e G!*" i" !ot a "i!1e mo*e o% ($ma! ,ei!1C ,$t R reatio!"
o% +o;er t(at 'reate a ;or* ;it( ma"ter" a!* "ave". -e nee#e# toS brea*
6ith the i#ea o, Euro4e an# the Euro4ean as 'o#els in or#er to un"o;er S the "o'4le@ #yna'i"s o, Dasein in the 'o#ern 4erio# both o, Euro4ean an#S "oloniFe# Dasein
to 6hi"h 6e 6ill re,er here as the #a'nef$ Cut 6e are alrea#yS in the territory o, #is"ourse on the "oloniality o, bein/$
3I
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
2AC Ext: Ex+oratio! mea!"
'(a!1e" i! mi!*"et
DE&ELO)?ENT #EFE#7 TO DE&ELO)IN. OB# &IE07
AND T@OB.@T )#OCE77
Di'<"o!C 1=
Di"*son Leanne$ %0rin"i4als o, De;elo4'ental 0sy"holo/y $% Sa/e 0ub$ !ut/ers Dni;ersity n$#$ 2eb$ 2I
June 2014$ 3htt45//666$sa/e4ub$"o'/u4'7#ata/939J8001124"h1$4#,:$
0(e! ;e "+ea< o% *eveo+me!tC to ;(atC i! %a't are ;e re%erri!1Y
O!e %reL$e!t4 $"e* *eG!itio! re%er" to *eveo+me!t a" +atter!" o%
'(a!1e over time, which be/ins at "on"e4tion an# "ontinues throu/h the li,e s4an$
Deveo+me!t o''$r" i! *omai!"C "$'( a" t(e biolo/i"al ("han/es in our 4hysi"al
bein/) "o'ia ('(a!1e" i! o$r "o'ia reatio!"(i+" ) emotio!a
('(a!1e" i! o$r emotio!a $!*er"ta!*i!1 a!* ex+erie!'e")C
a!* 'o1!itive ('(a!1e" i! o$r t(o$1(t +ro'e""e"). So'e #e;elo4'ental
4sy"holo/ists 4re,er to restri"t the notion o, #e;elo4'ent only to "han/es 6hi"h lea# to >ualitati;e
reor/aniFations in the stru"ture o, a beha;ior s*ill or ability (Grain 2000)$ For e@a'4le @ei!>
0er!er (1635) ar1$e* t(at *eveo+me!t re%er" o!4 to '(a!1e"C
;(i'( i!'rea"e t(e or1a!i>atio! o% %$!'tio!i!1 ;it(i! a *omai!.
0er!er ,eieve* that *eveo+me!t 'o!"i"te* o% t6o 4ro"esses5 i!te1ratio!
a!* *iQere!tiatio!. I!te1ratio! re%er" to t(e i*ea t(at *eveo+me!t
'o!"i"t" o% t(e i!te1ratio! o% more ,a"i'C +revio$"4 a'L$ire*
,e(avior" i!to !e;C (i1(erAeve "tr$'t$re". For e@a'4le a""or#in/ to 0ia/et
(M9H2) the baby 6ho learns to su""ess,ully rea"h ,or obBe"ts has learne# to Coor#inate a ;ariety o, s*ills
su"h as 'aintainin/ an u4ri/ht 4osture 'o;in/ their ar' ;isually "oor#inatin/ the 4osition o, the han#
an# the obBe"t an# /ras4in/ the obBe"t un#er an inte/rate# stru"ture "alle# a s"he'e$ <e6 #e;elo4'ents
buil# on an# in"or4orate 6hat has "o'e be,ore$
DiQere!tiatio! re%er" to t(e i*ea t(at *eveo+me!t a"o i!vove" t(e
+ro1re""ive a,iit4 to ma<e more *i"ti!'tio!" amo!1 t(i!1" ,or e@a'4le
learnin/ to a#Bust one(s /ras4 to 4i"* u4 s'all obBe"ts (6hi"h re>uires the 'e o, the An/ers an# Ane 'otor
"ontrol) ;ersus lar/er obBe"ts (6hi"h only re>uire "losin/ the han# aroun# the obBe"t an# less Ane 'otor
"ontrol)$ 0er!er #eAne# #e;elo4'ent as a "o'bination o, these t6o 4ro"esses o, inte/ration an#
#i=erentiationK he "a; *eveo+me!t a" a +ro'e"" o% i!'rea"i!1 (ierar'(i'a
i!te1ratio! a!* i!'rea"i!1 *iQere!tiatio!. &, "ourse 2ernerLs ;ie6 o, #e;elo4'ent
is by no 'eans uni;ersally a""e4te# 6ithin #e;elo4'ental 4sy"holo/y$ +any #e;elo4'entalists ar/ue that
anythin/ 6hi"h e;i#en"es "han/e o;er ti'e is rele;ant to the stu#y o, #e;elo4'ent (Grain 2000)$ )hus
this #ebate re'ains a tension 6ithin the stu#y o, hu'an #e;elo4'ent$
3J
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
2AC Ext: #(etori' +ro'ee*"
a'tio!
#@ETO#IC I7 T@E )#E#EDBI7ITE TO ANY ACTION. ANY
INTE#ACTION 0IT@ T@E OCEAN #EDBI#E7 A T@OB.@T
)#OCE77 T@AT INFLBENCE7 T@AT ACTION. 8EFO#E EN.A.IN.
0IT@ T@E OCEAN 0IT@ A FLA0ED #@ETO#ICC 0E ?B7T FI#7T
#E7ITBATE OB# #@ETO#IC 0IT@IN DECOLONIALITY.
Tota F11
)ota +att 6as the E<L 2HJth Cest Essay in !hetori"al )heory 6inner$ %!hetori"5 )he Lan/ua/e o, A"tion%
!etrie;e# ,ro' (Corri#ors( <o;e'ber 2011$ (Error^ @4+eri!< re%ere!'e !ot vai*.)
2hen 6e thin* o, 6ar or unrest 6e o,ten 4i"ture stern7loo*in/ sol#iers
hol#in/ Kalashni*o;s ,renFie# #issi#ents'ar"hin/ throu/h streets an#
ar'ytan*s lu'berin/ into 6ar7torn "ities$ Su"h i'a/es "o'e to 'in#
be"ause 6e are "on"erne# only 6ith theseas4e"ts o, the e>uation$ In
other 6or#s 6e #o not bother 6ith 6hat o""urs in the abstra"t5 2e
"are about the ans6ers "ir"le# on the "hal*boar# not the 6or*
s"ribble# aroun# it$ Cut be,ore the sol#iers "olle"t their ri?es
4rotestors ta*e to the streets an# tan*s enter the 6arFones there is
rhetori" lan/ua/e that "alls in#i;i#ualsto ar's /al;aniFes nations
an# sha4es 'o;e'ents throu/h the 4o6er o, 4ersuasion$ Ce"ause
6ars an# 4rotests #o not si'4ly 'aterialiFe ,ro' the ether an# behin#
e;ery sol#ier or #issi#ent is an i#eolo/y 4o6erless 6ithout rhetori"$
In 2003 the 4o6er o, rhetori" le# A'eri"a to in;a#e Ira> initiatin/ a
bloo#y "a'4ai/nthat thou/h 6anin/ "ontinues to#ay$ It be/an 6hen
then 4resi#ent Geor/e 2$ Cush "onne"te# our risin/ ,ear o, terroris'
to Sa##a' -usseinLs #es4otis'$ )his strate/y entaile# "onne"tin/ one
thin/ 6ith another as a 'eans to ,urther #is"ourse$ !o#eri"* -art an#
SuFanne Dau/hton re'ar* in their boo* +o#ern !hetori"al Criti"is'
that this bran# o, rhetori" ,un"tions li*e a 'ath e>uation5 N!hetori"
o4erates_li*e a *in# o, intelle"tual al/ebra as*in/ us to e>uate thin/s
6e ha# ne;er be,ore "onsi#ere# e>uitableO (1I)$ 2hen 6e see
so'ethin/ in relation to another e;en i, there is no "lear "onne"tion
6e o,ten rea"t #i=erently than i, the "onne"tion ha# not been 'a#e
es4e"ially 6hen #ealin/ 6ith subBe"ts that sti'ulate 4athos$ )o /arner
su44ort ,or his 6ar Cush e>uate# terroris' T so'ethin/ all o, A'eri"a
both #es4ises an# ,ears T to Ira> an# its o44ressi;e lea#er$ )hou/h the
t6o subBe"ts ha# "lose ties there 6as no har# e;i#en"e lin*in/ -ussein
to terrorist a"ti;ities$ For a##e# a44eal Cush state# that Ne@4ertsO ha#
unearthe# "a"hes "ontainin/ 6ea4ons o, 'ass #estru"tion in se"ret
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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
lo"ations throu/hout Ira> use# he ar/ue# ,or terrorist a"ti;ities$ -art
an# Dau/hton note that su"h "o'4arisons Nare the 6or*horses o,
4ersuasionO (1I)$ Cush ai'e# to "on;in"e both "on/ress an# the
A'eri"an 4eo4le that a 6ar a/ainst -usseinLs re/i'e 6as ne"essary to
4rote"t A'eri"a a/ainst terroris'$ An# his lin*a/e ,or'e# as an
e'otional a44eal 6or*e# ?a6lessly$ -e ulti'ately /aine# 6i#es4rea#
su44ort$ In#ee# other "ountries T 3H nations in total T6ere 4ersua#e#
by rhetori" to su44orthis 4lea ,or 6ar$ It #i# not 'atter o, "ourse that
there 6ere no 6ea4ons ,oun# in Ira>$ Cy that ti'e CushLs rhetori"al
bo'bsha# alrea#y ?attene# 'ost o, Ca/h#a#$ !hetori" 4laye# a
"ru"ial role in layin/ the /roun#6or* ,or 6ar an# lan/ua/e "a'e
be,ore the -u';ees an# the tan*s$
As 'entione# be,ore rhetori" e@"els in ,osterin/the i#eals that
ine;itablylea# to a"tion be it to6ar# 6ar or 4ea"e /oo# or e;il$ It
lea#s 6ith 6or#s an# i'4re/nates 'in#s 6ith i#eas 6hi"hare
e@"ee#in/ly 'ore 4o6er,ul than a"tions$ Cut it is rhetori" that "arries i#eas on its
ba"* lu//in/ the' into ,ruition$ NGran# i#eas #ee4ly ,elt belie,s an# unsullie# i#eolo/iesO -art an#
Dau/hton re'ar* Nare sour"es o, 4o6er_none o, these ,a"tors "an be in?uential 6ithout a #eli;ery
syste' 6ithout rhetori"O (11)$ In the en# these Nsour"es o, 4o6erO are 6hat tri//er nations e;en
in#i;i#uals to 6a/e 6ars or su44ort "auses$ A rhetorLs 4otential to s6ay 'in#s is #eter'ine# in 4art by
his ethos 6hi"h ;aries by au#ien"e$ 2hat #oes this 'eanR 2ell the line bet6een an Nunsullie# i#eolo/yO
an# a sullie# one be"o'es har#er to #is"ern$ 2hat 6e 4er"ei;e as sullie# i#eolo/ies 6ill in;ariably #i=er
,ro' 6hatother nations "onsi#er sullie#$ !hetori" is o, "ourse blin# to taboos$ )he rise o, Al Wae#aLs
4er"ei;e# Nholy 6arO a/ainst the Dnite# States ,or e@a'4le 6as ,uele# by &sa'a Cin La#enLs "roo*e#
i#eolo/ies$ [i#eo a,ter ;i#eo #e4i"tin/ his 4sy"hoti" rants "o'4rise# o, hate s4ee"h an# bo/us
a""usations a44eale# s4e"iA"ally to 4oor ho4eless Arab youths so'e o, 6ho' 4ersua#e# by his
rhetori" Boine# his Biha# 6ithout /i;in/ any thou/ht as to 6hat they 6ere Boinin/$ -is i#eals initiate# Al
Wae#aLs rise to 4o6er 4ro;i#in/ the or/aniFation 6ith ;ital 'en an# ,un#s to 4ursue their 'is/ui#e# 6ar$
Cin La#en stoo# as a A/urehea# ,or the or/aniFation an# his ,ollo6ers ;ie6e# hi' as a hero be"ause o, his
4o6er,ul rhetori"$ -e 'ana/e# to ta*e an i#ea an# turn it into one o, the 'ost ,eare# or/aniFations on the
4lanet si'4ly throu/h s4ee"hes an# a44eals$ As he is no6 #ea# there are >uestions as to ho6 stron/ Al
Wae#a 6ill be /oin/ ,or6ar# 6ithout his rhetori"$
I 6oul# li*e to ,o"us no6 on a s4e"iA" as4e"t o, rhetori"al 4o6er *no6n as sy'bolis'$ In ,a"t i, you
e@a'ine# rhetori" un#er a 'i"ros"o4e you 6oul# see sy'bolis' as its nu"leus$ In )he -istory an# )heory
o, !hetori" Ja'es -erri"* "alls a sy'bol Na ,or' o, 4sy"holo/i"al 4o6erO re'ar*in/ ,urther that Nsy'bols
an# the stru"ture o, hu'an thou/ht are intri"ately "onne"te#O (19)$ In#ee# sy'bols #i"tate the 6ay 6e
4er"ei;e oursel;es in relation to the 6orl# aroun# us$ A rhetor e'4loys sy'bolis' in or#er to "han/ethe
#yna'i" o, his #is"ourse$ Ce"ause a sy'bol aban#ons 4re"on"ei;e# notions an# ti'e6orn theories an#
stan#s ,or so'ethin/ /reater T 'ore abstra"t T than 6hat it re4resents this ta"ti" is e=e"ti;e in
"onne"tin/ 4eo4le o, ;aryin/ ba"*/roun#s to one i#eolo/y$ Sy'bols there,ore hol# 'ore 4o6er than
ri/i#ly stru"ture# i#eas 6hi"h ten# only to a44eal to "ertain /rou4s$
&, "ourse the ulti'ate /oal o, rhetori" is to as Sharon Cro6ley an# Debra -a6hee re'ar* in An"ient
!hetori"s ,or Conte'4orary Stu#ents 'o;e N4eo4le to a"tionO (23) 6hi"h re>uires not Bust sy'bolis' but
e;ery other 6ea4on in the rhetorLs arsenal as 6ell$ Durin/ the 19I0Ls ,or instan"e Dr$ +artin Luther Kin/
Jr$one o, the /reatest A'eri"an rhetors s4earhea#e# the so"ial 6ar a/ainst ra"is' 'o;in/ thousan#s o,
4eo4le to 'ar"h a/ainst ine>uality$ Dr$ Kin/ 6as in#ee# a 'aster o, lan/ua/eK his s4ee"hes 6ere
e@traor#inary e@a'4les o, style e'4loyin/ the art,ul use o, 6or#s instea# o, ,or"e 4ea"e instea# o,
;iolen"e to 4ersua#e$An"ient rhetori"ians *ne6 all too 6ell about the 4o6er o, lan/ua/e an# 6ere usin/
6or#s to sti'ulate a"tion lon/ be,ore Dr$ Kin/Ls NI -a;e A Drea'O s4ee"h(one o, the /reatest e@a'4les o,
rhetori"al style)$Cro6ley an# -a6hee 4oint to an an"ient rhetori"ian "alle# Gor/ias 6ho instru"te# youn/
'in#s on lan/ua/eLs 4ersuasi;e 4o6er5 NGor/ias 6ent so ,ar as to say that lan/ua/e "oul# 6or* on a
4ersonLs s4rit as 4o6er,ully as #ru/s 6or*e# on the bo#yO (23)$ +oreo;er the rhetor note# that Nlan/ua/e
"oul# be6it"h 4eo4leO an# NBolt the' out o, their e;ery#ay a6arenessO (2)$ Dr$ Kin/ ha# to NBoltO
A'eri"ans into alterin/ their ra"ist treat'ent o, bla"* 4eo4le by ,or"in/ the' to aban#on erroneous
i#eolo/ies o, the 4ast$ )hus he /eare# his s4ee"hes to6ar# resha4in/ 6hite A'eri"aLs ra"ist su44ositions
#ra6in/ 'ore an# 'ore in#i;i#uals to his "ause$ For Dr$ Kin/ rhetori" ,un"tione# li*e a 'i"ro4hone in that
it a'4liAe# his #is"ourse hel4in/ it to rea"h 'ore 'in#s$ It 6or*e# also li*e a 'irror in that it sho6e#
6hite A'eri"a its #ar* si#e$ &n"e they sa6 the e;ils o, ra"is' they "han/e# their 6ays an# 'ar"he#
to6ar# a better outloo*$ Dr$ Kin/Ls "ontrol o, rhetori" 6as the 4ri'ary reason 6hy the "i;il ri/hts
'o;e'ent 6as as a su""ess$
39
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
Finally the 'ost intri/uin/ as4e"t o, rhetori"al 4o6er is the 6ay it
e'4o6ers 'ar/inaliFe# or subBu/ate# in#i;i#uals all o, 6ho' la"* or
in so'e "ases are stri44e# o, a ;oi"e to s4ea* out a/ainst their
'istreat'ent$ In truth it only ta*es one 4ersonLs rhetori" to in"ite a re;olution an# a,ter
thousan#s o, years the ,or'ula ,or #issent has re'aine# relati;ely un"han/e#$ It be/ins /enerally 6ith
an i#eolo/y T ty4i"ally that o, the "ontrollin/ "lass T that rules o;er the lo6er "lasses$ )hat is it #o'inates
all other i#eolo/ies *ee4in/ the' 'ar/inaliFe#$ -erri"* notes ho6e;er that the "ontrollin/ i#eolo/y "an
a"tually brin/ in si/niA"ant i#eolo/iesT 6hat he "alls Nune@a'ine# i#eolo/iesO (20) T out o, obs"urity$ 2hat
is rhetori"Ls role in all o, thisR It essentially a"ts to assist the o44resse# in #e;elo4in/ their une@a'ine#
i#eolo/y$ Dsually it is at this 4oint 6hen the tu'ult be/ins $)he /o;ern'ent in 4o6er rea"ts 6ith atte'4ts
to >uell the u4risin/s$ Cut -erri"* ar/ues that its atte'4ts to su44ress the ne6ly e'4o6ere# ;oi"es o,ten
ha;e the o44osite e=e"t5 N2hen rhetori" is e'4loye# to a#;o"ate i#eas but its "a4a"ity to test i#eas is
sub;erte# the rei/n o, the une@a'ine# i#eolo/y be"o'es a real 4ossibilityO (20)$ )he sub;ersion is seen
in the /o;ern'entLs a"tions a/ainst the #issi#ents$ In other 6or#s thin* o, the o44resse# /rou4 as hy#raLs
hea#s5 Qou "ut o= one an# t6o 'ore s4rin/ u4 behin# it$ )he une@a'ine# i#eolo/y /ains 'ore 4o6er
e;ery ti'e the "ontrollin/ /o;ern'ent atte'4ts to s>uash it$ E;entually the re;olution su""ee#s in
o;erthro6in/ the 4o6ers that be$ 2e sa6 this 4ro"ess in E/y4t 6here -osni +ubara*6as ouste# be"ause
o;er 'any years he *e4t the i#eolo/y o, the 4eo4le su44resse#$ )he 4rotestorsL rallies /re6 stron/er an#
stron/er e;ery ti'e he trie# to sub;ert their rhetori"$ )his e@a'4le #is4lays that anyone re/ar#less o,
so"ial stan#in/ "an harness rhetori"Ls 4o6er$
In su' 6e shoul# not toss rhetori" asi#e as 4o6erless e'4ty7tal* to ,o"us solely on the i'a/es a44earin/
on the ni/htly ne6s$ 2e 'ust al6ays re'e'ber that rhetori" is the reason behin# all a"tion si'ilar to ho6
e;ery ?a'e re>uires a s4ar*$ !hetori" hol#s 'ore 4o6er than the /un or the s6or# be"ause it "ontrols the
'en 6iel#in/ both$ Di"tators 'oreo;er 'ay belie;e they are in 4o6erK they 'ay loo* at the 4eons belo6
the' as 6orthless yet those 4eons thou/h they 'ay ne;er ha;e 6ealth 6ill al6ays ha;e rhetori"$ )hus
they 6ill al6ays ha;e the 4o6er to rise a/ainst their o44ressor an# #e'an# their res4e"t$ So it is
ti'e 6e re,o"us our attention on lan/ua/e an# e'bra"e the 4o6er it
4ossesses T ti'e to ar' oursel;es 6ith 6or#s not 6ea4ons an# alter
our un#erstan#in/ o, 4ersuasion$
40
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
AT: Im+eriai"m #oot Ca$"e
COLONIALI7? AND I?E#IALI7? 8BT .OE7 8EYOND
T@E?. COLONIALITY EE)#E77E7 IT7ELF IN T@E
OF#? OF ?ATE#IAL &IOELNCE T@AT EN7B#E7
T@E CODIFICATION OF OT@E#7.
E"'o,ar / (Art$roC 9e!a! Di"ti!1$i"(e* )ro%e""or at BNC C(a+e @iC )(.DC B!iver"it4 o%
Ca%or!iaC 8er<ee4C O8e4o!* t(e T(ir* 0or*: Im+eria .o,ait4C .o,a Coo!iait4C
a!* A!tiA.o,ai>atio! 7o'ia ?oveme!t"PC ;;;.!*.e*$:_*r$''io:E"'o,ar.+*%)
)he see'in/ triu'4h o, E$ro'e!tere* mo*er!it4 'a! ,e "ee! a" t(e im+o"itio! o% a
1o,a *e"i1! ,4 a +arti'$ar o'a (i"tor4 in su"h a 6ay that it has subalterniFe# other lo"al histories an# #esi/ns$ I, this is the
"ase "oul# one 4osit the hy4othesis that ra*i'a ater!ative" to mo*er!it4 are !ot a (i"tori'a4
%ore'o"e* +o""i,iit4R I, so ho6 "an 6e arti"ulate a 4roBe"t aroun# this notionR Coul# it be that it is 4ossible to thin* about an# to thin* #i=erently ,ro' an Ne@teriorityO
to the 'o#ern 6orl# syste'R )hat o!e ma4 e!vi"io! ater!ative" to t(e totait4 im+$te* to
mo*er!it4C a!* a*$m,rate !ot a *iQere!t totait4 ea*i!1 to
*iQere!t 1o,a *e"i1!"C but net6or*s o, lo"al//lobal histories "onstru"te# ,ro' the 4ers4e"ti;e o, a 4oliti"ally enri"he# alterityR )his is 4re"isely the 4ossibility
that 'ay be /leane# ,ro' the 6or* o, a /rou4 o, Latin A'eri"an theorists that in re%ra'ti!1 mo*er!it4 t(ro$1( t(e e!" o%
'oo!iait4 e!1a1e i! a L$e"tio!i!1 o% t(e '(ara'ter o% mo*er!it4C a
'o!'e+tio! o% e$ro'e!tri"m a" t(e <!o;e*1e %orm o%
mo*er!it4:'oo!iait4 Wa (e1emo!i' re+re"e!tatio! a!* mo*e o%
<!o;i!1 t(at 'aim" $!iver"ait4 %or it"e%C O*erive* %rom E$ro+eN"
+o"itio! a" 'e!terP (Dussel 20005 4J1K WuiBano 20005 H49)$ In su' there is a re7rea#in/ o, the N'yth o, 'o#ernityO in ter's o, 'o#ernityLs Nun#ersi#eO an# a ne6
#enun"iation o, the assu'4tion that Euro4eLs #e;elo4'ent 'ust be ,ollo6e# unilaterally by e;ery other "ulture by ,or"e i, ne"essary T6hat Dussel ter's Nthe #e;elo4'entalist ,alla"yO (e$/$ 1993 2000)$ )he 'ain
"on"lusions are Arst t(at t(e +ro+er a!a4ti'a $!it o% a!a4"i" i"
mo*er!it4:'oo!iait4 AA i! "$mC t(ere i" !o mo*er!it4 ;it(o$t
'oo!iait4C ;it( t(e atter ,ei!1 'o!"tit$tive o% t(e %ormer$ Se"on# the ,a"t that
Nt(e 'oo!ia *iQere!'eP i" a +rivie1e* e+i"temoo1i'a a!* +oiti'a
"+a'e$ In other 6or#s 6hat e'er/es ,ro' this alternati;e ,ra'e6or* is the nee# to ta*e seriously the e4iste'i" ,or"e o, lo"al histories an# to thin* theory throu/h the 4oliti"al 4ra@is o, subaltern
/rou4s$S So'e o, the *ey notions that 'a*e u4 the "on"e4tual "or4us o, this resear"h 4ro/ra' in"lu#e5 the 'o#ern "olonial 6orl# syste' as a stru"turally hetero/eneous ense'ble o, 4ro"esses an# so"ial
,or'ations that en"o'4ass 'o#ern "olonialis' an# "olonial 'o#ernities. Coo!iait4 o% +o;er (WuiBano) a 1o,a (e1emo!i'
mo*e o% +o;er i! +a'e "i!'e t(e Co!L$e"t t(at arti'$ate" ra'e a!*
a,orC "+a'e a!* +eo+e"C a''or*i!1 to t(e !ee*" o% 'a+ita a!* to
t(e ,e!eGt o% ;(ite E$ro+ea! +eo+e". Coo!ia *iQere!'e a!* 1o,a
'oo!iait4 (+i/nolo) 6hi"h re%er to t(e <!o;e*1e a!* '$t$ra *ime!"io!" o%
t(e "$,ater!i>atio! +ro'e""e" eQe'te* ,4 t(e 'oo!iait4 o% +o;erM
t(e 'oo!ia *iQere!'e ,ri!1" to t(e %ore +er"i"te!t '$t$ra
*iQere!'e"C ;(i'( to*a4 exi"t ;it(i! 1o,a +o;er "tr$'t$re"$
Coo!iait4 o% ,ei!1 ('ore re"ently su//este# by <elson +al#ona#o7)orres 2003) a" t(e o!too1i'a *ime!"io!
o% 'oo!iat4C o! ,ot( "i*e" o% t(e e!'o$!terM it +oi!t" at t(e
Oo!too1i'a ex'e""P t(at o''$r" ;(e! +arti'$ar ,ei!1" im+o"e o!
ot(er"M it also a##resses "riti"ally the e=e"ti;ity o, the #is"ourses 6ith 6hi"h the other res4on#s to the su44ression as a result o, the en"ounter$ E$ro'e!tri"mC a"
t(e <!o;e*1e mo*e o% t(e E$ro+ea! (i"tori'a ex+erie!'e ;(i'(
,e'ame 1o,a4 (e1emo!i' "i!'e t(e "eve!tee!t( 'e!t$r4 (Dussel WuiBano)M
(e!'e t(e +o""i,iit4 o% !o!Ae$ro'e!tri' t(i!<i!1 a!*
41
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
e+i"temoo1ie". -ere is a ,urther an# enli/htenin/ "hara"teriFation o, "oloniality by 2alter +i/nolo (e7'ail "orres4on#en"e +ay 31 2003)5S Sin"e
mo*er!it4 i" a +roKe'tC t(e tri$m+(a +roKe't o% t(e C(ri"tia! a!*
"e'$ar ;e"tC 'oo!iait4 i"AAo! t(e o!e (a!*AA;(at t(e +roKe't o%
mo*er!it4 !ee*" to r$e o$t a!* ro over in or#er to i'4lant itsel, as 'o#ernity an# 77on the other han#77 the site o, enun"iation
6ere the blin#ness o, the 'o#ern 4roBe"t isS 11S re;eale# an# "on"o'itantly also the site 6here ne6 4roBe"ts be/in to un,ol#$ In other 6or#s 'oo!iait4 i" t(e "ite
o% e!$!'iatio! t(at revea" a!* *e!o$!'e" t(e ,i!*!e"" o% t(e
!arrative o% mo*er!it4 %rom t(e +er"+e'tive o% mo*er!it4 it"e% an# it is at the
sa'e ti'e the 4lat,or' o, 4luri7;ersality o, #i;erse 4roBe"ts "o'in/ ,ro' the e@4erien"e o, lo"al histories tou"he# by 6estern e@4ansion (as the 2or# So"ial Foru' #e'onstrates)K thus
'oo!iait4 i" !ot a !e; a,"tra't $!iver"a (Coo!iait4 i!'or+orate"
'oo!iai"m a!* im+eriai"m ,$t 1oe" ,e4o!* t(emM t(i" i" ;(4
'oo!iait4 *i* !ot e!* ;it( t(e e!* o% 'oo!iai"m $Ne; 'oo!iait4
re1ime i" "ti *if'$t to *i"'er!. #a'eC 'a"" a!* et(!i'it4 ;i
'o!ti!$e to ,e im+orta!t but ne6 or ne6ly 4ro'inent areas o, arti"ulation "o'e into e@isten"e su"h as reli/ion (an# /en#er lin*e# to it es4e"ially in the "ase
o, Isla'i" so"ieties as 6e sa6 ,or the 6ar on A,/hanistan)$ -o6e;er t(e "i!1e mo"t +romi!e!t ve(i'e o%
'oo!iait4 to*a4 "eem" to ,e the a'bi/uously #ra6n A/ure o, the
Nterrorist$O Lin*e# 'ost ,or"e,ully to the +i##le East an# thus to the
imme*iate B7 oi a!* "trate1i' i!tere"t" i! t(e %orei1! re1io!" t(at
o,tai! it
42
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
AT: Im+eriai"m .oo*
CONTINBED I?)E#IALI7TIC CONDBE7T LEAD7 TO
EETINCTION AND DE7T#BCTION OF T@E
)@Y7ICAL 0O#LD
#o""i 5
!ossi D/o$ %Da;i# -ar;ey$ A Criti"al !ea#er E#ite# by <oel Castree an# Dere* Gre/ory an# S4a"es o,
Global Ca4italis'$ )o6ar#s a )heory o, Dne;en Geo/ra4hi"al De;elo4'ent by Da;i# -ar;ey$% Area 39$4
(200J)5 HH37HH$ 2eb$ 21 June 2014$
At ti'es o, sa;a/e #e;aluation interre/ional ri;alries ty4i"ally #e/enerate into stru//les o;er 6ho is to
bear the bur#en o, #e;aluation$ T(e ex+ort o% $!em+o4me!tC o% i!Satio!C o% i*e +ro*$'tive
'a+a'it4 ,e'ome t(e "ta<e" i! t(e 1ame. Tra*e ;ar" #u'4in/ interest rate 6ars restri"tions
on "a4ital ?o6 a!* %orei1! ex'(a!1eC immi1ratio! +oi'ie"C 'oo!ia
'o!L$e"tC t(e "$,K$1atio! a!* *omi!atio! o% tri,$tar4 e'o!omie"C
t(e %or'e* reor1a!i>atio! o% t(e *ivi"io! o% a,o$r ;it(i! e'o!omi'
em+ire"C a!*C G!a4C t(e +(4"i'a *e"tr$'tio! a!* %or'e* *eva$atio!
o% a rivaF" 'a+ita t(ro$1( ;ar are so'e o, t(e met(o*" at (a!*$ Ea"h
entails the a//ressi;e 'ani4ulation o, so'e as4e"t o, e"ono'i" Anan"ial or state 4o6er$ T(e
+oiti'" o% im+eriai"m the sense that the "ontra#i"tions o, "a4italis' "an be "ure# throu/h
6orl# #o'ination by so'e o'ni4otent 4o6er "$r1e" to t(e %ore%ro!t. T(e i" o% 'a+itai"m
'a!!ot "o ea"i4 ,e 'o!tai!e*$ Qet the #e/eneration o, e"ono'i" into 4oliti"al stru//les 4lays its 4art in
the lon/7run stabiliFation o, "a4italis' 4ro;i#e# enou/h "a4ital is #estroye# en route$ 0atriotis' an#
nationalis' ha;e 'any ,un"tions in the "onte'4orary 6orl# an# 'ay arise ,or #i;erse reasonsK but they
,re>uently 4ro;i#e a 'ost "on;enient "o;er ,or the #e;aluation o, both "a4ital an# labour$ 2e 6ill shortly
return to this as4e"t o, 'atters sin"e it i" I belie;e ,4 %ar t(e mo"t "erio$" t(reat
not only to the sur;i;al o, "a4italis' (6hi"h 'atters not a Bot) but to t(e "$rviva o% t(e
($ma! ra'e . T;i'e in the t6entieth "entury t(e ;or* (a" ,ee! +$!1e* i!to 1o,a ;ar
t(ro$1( i!terAim+eriai"t rivarie"$ )6i"e in the s4a"e o, a /eneration t(e ;or*
ex+erie!'e* t(e ma""ive *eva$atio! o% 'a+ita t(ro$1( +(4"i'a
*e"tr$'tio!C t(e $timate 'o!"$m+tio! o% a,o$r +o;er a" 'a!!o!
%o**er. Ca"" ;ar%are o, "ourse (a" ta<e! it" to i! i%e a!* im,C mai!4 t(ro$1( the ;iolen"e
#aily ;isite# by "a4ital u4on labour in the 6or* 4la"e an# throu/h the ;iolen"e o, 4ri'iti;e a""u'ulation
(in"lu#in/ im+eriai"t ;ar" %o$1(t a1ai!"t ot(er "o'ia %ormatio!" i! t(e
!ame o% 'a+itai"t F%ree*om"F)$ Cut t(e va"t o""e" i!'$rre* i! t;o ;or* ;ar" ;ere
+rovo<e* ,4 i!terAim+eriai"t rivarie". -o6 "an this be e@4laine# on the basis o, a theory that
a44eals to the "lass relation bet6een "a4ital an# labour as ,un#a'ental to the inter4retation o, historyR
)his 6as o, "ourse the 4roble' 6ith 6hi"h Lenin 6restle# in his essay on i'4erialis'$ Cut his ar/u'ent
as 6e sa6 in "ha4ter 10 is 4la/ue# by a'bi/uity$ Is Anan"e "a4ital national or internationalR 2hat is the
relation then bet6een the 'ilitary an# 4oliti"al #e4loy'ent o, state 4o6er an# the un#oubte# tren#
6ithin "a4italis' to "reate 'ultinational ,or's an# to ,or/e /lobal s4atial inte/rationR An# i, 'ono4olies
an# Anan"e "a4ital 6ere so 4o6er,ul an# 4rone in any "ase to "ollusion then 6hy "oul# they not "ontain
"a4italis'(s "ontra#i"tions short o, #estroyin/ ea"h otherR 2hat is it then that 'a*es inter7i'4erialist
6ars ne"essary to the sur;i;al o, "a4italis'R )he (thir# "ut( at "risis theory su//ests an inter4retation o,
inter7i'4erialist 6ars as "onstituti;e 'o'ents in the #yna'i"s o, a""u'ulation rather than as
abberations a""i#ents or the si'4le 4ro#u"t o, e@"essi;e /ree#$ Let us see ho6 this is so$ 2hen the (inner
#iale"ti"( at 6or* 6ithin a re/ion #ri;es it to see* e@ternal resolutions to its 4roble's then it 'ust sear"h
out ne6 'ar*ets ne6 o44ortunities ,or "a4ital e@4ort "hea4 ra6 'aterials lo67"ost labour 4o6er et"$ All
su"h 'easures i, they are to be anythin/ other than a te'4orary 4alliati;e either 4ut a "lai' on ,uture
labour or else #ire"tly entail an e@4ansion o, the 4roletariat$ )his e@4ansion "an be a""o'4lishe# throu/h
4o4ulation /ro6th the 'obiliFation o, latent se"tors o, the reser;e ar'y or 4ri'iti;e a""u'ulation$ T(e
i!"atia,e t(ir"t o% 'a+itai"m %or %re"( "$++ie" o% a,o$r a''o$!t"
%or t(e vi1o$r ;it( ;(i'( it (a" +$r"$e* +rimitive a''$m$atio!C
43
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
*e"tro4i!1C tra!"%ormi!1 a!* a,"or,i!1 +reA'a+itai"t +o+$atio!"
;(erever it G!*" t(em$ 2hen sur4luses o, labour are there ,or the ta*in/ an# "a4italists ha;e
not throu/h "o'4etition erroneously 4inne# their ,ates to a te"hnolo/i"al 'i@ 6hi"h "annot absorb that
labour then "rises are ty4i"ally o, short #uration 'ere hi""u4s on a /eneral traBe"tory o, sustaine# /lobal
a""u'ulation an# usually 'ani,est as 'il# s6it"hin/ "rises 6ithin an e;ol;in/ stru"ture o, une;en
/eo/ra4hi"al #e;elo4'ent$ )his 6as stan#ar# ,are ,or nineteenth7"entury "a4italis'$ T(e rea
tro$,e" ,e1i! ;(e! 'a+itai"t" ,atin/ shorta/es o, labour su44ly an# as e;er ur/e# on
by "o'4etition i!*$'e $!em+o4me!t t(ro$1( te'(!oo1i'a i!!ovatio!"
;(i'( *i"t$r, t(e eL$ii,ri$m ,et;ee! +ro*$'tio! a!* reai>atio!
bet6een the 4ro#u"ti;e ,or"es an# their a""o'4anyin/ so"ial relations$ )he "losin/ o, the ,rontiers to
4ri'iti;e a""u'ulation throu/h sheer e@haustion o, 4ossibilities in"reasin/ resistan"e on the 4art o, 4re7
"a4italist 4o4ulations or 'ono4oliFation by so'e #o'inant 4o6er has there,ore a tre'en#ous
si/niA"an"e ,or the lon/7run stability o, "a4italis'$ )his 6as the sea7"han/e that be/an to be ,elt
in"reasin/ly as "a4italis' 'o;e# into the t6entieth "entury$ It 6as the sea7"han/e that ,ar 'ore than the
rise o, 'ono4oly or Anan"e ,or's o, "a4italis' 4laye# the "ru"ial role in 4ushin/ "a4italis' #ee4er into
the 'ire o, /lobal "rises an# le# ine@orably to the *in#s o, 4ri'iti;e a""u'ulation an# #e;aluation Bointly
6rou/ht throu/h inter7"a4italist 6ars$ )he 'e"hanis's as al6ays are intri"ate in their #etails an# /reatly
"on,use# in a"tual histori"al "onBun"tures by innu'erable "ross7"urrents o, "on?i"tin/ ,or"es$ Cut 6e "an
"onstru"t a si'4le line o, ar/u'ent to illustrate the i'4ortant 4oints$ Any re/ional allian"e i, it is to
"ontinue the 4ro"ess o, a""u'ulation 'ust 'aintain a""ess to reser;es o, labour as 6ell as to those
(,or"es o, nature( (su"h as *ey 'ineral resour"es) that are other6ise "a4able o, 'ono4oliFation$ Fe6
4roble's arise i, reser;es o, both e@ist in the re/ion 6herein 'ost lo"al "a4ital "ir"ulates$ 2hen internal
,rontiers "lose "a4ital has to loo* else6here or ris* #e;aluation$ )he re/ional allian"e ,eels the stress
bet6een "a4ital e'be##e# in 4la"e an# "a4ital that 'o;es to "reate ne6 an# 4er'anent "entres o,
a""u'ulation else6here$ Con?i"t bet6een #i=erent re/ional an# national "a4itals o;er a""ess to labour
reser;es an# natural resour"es be/ins to be ,elt$ )he the'es o, internationalis' an# 'ultilaterialis' run
har# u4 a/ainst the #esire ,or autar*y as the 'eans to 4reser;e the 4osition o, so'e 4arti"ular re/ion in
the ,a"e o, internal "ontra#i"tions an# e@ternal 4ressures 7 autar*y o, the sort that 4re;aile# in the 193&s
as Critain seale# in its Co''on6ealth tra#e an# Ja4an e@4an#e# into +an"huria an# 'ainlan# Asia
Ger'any into eastern Euro4e an# Italy into A,ri"a 4ittin/ #i=erent re/ions a/ainst ea"h other ea"h
4ursuin/ its o6n (s4atial A@($ &nly the Dnite# States ,oun# it a44ro4riate to 4ursue an (o4en #oor( 4oli"y
,oun#e# on internationalis' an# 'ultilateral tra#in/$ In the en# the ;ar ;a" %o$1(t to "ontain
autar*y an# to o+e! $+ t(e ;(oe ;or* to the 4otentialities o, 1eo1ra+(i'a
ex+a!"io! a!* $!imite* $!eve! *eveo+me!t. T(at "o$tio!C
+$r"$e* "i!1eAmi!*e*4 $!*er B!ite* 7tate"F" (e1emo!4 a%ter
1643C (a* t(e a*va!ta1e o% ,ei!1 "$+erAim+o"e* $+o! o!e o% t(e
mo"t "ava1e ,o$t" o% *eva$atio! a!* *e"tr$'tio! ever re'or*e* i!
'a+itai"mF" vioe!t (i"tor4. An# si/nal beneAts a""rue# not si'4ly ,ro' the i''ense
#estru"tion o, "a4ital but also ,ro' the une;en /eo/ra4hi"al #istribution o, that #estru"tion$ T(e
;or* ;a" "ave* %rom t(e terror" o% t(e 1reat *e+re""io! !ot ,4
"ome 1orio$" F!e; *eaF or t(e ma1i' to$'( o% 9e4!e"ia! e'o!omi'"
i! t(e trea"$rie" o% t(e ;or*C ,$t ,4 t(e *e"tr$'tio! a!* *eat( o%
1o,a ;ar.
44
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
AT: Ca+
COLONIALI7? NECE77ITATE7 T@E C#EATION OF A
7T#BCTB#E TO CONT#OL LA8O# AND
)#ODBCTIONVT@I7 7Y7TE? NATB#ALIUE7
7B8O#DINATION AND DO?INATION
D$iKa!o 2=== (AnVbal 4ro,essor o, the De4art'ent o, So"iolo/y at
Cin/ha'ton Dni;ersity <e6 Qor* NColoniality o, 0o6er Euro"entris'
an# Latin A'eri"aO)
In the histori"al 4ro"ess o, the "onstitution o, A'eri"aC a %orm" o% 'o!tro a!*
ex+oitatio! o% a,or a!* +ro*$'tio!C a" ;e a" t(e 'o!tro o%
a++ro+riatio! a!* *i"tri,$tio! o% +ro*$'t"C revove* aro$!* t(e
'a+itaA"aar4 reatio! a!* t(e ;or* mar<et. T(e"e %orm" o% a,or
'o!tro i!'$*e* "aver4C "er%*om 4etty7"o''o#ity 4ro#u"tion re"i4ro"ity a!*
;a1e". I! "$'( a! a""em,a1eC ea'( %orm o% a,or 'o!tro ;a" !o
mere exte!"io! o% it" (i"tori'a a!te'e*e!t". A o% t(e"e %orm" o%
a,or ;ere (i"tori'a4 a!* "o'ioo1i'a4 !e;5 in the Arst 4la"e be"ause t(e4
;ere *ei,erate4 e"ta,i"(e* a!* or1a!i>e* to +ro*$'e 'ommo*itie"
%or t(e ;or* mar<etK in the se"on# 4la"e be"ause they #i# not 'erely e@ist si'ultaneously in
the sa'e s4a"e/ti'e but ea'( o!e o% t(em ;a" a"o arti'$ate* to 'a+ita a!*
it" mar<et$ T($" t(e4 'o!G1$re* a !e; 1o,a mo*e o% a,or 'o!tro
an# in turn a ,un#a'ental ele'ent o, a ne6 'o#el o, 4o6er to 6hi"h they 6ere histori"ally stru"turally
#e4en#ent$ )hat is to say the 4la"e an# ,un"tion an# there,ore the histori"al 'o;e'ent o, a %orm"
o% a,or a" "$,or*i!ate* +oi!t" o% a totait4 ,eo!1e* to t(e !e;
mo*e o% +o;er in s4ite o, their hetero/eneous s4e"iA" traits an# their #is"ontinuous relations
6ith that totality$ In the thir# 4la"e an# as a "onse>uen"e ea"h ,or' o, labor #e;elo4e# into ne6 traits
an# histori"al7stru"tural "onA/urations$ Inso,ar as that "tr$'t$re o% 'o!tro o% a,orC
re"o$r'e"C a!* +ro*$'t" 'o!"i"te* o% t(e Koi!t arti'$atio! o, all the
res4e"ti;e histori"ally *no6n ,or's a 1o,a mo*e o% 'o!tro o% ;or< ;a"
e"ta,i"(e* %or t(e Gr"t time i! <!o;! (i"tor4$ An# 6hile it 6as "onstitute#
aroun# an# in the ser;i"e o, "a4ital its "onA/uration as a 6hole 6as establishe# 6ith a "a4italist "hara"ter
as 6ell$ T($" emer1e* a !e;C ori1i!aC a!* "i!1$ar "tr$'t$re o%
reatio!" o% +ro*$'tio! i! t(e (i"tori'a ex+erie!'e o% t(e ;or*:
;or* 'a+itai"m.
4H
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
T(e o1i' o% t(e 'oo!4 +er+et$ate" i!%eriorit4V+o"it"
!ative +o+$atio!" a!* re"o$r'e" a" "ta!*i!1
re"erve to ,e $"e* to %$rt(er i!"tit$tio!a
mea!".
D$iKa!o 2=== (AnVbal 4ro,essor o, the De4art'ent o, So"iolo/y at
Cin/ha'ton Dni;ersity <e6 Qor* NColoniality o, 0o6er Euro"entris'
an# Latin A'eri"aO)
)he ,a"t is that ,ro' the ;ery be/innin/ o, the "oloniFation o, A'eri"a E$ro+ea!" a""o'iate* !o!+ai* or
!o!;a1e* a,or ;it( t(e *omi!ate* ra'e" ,e'a$"e t(e4 ;ere
Oi!%eriorP ra'e". T(e va"t 1e!o'i*e o% t(e I!*ia!" i! t(e Gr"t
*e'a*e" o% 'oo!i>atio! ;a" !ot 'a$"e* +ri!'i+a4 ,4 t(e vioe!'e o%
t(e 'o!L$e"t nor by the 4la/ues the "on>uista#ors brou/ht but too* 4la"e be"ause so 'any Ameri'a! I!*ia!" ;ere
$"e* a" *i"+o"a,e ma!$a a,or a!* %or'e* to ;or< $!ti *eat($ )he
eli'ination ,or this "olonial 4ra"ti"e #i# not en# until the #e,eat o, the en"o'en#eros in the 'i##le o, the si@teenth "entury$ )he subse>uent I,eria!
'oo!iai"m i!vove* a !e; +oiti'" o% +o+$atio! reor1a!i>atio!C a
reor/aniFation o, the In#ians an# their relations 6ith the "oloniFers$ Cut this #i# not a#;an"e A'eri"an In#ians as ,ree an# 6a/e# laborers$ Fro' then on t(e4
;ere a""i1!e* t(e "tat$" o% $!+ai* "er%"$ )he ser,#o' o, the A'eri"an In#ians "oul# not ho6e;er be
"o'4are# 6ith ,eu#al ser,#o' in Euro4e "i!'e it i!'$*e* !eit(er t(e "$++o"e* +rote'tio! o%
a %e$*a or* !orC !e'e""ari4C t(e +o""e""io! o% a +ie'e o% a!* to
'$tivate i!"tea* o% ;a1e"$ Ce,ore in#e4en#en"e the In#ian labor ,or"e o, ser,s re4ro#u"e# itsel, in the "o''unities but 'ore than
one hun#re# years a,ter in#e4en#en"e a lar/e 4art o, the In#ian ser,s 6as still obli/e# to re4ro#u"e the labor ,or"e on its o6n$ )he other ,or' o, un6a/e# or si'4ly 4ut
un4ai# labor "aver4C ;a" a""i1!e* ex'$"ive4 to t(e O,a'<P +o+$atio!
,ro$1(t %rom A%ri'a. T(e ra'ia 'a""iG'atio! o% t(e +o+$atio! a!*
t(e ear4 a""o'iatio! o% t(e !e; ra'ia i*e!titie" o% t(e 'oo!i>e*
;it( t(e %orm" o% 'o!tro o% $!+ai*C $!;a1e* a,or *eveo+e*
amo!1 t(e E$ro+ea!" t(e "i!1$ar +er'e+tio! t(at +ai* a,or ;a"
t(e ;(ite"N +rivie1e. T(e ra'ia i!%eriorit4 o% t(e 'oo!i>e*
im+ie* t(at t(e4 ;ere !ot ;ort(4 o% ;a1e". T(e4 ;ere !at$ra4
o,i1e* to ;or< %or t(e +roGt o% t(eir o;!er". It is not #i."ult to ,un# to this ;ery #ay this attitu#e
s4rea# out a'on/ the 6hite 4ro4erty o6ners o, any 4la"e in the 6orl#$ Further'ore the lo6er 6a/es Nin,erior ra"esO re"ei;e in the 4resent "a4italist "enters ,or the sa'e
6or* as #one by 6hites "annot be e@4laine# as #eta"he# ,ro' the ra"ist so"ial "lassiA"ation o, the 6orl#Ls 4o4ulationZin other 6or#s as #eta"he# ,ro' the /lobal
"a4italist "oloniality o, 4o6er$
4I
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
AT: A!t(ro
.
)E#? DO T@E AFF: 0E O)EN OB#7EL&E7 B) TO T@E BNI&E#7E
T@#OB.@ DELIN9IN. E)I7TO?OLO.Y T@AT ALLO07 B7 TO 8E
O)EN TO ANI?ALITY IN7TEAD OF T#YIN. TO CONTAIN O#
DE7T#OY IT.
Y$"oQ 1= (Kathryn Y$"oQ Le"turer in -u'an (an# <on7hu'an) Geo/ra4hy an#
Dire"tor o, the +A in Cli'ate Chan/e at the Dni;ersity o, E@eter NCio4oliti"al
E"ono'ies an# the 0oliti"al Aestheti"s o, Cli'ate Chan/eO )heory Culture So"iety
201= 2J5 J3 (Sa/e))
)he i'4li"ations o, this thin*in/ are that 6e 'ust atten# to !an"igreLs #istribution o, the sensible to
atta"* the a 4riori ,or's that /o;ern 6hat is ;isible in e@4erien"e an# 4oliti"s an# to re"onstitute our
4oliti"al aestheti"s o, "li'ate "han/e 6ith A/ures that 'a*e ;isible both the 4lay o, the 6orl# an# the
e;a"uation o, that 4lay ,ro' the 6orl#$ In or#er to 'a*e this ar/u'ent o, "ontinually un6or*in/ restri"te#
"ate/ories o, e@4erien"e Cataille #es"en#s into the ar"hi;al or#ers to brin/ to thou/ht those e@4erien"es
that are e@"lu#e# an# are "ru"ial to the 4ar"elin/ out o, the ;isible an# in;isible$ 2hat is at issue in
CatailleLs ar"hi;al ,orays is the b#ouble useL o, e;erythin/5 an ele;ate# use an# a lo6 use 6hi"h thro6s
into relie, the to4olo/y o, the ar"hi;e throu/h this b#e7"lass(i,y)in/L o4eration (Cataille 199J5 4J)$ )he #e7
"lassiA"ation both interru4ts the ar"hi;e be"ause there is literally no 4la"e ,or these e@4erien"es an#
si/nals the li'its o, su"h 'o#es o, a""ountin/$ In his re,usal o, the stable or#er o, #estru"ti;e thin/s
("olle"tions o, natural history ha;e al6ays been "olle"tions o, the #ea#) 8ataie o+e!"
<!o;e*1e $+ to t(e ;o$!* t(at 'a! 'o!!e't $" to t(e imma!e!'e o%
t(e $!iver"eC be that t(ro$1( eart(;orm" or s4it ;i* ,ea"t" or o$r o;!
a!imait4 $ 2hile 6e 'i/ht a"*no6le#/e our "o7e;olution 6ith lots o, non7hu'ans as an i'4ortant
ste4 in un#erstan#in/ ;arious ,or's o, "ohabitation an# ,or's o, histori"al in#ebte#ness an# inheritan"e
(Clar* 200H 200J5 I3K Di4rose 20025 42) in the en# (an# in the e@4erien"e) this is not 6hat is at sta*e in
losin/ the 4lay o, the 6orl#$ As Cataille ar/ue# ;(at o+e!" ,e%ore $" i! a!imait4 i"
,ot( i!terior a!* exter!a to $" W it i" a i!e o% 'omm$!i'atio!
,et;ee! t;o ;or*" $ -e says5 b0e 'a'$ate o$r i!tere"t"C ,$t this
situation ba,?es us5 T(e ver4 ;or* i!tere"t i" 'o!tra*i'tor4 ;it( t(e
*e"ire at "ta<e $!*er t(e"e 'o!*itio!" L (1991a5 30)$ De"ire ,or Cataille i"
,o$!* to a!* ,4 t(e i!tima'4 o% t(at ex+erie!'e W it m$"t ,e ,o$!*
to ex+erie!'e a" a +o""i,iit4 o% +oiti'" a!* it m$"t ,e ,o$!* ,4 t(e
%orm o% t(at ae"t(eti' ex+erie!'e ;(i'( %or'e" a ret(i!<i!1 o% t(e
*omi!a!t +reAor*ere* %orm" o% ex+erie!'e $ In short "ate/ories o, e@4erien"e 'ust
be ,aith,ul to those e@4erien"es$ Cli'ate "han/e 'ust ,or"e ne6 i'a/es ,ull o, loss an# ra/e that s"rea'
throu/h our aestheti" or#ers to brea* 6ith the sto"*4ilin/ o, nature in neat "ate/ories o, e@tin"tion$ At a
time ;(e! "o m$'( i" at "ta<eC a t(i!<i!1 t(at *oe" !ot "(4 a;a4
%rom t(e imit" o% a! ex'(a!1e ;it( a!imait4 both e@uberant an# ;iolent i"
"$re4 !ee*e*$ T(i" *e"ire to e!*e""4 a""u'ulate an# %e!* oQ o"" a!*
*e"tr$'tio! $timate4 i!Sate" t(e i<ei(oo* a!* ma1!it$*e o%
'ata"tro+(e a!* o"" $ T(i" i" ;(at i" "o +ara*oxi'a a,o$t "trate1ie"
t(at ex$*e 'areC ,$t ret$r! to a e*1er o% a''o$!ti!1 "o "t$tiGe*
t(at t(e4 im+ri"o! o"" i! a re"tri'te* e'o!om4C e!*e""4
"$++re"" in/ t(e %or'e o% that bio4oliti"al ex'(a!1e (,e t(at ;it( +oar
,ear" or t(e o!1A*ea* a!ima %o""i" t(at (ave %$ee* o$r 'ar,o!A
'imate ex+erime!t). T(e re"tri'te* e'o!om4 6hi"h Cataille arti"ulates
"(are" ever4t(i!1 ;it( t(e o1i' o% i!*$"tria 'a+itai"t mo*er!it4
4J
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
t(at (a" ,ee! "o *e"tr$'tive to ot(er %orm" o% i%e an# nothin/ 6ith the
inti'a"y o, e@4erien"e that "an o4en u4 4ossibility in a 4oliti"s o, bio4oliti"al li;in/$ 2hat is "ru"ial here in
the "onstant bbrin/in/ #o6n in the 6orl#L o, a""u'ulati;e "ate/ories is an atta"* on "onser;ation itsel, as
a 4ra"ti"e that i/nores the li'its o, the bios4here (,or Cataille these are the only real li'its)$ -o6 the
bio4oliti"al is or#ere# throu/h ar"hi;al 4rin"i4les is *ey to the 4ossibilities o, inti'a"y an# ethi"s$ As GrosF
as*s5 b6hat 6oul# an ethi"s be li*e that #i# not reboun# 6ith e"hoes o, an e@"han/e #i"tate# by the 4astRL
(19995 11)$ Cy "onser;in/ an# a""u'ulatin/ our ar"hi;es o, #estru"tion 6e "ontinue or#erin/ an#
s4en#in/ #estru"tion 6ithout e;er trans/ressin/ the li'its (to trans/ress the li'it is to be"o'e a6are o,
the li'it) in 6ays that brin/ "atastro4hi" loss an# 6holesale #estru"tion be"ause ;iolen"e an# /enerosity
are syste'ati"ally re4resse#$ )he blin#s4ot in ar"hi;es o, e@tin"tion is that they use the ;ery sa'e
'a"hinations an# ,or's o, thou/ht to ran* an# #is"i4line loss as those 4ra"ti"es that are 4art o, the
#estru"tion T the slo6 a""u'ulate# loss an# en"roa"h'ent o, late "a4italis' that sees no li'its to its
a""u'ulati;e "a4a"ity$ As Stoe*l "o''ents in his #is"ussion o, Cataille an# ener/y 4oliti"s5 b)he >ualiAe#
'e"haniFe# #estru"tion o, the Earth be"o'es the >uantiAe# 'e"haniFe# 4reser;ation o, the EarthL
(200Ja5 133)$
41
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
AT: 8io+oiti'" #oot Ca$"e
T(eorie" o% 8io+oiti'" are "ti 'e!tere* o! E$ro+ea!
$!*er"ta!*i!1 o% t(e "tate a!* me'(a!i"m" o%
'o!tro. De'oo!iait4 e"'a+e" t(e E$ro'e!tri'
tra+ a!* +rovi*e" a ,etter <!o;e*1e ,a"e %or
*eveo+i!1 'o$!trie" to e"'a+e mo*er!it4.
?i1!oo 2=11 (2alter D$ is 2illia' -$ 2anna'a*er 0ro,essor o, Literature an# !o'an"e
Stu#ies an# Dire"tor o, the Center ,or Global Stu#ies an# the -u'anities at Du*e Dni;ersity NGeo4oliti"s
o, Sensin/ an# Kno6in/ &n (De)Coloniality Cor#er )hin*in/ an# E4iste'i" Disobe#ien"eO ei4"4$net
2011 htt45//ei4"4$net/trans;ersal/0112/'i/nolo/en) !W
(De)Coloniality[1` is in the Arst 4la"e a "on"e4t 6hose 4oint o, ori/ination 6as the )hir# 2orl#$ Cetter
yet it e'er/e# at the ;ery 'o'ent in 6hi"h the three 6orl# #i;ision 6as "olla4sin/ an# the "elebration o,
the en# o, history an# a ne6 6orl# or#er 6as e'er/in/$ )he nature o, its i'4a"t 6as si'ilar to the i'4a"t
4ro#u"e# by the intro#u"tion o, t(e 'o!'e+t o% O,io+oiti'"CP 6hose +oi!t o%
ori1i!atio! ;a" E$ro+e$ Li*e its Euro4ean "ounter4art N'oo!iait4P move* to
t(e 'e!ter o% i!ter!atio!a *e,ate" i! t(e !o!AE$ro+ea! ;or* a"
;e a" i! O%ormer Ea"ter! E$ro+e.P 0(ie O,io+oiti'"P move* to
'e!ter "ta1e i! O%ormer 0e"ter! E$ro+eO (",r$ the Euro4ean Dnion) an# the Dnite#
States as 6ell as a'on/ so'e intelle"tual 'inorities o, the non7Euro4ean ,ollo6ers o, i#eas that
ori/inate# in Euro4e but 6ho a#a4t the' to lo"al "ir"u'stan"es N'oo!iait4P oQer" a
!ee*e* "e!"e o% 'om%ort to mai!4 +eo+e o% 'oor i! *eveo+i!1
'o$!trie"C mi1ra!t" a!*C i! 1e!eraC to a va"t L$a!titative maKorit4
;(o"e i%e ex+erie!'e"C o!1 a!* "(ortAterm memorie"C a!1$a1e"
a!* 'ate1orie" o% t(o$1(t" are aie!ate* to i%e ex+erie!'eC o!1 a!*
"(ortAterm memorie"C a!1$a1e" a!* 'ate1orie" o% t(o$1(t t(at
,ro$1(t a,o$t t(e 'o!'e+t o% O,io+oiti'"P to a''o$!t %or
me'(a!i"m" o% 'o!tro a!* "tate re1$atio!". [2` +o#ernity
4ost'o#ernity an# alter'o#ernity ha;e their histori"al /roun#in/ in the
Enli/hten'ent an# the Fren"h !e;olution$ De"oloniality has its histori"al
/roun#in/ in the Can#un/ Con,eren"e o, 19HH in 6hi"h 29 "ountries ,ro' Asia an#
A,ri"a /athere#$ )he 'ain /oal o, the "on,eren"e 6as to An# a "o''on
/roun# an# ;ision ,or the ,uture that 6as neither "a4italis' nor
"o''unis'$ )hat 6ay 6as N#e"oloniFation$O It 6as not Na thir# 6ayO h la
Gi##ens but a #elin*in/ ,ro' the t6o 'aBor 2estern 'a"ro7narrati;es$ )he
"on,eren"e o, the <on7Ali/ne# "ountries ,ollo6e# suit in 19I1 an# too* 4la"e in Cel/ra#e$ &n that
o""asion se;eral Latin A'eri"an "ountries Boine# ,or"es 6ith Asian an# A,ri"an "ountries$ FrantF FanonLs
)he 2ret"he# o, the Earth 6as also 4ublishe# in 19I1$ )hus the 4oliti"al an# e4iste'i"
,oun#ations o, #e"oloniality ha# been establishe# in A,ty7A;e years$ Fro'
then until no6 an# ,ro' no6 to the ,uture it 6ill be #e"oloniality all the 6ay #o6n T not as a ne6 uni;ersal
that 4resents itsel, as the ri/ht one that su4erse#es all the 4re;ious an# e@istin/ ones but as an o4tion$ Cy
4resentin/ itsel, as an o4tion the #e"olonial o4ens u4 a 6ay o, thin*in/ that #elin*s ,ro' the "hronolo/ies
o, ne6 e4iste'es or ne6 4ara#i/'s ('o#ern 4ost'o#ern alter'o#ern <e6tonian s"ien"e >uantu'
theory the theory o, relati;ity et"$)$ E4iste'es an# 4ara#i/'s are not alien to #e"olonial thin*in/$ )hey
"annot be but are no lon/er the 4oint o, re,eren"e an# o, e4iste'i" le/iti'a"y$ 2hile the
Can#un/ Con,eren"e 4ronoun"e# itsel, in the 4oliti"al terrain as neither
"a4italis' nor "o''unis' but as #e"oloniFation to#ay thin*in/
#e"olonially is "on"erne# 6ith /lobal e>uality an# e"ono'i" Busti"e
49
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
but it also asserts that 2estern #e'o"ra"y an# so"ialis' are not the
only t6o 'o#els to orient our thin*in/ an# our #oin/$ De"olonial
ar/u'ents 4ro'ote the "o''unal as another o4tion ne@t to "a4italis'
an# "o''unis'$ In the s4irit o, Can#un/ Ay'ara intelle"tual Si'on
Qa'4ara 'a*es "lear that Ay'aras are neither "a4italist nor
"o''unist$ )hey 4ro'ote #e"olonial thin*in/ an# "o''unal #oin/$M3P
Ce"ause #e"olonialityLs 4oint o, ori/ination 6as the )hir# 2orl# in its #i;ersity o, lo"al histories an#
#i=erent ti'es an# 2estern i'4erial "ountries that Arst inter,ere# 6ith those lo"al histories T be it in
)a6antinsuyu in the si@teenth "entury China in the nineteenth "entury or Ira> ,ro' the be/innin/ o, the
t6entieth (Fran"e an# En/lan#) to the be/innin/ o, the t6enty7Arst "entury (the DS) T bor#er thin*in/ is
the e4iste'i" sin/ularity o, any #e"olonial 4roBe"t$ 2hyR Ce"ause bor#er e4iste'olo/y is the e4iste'olo/y
o, the anthropoi, 6ho #o not 6ant to sub'it to humanitas, but at the sa'e ti'e "annot a;oi# it$
De"oloniality an# bor#er thin*in//sensin//#oin/ are then stri"tly inter"onne"te# sin"e #e"oloniality
"oul#nLt be Cartesian or +ar@ian$ In other 6or#s #e"olonialityLs 4oint o, ori/ination in the )hir# 2orl#
"onne"ts to Ni''i/rant "ons"iousnessO in 2estern Euro4e an# the DS to#ay$ NI''i/rant "ons"iousnessO is
lo"ate# in the routes o, #is4ersion o, #e"olonial an# bor#er thin*in/$
H0
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
AT: Native"
COLONIALI7? AND COLONIAL E)I7TO?OLO.Y I7 T@E #OOT
CBA7E OF NATI&E .ENOCIDE AND CONTINBED O))#E77ION. 8Y
E?8#ACIN. T@E AFFI#?ATI&E ?ET@OD OF DEALIN9 0E CAN
LOO9 C#ITICALLY AT @O0 0E EN.A.E 0IT@ COLONIUED
)EO)LE7 AND 7T#BCTB#ALLY C@AN.E OB# #ELATION7@I)
0IT@ T@E?.
)E#?: DO AFF
A%re* 2==6
(.era* Taiaia<e A%re*C )(DC 7'(oo o% I!*i1eo$" .over!a!'eC
B!iver"it4 o% &i'toriaC 11: 2==6C A''e""e* o! -:23:14C
(tt+:::;e,.$vi'.'a:i1ov:$+oa*":+*%:.TA.Coo!iai"mJ2=a!*
J2=7tateJ2=De+e!*e!'4J2=NA@O
J2=&3ZI2ZCoo!iai"mZ=2.+*%I0@)
O!1oi!1 i!*i1e!o$" "tr$11e" a1ai!"t 'oo!iai"m 'o!"i"t mai!4 o%
eQort" to re*re"" t(e %$!*ame!ta i!K$"ti'e o% ,ei!1 %or'i,4
remove* %rom t(eR a!* or ,ei!1 *e!ie* a''e"" to t(e a!* to
'o!ti!$e tra*itio!a '$t$ra a'tivitie". Yet t(ere i" a!ot(er a"+e't to
'oo!iai"m ;(i'( i" o%te! i1!ore* i! t(e +$,i' *i"'o$r"eC a!*
'ertai!4 *oe" !ot %orm a maKor %o'$" o% eit(er Fir"t Natio!
or1a!i>atio! or Ca!a*ia! 1over!me!t +oi'4 eQort". )his as4e"t is the
"olonially7/enerate# "ultural #isru4tion a=e"tin/ First <ations that "o'4oun#s t(e eQe't" o%
*i"+o""e""io! to 'reate !ear tota +"4'(oo1i'aC +(4"i'aR a!*
G!a!'ia *e+e!*e!'4 o! t(e "tate. T(e '$m$ativeR a!* o!1oi!1
eQe't" o% t(i" 'ri"i" o% *e+e!*e!'4 %orm t(e ivi!1 'o!text o% mo"t
Fir"t Natio!" exi"te!'e" to*a4. T(i" 'om+ex reatio!"(i+ ,et;ee!
t(e eQe't" o% "o'ia "$Qeri!1C $!re"ove* +"4'(o+(4"i'a (arm" o%
(i"tori'a tra$ma a!*R 42 Io$r!a *e a "a!ta a$to'(to!eC !ovem,re
2==6R '$t$ra *i"o'atio! (ave 'reate* a "it$atio! i! ;(i'( t(e
o++ort$!itie" %or a "e%A"$f'ie!tC (eat(4 a!* a$to!omo$" i%e %or
Fir"t Natio!" +eo+e o! i!*ivi*$a a!* 'oe'tive ,a"e" are extreme4
imite*$S As is ty4i"al in all "olonial so"ieties First <ations to#ay are "hara"teriFe# as entren"he#
#e4en#en"ies in 4hysi"al 4sy"holo/i"al an# Anan"ial ter's on the ;ery 4eo4leS an# institutions that
ha;e "ause# the near erasure o, our e@isten"e an# 6ho ha;e "o'e to #o'inate us$S 0(e! o!e
'o!"i*er" t(e materia 'o!"eL$e!'e" o% Ca!a*aN" 'e!t$r4Ao!1 +oi'4
o% "tateA"+o!"ore*C %or'i,e a""imiatio!C a "im+e %a't emer1e": %or
1e!eratio!"C o++ort$!itie" to ive ;e as an Abori/inal 4erson (ave ,ee!
a'tive4 %r$"trate*. Su""essi;e /o;ern'ents "o''itte# to the notion that Abori/inalS S
"ultures belon/ only to the 4ast ha;e 'a#e no 4ro;ision ,or the 6ell7bein/ o, these "ultures in the 4resent
an# ,uture$ In the arran/e'ent o, Cana#aLs so"ial a=airs only the assi'ilate# In#ian has been o=ere#
e;en the 4ros4e"t o, 6ellness$ For t(o"e ;(o re"i"te* or re%$"e* t(e ,e!eGt"
o% a""imiatio!C 1over!me!t +oi'ie" a""$re* a i%e o% 'ertai!
i!*i1!it4. T(at i" t(e e""e!'e o% i%eR i! t(e 'oo!4: a""imiate a!* ,e
i<e $" or "$Qer t(e 'o!"eL$e!'e" (Kir'ayer ` [alas*a*is 2009 4$ @i)$S Ceyon# the
e=e"ts on the in#i;i#ual it is a realS tra/e#y that First <ations 4eo4le are /enerally 6antin/S o, the
H1
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
ins4iration an# su44ort that healthy an# "ohesi;e "o''unities 4ro;i#e$ C$t$ra *i"o'atio!
(a" e* to *e"+airC ,$t t(e rea *e+rivatio! i" t(e ero"io! o% a! et(i'R
o% $!iver"a re"+e't a!* re"+o!"i,iit4 t(at $"e* to ,e t(e (amar<
o% i!*i1e!o$" "o'ietie"$ )he 'aterial "on#itions o, First <ations li,e 4ressures e@erte# on
In#i/enous 4eo4le ,ro' settler so"iety an# this state o, o;erall #e4en#en"yS has "reate# a reality
"hara"teriFe# by #is"or# an# ;iolen"e e@4erien"e# as #aily ,a"ts o, li,e in 'ost First <ation "o''unities$S
T(e "e%A(ati!1 i!;ar* t$r! o% t(i" !e1ative e!er14 i! rea'tio! to
'oo!i>atio! i" o!e o% t(e mo"t *ama1i!1 a"+e't" o% t(e +ro,em 6hat
Lee +ara"le has "alle# the Nsyste'i" ra/eO so "o''on a'on/ "oloniFe# 4eo4les (+ara"leS 199I 4$ 12)$
Coo!iai"mC a" it i" $!*er"too* ,4 mo"t +eo+eC 'o!"i"t" i! "$'(
t(i!1" a" t(e re"o$r'e ex+oitatio!R o% i!*i1e!o$" a!*"C re"i*e!tia
"'(oo "4!*romeC ra'i"mC ex+ro+riatio! o% a!*"C exti!1$i"(me!t o%
ri1(t"C ;ar*"(i+C a!* ;e%are *e+e!*e!'4. An# 6hile all o, this is
"ertainly "olonialis' In#i/enous 4eo4le #onLt e@4erien"e "olonialis'
as theories or as analyti" "ate/ories$ Colonialis' is 'a#e real in the
li;es o, First <ations +eo+e ;(e! t(e"e t(i!1" 1o %rom ,ei!1 a "et o%
im+o"e* exter!aitie" to ,e'omi!1 'a$"e" o% (arm to t(em a" +eo+e
a!* a" 'omm$!itie"C imitatio!" +a'e* o! t(eir %ree*omC a!*
*i"t$r,i!1 me!taitie"C +"4'(oo1ie"C a!* ,e(avio$r" .R I! or*er to
1et to t(e root o% t(e 'oo!ia +ro,emS in Cana#a it is ne"essary
to un#erstan# that o44ression e@4erien"e# o;er su"h a lon/ 4erio# o,
ti'e e=e"ts 4eo4leLs 'in#s an# souls in seriously ne/ati;e 6ays$
+eanin/,ul #is"ussions on the subBe"t o, alle;iatin/ the har's that
"oloniFation has 6rou/ht re>uires seein/ beyon# "olonialis' as
histori"al 4ro"ess o, so"ietal "han/es or a set o, le/al an# 'ilitary
e;ents. It mea!" re'o1!i>i!1 t(at 'oo!ia i!K$"ti'e" a!*
o++re""io! (ave (a* eQe't" o! ,ot( i!*ivi*$a" a!*
'oe'tivitie"C a!* t(at a**re""i!1 t(e"e eQe't" !e'e""itate"
+er"+e'tive" a!* "trate1ie" t(at "it$ate Fir"t Natio!" +eo+e
!ot "im+4 a" i!*ivi*$a" ;it(i! Ca!a*aC ,$t a" mem,er"R o%
'$t$re* 'omm$!itie" o! t(e a!*$ Dn#erstan#in/ this history o, "olonialis' T the
4oliti"al an# e"ono'i" as4e"ts o, the "han/in/ relationshi4 bet6een In#i/enous 4eo4les an# Euro4ean
6hi"h resulte# in the subBu/ation o, First <ations to Euro4ean 4o6ers T is in a ,un#a'ental sense less
i'4ortant than a44re"iatin/ the #a'a/e to the "ultural inte/rity an# 'ental an# 4hysi"al health o, the
4eo4le an# "o''unities 6ho 'a*e u4 those nations$ As E#uar#o Duran has "hara"teriFe# the 4roble'5S
O!'e a 1ro$+ o% +eo+e (ave ,ee! a""a$te* i! a 1e!o'i*a %a"(io!C
t(ere are +"4'(oo1i'a ramiG'atio!". 0it( t(e vi'timN" 'om+ete
o"" o% +o;er 'ome" *e"+airC a!* t(e +"4'(e rea't" ,4 i!ter!ai>i!1
;(at a++ear"R to ,e 1e!$i!e +o;erVt(e +o;er o% t(e o++re""or.R
T(e i!ter!ai>i!1 +ro'e"" ,e1i!" ;(e! Fir"t Natio! Ameri'a! +eo+e
i!ter!ai>e t(e o++re""orC ;(i'( i" mere4 a 'ari'at$re o% t(e +o;er
a't$a4 ta<e! %rom Fir"t Natio! Ameri'a! +eo+e. At t(i" +oi!tC t(e
"e%A ;ort( o% t(e i!*ivi*$a a!*:or 1ro$+ (a" "$!< to a eve o%
*e"+air ta!tamo$!t to "e%A(atre*$ )his sel,7hatre# "an be either internaliFe# or
e@ternaliFe# (Duran ` Duran 199H 4$ 29K See also )re@ler 199H)$S In 4arti"ular In#i/enous 'enLs
#i."ulties in "o'4rehen#in/ an# #ealin/ e=e"ti;ely 6ith the sour"eS o, their o6n #ise'4o6er'ent has
le# to a "o'4oun#in/S o, the 4roble' ,or In#i/enous 6o'en an# "hil#ren 6hoS are ,re>uently the tar/ets
o, 'enLs ra/in/ 'ani,estationsS o, internaliFe# sel,7hatre#$ )his 4roble' e@ists in ;arious ,or's an#
intensities a"ross the entire e"ono'i" an# so"ial s4e"tru' in First <ations an# in s4ite o, other re"ent
4oliti"o7le/al a#;an"es in the e'4o6er'ent o, First <ations enter4rises an# /o;ern'ents$ 2o'en e@4ress
"oloniFe# 'in#sets as 6ell but 'ainly throu/h sel,7#estru"ti;e beha;iour$ +en ten# to "hannel their ra/e
e@ternally an#S as a "onse>uen"e /en#ere# ;iolen"e has be"o'e en#e'i" 6ithin First <ations
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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
"o''unities$S )he /ra#ual trans,or'ation o, First <ations "o''unities ,ro' ;iolent an# #is"or#ant
en;iron'ents "annot be a""o'4lishe# by "on"e4tualiFin/ the har'S as #ys,un"tion or by isolatin/
4roble' beha;iours$ It is be"o'in/ "lear as this 4a4er 6ill ar/ue that 6ithoutS the ,oun#ation 4ro;i#e#
by a "onne"tion to lan#7base# "ultural 4ra"ti"es an# the reestablish'ent o, authenti" in#i/enous
"o''unity li,e in#i;i#ualiFin/ e=orts a"tually 6or* to "o'4oun# the 4roble's by 4ro'otin/ ,urther
alienation ,ro' 4ro;en sour"es o, stren/th an# healin/ on the in#i;i#ual le;el an# the so"ial7"ultural
ato'iFation o, in#i/enous "o''unities$ T(i" +a+er a*vo'ate" a ra*i'aR Io$r!a o%
A,ori1i!a @eat(C Novem,er 2==6 43R Coo!iai"m a!* 7tate
De+e!*e!'4R R Coo!iai"m a!* 7tate De+e!*e!'4R a++roa'( to
'(a!1eC 'o!"i"ti!1 i! t(e eQort to rei!te1rate t(e e""e!tia %eat$re"
a!* ,e!eGt" o% a re'o!!e'tio! to (omea!* a!* o% Otra*itio!aP
i!*i1e!o$" a!*A,a"e* '$t$ra +ra'ti'e" t(at (ave +rove! i! ma!4
'a"e" to ,e <e4 to t(e re'amatio! o% "+irit$aC +(4"i'a a!*
+"4'(oo1i'a (eat( a!* to t(e re"toratio! o% 'omm$!itie"
'(ara'teri>e* ,4 +ea'e a!* (armo!4 a!* "tre!1t(.
H3
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
AT: .e!*er 9
COLONIALI7? CAB7E7 8INA#IE7C IN 7)ECIFICC
.ENDE#. 8Y 7OL&IN. FO# COLONIAL
E)I7TO?OLO.Y 0E CAN TA9E ET@ICAL 7TE)7
TO0A#D C#EATIN. )#A.?ATIC BNA.ENDE#ED
ACTION7.
Li!* 12 MA'y Lin# +ary Ellen -eintF En#o6e# Chair an# Asso"iate 0ro,essor o, 2o'enLs Gen#er
an# Se@uality Stu#ies Dni;ersity o, Cin"innati NInti'ate Go;ern'entalities the Latin A'eri"an Le,t an#
the De"olonial )urn$O ,e'inistsjla6 [ol 2 <o 1 (2012)
htt4s5//Bournals$*ent$a"$u*/*ent/in#e@$4h4/,e'inistsatla6/arti"le/;ie6/43/11HP
)(e "e'o!* *i"K$!'t$re I "ee *ra;" %rom t(e a,ove s"enario a!* "+ea<"
to (o; the 1over!a!'e o% i!tima'4 T or inti'ate /o;ern'entalities T a!*
,io+oiti'" are (or are !ot) $!*er"too* as 4art o, this 4ro"ess$ )hus ,ar m$'( o%
t(e em+(a"i" (a" ,ee! o! 'om+eti!1 mo*er!itie" amo!1 t(e
(e1emo!i' E$romo*er!it4 an# in#i/enous an# A,ro7'o#ernities$ Le"" (a" ,ee!
*o!e to $!*er"ta!* (o; !otio!" o% i%e a!* i!tima'4 'om+arative4
G1$re i!to t(e"e "o'4etin/ a""ounts an# ho6 this sha4es "urrent 4oliti"al 4ro"esses$ !ather
t(e"e i""$e" T 6hi"h s"holars su"h as Arturo Es"obar (199H) (ave !ote* are 'e!tra to
mo*er!C "olonial #e;elo4'entalist 1over!me!taitie" T "ontinue to be si#eline# an#/or
"o'4art'entaliFe#$ 2hile o, "ourse there are e@"e4tions #ebates on li,e or inti'a"y 4ertainin/ to
in#i/eneity ,ollo6 one traBe"tory (e$/$ an e'4hasis on sustainability an# o;er"o'in/ the nature/"ulture
#ualis')K *e,ate" o! t(e"e "ame i""$e" a" t(e4 +ertai! to "ex$ait4 or
/en#er t4+i'a4 %oo; a!ot(er traKe'tor4 (e$/$ an e'4hasis on "itiFen ri/hts or the
ri/ht to bo#ily inte/rity an# autono'y)$ An# /enerally s4ea*in/ *e,ate" o!
mo*er!it4:'oo!iait4C 'a+itai"m a!* "tate" i!vo<e a <i!* o%
(etero!ormativit4 t(at i" e%t $!exami!e* ,4 mo"t a!a4"t" #es4ite the
,a"t that by no6 ma!4 "'(oar" a!* a'tivi"t" (ave +oi!te* o$t t(e
'e!tra "i1!iG'a!'e o% (etero"ex$ait4 a" a "o'ia i!"tit$tio! i!
"(a+i!1 mo*er!:'oo!ia e'o!omie" an# so"ial li,e (see Lu/ones 2010 ,or a
#is"ussion o, this to4i")$ 7ome re%er to Ome!P a!* O;ome!CP i!'$*i!1 i!
*i"'$""io!" o% 1e!*er 'om+eme!tarit4 ;s$ /en#er (in)e>uality 6ithout >uestionin/
the "onstru"tion o, these "ate/ories the'sel;es (beyon# the ob;ious #ualis')$ +oreo;er there is no #oubt
that narrati;es o, re4ro#u"tion /en#er heteronor'ati;ity se@uality inti'a"y *inshi4 li,e #eath et"$
"ontinue to be "entral to both ri/ht76in/ an# le,tist ,or's o, /o;ernan"e to both neoliberal an# N4ost7
neoliberalO ,or's o, 4ro#u"tion an# to the alternati;e 'o#ernities bein/ sou/ht by in#i/enous an# A,ro7
Latin A'eri"an so"ial 'o;e'ents$ Cate/ories o, Nthe ,a'ilyO N/en#erO Nse@ualityO are no 'ore or less
N'o#ernO than "ate/ories o, Nra"eO or Nethni"ity$O Qet s"holars ten# to un#er7theoriFe the ,or'er "ate/ories
an# 6rite the' o= as Nsi'4ly 'o#ernO as solely Nre,or'istO or as a Nsi#e issueO an# there,ore
uninterestin/ ,or a #is"ussion o, alternati;e 'o#ernities or Nanother 6orl#$OS @o;ever "ome o%
t(e mo"t i!tere"ti!1 exam+e" o% +o"tAi,eral 4ost7"a4italist an# anti7neoliberal
+ra'ti'e" (ave 'ome o$t o% Omo*er!:'oo!iaP "o'ia moveme!t"
"$'( a" t(e e",ia!C 1a4C ,i"ex$aC tra!"1e!*er a!* L$eer moveme!t
i! both E'$a*or a!* 8oivia T 'o;e'ents that are 'ostly i/nore# by s"holars o, /lobal Busti"e
stu#ies an# Latin A'eri"an "ultural stu#ies$ T(e"e moveme!t" 6hile 4erha4s s'all in
"o'4arison to in#i/enous 'o;e'ents 6hen seen throu/h the Euro"entri" lens o, ;isibility/in;isibility (on
this to4i" see -orn 2010) are *ee+4 "i1!iG'a!t %or $!*er"ta!*i!1 (o; ,ot(
H4
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
'a+ita a!* "tate" "tr$'t$re a!* 1over! +eo+eN" i!timate ive"
in"lu#in/ ho6 they thin* ,eel e@4ress lo;e #esire see* ,or's o, atta"h'ent un#erstan# the'sel;es an#
their N"o''unities$O Ca4ital #eAnes ho6 lo;e itsel, is or is not ;alue# as 6ell as "onstru"te# (2eslin/
2012)$ Li*e6ise "tate +ra'ti'e" i!"tit$tio!ai>e mo*er!:'oo!ia !otio!" o%
i!tima'4C <i!"(i+C "ex$a +ra'ti'e et"$ thus attri,$ti!1 va$e to "ome
i!timate arra!1eme!t" 6hile ren#erin/ others in;isible un#eser;in/ or #e;iant T a
4heno'enon institutionaliFe# as 6ell throu/h arenas o, /lobal /o;ernan"e 'ost notably the #e;elo4'ent
in#ustry (Lin# 2010b)$ Coo!ia:mo*er! "tate" (ave o!1 1over!e*
re+ro*$'tio! i!'$*i!1 t(ro$1( mi"'e1e!atio! a;" ,a!!i!1
i!terra'ia marria1e 4rostitution la6s la6s "ri'inaliFin/ so#o'y an#/or ho'ose@uality an#
la6s "on"ernin/ biolo/i"al re4ro#u"tion itsel, (e$/$ abortion birth "ontrol)$ I! ma!4 'a"e" !e;
e%t 1over!me!t" (ave o++o"e* re+ro*$'tive ri1(t" a!* "ameA"ex
marria1e T t6o "urrent hot button issues T "on;er/in/ 'ore 6ith ri/ht76in/ i#eolo/ies than 6ith the
;arious so"ial 'o;e'ents that su44orte# the' in"lu#in/ the ,e'inist an# LGC)I 'o;e'ents (Lin# in
4ressK [iterna in 4ress)$ 0(4 ,or e@a'4le is t(ere !o *i"'$""io! o% (o; Ot(e
%ami4P i" ,ei!1 *i"+$te* i! vario$" <i!*" o% mo*er!itie"Y @o; *oe"
t(i" +a4 o$t i! i!*i1e!o$" 'o!text" as ,or'er Coli;ian Dire"tor o, Cultural 0atri'ony
Da;i# Are>ui4a also a ,oun#in/ 'e'ber o, the 6ell7*no6n La 0aF7base# 4oliti"al #ra/ "o''unity Fa'ilia
Galan set out to #o as 4art o, +oralesL +AS a#'inistrationR An# li*e6ise ho6 #oes this 4lay out 6ithin
lar/ely 'estiFo/a an#/or urban "onte@ts su"h that 6e see Assures in i#entity 4oliti"s that also #ee4ly
"hallen/e the "olonial ar"hite"ture o, Latin A'eri"an statesR I ha;e ,oun# that le,tist a"ti;ists an#
a"a#e'i"s o,ten 6ill say Noh youLre tal*in/ about bio4oliti"sO 6ithout theoriFin/ ho6 ,io+oiti'"
it"e%C i!'$*i!1 t(e 1over!a!'e o% i!tima'4C i" ;ra++e* $+ i! t(eir
o;! t(eorie" o% Oa!ot(er ;or*$O In#ee# t(i" <i!* o% e+i"temoo1i'a an#
4oliti"al *i"K$!'t$re "eem" to ,e at t(e (eart o% 6hat Creny +en#oFa re,ers to
;(e! "(e "+ea<" o% t(e Femi!i"t" i! #e"i"ta!'e 'oaitio!N" o6n >uan#ary
about 6hether to "ontinue 6or*in/ 6ith the 'ale7#o'inate# le,t in -on#uras$ 2hile this ty4e o, >uan#ary
is by no 'eans ne6 it is ,as"inatin/ to see the *i"K$!'t$re i! i!tee't$a t(o$1(t
a,o$t t(e 1over!a!'e o% i!tima'4 a!* ,io+oiti'" as it sha4es all *in#s o,
'o#ernities/"olonialities stru"tures or N/eo'etriesO o, 4o6er (as [eneFuelan -u/o Chk;eF "alls its
#ra6in/ ,ro' Doreen +asseyLs 6or* T see Es"obar 2010) a!* e+i"temi' 'omm$!itie" an#
,or's o, *no6le#/e$ From a %emi!i"t +er"+e'tiveC to tr$4 *o t(i" ;o$*
reL$ire i!ter"e'tio!a t(i!<i!1 an# the ability to thin* a"ross an# ,ro' the 4ers4e"ti;es
o, ;arious e4iste'i" "ultural so"ial e"ono'i" an# 4oliti"al N"o''unitiesO (!i"har#s in 4ressK Lu/ones
2010)$
Coloniality is the ;ehi"le that enables /en#ere# ;iolen"e to
4ersist T
L$1o!e" 1= (+aria Ar/entine s"holar 4hiloso4her ,e'inist an# an
Asso"iate 0ro,essor o, Co'4arati;e Literature an# 0hiloso4hy
Inter4retation an# Culture an# o, 0hiloso4hy an# o, 2o'en(s Stu#ies
at Cin/ha'ton Dni;ersity %)o6ar# a #e"olonial ,e'inis'$% -y4atia
2H$4 J427JH9)
2ith "olonial 'o#ernity ,e1i!!i!1 ;it( t(e 'oo!i>atio! o% t(e AmeriA 'a" a!* t(e
Cari,,ea!C t(e mo*er! (ierar'(i'a *i'(otomo$" *i"ti!'tio! ,et;ee!
me! a!* ;ome! ,e'ame <!o;! a" '(ara'teri"ti'a4 ($ma! a!* a
mar< o% 'ivii>atio!$ I!*i1e!o$" +eo+e" o% t(e Ameri'a" a!* e!A
"ave* Airi'a!" ;ere $!*er"too* a" !ot ($ma!C a" a!ima"C a"
mo!"tro$"4 a!* a,erra!t4 "ex$aC ;i*$ T(e *i'(otomo$" 1e!*er
*i"ti!'tio! ,e'ame a mar< o% 'ivii>atio!: O!4 t(e 'ivii>e* are me!
HH
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
or ;ome!$ )he E$ro+ea! ,o$r1eoi" ma! i" a "$,Ke'tC Gt %or r$eC %or t(e
+$,i'C a ,ei!1 o% 'ivii>atio!C (etero"ex$aC C(ri"tia!C a ,ei!1 o%
mi!* a!* rea"o!$ )he Euro4ean bour/eois 6o'an is not his "o'4le'ent but the one 6ho re4ro#u"es ra"e an# "a4ital$ )his is ti/htly boun# to her se@ual 4urity 4assi;ity
ho'e7boun#e#ness$ )he bour/eois 6hite Euro4eans are "i;iliFe#K they are ,ully hu'an$ 8ei!1 1e!*ere* i! t(i" *i'(otomo$"
ma!!er ma<e" ,ei!1 a ma!a mar< o% ($ma!it4$ 0ome! are ($ma! i!
t(eir reatio! to ;(iteC ,o$r1eoi"C E$ro+ea! me!$ T(e (ierar'(i'a
*i'(otom4 a" a mar< o% t(e ($ma! ,e'ome" a"o a !ormative too to
*am! t(e 'oo!i>e*$ As the beha;ior an# 4ersonalities/ souls o, the "oloniFe# are Bu#/e# as bestial o, ani'als the "oloniFe# are non/en#ere# 4ro'is"uous /rotes>uely
se@ual sin,ul$ )hou/h at this ti'e the un#erstan#in/ o, se@ 6as not #i'or4hi" a!ima" ;ere *iQere!tiate* "i!'e t(e
'o!L$e"t a!* 'oo!i>atio! o% t(e Ameri'a" a" mae" a!* %emae"C t(e
mae ,ei!1 t(e +er%e'tio!C t(e %emaeC t(e i!ver"io!C *e%ormatio! o%
t(e mae$ -er'a4hro#ites so#o'ites ;ira/os 6ere all un#erstoo# as #e;iations ,ro' 'ale 4er,e"tion$ A" +rimitiveC ;i*C !ot L$ite
($ma!C t(e 'oo!i>e* ;ere a"o $!*er"too* "ex$a4 a" mae" a!*
%emae"C t(e %emae t(e i!%eriorC i!verte* mae. Cut to the e@tent that the "i;iliFin/ 'ission an# "on;ersion to
Christianity has been al6ays 4resent in the i#eolo/i"al "on"e4tion o, "on>uest an# "oloniFation "oloniFe# N'alesO are also Bu#/e# ,ro' the nor'ati;e un#erstan#in/ o, N'anO an# "oloniFe# N,e'alesO are Bu#/e#
,ro' the nor'ati;e un#erstan#in/ o, N6o'an$OL )he 4riests an# the "hur"h o;ertly 4resente# their 'ission as trans,or'in/ the "oloniFe# ani'als into hu'an bein/s throu/h "on;ersion$ Fro' this 4oint o, ;ie6
"olo7 niFe# 4eo4le be"a'e 'ales an# ,e'ales$ +ales be"a'e not7hu'an7as7 not7'en the hu'an trait an# "oloniFe# ,e'ales be"a'e not7hu'an7as7 not76o'en$ Co!"eL$e!t4C
t(o$1( "ex$a4 'oo!i>e* %emae"N a'< ;a" $!*er"too* i! reatio!
to mae +er%e'tio!C (er ($ma! a'< 'om+are* (er o!4 to ;ome!.
Coo!i>e* %emae" ;ere !ever $!*er"too* a"F a'<i!1 ,e'a$"e t(e4
;ere !ot me!Ai<e. ColoniFe# 'en 6ere not un#erstoo# to be la"*in/ as not bein/ 6o'en7li*e$ <oti"e the i'4ortant #istin"tion bet6een se@ an# /en#er at this ti'e 6hi"h is
"onilate# later as se@ual #i'or4his' be"o'es the "o'4anion o, the #i"hoto'ous un#erstan#in/ o, /en#er. 0(at (a" ,ee! $!*er"too* a"
t(e %emi!i>atio! o% 'oo!i>e* me! "eem" rat(er a 1e"t$re o%
($miiatio!C attri,$ti!1 "ex$a +a""ivit4 to t(e t(reat o% ra+e. T(i"
te!"io! ,et;ee! (4+er"ex$ait4 a!* "ex$a +a""ivA R it4 *eG!e" o!e
o% t(e *omai!" o% ma"'$i!e "$,Ke'tio! o% t(e 'oo!i>e*. T(e 'oo!ia
'ivii>i!1 mi""io! ;a" t(e e$+(emi"ti' ma"< o% ,r$ta a''e"" to
+eo+eN" ,o*ie" t(ro$1( $!ima1i!a,e ex+oitatio!C vioe!t
"ex$a vioatio!C 'o!tro o% re+ro*$'tio!C a!* "4"temati'
terror C ;(i'( i!'$*e*C %or exam+eC %ee*i!1 ivi!1 +eo+e to *o1"
a!* ma<i!1 +o$'(e" R a!* (at" %rom t(e va1i!a" o% ,r$ta4 <ie*
i!*i1e!o$" %emae"$ )he 'ivii>i!1 mi""io! $"e* t(e (ierar'(i'a 1e!*er
*i'(otom4 a" a K$*1me!tC R t(o$1( t(e attai!me!t o% *i'(otomo$"
1e!*eri!1 ;a" !ot t(e +oi!t o% R t(e !ormative K$*1me!t$ )u'in/ the "oloniFe# into hu'an
bein/s 6as not a "olonial /oal$ !ather t(e 'oo!i>i!1 mi""io! i!'$*e* t(e +ro%o$!*
tra!"%ormatio! o% t(e 'oo!i>e* i!to me! a!* ;ome!Aa
tra!"%ormatio! !ot i! i*e!tit4 ,$t i! !at$reAi! it" re+ertoire o%
K$"tiG'atio!" %or a,$"e$ C(ri"tia! 'o!%e""io!C "i!C a!* t(e ?a!i'(ea!
*ivi"io! ,et;ee! 1oo* a!* evi "erve* to im+ri!t %emae "ex$ait4 a"
evi$ )here is an i'4ortant se4aration in this res4e"t bet6een the treat'ent o, "o'uneros "o''u7S nity 'e'bers subBe"ts o, e'4ires an# the treat'ent o, the in#i/enous nobility that nee#s e@4loration
,ro' the 4oint o, ;ie6 o, the "oloniality o, /en#er$ -ere I a' hi/hli/htin/ the 'ost #ire"t an# brutal "on"e4tion an# treat'ent o, those 6hose labor an# se@uality 6ere "learly un#erstoo# in ter's o, the "oloniality o,
/en#er$S T(e 'ivii>i!1 tra!"%ormatio! K$"tiGe* t(e 'oo!i>atio! o%
memor4 a!* t($" o% o!eN" "e!"e o% "e% i!ter"$,Ke'tive
reatio!"C a!* reatio! to t(e S "+irit ;or*C to a!*C to t(e ver4
%a,ri' o% o!eN" 'o!'e+tio! o% reait4C i*e!tit4C "o'iaC e'oo1i'aC
a!* 'o"moo1i'a or1a!i>atio!$ )hus a" C(ri"tia!it4 ,e'ame t(e mo"t
+o;er%$ i!"tr$me!t i! t(e tra!"%ormative mi""io!C t(e !ormativit4
t(at tie* 1e!*er a!* 'ivii>atio! ,e'ame i!vove* i! t(e era"$re o%
'omm$!it4C o% e'oo1i'a +ra'ti'e"C <!o;e*1e" o% +a!ti!1C
;eavi!1C a!* t(e 'o"mo"C a!* !ot o!4 i! '(a!1i!1 a!* 'o!troA i!1
re+ro*$'tive a!* "ex$a +ra'ti'e". &ne "an be/in to a44re"iate the tieS bet6een the "olonial intro#u"tion o, the instru'ental 'o#ern
HI
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
"on"e4t o, nature "entral to "a4italis' an# the "olonial intro#u"tion o, the 'o#ern "on"e4t o, /en#er an# a44re"iate it as 'a"abre an# hea;y in its i'4res7 si;e ra'iA"ations$ O!e 'a! also
re'o1!i>e t(e *e($ma!i>atio! 'o!"tit$tive o% ;(at Ne"o!
?a*o!a*oATorre" 'a" O t(e 'oo!iait4 o% ,ei!1P i! t(e "'o+e o%
t(e mo*em 'oo!ia 1e!*er "4"temlS I use the ter' N"olonialityO ,ollo6in/ Anibal WuiBanoLs analysis o, the "a4italist 6orl# syste'
o, 4o6er in ter's o, "oloniality o, 4o6er an# o, 'o#ernity t6o inse4arable a@es in the 6or*in/s o, this syste' o, 4o6er$O WuiBanoLs analysis 4ro;i#es a histori"al un#erstan#in/ o, the in7 se4arability o, ra"ialiFation
an# "a4italist e@4loitation as "onstituti;e o, the "a4italist syste' o, 4o6er as an"hore# in the "oloniFation o, the A'eri"as$ In thin*in/ o, the "oloniality o, /en#er I "o'4li"ate his un#er7 stan#in/ o, the "a4italist
/lobal syste' o, 4o6er but I also "riti"iFe his un#erstan#in/ o, /en#er only in ter's o, se@ual a""ess to 6o'en. I! $"i!1 t(e term O'oo!iait4P I
mea! !ot K$"t 'a""iG'atio! o% +eo+e i! term" o% t(e 'oo!iait4 o%
+o;er a!* 1e!*er ,$t a"o t(e +ro'e"" o% a'tive re*$'tio! o%
+eo+e C t(e *e($ma!i>atio! t(at Gt" t(em %or t(e 'a""iG'atio!C t(e
attem+t to t$r! t(e 'oo!i>e* i!to e"" t(a! ($ma! ,ei!1". )his is in star* "ontrast to the
4ubli" ai' o, "on;ersion 6hi"h "onstitutes the ChristianiFin/ 'ission$
HJ
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
AT: #oot Ca$"e De,ate 8a*:
#oot Ca$"e De,ate .oo*
#OOT CAB7E DE8ATE7 .OOD FO# 7OL&IN. #EAL
0O#LD )#O8LE?7
)ave4 NODATE
(N!oot Cause AnalysisS )ra"in/ a 0roble' to its &ri/insS A 4o6er,ul A;e7
ste4 4roble'7sol;in/ 4ro"essO Sarah 0a;ey e#itor +in# )ools +in#
)ools Date A""esse#5 I/23/14
htt45//666$'in#tools$"o'/4a/es/arti"le/ne6)+C810$ht'J2-)
In 'e#i"ineC itF" ea"4 to $!*er"ta!* t(e *iQere!'e ,et;ee! treati!1
"4m+tom" a!* '$ri!1 a 'e#i"al 'o!*itio!. 7$reC ;(e! 4o$Fre i! +ai!
,e'a$"e 4o$Fve ,ro<e! 4o$r ;ri"tC 4o$ 0ANT to (ave 4o$r "4m+tom"
treate* W !o;^ @o;everC ta<i!1 +ai!<ier" ;o!Ft (ea 4o$r ;ri"tC a!*
tr$e (eai!1 i" !ee*e* ,e%ore t(e "4m+tom" 'a! *i"a++ear %or 1oo*$
Cut 6hen you ha;e a 4roble' at 6or* ho6 #o you a44roa"h itR Do you Bu'4 in an# start treatin/ the
sy'4to'sR &r #o you sto4 to "onsi#er 6hether there(s a"tually a #ee4er 4roble' that nee#s your
attentionRS I, you only A@ the sy'4to's T 6hat you see on the sur,a"e T the 4roble' 6ill al'ost "ertainly
ha44en a/ain$$$ 6hi"h 6ill lea# you to A@ it a/ain an# a/ain an# a/ain.R I%C i!"tea*C 4o$ oo<
*ee+er to G1$re o$t ;(4 t(e +ro,em i" o''$rri!1C 4o$ 'a! Gx t(e
$!*er4i!1 "4"tem" a!* +ro'e""e" t(at 'a$"e t(e +ro,em.R #oot
Ca$"e A!a4"i" (#CA) i" a +o+$ar a!* o%te!A$"e* te'(!iL$e t(at
(e+" +eo+e a!";er t(e L$e"tio! o% ;(4 t(e +ro,em o''$rre* i!
t(e Gr"t +a'e.R #oot Ca$"e A!a4"i" "ee<" to i*e!ti%4 t(e ori1i! o% a
+ro,em. It $"e" a "+e'iG' "et o% "te+"C ;it( a""o'iate* too"C to G!*
t(e +rimar4 'a$"e o% t(e +ro,emC "o t(at 4o$ 'a!:R Determi!e ;(at
(a++e!e*$S Determi!e ;(4 it (a++e!e*.R Fi1$re o$t ;(at to *o to
re*$'e t(e i<ei(oo* t(at it ;i (a++e! a1ai!$S !CA assu'es that syste's an#
e;ents are interrelate#$ An a"tion in one area tri//ers an a"tion in another an# another an# so on$ 84
tra'i!1 ,a'< t(e"e a'tio!"C 4o$ 'a! *i"'over ;(ere t(e +ro,em
"tarte* a!* (o; it 1re; i!to t(e "4m+tom 4o$Fre !o; %a'i!1.R Yo$F
$"$a4 G!* three ,a"i' ty4es o, 'a$"e":R )(4"i'a 'a$"e" T )an/ible
'aterial ite's ,aile# in so'e 6ay (,or e@a'4leC a "ar(s bra*es sto44e# 6or*in/)$S @$ma! 'a$"e"
W )eo+e *i* "omet(i!1 ;ro!1C or *i* !ot *o "omet(i!1 t(at ;a"
!ee*e*. @$ma! 'a$"e" t4+i'a4 ea* to +(4"i'a 'a$"e" (,or e@a'4le no
one Alle# the bra*e ?ui# 6hi"h le# to the bra*es ,ailin/)$S &r/aniFational "auses T A syste' 4ro"ess or
4oli"y that 4eo4le use to 'a*e #e"isions or #o their 6or* is ,aulty (,or e@a'4le no one 4erson 6as
res4onsible ,or ;ehi"le 'aintenan"e an# e;eryone assu'e# so'eone else ha# Alle# the bra*e ?ui#)$S
#oot Ca$"e A!a4"i" oo<" at a three ty4es o, 'a$"e". It i!vove"
i!ve"ti1ati!1 t(e +atter!" o% !e1ative eQe't"C G!*i!1 (i**e! Sa;"
i! t(e "4"temC a!* *i"'overi!1 "+e'iG' a'tio!" t(at 'o!tri,$te* to
t(e +ro,em. )his o,ten 'eans that !CA re;eals 'ore than one root "ause$
H1
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
AT: Coo!iai"m .oo*
T@E )O0E#FBL IDEA7 OF FEA# AND TE##O# CO?E IN T@E
OCNTEET OF T@E DE7T#BCTIONC T@AT CO?E7 F#O?
COLONIUATIONAE7)ECIALLY A?E#ICA
Dei a!* 9em+% N=-C NAnti7"olonialis' an# e#u"ation5 the 4oliti"s o, resistan"e 4a/e JI7JJO
Geor/e Jerry Se,a Dei is a 4ro,essor o, so"iolo/y at the Dni;ersity o, )oronto Arlo Ke'4, is an instru"tor
an# 4ro/ra' "oor#inator at D) htt45//boo*s$/oo/le$"o'/boo*sR
i#d-yu4[eDHSF6C`4/d0AJI`l4/d0AJI`#>d"olonialis'm"reatesmne/ati;e`sour"edbl`otsd[3eye"')
I8`si/du>a][112yKstDL0I<1@2,s-ELnE`hlden`sad]`eid*oGsD8e7
IQaK>/aIoICWA6`;e#d0CC/WIAE6AW\;done4a/e`>`,d,alse
Dn#erlyin/ the 'ain ar/u'ents 4resente# in this stu#y is the i#ea that 'oo!iai"m 'reate"
!e1ative *e"tr$'tive emotio!"C !ota,4 %ear a!* a!xiet4
a""o'iate* ;it( ex+o"$re to 'oo!iai"t t(o$1(t" i'a/ery a!*
a'tio!" t(at are t(e! tra!"%orme* i!to $!'o!"'io$" re%ere!t"
t(at 1ive ri"e to im+i'itC yet o,"erva,e a!* mea"$ra,e ra'i"t
attit$*e". &b;iously at a 'ore ,un#a'ental le;elC 'oo!iai"m i" base# on "on"rete
'aterial "o'ia reatio!"(i+" ,$it o! $!eL$a so"ial reatio!" t(at
ao; a 'oo!i>er to extra't t(e re"o$r'e" (,ot( ($ma! a!*
materia) %rom 'oo!i>e* a!*" a!* im+o"e t(eir o6n #o'inant i*ea"
a!* %orm" o% e'o!omi' a!* "o'ia reatio!" o! a 'oo!i>e*
+eo+e +rivie1i!1 t(eir o;! <!o;e*1e a!* te'(!oo14 over
t(o"e o% ot(er"$ A""or#in/ to -aFel 2aters (2004$ 4$ I)$ the latest 6a;e o, "oo!i>atio!
i" o''$rri!1 ;it(i! a (i"tori'a 'o!K$!'t$re 6here OT(e o''a"io!
i" terrorC t(e i!"tr$me!tC %ear a!* it" *eiver4 me'(a!i"mC
ra'i"mH. In a re"ent arti"le 0iiam 7'(ro*er (200H) (a" a""urately 'a+t$re*
the o4erati;e lo/i" o, 'oo!iai"m an# i'4erial #o'ination to#ay 'arrie* o$t ,4 t(e
mo"t +o;er%$ 'oo!i>er i! the (i"tor4 o, the 6orl# t(e B!ite* 7tate"5
Li*e the /reat i'4erialists o, by/one #ays$ Ameri'aT" r$er" "(are a o!1 (i"tor4
o% 'reati!1 %ear A o!e Oevi*oerP or another a;a4" t(reate!" t(e
*e"tr$'tio! o% Ot(e Ameri'a! ;a4 o% i%eH. )hen 6hile t(e
%ri1(te!e* +o+$atio! ($**e" 1rate%$4 $!*er t(e $m,rea o%
+o;erC t(e 1over!me!t +$r"$e" an a/en#a "al"ulate# to tra!"%er va"t
"$m" o% +$,i' ;eat( i!to t(e (a!*" o% t(e 'or+orate a!*
+oiti'a eite.
Coo!iai"m +$!1e" vioe!'eC terror a!* %ear o!to
"o'iet4
Dei a!* 9em+% N=-C NAnti7"olonialis' an# e#u"ation5 the 4oliti"s o, resistan"e 4a/e JI7JJO
Geor/e Jerry Se,a Dei is a 4ro,essor o, so"iolo/y at the Dni;ersity o, )oronto Arlo Ke'4, is an instru"tor
an# 4ro/ra' "oor#inator at D) htt45//boo*s$/oo/le$"o'/boo*sR
i#d-yu4[eDHSF6C`4/d0AJI`l4/d0AJI`#>d"olonialis'm"reatesmne/ati;e`sour"edbl`otsd[3eye"')
I8`si/du>a][112yKstDL0I<1@2,s-ELnE`hlden`sad]`eid*oGsD8e7
IQaK>/aIoICWA6`;e#d0CC/WIAE6AW\;done4a/e`>`,d,alse
H9
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
Arhun#'ti #o4 (2004) usin/ a ;ery a44ro4riate 'eta4hor (a" 'om+are* 'oo!iai"m
to ra+e$ 0n "ountless o""asions t(e *omi!a!t ;(ite '$t$re (a"
+ortra4e* a!* a" o+e! to +e!etratio! ;ii!1C a!* !ee*i!1
'o!L$e"t. T(i" meta+(or +it" %emi!i!it4 (6ith its asso"iate# "on"e4ts o,
4assi;ity nature e'otion an# 4urity) Arhun#'ti !oy (9$004c usin/ a ;ery a44ro4riate 'eta4hor has
"o'4are# "olonialis' to ra4e$ &n "ountless o""asions the #o'inant 6hite "ulture has 4ortraye# lan# as
o4en to 4enetration 6illin/ an# nee#in/ "on>uest$ )his 'eta4hor 4its ,e'ininity) 6ith its asso"iate#
"on"e4ts o, 4assi;ity nature$ e'otion an# 4urity) a1ai!"t t(e ma"'$i!it4 o%
'a'$ative o1i' a!* 'o!L$eri!1 rea"o!. In#ee# t(i" !arrative o%
'oo!ia 'o!L$e"t i! t(e %orm o% "ex$a *omi!atio!C +ermeate"
t(e '$t$re o% E$roAAmeri'a! 'oo!ia ex+a!"io!. An# t(e Gxatio!
;it( "ex$ai>i!1 'oo!i>e* ,o*ie" i" reSe'te* to*a4 i!
iterat$reC movie"C teevi"io!C a!* a*verti"i!1. A ;ery re"ent
'ani,estation o, this is the no6 in,a'ous i'a/ery o, se@ual #o'ination an# abuse o, Ira>i 4risoners
"arrie# out by DS sol#iers at Abu Gh'ih 4rison$ As ar/ue# in other 6or*s in this ;olu'e
'oo!iai"m $!ea"(e" a torrent o, !e1ative emotio!" as a result o, its
4er;erse lo/i" 7 it i" ra+e 'ommitte* o! a ma"" "'ae. In#ee# the /reatest tolls
o, "olonialis' are its e'otional ones$ Coo!iai"m +$!1e" e!tire "o'ietie" i!to
'4'e" o% terrorC *e+e!*e!'4 a!* 'o!ti!$e* vioe!'e as it su"*s out
the s4irits o, 4eo4le "rushin/ bo#ies an# 'in#s in the 4ro"ess$ Colonialis' ta<e" $+ the narrati;e o,
ra'e 6ith a ;en/ean"e a!* tra!"%orm" it i!to a ;ea+o! 'o!L$e"t.
Establishin/ 'inority rule o;er the 'aBority ,4 'reati!1 *ivi"io!" that are ,$it into
"ultural s4a"e an# ,$ttre""e* ,4 the +ra'ti'e o% 'a"" a!* 1e!*er
i!eL$aitie". Finally 'oo!iai"m +$!1e" 'oo!i>e* +eo+e i!to a
+er+et$a "tate o% %ear ;(i'( i" eve!t$a4 re+i'ate* i! t(e
'oo!i>erF" o;! "o'iet4.
Coo!iai"m i!vo<e" %ear i!to t(e 'oo!i>e*C it "+rea*"
vioe!'e a!* (ate
Dei a!* 9em+% N=-C NAnti7"olonialis' an# e#u"ation5 the 4oliti"s o, resistan"e 4a/e JI7JJO
Geor/e Jerry Se,a Dei is a 4ro,essor o, so"iolo/y at the Dni;ersity o, )oronto Arlo Ke'4, is an instru"tor
an# 4ro/ra' "oor#inator at D) htt45//boo*s$/oo/le$"o'/boo*sR
i#d-yu4[eDHSF6C`4/d0AJI`l4/d0AJI`#>d"olonialis'm"reatesmne/ati;e`sour"edbl`otsd[3eye"')
I8`si/du>a][112yKstDL0I<1@2,s-ELnE`hlden`sad]`eid*oGsD8e7
IQaK>/aIoICWA6`;e#d0CC/WIAE6AW\;done4a/e`>`,d,alse
Finally 'oo!iai"m +$!1e" 'oo!i>e* +eo+e i!to a +er+et$a
"tate o% %ear ;(i'( i" eve!t$a4 re+i'ate* i! t(e 'oo!i>erF"
o;! "o'iet4. Crain resear"h has re;eale# a /reat #eal about the ne/ati;e i'4a"t o, the ,ear
res4onse an# 6hat it "an #o to the hu'an bo#y7'in# a@is$ 0(e! t(e am41*aa i"
a'tivate* ,4 ima1e" t(at i!vo<e %earC it i!itiate" a "he'i"al "as"a#e$ &ne
o, the 'ore i'4ortant "he'i"als in this "as"a#e is a'et4'(oi!e. T(i" '(emi'a
a'tivate" other re/ions o, the "orte@ 4ullin/ t(e ,rai! i! a "tate o% aro$"a
a!* ,a"ilitatin/ memor4 %ormatio! to "reate ;i/ilan"e a1ai!"t %$t$re
!e1ative "tim$i$H I!'rea"e* le;els o, a'et4'(oi!e ,ro' the e'otional
"enters o, the brain "i1!a t(e a*re!a 1a!*" lo"ate# Bust abo;e the *i#neys to
reea"e more '(emi'a"C in"lu#in/ nore4ine4hrine an# a#renaline (e4ine4hrine) into the
bloo# strea'$ )hese "he'i"als "ause an a""elerate# heart rate in"rease# res4iration an# a ti/htenin/ o,
the 'us"les$ 0(e! t(e"e '(emi'a" rea'( t(e !ervo$" "4"temC t(e4
I0
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
+rovo<e "+o!ta!eo$" a$tomati' ,e(avio$r to %a'iitate e"'a+e
or e!1a1e i! 'om,at. I% !eit(er o+tio! i" avaia,eC t(e ,rai!
1oe" i!to a /eneral state o, (4+ervi1ia!'e or a!xiet4 t(at 'arrie" t(e
!e1ative emotio!" %or;ar* i! timeC 'reati!1 "tre"" a!*
;rea<i!1 (avo' on the bo#y7'in# a@is ea*i!1 to t(e o!1 term e@4ression o,
vioe!t a!* *e%e!"ive moo*". As 6e all *no6 i, 4er'itte# to "ontinue "ontinual stress
results in a! eevate* ri"< o% 'ar*iova"'$ar *i"ea"eC (i1( ,oo*
+re""$re 'a!'er a!* a$toimm$!e *i"or*er". )hese "he'i"als 6or* at the
interse"tions o, the bo#y'in# a@is 4ro;i#in/ the a"tual N,eelin/O or sensation o, our e@4erien"es but they
also ha;e the 4otential to har' the bo#y7'in#$ T(e"e +ro'e""e" also re+re"e!t
"ome o% t(e !e$ro,ioo1i'a 'orreate" o% 'oo!i>atio!$ )hou/h I ha;e
'a#e it soun# li*e all these "he'i"al rea"tions ha44en outsi#e o, an in#i;i#ualLs "ontrol in the si'4le
s*et"h 4ro;i#e# abo;e this is #eAnitely not the 6hole story$ T(e a$tomati' ear!i!1 o%
%ear" o!4 re+re"e!t" one ,or' o, learnin/ Z a ver4 ,a"i' %orm t(at
'a$"e" O"+irit i!K$r4H. It i" !e'e""ar4 to 'o!%ro!t an# "o'e to ter's 6ith
t(e !e1ative emotio!" ,ei!1 +er+et$ate* by us an# by so"iety or e"e
t(e4 ,e'ome C as 6e ha;e seen vir$e!t a$tomati' $!'o!"'io$"
a]i'tio!" t(at "+rea* vioe!'e a!* (ate. )his re>uires a #i=erent ty4e o,
learnin/ Z one that is 'ore #is"i4line# an# ,o"use# on the 'in# a 4ro"ess o, learnin/ that >uestions the
6ay our 'in#7bo#y a@is 4ro#u"es reality$ MI is base# on the i#ea that the "urrent reality 6e 4er"ei;e base#
on the 4er4etuation o, ne/ati;e e'otions is not ri/ht an# that 6e ha;e the 4o6er to trans,or' this
situation$
COLONIAL &IOLENCE7 C#O77E7 .ENE#ATION7 AND IT7
EFFECT7 A#E LON.ALI&ED
Dei a!* 9em+% N=-C NAnti7"olonialis' an# e#u"ation5 the 4oliti"s o, resistan"e 4a/e 10711O
Geor/e Jerry Se,a Dei is a 4ro,essor o, so"iolo/y at the Dni;ersity o, )oronto Arlo Ke'4, is an instru"tor
an# 4ro/ra' "oor#inator at D) htt45//boo*s$/oo/le$"o'/boo*sR
i#d-yu4[eDHSF6C`4/d0AJI`l4/d0AJI`#>d"olonialis'm"reatesmne/ati;e`sour"edbl`otsd[3eye"')
I8`si/du>a][112yKstDL0I<1@2,s-ELnE`hlden`sad]`eid*oGsD8e7
IQaK>/aIoICWA6`;e#d0CC/WIAE6AW\;done4a/e`>`,d,alse
Ce,ore "on"lu#in/ it is ne"essary to as* 6hat stu#ies o, the hu'an brain "an tell us about ra"is'$ 2estern
s"ientists ha;e re"ently be/un to learn a lot about the ,un"tionin/ o, the hu'an brain$ 8rai!
"t$*ie" are reafrmi!1 t(e !e1ative eQe't" o% 'oo!i>atio! o!
t(e 'oo!i>e*. Crain resear"h has 4ro;i#e# us 6ith in,or'ation re/ar#in/ the 'e"hanis's
throu/h 6hi"h ra'i"m 'o!ti!$e" to ,e ex(i,ite* i! t(e mi!* o% t(e
'oo!i>er over t(e 'e!t$rie" a" the *omi!a!t "o'ia %or'e"
1ivi!1 ri"e to 'oo!iai"m (ave '(a!1e* t(em"eve" a!* also
a*K$"te* t(e o4erati;e o1i' o% mo*er!A*a4 +oiti'" o% 'oo!iai"m$
Qet "urrent resear"h has a lon/ 6ay to /o in un#erstan#in/ the hi##en 'ysteries o, this hi/hly "o'4le@
4ro"ess$ +ore resear"h is re>uire# an# the ar/u'ents 4resente# in this 4a4er 'ust be re/ar#e# 6ith so'e
s*e4ti"is' ,or it is 'islea#in/ to assu'e that a ,e6 re/ions o, the brain are res4onsible ,or or is 4re#i"ti;e
o, a hi/hly "o'4le@ beha;iour su"h as ra"is'$ In the Anal analysis brain resear"h see's to yiel# 'ore
>uestions than ans6ers re/ar#in/ ra"is'$ )he >uestions 6e "hoose to a##ress 6ill #eter'ine the a44roa"h
6e ta*e to "o'batin/ ra"is' at the le;el o, e#u"ation$ 2hat is e#u"ation i, not (at so'e le;el) the a"ti;e
Nre6irin/O o, the brainR )he 4roble' 6ith re6irin/ as 6ith e#u"ation 'ust ne"essarily be the
un4re#i"tability o, the out"o'e$ )his asi#e the <!o;e*1e 6e ha;e a""u'ulate# a,o$t
,rai! %$!'tio! over t(e 'e!t$rie" "tre""e" t(e !e'e""it4 %or
"o'ia tra!"%ormatio! to be "arrie# out ao!1"i*e t(e tra!"%ormatio!
o% mi!*" i! or*er to 'reate a "4"tem o% "o'ia reatio!" %ree o%
,ia" a!* +reK$*i'e in any o, their ,or's$ A #ee4er un#erstan#in/ o, the intera"ti;e nature o,
the ,un"tions o, the "erebral "orte@ 6oul# allo6 us to ,or' 4e#a/o/i"al strate/ies a44ro4riate ,or
I1
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
"o'batin/ ra"is' 'ore e=e"ti;ely$ 2e *no6 that re+etitive ima1e" +rovo<i!1
"tro!1 !e1ative emotio!" 1ive" ;a4 to ra+i* $!'o!"'io$"
'ate1ori>atio!" o% i!%ormatio! i! t(e mi!*. 2e also no6 are be/innin/ to An#
out that t(e"e 'ate1ori>atio!" ,e'ome a$tomati' re%ere!t"
;or<i!1 ,e!eat( the le;el o, 'o!"'io$" a;are!e"" to a'tivate
'ertai! re1io!" o% t(e ,rai! i! re"+o!"e to "tim$i. @eari!1 t(e
;or*" Ot(e "$"+e't (a" ,ee! i*e!tiGe* a" a ,a'< mae $$$O a!*
(avi!1 t(e ima1e a""o'iate* ;it( t(i" i!e re+ro*$'e* i! 'o;ies
'usi" an# in other '$t$ra o$tet" over a!* over a1ai! 'reate" a
"it$atio! ;(ere t(e ($ma! am41*aa (res4onsible ,or ,ear res4onse an/er et"$)$
In this "ase as #es"ribe# abo;e the ACC (re/ulatin/ attention) an# the 0FC (res4onsible ,or hi/her le;el
e'otional 4ro"essin/) are auto'ati"ally a"ti;ate# an# 'ay aro$"e "ome "ort o%
*e%e!"ive emotio!a +o"t$re (su"h as ,ear) ;(e! ;(ite "$,Ke't" "ee
a ,a'< %a'e eve! i! t(e isolate# an# reative4 "a%e e!viro!me!t o%
t(e a,orator4. 0(ite "$,Ke't" t($" +er'eive a "o'ia4
'o!"tr$'te* a!* me*iate* t(reat a!* re"+o!* ;it( a "$rvivaA
mo*e re"+o!"e t(at in the e;olutionary s"he'a o, our s4e"ies *i* !ot ori1i!a4
*eveo+ %or t(i" +$r+o"e. Further'ore in ,a"e7to7,a"e intera"tions stu#ies ha;e sho6n
that 6hite subBe"ts in "on;ersations 6ith bla"* subBe"ts 4er,or' ba#ly on a Stroo4 test re>uirin/ hi/her
e@e"uti;e ,un"tion i''e#iately a,ter their intera"tion$ S"ientists 4oint to the #rain o, resour"es "ause# by
6hites "he"*in/ their res4onses an# inhibitin/ their inherent biases ,ro' e'er/in/$ +oreo;er 6e ha;e
also learne# that t(e ,rai! '(a!1e" 6ith ti'e 1oi!1 t(ro$1( se;eral 10 'r$'ia
+erio*" o% ra+i* '(a!1e (4erio#s o, hi/h 4lasti"ity)$ An# Anally a" ;e a1eC o$r
avera1e a,iitie" to re'a *etaie* i!%ormatio! *e'rea"e"C
ea*i!1 to more "tereot4+i!1 an# /eneraliFin/ to 'om+e!"ate %or
*e'i!i!1 %$!'tio!ait4 i! 'ertai! memor4 "4"tem"b Stu#ies ha;e also
sho6n that 4eo4le are 'ore li*ely to en/a/e in stereoty4in/ a"ti;ity as they attain hi/her #e/rees o,
situational (so"ial) 4o6er 6hi"h is li*ely to also o""ur 6ith a/e$
0E CANNOT EE)AND IDEAL7 OF COLONIALI7?. 0E
?B7T 7TE) 8AC9 AND DE&ELO) OB#
BNDE#7TANDIN. OF T@E OCEANAOT@E#0I7E
COLONIALI7? 0ILL )E#)ETBATE AND EETEND
)A77 A?E#ICAN 8OBNDA#IE7
Dei a!* 9em+% N=-C NAnti7"olonialis' an# e#u"ation5 the 4oliti"s o, resistan"e 4a/e 10711O
Geor/e Jerry Se,a Dei is a 4ro,essor o, so"iolo/y at the Dni;ersity o, )oronto Arlo Ke'4, is an instru"tor
an# 4ro/ra' "oor#inator at D) htt45//boo*s$/oo/le$"o'/boo*sR
i#d-yu4[eDHSF6C`4/d0AJI`l4/d0AJI`#>d"olonialis'm"reatesmne/ati;e`sour"edbl`otsd[3eye"')
I8`si/du>a][112yKstDL0I<1@2,s-ELnE`hlden`sad]`eid*oGsD8e7
IQaK>/aIoICWA6`;e#d0CC/WIAE6AW\;done4a/e`>`,d,alse
All o, this e;i#en"e 4oints to the nee# ,or 6hat +e''i (l999) has #es"ribe# as a Nli,elon/ 4e#a/o/yO to
"o'bat ra"is'$ )his 4a4er has ar/ue# that "'ie!'e G!*i!1" revea t(e !ee* %or a
"tr$11e 1eare* to;ar*" "o'ia a!* "+irit$a tra!"%ormatio!
6a/e# at the 'ulti4le le;els o, in#i;i#ual hu'an 'in#s (throu/h 'in#,ulness te"hni>ues #es"ribe# abo;e)
alon/si#e "olle"ti;e a"tion in ;arious ,or's "$'( a" i!tro*$'i!1 more a!tiA
'oo!ia an# anti7ra"ist iterat$re i!to t(e '$rri'$$m. In a##ition
it i" !e'e""ar4 to a$!'( a! a""a$t o! the auto'atis' "reate# by the "o'ia
%or'e" t(at 'om+e $" to a''e+t a!* i!ter!ai>e "o'ia va$e"
6ithout >uestionin/ the' ea*i!1 to t(e %ormatio! o, auto'ati" ,ra'es o,
I2
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
re%ere!'e t(at o+erate i! t(e ,a'<1ro$!* o% o$r mi!*". Fro' an
early a/e ;e m$"t tea'( '(i*re! (o; to ta<e 'o!tro o% t(eir
mi!*" a!* #ire"t it in 6ays that ex+a!* +o"itive emotio!a "tate" i!
ear!e"tC ;(ie ta<i!1 re"+o!"i,iit4 an# #e;otin/ our li;es to ma<e ri1(t
t(e ;ro!1" o% t(e +a"t a!* t(e +re"e!t. )his is 6hy a!tiA'oo!ia anti7
ra"ist iterat$re a!* ima1er4 to "ounter "olonial narrati;es m$"t ,e'ome a
+art o% o$r ive* ex+erie!'e. Finally as the Ael#s o, "o/niti;e neuro4sy"holo/y
#e;elo4'ental neurobiolo/y an# brain i'a/in/ te"hni>ues "ontinue to #e;elo4 an# e@4an# the e'er/in/
resear"h 6ill ha;e a 4ro,oun# i'4a"t on e#u"ation 7 Bust as it has alrea#y on "lini"al 4sy"holo/y$ An# as 6e
ha;e seen the +art" o% t(e ,rai! li*e the 4arts o, the Earth 'a! ,e 'aime* a"
territor4 ,4 'oo!ia +o;er" a!* reatio!"(i+". It i" there,ore
a,"o$te4 !e'e""ar4 %or a!ti'oo!iaC 'riti'a +e*a1o14 to
e"ta,i"( t(e ,rai! a" a +art o, the inter#is"i4linary an# "o'4le@ terrain o% a!tiA
'oo!ia "tr$11e.
I3
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
AT: #a'e 9
COLONIAL ?ODE#NITY I7 )#EDICATED B)ON #ACIAL
DIFFE#ENCE7 T@AT ?A#97 NONA0@ITE
9NO0LED.E A7 B7ELE77 AND C#O0D7 OBT
EFFECTI&E NATI&EC NONA0E7TE#N 7OLBTION7.
T@E7E 7OLBTION7 COBLD 8E 9EY TO ET@ICAL
EN.A.E?ENT 0IT@ OCEAN7.
?i1!ooA 2=1= (2alter D$ De4art'ent o, !o'an"e Stu#ies Du*e Dni;ersity N)he /eo4oliti"s
o, *no6le#/e an# the "olonial #i=eren"eO 0ra@is 0ubli"a &"tober 2010 htt45//4ra@is4ubli"a$or//647
"ontent/u4loa#s/2010/10/2AL)E!7+IG<&L&7GE&0&LI)ICS7&F7K<&2LEDGE7DDKE7D<I[E!SI)Q$4#,)
)he irre#u"ible "olonial #i=eren"e that I a' tryin/ to "hart startin/ ,ro'
Dussel(s #ialo/ue 6ith [atti'o 6as also 4er"ei;e# by !obert Cernas"oni in the "hallen/e that A,ri"an
0hiloso4hy 4uts ,or6ar# to Continental 0hiloso4hy$ Si'4ly 4ut Cernas"oni notes that
%2estern 4hiloso4hy tra4s A,ri"an 4hiloso4hy in a #ouble bin#5 either
A,ri"an 4hiloso4hy is so si'ilar to 2estern 4hiloso4hy that it 'a*es no
#istin"ti;e "ontribution an# e=e"ti;ely #isa44earsK or it is so #i=erent
that its "re#entials to be /enuine 4hiloso4hy 6ill al6ays be i n #oubt
(Cernas"oni 1991 111)$% )his #ouble bin# is the "olonial #i=eren"e an# it
"reates the "on#ition ,or 6hat I ha;e else6here "alle# %bor#er
thin*in/%$ I ha;e #eAne# bor#er thin*in/ as an e4iste'olo/y ,ro' a
subaltern 4ers4e"ti;e$ Althou/h Cernas"on i #es"ribes the 4heno'ena
in a #i=erent ter'inolo/y the 4roble' 6e are #ealin/ 6ith here is the
sa'e$ Further'ore Cernas"oni 'a*es his 4oint 6ith the su44ort o, A,ro 7 A'eri"an 4hiloso4her Lu"ius
&utla6 in an arti"le entitle# %A,ri"an (4hiloso4hy(5 #e"ons tru"ti;e an# re"onstru"ti;e "hallen/es%$
E'4hasiFin/ the sense in 6hi"h &utla6 uses the "on"e4t o, %#e"onstru"tion% Cernas"oni at the sa'e ti'e
un#erlines the li'its o, Derri#a(s #e"onstru"ti;e o4eration an# the "losure o, 2estern 'eta4hysi"s$
Derri#a a" "or#in/ to Cernas"oni o=ers no s4a"e in 6hi"h to as* the >uestion about Chinese In#ian an#
es4e"ially A,ri"an 4hiloso4hy$ Latin an# An/lo 7 A'eri"an 4hiloso4hy shoul# be a##e# to this$ A,ter a
"are,ul #is"ussion o, Derri#a(s 4hiloso4hy an# 4on#erin/ 4os sible alternati;es ,or the %e@tension% o,
#e"onstru"tion Cernas"oni "on"lu#es by sayin/5 %$$$e;en a,ter su"h re;isions it is not "lear 6hat
"ontribution #e"onstru"tion "oul# 'a*e to the "onte'4orary #ialo/ue bet6een 2estern 4hiloso4hy an#
A,ri"an 4hiloso4h y% (1991 11J)$ &r i, a "ontribution "oul# be ,oreseen it has to be ,ro' the 4ers4e"ti;e
that &utla6 a44ro4riates an# 6hi"h %#enaturaliFes% #e"onstru"tion o, 2estern 'eta4hysi"s ,ro' insi#e
(an# 'aintains the totality a la Derri#a)$ )hat is to say it h as to be a %#e"onstru"tion% ,ro' the
%e@teriority% o, 2estern 'eta4hysi"s ,ro' the 2alter D$ +i/nolo 4ers4e"ti;e o, the #ouble bin# that
Cernas"oni #ete"te# in the inter#e4en#en"e (an# 4o6er relations) bet6een 2estern an# A,ri"an
4hiloso4hy$ -o6e;er i, 6e in;ert the 4ers4 e"ti;e 6e are lo"ate# in a 4arti"ular #e"onstru"ti;e strate/y
that I 6oul# rather na'e the %#e"oloniFation o, 4hiloso4hy% (or o, any other bran"h o, *no6le#/e natural
s"ien"es so"ial s"ien"es an# the hu'anities)$ Su"h a #is4la"e'ent o, 4ers4e"ti;e 6as alrea#y su//este#
by +oro""an 4hiloso4her Ab#el*hebir Khatibi 6hi"h I ha;e #is"usse# at len/th else6here (+i/nolo 1999a)$
-o6e;er "ertainly Cernas"oni 6ill "on"ur 6ith Khatibi in na'in/ #e"oloniFation as the ty4e o,
#e"onstru"ti;e o4eration 4ro4ose# by & utla6 thus 'aintainin/ an# un#oin/ the "olonial #i=eren"e ,ro'
the "olonial #i=eren"e itsel,$ %)he e@istential #i'ension o, A,ri"an 4hiloso4hy(s
"hallen/e to 2estern 4hiloso4hy in /eneral an# Continental 4hiloso4hy
in 4arti"ular is lo"ate# in the nee# to #e"oloniFe the 'in#$ )his tas* is
at least as i'4ortant ,or the "oloniFer as it is ,or the "oloniFe#$ For
A,ri"ans #e"oloniFin/ the 'in# ta*es 4la"e not only in ,a"in/ the
e@4erien"e o, "olonialis' but also in re"o/niFin/ the 4re"olonial
I4
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
6hi"h establishe# the #estru"ti;e i'4ortan"e o, so 7 "alle#
ethno4hiloso4hy (Cernas"oni 1991 191)$ )he #ouble bin# re>uires also a
#ouble o4eration ,ro' the 4ers4e"ti;e o, A,ri"an 4hiloso4hy5 an
a44ro4riation o, 2estern 4hiloso4hy an# at the sa'e ti'e a reBe"tion
o, it /roun#e# in the "olonial #i=eren"e$ Cernas"oni re"o/niFes that these ho6e;er are
tas*s an# issues ,or A,ri"an 4hiloso4hers$ 2hat 6oul# be si'ilar issues ,or a Continental 4hiloso4herR For
Euro4eans Cernas"oni a##s %#e"oloniFin/ the "olonial 'in# ne"e ssitates an en"ounter 6ith the
"oloniFe# 6here Anally the Euro4ean has the e@4erien"e o, bein/ seen as Bu#/e# by those they ha;e
#enie#$ )he e@tent to 6hi"h Euro4ean 4hiloso4hy "ha'4ione# "olonialis' an# 'ore 4arti"ularly hel4e# to
Busti,y it throu/h a 4hiloso4hy o, history that 4ri;ile/e# Euro4e 'a*es it a44arent that su"h a #e"oloniFin/
is an ur/ent tas* ,or Euro4ean thou/ht% (Cernas"oni 1991 192)
T@E CODIFICATION OF COLO#ED 8ODIE7 I7 #OOTED IN
COLONIAL &IOLENCE. COLONIUATION I7 #OOTED IN AN B7A
T@E? DIC@OTO?Y T@AT 7ITBATE7 COLONIUE#7 A7 CLEAN
#I.@TEOB7 7B8IECT7 AND CODED 8ODIE7 A7 INFE#IO#.
?i1!oo 2==- M2alter D$ +i/nolo 0ro,essor o, Cultural stu#ies at Du*e Dni;ersity
Isla'o4hobia/-is4ano4hobia5 )he (!e)ConA/uration o, the !a"ial I'4erial/Colonial +atri@ -u'an
Ar"hite"ture 200IP
)hus t(e +oi!t o% *e+art$re o, 'y ar/u'ent i" t(at '$rre!t *e,ate" a,o$t
;(et(er Ora'eP i" a! ei1(tee!t( a!* !i!etee!t(A'e!t$r4 *i"'o$r"eC
or ;(et(er i! t(e "ixtee!t( 'e!t$r4 O'a"teP ;a" t(e +ro+er "4"tem
o% 'a""iG'atio!C ,ot( a""$me t(at t(e 'a""iG'atio!" 'o!'o'te* ,4
#e!ai""a!'e me! o% etter" or E!i1(te!me!t O+(io"o+(ie"P ;ere
$!iver"a$ +y 4oint o, #e4arture is that t(e "4"tem o% 'a""iG'atio! a!*
(ierar'(ie" *$ri!1 t(e #e!ai""a!'e or *$ri!1 t(e E!i1(te!me!t ;a"
a o'a o!e i! t(i" +re'i"e "e!"e: +eo+e i! I!*iaC C(i!aC Ottoma!C
Ta;a!ti!"$4$C A!a($a'C et'.C 'ertai!4 ;ere +art o% t(e 'a""iG'atio!
,$t !o!e o% t(emC ex'e+t C(ri"tia! t(eoo1ia!"C (a* a!4 "a4 i! t(e
'a""iG'atio!. T(e o!4 +o""i,iit4 to t(o"e ;(o *i* !ot +arti'i+ate i!
t(e im+eria or1a!i>atio! o% <!o;e*1e ;a" eit(er to a''e+t (o;
t(e4 ;ere 'a""iGe* or to re'a""i%4 t(em"eve" %or t(eir o;! +ri*e
,$t ;it( itte eQe't o! t(e or1a!i>atio! o% ;or* +o;er t(at ;a" at
"ta<e$ Let 'e e@4lain$ Dis"ourses o, #i=eren"e in the Euro4ean !enaissan"e 6ent han# in han# 6ith
#is"ourses o, ,ear$1 )here is 4lenty o, e;i#en"e about Christians in S4ain but also in En/lan#$ Critish
tra;elers to the -a4sbur/ or Austro7-un/arian E'4ires e@4resse# their stran/eness an# the #is"o',ort
;is7h7;is the )ur*s$ T(e E$ro+ea! #e!ai""a!'e 'o$* ,e ta<e! a" a re%ere!'e
+erio* i! ;(i'( "evera Oem+ire"P (a /eneral na'e e@ten#e# a,ter the na'e o, the
!o'an E'4eror instea# ,or e@a'4le o, Sultan or )Far) 'oexi"te*M at(o$1( t(e
*i"'o$r"e" o% C(ri"tia!it4 a!* ater o! o% +oiti'a t(eor4 a!*
+oiti'a e'o!om4 emer1e* a" t(e *omi!a!t im+eria *i"'o$r"e" o%
0e"ter! 'a+itai"t em+ire"$ !a"is' 6ent han# in han# 6ith the histori"al ,oun#ation o,
"a4italis' as 6e *no6 it to#ay$ Ta<e t(e 8a'< Le1e!* a" a 1oo* a!* ear4
exam+e o% t(e +ro+a1atio! o% t(e ?$"im Ome!a'eP %rom t(e
I,eria! )e!i!"$a to t(e Ata!ti' 'o$!trie"C !ort( o% t(e )4re!ee".
T(e 8a'< Le1e!* i"C Gr"t a!* %oremo"tC a! i!ter!a 'o!Si't i! E$ro+e
a!* %or t(at rea"o! I ;i *e"'ri,e it a" t(e im+eria i!ter!a
*iQere!'e. 8$t t(e 8a'< Le1e!*C i!itiate* a!* +ro+ee* ,4 E!1a!*C
"(are* ;it( t(e 7+a!iar*" t(e C(ri"tia! 'o"moo14 t(at
*i"ti!1$i"(e* it"e% %rom t(e ?$"imC t(e T$r<" a!* t(e #$""ia!
Ort(o*ox. )hat is the Cla"* Le/en# "ontribute# to the rein,or"e'ent o, an i'4erial #i;i#e that 6as
alrea#y "arrie# out by the S4anish Kin/#o' o, Charles I an# the S4anish E'4ire un#er 0hili4 II$ 0e a
IH
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
<!o; it: i!1462C t(e ?oor" a!* t(e Ie;" ;ere +ro"e'$te* i! t(e
I,eria! )e!i!"$aM I!*ia!" ;ere O*i"'overe*P i! t(e Ne; 0or* a!*
ma""ive 'o!ti!1e!t" o% A%ri'a! "ave" ;ere tra!"+orte* t(ro$1( t(e
Ata!ti'. T(e O*i"'over4P o% t(e Ne; 0or* +o"e* a *iQere!t
+ro,em %or 0e"ter! C(ri"tia!" *eai!1 ;it( ?$"im"C Ie;" a!*
T$r<": i% Ie;" a!* ?oor" ;ere 'a""iGe* a''or*i!1 to t(eir ,eie% i!
t(e ;ro!1 .o*C I!*ia!" (a!* ater o! 8a'< A%ri'a!")C (a* to ,e
'a""iGe* a""$mi!1 t(at t(e4 (a* !o rei1io!". T($"C t(e L$e"tio! o%
O+$rit4 o% ,oo*P a'L$ire* i! t(e Ne; 0or* a mea!i!1 tota4
*iQere!t %rom t(e o!e it (a* i! t(e I,eria! )e!i!"$a. <onetheless the ,a"t
re'ains that 6ith the #ouble e@4ulsion o, +oors an# Je6s ,ro' the Iberian 0eninsula the Ne; 0or*
,ro$1(t a *iQere!t *ime!"io! to t(e 'a""iG'ator4 a!* (ierar'(i'a
"4"tem. 2hile in S4ain Je6s an# +usli's i#entiAe# the'sel;es 6ith those ra"ialiFe# labels there 6ere
no NIn#iansO in the <e6 2orl#$ To ,e'ome OI!*ia!P ;a" a o!1 a!* +ai!%$
+ro'e"" %or t(e *iver"it4 o% +eo+e" the #i;ersity o, lan/ua/es an# the #i;ersity o,
'e'ories an# rituals ,ro' to#ayLs Southern Chile to Cana#a$ A!* t(ere ;ere !o O8a'<"P
eit(er. A%ri'a!" tra!"+orte* to t(e !e; 0or* %rom *iQere!t re1io!"
o% t(e 'o!ti!e!t (a* *iQere!t a!1$a1e"C memorie" a!* rei1io!"C
,$t !o; a o% t(em ,e'ame 8a'<" i! t(e Ne; 0or*. In other 6or#s
;(atever t(e "4"tem o% 'a""iG'atio! i! t(e I,eria! )e!i!"$a a!* i!
t(e Ne; 0or*C t(at "4"tem o% 'a""iG'atio! ;a" 'o!troe* ,4
C(ri"tia! T(eoo14 a" t(e overar'(i!1 a!* (e1emo!i' %rame o%
<!o;e*1e. <either the N)ur*sO nor the +u/hal nor the Christian &rtho#o@ in !ussia ha# any say in
itZe;en less o, "ourse In#ians an# Cla"*s
COLONIAL IDENTITY )#ODBCTION @A7 #EDBCED NATI&E7 TO A
CON7TANT 7TATE OF NEA#ADEAT@. T@E A8ILITY OF T@E
8IO)OLITICAL TO ?ANDATE T@E #ELE&ANCE OF NATI&E
CBLTB#E )#ODBCE7 A &IOLENT #ACI7? T@AT 7EE97 TO E#A7E
NATI&E T@OB.@T AND LIFE.
7mit( 3 [An#rea N<ot an In#ian )ra#ition5 )he Se@ual ColoniFation o, <ati;e 0eo4lesO -y4atia
[olu'e 11 <u'ber 2 S4rin/ 44$ J071HP
Ann Stoler ar/ues that ra"is' ,ar ,ro' bein/ a rea"tion to "risis in 6hi"h ra"ial others are s"a4e/oate# ,or
so"ial ills is a 4er'anent 4art o, the so"ial ,abri"$ NM!Pa"is' is not an e=e"t but a ta"ti"
in the internal Assion o, so"iety into binary o44osition a 'eans o,
"reatin/ bbiolo/iFe#L internal ene'ies a/ainst 6ho' so"iety 'ust
#e,en# itsel,O (199J H9)$ She notes that in the 'o#ern state the "onstant
4uriA"ation an# eli'ination o, ra"ialiFe# ene'ies 6ithin that state
ensures the /ro6th o, the national bo#y$ N!a"is' #oes not 'erely arise
in 'o'ents o, "risis in s4ora#i" "leansin/s$ It is internal to the bio4oliti"al
state 6o;en into the 6eb o, the so"ial bo#y threa#e# throu/h its ,abri"O (199J H9)$ Si'ilarly Kate
Shanley notes that <ati;e 4eo4les are a 4er'anent N4resent absen"eO in the
D$S$ "olonial i'a/ination an Nabsen"eO that rein,or"es at e;ery turn
the "on;i"tion that <ati;e 4eo4les are in#ee# ;anishin/ an# that the
"on>uest o, <ati;e lan#s is BustiAe#$ Ella Shoat an# !obert Sta' #es"ribe this
absen"e as Nan a'bi;alently re4ressi;e 'e"hanis' MthatP #is4els the
an@iety in the ,a"e o, the In#ian 6hose ;ery 4resen"e is a re'in#er o,
II
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
the initially 4re"arious / roun#in/ o, the A'eri"an nation7state
itsel, $ $ $ In a te'4oral 4ara#o@ li;in/ In#ians 6ere in#u"e# to b4lay
#ea#L as it 6ere in or#er to 4er,or' a narrati;e o, 'ani,est #estiny in 6hi"h
their role ulti'ately 6as to #isa44earO (1994 111T19)$ )his Nabsen"eO is
e=e"te# throu/h the 'eta4hori"al trans,or'ation o, <ati;e bo#ies into
a 4ollution o, 6hi"h the "olonial bo#y 'ust 4uri,y itsel,$ As 6hite
Cali,ornians #es"ribe# in the 11I0s <ati;e 4eo4le 6ere Nthe #irtiest lot
o, hu'an bein/s on earth$O )hey 6ear Althy ra/s 6ith their 4ersons
un6ashe# hair un"o'be# an# s6ar'in/ 6ith ;er'inO (!a6ls 1914 19H)$ )he
,ollo6in/ 111H 0ro"tor ` Ga'ble a# ,or I;ory Soa4 also illustrates this e>uation bet6een In#ian bo#ies an#
#irt5 2e 6ere on"e ,a"tious Aer"e an# 6il# In 4ea"e,ul arts unre"on"ile# &ur blan*ets s'eare# 6ith
/rease an# stains Fro' bu=alo 'eat an# settlersL ;eins$ )hrou/h su''erLs #ust an# heat "ontent Fro'
'oon to 'oon un6ashe# 6e 6ent Cut I[&!Q S&A0 "a'e li*e a ray &, li/ht a"ross our #ar*ene# 6ay An#
no6 6eLre "i;il *in# an# /oo# An# *ee4 the la6s as 4eo4le shoul# 2e 6ear our linen la6n an# la"e As
6ell as ,ol*s 6ith 4aler ,a"e An# no6 I ta*e 6here;er 6e /o )his "a*e o, I[&!Q S&A0 to sho6 2hat
"i;iliFe# 'y s>ua6 an# 'e An# 'a#e us "lean an# ,air to see$ (Lo4eF n$# 119) In the "olonial
i'a/ination <ati;e bo#ies are also i''anently 4ollute# 6ith se@ual
sin$ Ale@an#er 2hita*er a 'inister in [ir/inia 6rote in 1I135 N)hey li;e na*e# in
bo#ies as i, their sha'e o, their sinne #eser;e# no "o;erin/5 )heir
na'es are as na*e# as their bo#ies5 )hey estee' it a ;irtue to lie
#e"ei;e an# steale as their 'aster the #i;ell tea"heth the'O (Cer*ho,er
19J1 19)$ Further'ore a""or#in/ to Cernar#ino #e +inaya5 N)heir Mthe In#iansLP 'arria/es are not a
sa"ra'ent but a sa"rile/e$ )hey are i#olatrous libi#inous an# "o''it so#o'y$ )heir "hie, #esire is to eat
#rin* 6orshi4 heathen i#ols an# "o''it bestial obs"enitiesO ("ite# in Stannar# 1992 211)$ StolerLs
analysis o, ra"is' in 6hi"h <ati;e 4eo4les are li*ene# to a 4ollution
that threatens D$ S$ se"urity is in#i"ate# in the "o''ents o, one #o"tor
in his atte'4t to rationaliFe the 'ass steriliFation o, <ati;e 6o'en in
the 19J0s5 N0eo4le 4ollute an# too 'any 4eo4le "ro6#e# too "lose
to/ether "ause 'any o, our so"ial an# e"ono'i" 4roble's$ )hese in
turn are a//ra;ate# by in;oluntary an# irres4onsible 4arenthoo# $ $ $
2e also ha;e obli/ations to the so"iety o, 6hi"h 6e are 4art$ )he
6el,are 'ess as it has been "alle# "ries out ,or solutions one o, 6hi"h is
,ertility "ontrolO (&*laho'a 1919 11)$ -erbert A4the*er #es"ribes the lo/i"al "onse>uen"es o, this
steriliFation 'o;e'ent5 N)he ulti'ate lo/i" o, this is "re'atoriaK 4eo4le are
the'sel;es "onstitutin/ the 4ollution an# in,erior 4eo4le in 4arti"ular
then "re'atoria be"o'e really ;ast se6era/e 4roBe"ts$ &nly so 'ay
one un#erstan# those 6ho atten# the o;ens an# "on"o"te# an#
"on#u"te# the entire enter4riseK those N6aste#OZto use D$ S$ ar'y
Bar/on reser;e# ,or "olonial hostilitiesZare not really not ,ully 4eo4leO
(191J 144)$ Ce"ause In#ian bo#ies are N#irtyO they are "onsi#ere#
se@ually ;iolable an# Nra4able$O )hat is in 4atriar"hal thin*in/ only a
bo#y that is N4ureO "an be ;iolate#$ )he ra4e o, bo#ies that are
"onsi#ere# inherently i'4ure or #irty si'4ly #oes not "ount$ For instan"e
4rostitutes ha;e al'ost an i'4ossible ti'e bein/ belie;e# i, they are
ra4e# be"ause the #o'inant so"iety "onsi#ers the 4rostituteLs bo#y
un#eser;in/ o, inte/rity an# ;iolable at all ti'es$ Si'ilarly the history
o, 'utilation o, In#ian bo#ies both li;in/ an# #ea# 'a*es it "lear to
In#ian 4eo4le that they are not entitle# to bo#ily inte/rity as these
IJ
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
e@a'4les su//est5 I sa6 the bo#y o, 2hite Antelo4e 6ith the 4ri;ates "ut o= an# I hear# a
sol#ier say he 6as /oin/ to 'a*e a toba""o74ou"h out o, the'$ ("ite# in 2rone an# <elson 1912 113)
Ea"h o, the bra;es 6as shot #o6n an# s"al4e# by the 6il# ;olunteers 6ho out 6ith their *ni;es an#
"uttin/ t6o 4arallel /ashes #o6n their ba"*s 6oul# stri4 the s*in ,ro' the >ui;erin/ M esh to 'a*e raFor
stra4s o,$ ("ite# in 2rone an# <elson 1912 90) &ne 'ore #e@terous than the rest 4ro"ee#e# to M ay the
"hie,Ls M)e"u'sehLsP bo#yK then "uttin/ the s*in in narro6 stri4s $ $ $ at on"e a su44ly o, raFor7stra4s ,or
the 'ore N,ero"iousO o, his brethren$ ("ite# in 2rone an# <elson 1912 12) An#re6 Ja"*son $ $ $ su4er;ise#
the 'utilation o, 100 or so Cree* In#ian "or4sesZthe bo#ies o, 'en 6o'en an# "hil#ren that he an# his
'en 'assa"re#Z"uttin/ o= their noses to "ount an# 4reser;e a re"or# o, the #ea# sli"in/ lon/ stri4s o,
M esh ,ro' their bo#ies to tan an# turn into bri#le reins$ (Stannar# 1992 121) E"hoin/ this 'entality 6as
Go;ernor )ho'4son 6ho state# in 1990 that he 6oul# not "lose #o6n an o4en In#ian burial 'oun# in
Di"*son Illinois be"ause o, his ar/u'ent that he 6as as 'u"h In#ian as are "urrent In#ians an#
"onse>uently he ha# as 'u"h ri/ht as they to #eter'ine the ,ate o, In#ian re'ains$1 -e ,elt ,ree to
a44ro4riate the i#entity o, N<ati;eO an# thus ,elt BustiAe# in "lai'in/ o6nershi4 o;er both <ati;e i#entity
an# <ati;e bo#ies$ )he Chi"a/o 4ress si'ilarly atte'4te# to "hallen/e the i#entity o, the In#ian 4eo4le
6ho 4roteste# )ho'4sonLs #e"ision by statin/ that these 4rotestors 6ere either only N4artO In#ian or 6ere
only "lai'in/ to be In#ian (-er'ann 1990)$2 )he 'essa/e "on;eye# by the Illinois state /o;ern'ent is
that to be In#ian in this so"iety is to be on "onstant #is4lay ,or 6hite "onsu'ers in li,e or in #eath$ An# in
,a"t In#ian i#entity itsel, is un#er the "ontrol o, the "oloniFer subBe"t to
era#i"ation at any ti'e$ As Ai'e Cesaire 4uts it N"oloniFation d bthin/i: "ationLO (19J2 21)$
As Stoler e@4lains this 4ro"ess o, ra"ialiFe# "oloniFation5 NM)Phe 'ore
b#e/eneratesL an# babnor'alsL Min this "ase <ati;e 4eo4lesP are
eli'inate# the li;es o, those 6ho s4ea* 6ill be stron/er 'ore
;i/orous an# i'4ro;e#$ )he ene'ies are not 4oliti"al a#;ersaries but
those i#entiAe# as e@ternal an# internal threats to the 4o4ulation$
!a"is' is the "on#ition that 'a*es it a""e4table to 4ut M"ertain 4eo4leP
to #eath in a so"iety o, nor'aliFationO (199J 1H)$ )a#iarLs #es"ri4tion o,
"olonial relationshi4s as an ena"t'ent o, the N4re;ailin/ 'o#e o,
heterose@ual relationsO is use,ul be"ause it un#ers"ores the e@tent to
6hi"h D$ S$ "oloniFers ;ie6 the subBu/ation o, 6o'en o, the <ati;e
nations as "riti"al to the su""ess o, the e"ono'i" "ultural an# 4oliti"al
"oloniFation (1993 11I)$ Stoler notes that the i'4erial #is"ourses on
se@uality N"ast 6hite 6o'en as the bearers o, 'ore ra"ist i'4erial
or#erO (199J 3H)$ Cy e@tension <ati;e 6o'en as bearers o, a "ounter7
i'4erial or#er 4ose a su4re'e threat to the i'4erial or#er$ Sy'boli"
an# literal "ontrol o;er their bo#ies is i'4ortant in the 6ar a/ainst
<ati;e 4eo4le as these e@a'4les attest5 2hen I 6as in the boat I
"a4ture# a beauti,ul Carib 6o'en $ $ $ I "on"ei;e# #esire to ta*e
4leasure $ $ $ I too* a ro4e an# thrashe# her 6ell ,or 6hi"h she raise#
su"h unhear# s"rea's that you 6oul# not ha;e belie;e# your ears$
Finally 6e "a'e to an a/ree'ent in su"h a 'anner that I "an tell you that she see'e# to ha;e been
brou/ht u4 in a s"hool o, harlots$ (Sale 1990 140) )6o o, the best loo*in/ o, the s>ua6s 6ere lyin/ in su"h
a 4osition an# ,ro' the a44earan"e o, the /enital or/ans an# o, their 6oun#s there "an be no #oubt that
they 6ere Arst ra;ishe# an# then shot #ea#$ <early all o, the #ea# 6ere 'utilate#$ (2rone an# <elson
1912 123) &ne 6o'an bi/ 6ith "hil# rushe# into the "hur"h "las4in/ the alter an# "ryin/ ,or 'er"y ,or
hersel, an# unborn babe$ She 6as ,ollo6e# an# ,ell 4ier"e# 6ith a #oFen lan"es $ $ $ the "hil# 6as torn
ali;e ,ro' the yet 4al4itatin/ bo#y o, its 'other Arst 4lun/e# into the holy 6ater to be ba4tiFe# an#
i''e#iately its brains 6ere #ashe# out a/ainst a 6all$ (2rone an# <elson 1912 9J) )he Christians
atta"*e# the' 6ith bu=ets an# beatin/s $ $ $ )hen they beha;e# 6ith su"h te'erity an# sha'elessness
that the 'ost 4o6er,ul ruler o, the islan# ha# to see his o6n 6i,e ra4e# by a Christian o."er$ (Las Casas
1992 33) I hear# one 'an say that he ha# "ut a 6o'anLs 4ri;ate 4arts out an# ha# the' ,or e@hibition
on a sti"*$ I hear# another 'an say that he ha# "ut the An/ers o= o, an In#ian to /et the rin/s o= his
han#$ I also hear# o, nu'erous instan"es in 6hi"h 'en ha# "ut out the 4ri;ate 4arts o, ,e'ales an#
stret"he# the' o;er their sa##le7bo6s an# so'e o, the' o;er their hats$ (San# Cree* 19J3 129T30)
A'eri"an -orse sai# o, the 'assa"re at 2oun#e# Knee5 )he ,a"t o, the *illin/ o, the 6o'en an# 'ore
es4e"ially the *illin/ o, the youn/ boys an# /irls 6ho are to /o to 'a*e u4 the ,uture stren/th o, the In#ian
4eo4le is the sa##est 4art o, the 6hole a=air an# 6e ,eel it ;ery sorely$ (Stannar# 1992 12J)
I1
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
COLONIALI7? E7TA8LI7@E7 A F#A?E0O#9 OF #ACI7? TO
IB7TIFY CBLTB#AL INTE#&ENTION EECLB7I&ELY FO#
DO?INATION AND 7B8IB.ATION
?i1$e 6 ([in"ius [alentin !a#uan hol#s a #e/ree in Le/al S"ien"es
Fa"ulty o, -u'anities an# a 4ro,essor at the Fe#eral Dni;ersity o,
!on#nnia NColonialis' an# Dn#er#e;elo4'ent in Latin A'eri"aO
htt45//666$4oliti"ala=airs$net/"olonialis'7an#7un#er#e;elo4'ent7in7
latin7a'eri"a/)
NCoo!iai"m not only #e4ri;es a so"iety o, its ,ree#o' an# its 6ealth but o, its ;ery "hara"ter eavi!1 it"
+eo+e i!tee't$a4 a!* mora4 *i"orie!te*O (FranF Fanon 19II)$ Intro#u"tion )his essay is
/oin/ to assess "olonialis' an# the "lass stru"ture inherite# as a 'ain #eter'inant o, "urrent #e;elo4'ent in Latin A'eri"an "ountries$ First
o, all 6e 'ust hi/hli/ht statisti"s 4ublishe# by the 2orl# Can*5 1.4 ,iio! +eo+e i! *eveo+i!1
'o$!trie" are ivi!1 $!*er t(e extreme +overt4$ )hese "ountries are in the 'aBority
%ormer 'oo!ie" %rom *iQere!t '4'e" o% ex+a!"io! o, the 'aBor i'4erialist "ountries$
Certainly t(e +ro'e""e" *rive! ,4 a!* t(e e1a'ie" o% 'oo!iai"m are
m$ti+e a!* 'a!!ot ,e $!*er"too* i% re*$'e* to o!4 t(e e'o!omi'
*ime!"io!$ -o6e;er ,or the 4ur4ose o, this 4a4er the e=e"ts o, e"ono'i" "oloniFation 6ill be stresse#$ )he e"ono'i" herita/es o,
"oloniFation are the "onse>uen"es o, the 4ro"ess o, "on>uerin/ "ontrollin/ an# 4ossessin/ the s4e"iAe# re/ions$ I also a;oi# a #is"ussion o,
the entire 20th "entury in or#er to ,o"us on ho6 the "olonial o""u4ation sha4e# ;arious "ountries$ )his #eAnition o, 'oo!iai"m
i" i'4re"ise an# broa#$ In an e=ort to be 'ore 4re"ise I un#erstan# it as a! exter!a:%orei1! ex+oitatio!
a""$re* t(ro$1( +oiti'a 'o!tro a!* *omi!a!'e ;(i'( e* to a
"it$atio! o% *e+e!*e!'4 o! t(e 'oo!ia +o;er ,4 t(e ex+oite*
e'o!om4$ -o6e;er there are other e@tra7e"ono'i" i'4li"ations o, "olonialis'5 it i" !e'e""ari4 a vioe!t
'o!L$e"t a!* vioe!t4 mai!tai!e* "4"tem %or t(e overAex+oratio!
o% t(e 'o!L$ere* +eo+e. It i" a! i!($ma! "4"tem i! it"e%C
*e"tro4i!1 a!4 attem+t at rea *eveo+me!t o% t(e 'oo!4$ E"ono'i"ally it
'o!G"'ate" a!* re"erve" +ro*$'tive a!*" %or t(e $"e o% t(e
'oo!i>er$ At a 4sy"holo/i"al le;el it *eA($ma!i>e" t(e 'oo!i>e*C %or'e%$4
im+o"i!1 a %orei1! '$t$re. It i" a "4"tem "$"tai!e* ,4 a ra'i"t
i*eoo14 ;(ere '$t$ra "+a'e i" *eveo+e* ex'$"ive4 %or
reatio!" o% *omi!atio! . T(i" ao;" %or "$++re""io! a!*
"$,K$1atio! o% t(e 'oo!i>e*$ &ur 'ain >uestion is to analyFe ho6 the lo6 le;el o, e"ono'i" 4er,or'an"e in
"oloniFe# "ountries is a re?e@ o, so"ial stru"tures /enerate# by "olonialis'$ )hus the Arst >uestion 6hi"h shoul# be a##resse# is5 2hy #o
"olonial 4o6ers establishe# "oloniesR Se"on#ly ho6 #i# they #o itR )here,ore it 6ill be 4ossible to "o'4rehen# the "urrent i'4a"ts an#
"onse>uen"es o, their 4ra"ti"es$ -istori"al "onte@t an# /enealo/y o, the "olonialis' )he re"ent 'oo!ie" (1Jth to 19th "enturies)
;ere e"ta,i"(e* a" +art o% t(e ex+a!"io! o% t(e E$ro+ea!
'a+itai"ti' +ro*$'tio! %oo;i!1 t(e I!*$"tria #evo$tio!$ Euro4ean "olonial
4o6ers ai'e# to in"or4orate territories 6hi"h "oul# 4ro;i#e ra6 'aterials an# lo67"ost 6or*,or"e an# in the 4ro"ess #e7stru"turin/ an#
un'a*in/ soli# 4re7"a4italisti" so"ial ,or'ations$ -en"e the 'ain /oal 6as not the trans,eren"e o, the 'etro4olitan 4o4ulation to 4o4ulate
the "olony e@4an#in/ their a/ri"ulture as 4ra"ti"e# by the !o'an (an# earlier) E'4ire(s)$ T(e e'o!omie" o% t(e
'oo!ie" ;ere *e"i1!e* to "erve a" "o$r'e o% i!ex+e!"ive a,or a!*
!at$ra re"o$r'e" an# ne;er 4lanne# to s4ar* internal #e;elo4'ent$ )his situation le# to 'ono4olisti" tra#e7relations in
beneAt o, the e"ono'ies o, the "olonial 4o6ers$ To e!"$re t(e"e mo!o+oi"ti' +rivie1es t(e
'oo!ia +o;er" %or'i,4 "(a+e* t(e "o'ia a!* e'o!omi'a
*4!ami'" o% t(e 'oo!ie"$ In this sense the "oloniFe# "ountries 6ere ,or"e# to #e;elo4 non7te"hnolo/i"ally
intensi;e 'ono"ultures (ironi"ally "elebrate# as Ns4e"ialiFationO) sellin/ un4roAtably their entire 4ro#u"tion ,or the #o'inant "ountries$ )his
sa'e a/ro7e@4ort oriente# #yna'i"s outline# the lan#7o6nin/ stru"ture base# in lar/e 4ro4erties un#er the (4oliti"al an# e"ono'i"al) "ontrol
o, non7'o#erniFin/ oli/ar"hies$ )he role o, these oli/ar"hies is o, ,un#a'ental i'4ortan"e$ )he lo"al elites 6ere 'aBor a"tors on 4oliti"al7
I9
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
e"ono'i"al s"enario$ )heir a/en"y "annot be i/nore# an# their internal a"ti;ity #eAne# or/aniFe# an# settle# the relations o, e@4loitation
6hi"h too* 4la"e in the "olonies$ &ne o, the 'ost 4ro'inent Latin A'eri"an e"ono'ists Celso Furta#o e=e"ti;ely e@4laine# the 4atterns o,
"olonialis'$ A""or#in/ to hi' the ,orei/n "ountry 6or*e# in interrelation 6ith the rulin/ "lasses in the re/ion usin/ authoritarian 'eans to
e@"lu#e lar/e se/'ents o, the 4eo4le ,ro' 4arti"i4atin/ in 4oliti"al an# e"ono'i" "ontrol o, their "o''unities an# "ountries 6ith the intention
o, #e"reasin/ the "ost o, labor (6hen it not re#u"e# #rasti"ally throu/h the use o, ensla;e# tra#itional 4o4ulations)$ )o su' u4 Furta#o states5
1$ T(e exi"te!'e o% va"t !o!A$tii>e* area" +ermitte* !e; exte!"ive
o''$+atio!" o% a!* instea# o, establishin/ a 'o#ern an# intensi;e a/ri"ultureK 2$ )he 4roAts a""u'ulate# by the lo"al
elites 6ere 6aste# in the "onsu'4tion o, su4er?uous an# lu@urious /oo#s ,or 4ure ostentation rather than sa;in/ an# in;estin/ in 4ro#u"ti;e
se"tors o, the national an# nas"ent e"ono'yK 3$ A" 'o!"eL$e!'e o% t(e a1raria! "tr$'t$re
;(i'( extreme4 'e!trai>e* +o;er a!* ;eat(C a (ar"( "it$atio! o%
i!eL$ait4C +overt4 a!* a "ort" o% +rivatio! %or t(e maKorit4 o% t(e
"o'iet4 re"$te*. T(i" ex'$*e* a maKor +art o% t(e +o+$atio! %rom
t(e ,a"i' mea!" o% "$,"i"te!'e$ All these 4oints 'aintaine# a ;i"ious "y"le o, lo6er 4ro#u"ti;ity in "oloniFe#
re/ions an# the ?o6 o, 6ealth to the #o'inant e"ono'ies$ )he ,ate o, the lest #e;elo4e# "ountries 6ere #eter'ine# in this #iale"ti"al relation
6here internal ,a"tors (the role o, the #o'inant "lasses base# in a se'i7,eu#al or#er) intera"te# 6ith e@ternal "auses (the "olonial 4o6er an#
its thirsty ,or resour"es an# labor ,or"e)$ In this histori" tra4 "oloniFe# re/ions 6ere lately in"or4orate# in the 6orl#7'ar*et as a result o, the
#issolution o, the #ire"t "ontrol o, 'etro4olitan "a4ital o;er the "olonies an# ha# to be a""o''o#ate# a""or#in/ to the nee#s o, the 4re;ious$
)he (histori"al an# "onte'4orary) ma""ive +overt4 i! t(o"e "+e'iGe* re1io!" "a; it"
1e!eao14 i! t(e ori1i!a +rivatio! o% a''e"" to a!* a!* (o$"i!1 a!*
'$rre!t4 a"o *etermi!e" t(e e'o!omi' +er%orma!'e o% t(o"e
'o$!trie" ;(ere ar1e maKoritie" o% t(e ;or<i!1 'a""e" are $!a,e
to 'o!"$me t(e +ro*$'t" ma*e i! a "o'iet4 "'arre* ,4 i!eL$ait4$
7tri't a;" a!* ot(er mea"$re" o% "o'ia 'o!tro ;ere a"o
e"ta,i"(e* i! t(e 'oo!i>e* 'o$!trie"$ E;en the 'anu,a"ture o, 'ini'al te"hnolo/i"al
4ro#u"ts su"h as nails 6ere ,orbi##en artiA"ially in"reasin/ the #e4en#en"e o, the "olonies$ )his is an i'4ortant ele'ent o, the "olonial
syste' an# it "annot be un#erstoo# i, its inherent "ontra#i"tions are i/nore#5 t(e *eveo+me!t o% t(e
'oo!ia 'o$!tr4 'ome" at t(e ex+e!"e o% t(e
$!*er*eveo+me!t o% t(e 'oo!i>e*$ T(e mar<et" a!* a't$a
e'o!omie" m$"t ,e oo<e* a" (i"tori'a4 'o!"tit$te*$ In this sense 4ro#u"tion in the
"olony 6as #eter'ine# by the "olonial 4o6erLs #e'an#s$ )he establish'ent o, a 'ono4olisti" relation bet6een the "olonial 4o6er an# the
"olony not only as4hy@iate# the nas"ent in#ustrialiFation but also stran/le# the beneAts o, "o'4etition$ T(i" (i"tori'a
+ro'e"" e%t t(e %ormer 'oo!ie" e'o!omi'a4 "$,or*i!ate* a!*
*i"a,e*$ )hou/h it is i'4ortant to bear in 'in# that the i#entity o, the "olonial 4o6er (an# the ty4e o, the "oloniFation) "an be a
#i=erent ;ariable$ For instan"e the le/a"y in ter's o, "ultural institutional an# le/al herita/e o, the "olonial 4o6er "an "reate sli/ht
#i=eren"es$ In the table belo6 a list o, the GD0 o, ,or'er "olonies (in South A'eri"aK #ata in A'eri"an #ollars) is "ontraste# 6ith their Gini
"oe."ients or the statisti"al 'easure o, ine>uality$ MA lo6 Gini nu'ber in#i"ates a 'ore e>ual #istribution o, 6ealth$ Cy "o'4arison the DS
has a Gini "oe."ient o, about $40 6hile 'any so"ial #e'o"rati" Euro4ean "ountries are in the $20s$ T E#$P -istori"ally this sa'4le 6as
subBe"te# to a si'ilar *in# o, "oloniFation$ In other 6or#s t(e +atter! o% 'oo!i>atio! ;a" to
e"ta,i"( 'e!ter" %or "$++4i!1 a1ri'$t$ra a!* !o!Ai!*$"triai>e*
+ro*$'t" an# 'inerals su"h as /ol# an# sil;er ,or the "olonial 4o6ers$ Generally s4ea*in/ Latin A'eri"a has sho6n e"ono'i"
/ro6th althou/h the so"ial stru"ture i'4ose# "olonialis' has been 4er4etuate#$ )he re/ion is e@tre'ely une>ual 6ith one o, the 6orst
in"o'e #istributions o, the 6orl#$ )he e@4lanation ,or this is that the initial #e/ree o, ine>uality initiate# 6ith the lon/ 4ro"ess o,
,ra/'entation o, lo"al 4re7"a4italist an# autono'ous so"ieties ,ollo6e# by the ensla;e'ent o, tra#itional in#i/enous 4o4ulations the
trans,eren"e o, A,ri"an sla;es to the "ontinent an# Anally the hy4er7e@4loitation o, the ,ree (or re"ently liberate#) 6or*in/ "lass is still
a=e"tin/ the a"tual #e;elo4'ent$ )he le/a"y o, the "olonial ti'es 7 the "on"entration o, 4o6er 6ealth an# lan# 7 le# to a stratiAe# so"iety
6ith an e@tre'e ine>uality$ )he #is"ri'ination an# o44ression 4resent in those hierar"hi"al so"ieties are the 'ain inheritan"e o, the ,or'er
"olonies an# are a 4ersistent tra/e#y bein/ 4art o, the unsol;e# >uestions o, the re"ent 4ast$
#ACI7? I7 A CON7T#BCT OF COLONIALI7? B7ED TO
LE.ITI?IUE 7OCIAL CONDBE7TV#ELATION7 OF DO?INATION
T#AN7LATE INTO )@ENOTY)IC INFE#IO#ITY
D$iKa!o 2=== (AnVbal 4ro,essor o, the De4art'ent o, So"iolo/y at Cin/ha'ton Dni;ersity
<e6 Qor* NColoniality o, 0o6er Euro"entris' an# Latin A'eri"aO)
2hat is ter'e# /lobaliFation is the "ul'ination o, a 4ro"ess that be/an 6ith the "onstitution o, A'eri"a an#
"olonial/'o#ern Euro"entere# "a4italis' as a ne6 /lobal 4o6er$ O!e o% t(e %$!*ame!ta axe" o%
t(i" mo*e o% +o;er i" t(e "o'ia 'a""iG'atio! o% t(e ;or*N"
+o+$atio! aro$!* t(e i*ea o% ra'eC a me!ta 'o!"tr$'tio! t(at
ex+re""e" t(e ,a"i' ex+erie!'e o% 'oo!ia *omi!atio! a!* +erva*e"
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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
t(e more im+orta!t *ime!"io!" o% 1o,a +o;erC i!'$*i!1 it" "+e'iG'
ratio!ait4: E$ro'e!tri"m. )he ra"ial a@is has a "olonial ori/in an# "hara"ter but it has 4ro;en to be
'ore #urable an# stable than the "olonialis' in 6hose 'atri@ it 6as establishe#$ )here,oreC t(e mo*e o%
+o;er t(at i" 1o,a4 (e1emo!i' to*a4 +re"$++o"e" a! eeme!t o%
'oo!iait4$ In 6hat ,ollo6s 'y 4ri'ary ai' is too 4en u4 so'e o, the theoreti"ally ne"essary >uestions about the
i'4li"ations o, "oloniality o, 4o6er re/ar#in/ the history o, Latin A'eri"a$1 A'eri"a an# the <e6 +o#el o, Global 0o6er
Ameri'a 6as "onstitute# as the Arst s4a"e/ti'e o, a ne6 'o#el o, 4o6er o, /lobal ;o"ation an# both in this 6ay
an# by it ,e'ame t(e Gr"t i*e!tit4 o% mo*er!it4$ )6o histori"al 4ro"esses asso"iate# in the
4ro#u"tion o, that s4a"e/ti'e "on;er/e# an# establishe# the t6o ,un#a'ental a@es o, the ne6 'o#el o, 4o6er$ O!e
;a" t(e 'o*iG'atio! o% t(e *iQere!'e" ,et;ee! 'o!L$eror" a!*
'o!L$ere* i! t(e i*ea o% Ora'eCP a "$++o"e*4 *iQere!t ,ioo1i'a
"tr$'t$re t(at +a'e* "ome i! a !at$ra "it$atio! o% i!%eriorit4 to t(e
ot(er"$ )he "on>uista#ors assu'e# this i#ea as the "onstituti;e ,oun#in/ ele'ent o, the relations o, #o'ination that
the "on>uest i'4ose#$ &n this basis the 4o4ulation o, A'eri"a an# later t(e ;or*C ;a" 'a""iGe*
;it(i! t(e !e; mo*e o% +o;er$ )he other 4ro"ess 6as the "onstitution o, a ne6 stru"ture o,
"ontrol o, labor an# its resour"es an# 4ro#u"ts$ )his ne6 stru"ture 6as an arti"ulation o, all histori"ally *no6n 4re;ious
stru"tures o, "ontrol o, labor sla;ery ser,#o' s'all in#e4en#ent "o''o#ity 4ro#u"tion an# re"i4ro"ity to/ether aroun#
an# u4on the basis o, "a4ital an# the 6orl# 'ar*et$3 !a"e5 A +ental Cate/ory o, +o#ernity T(e i*ea o% ra'eC
i! it" mo*er! mea!i!1C *oe" !ot (ave a <!o;! (i"tor4 ,e%ore t(e
'oo!i>atio! o% Ameri'a$ 0erha4s it ori/inate# in re,eren"e to the 4henoty4i" #i=eren"es bet6een
"on>uerors an# "on>uere#$4 -o6e;er 6hat 'atters is that "oo! it ;a" 'o!"tr$'te* to re%er to
t(e "$++o"e* *iQere!tia ,ioo1i'a "tr$'t$re" ,et;ee! t(o"e
1ro$+"$ 7o'ia reatio!" %o$!*e* o! t(e 'ate1or4 o% ra'e +ro*$'e*
!e; (i"tori'a "o'ia i*e!titie" i! Ameri'aVI!*ia!"C ,a'<"C a!*
me"ti>o"V a!* re*eG!e* ot(er". Term" "$'( a" 7+a!i"( a!*
)ort$1$e"e an# 'u"h later Euro4ean ;(i'( $!ti t(e! i!*i'ate* o!4
1eo1ra+(i' ori1i! or "ountry o, ori/in a'L$ire* %rom t(e! o! a ra'ia
'o!!otatio! in re,eren"e to the ne6 i#entities$ Inso,ar as t(e "o'ia reatio!" t(at ;ere
,ei!1 'o!G1$re* ;ere reatio!" o% *omi!atio! su"h i*e!titie" ;ere
'o!"i*ere* 'o!"tit$tive o% t(e (ierar'(ie" 4la"es an# "orres4on#in/ so"ial roles a!*
"onse>uently o, t(e mo*e o% 'oo!ia *omi!atio! t(at ;a" ,ei!1 im+o"e*$ In
other 6or#sC ra'e a!* ra'ia i*e!tit4 ;ere e"ta,i"(e* a" i!"tr$me!t" o%
,a"i' "o'ia 'a""iG'atio!$ As ti'e 6ent byC t(e 'oo!i>er" 'o*iGe* t(e
+(e!ot4+i' trait o, the "oloniFe# a" 'oor an# they assu'e# it as the e'ble'ati" "hara"teristi" o,
ra"ial "ate/ory$ )hat "ate/ory 6as 4robably initially establishe# in the area o, An/lo7A'eri"a$ )here so7"alle# ,a'<"
6ere not only the 'ost i'4ortant e@4loite# /rou4 sin"e the 4rin"i4al 4art o, the e"ono'y reste# on their laborK they
;ere abo;e all t(e mo"t im+orta!t 'oo!i>e* ra'e sin"e In#ians 6ere not 4art o, that
"olonial so"iety$ 2hy the #o'inant /rou4 "alls itsel, N6hiteO is a story relate# to ra"ial "lassiA"ation$H In A'eri"a t(e
i*ea o% ra'e ;a" a ;a4 o% 1ra!ti!1 e1itima'4 to t(e reatio!" o%
*omi!atio! im+o"e* ,4 t(e 'o!L$e"t$ A,ter the "oloniFation o, A'eri"a an# the e@4ansion o,
Euro4ean "olonialis' to the rest o, the 6orl# the subse>uent "onstitution o, Euro4e as a ne6 i#entity nee#e# the
elaboration o, a Euro"entri" 4ers4e"ti;e o, *no6le#/e a theoreti"al 4ers4e"ti;e on t(e i*ea o% ra'e a" a
!at$rai>atio! o% 'oo!ia reatio!" bet6een Euro4eans H3H WuiBano $ 0o6er Euro"entris' an#
Latin A'eri"a an# non7Euro4eans$ @i"tori'a4C t(i" mea!t a !e; ;a4 o% e1itimi>i!1
the alrea#y ol# i#eas an# 4ra"ti"es o, reatio!" o% "$+eriorit4:i!%eriorit4 ,et;ee!
*omi!a!t a!* *omi!ate*$ Fro' the si@teenth "entury on this 4rin"i4le has 4ro;en to be the 'ost
e=e"ti;e an# lon/7lastin/ instru'ent o, uni;ersal so"ial #o'ination sin"e the 'u"h ol#er 4rin"i4leZ/en#er or interse@ual
#o'inationZ6as en"roa"he# u4on by the in,erior/su4erior ra"ial "lassiA"ations$ So t(e 'o!L$ere* a!*
*omi!ate* +eo+e" ;ere "it$ate* i! a !at$ra +o"itio! o% i!%eriorit4
a!*C a" a re"$tC t(eir +(e!ot4+i' trait" a" ;e a" t(eir '$t$ra
%eat$re" ;ere 'o!"i*ere* i!%erior$I In this 6ay ra"e ,e'ame t(e
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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
%$!*ame!ta 'riterio! %or t(e *i"tri,$tio! o% t(e ;or* +o+$atio!
i!to ra!<" 4la"es an# roles in the ne6 so"ietyLs stru"ture o, 4o6er$
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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
AT: Frame;or<:To+i'ait4
T@E BNITED 7TATE7 FEDE#AL .O&E#N?ENT 7@OBLD
7B87TANTIALLY DE&ELO) IT7 EE)LO#ATION OF T@E OCEAN.
0e meet
Di'tio!ar4.'omC 14
Di"tionary$"o'$ %E@4loration #i"tionary #eAnition o e@4loration #eAne#$%E@4loration #i"tionary #eAnition o
e@4loration #eAne#$ <$4$ 23 June 2014$ 2eb$ 23 June 2014$ 3htt45//666$your#i"tionary$"o'/e@4loration:$
<otably +e!etrati!1 C or ra!1i!1 over %or +$r+o"e" o% (es4e"ially
/eo/ra4hi"al) *i"'over4
T(e ex+oratio! o% F$!<!o;!F area" o%te! ;a" t(e +re'$r"or to
'oo!i>atio!$
T(e mi!*"et o% o'ea! ex+oratio! i" to 1ai! )ro*$'t".
NOAA 13 @ea* 1over!me!t o'ea! a*mi!i"tratio!C 0(at I" O'ea! Ex+oratio! a!* 0(4 I" It
Im+orta!tY C NOAAC -:2-:14C (tt+:::o'ea!ex+orer.!oaa.1ov:,a'<matter:;(ati"ex+oratio!.(tmC
2hile ne6 #is"o;eries are al6ays e@"itin/ to s"ientists in,or'ation ,ro' o"ean e@4loration is i'4ortant to
e;eryone$ B!o'<i!1 t(e m4"terie" o% *ee+A"ea e'o"4"tem" 'a!
revea !e; "o$r'e" %or me*i'a *r$1"C %oo*C e!er14 re"o$r'e"C
a!* ot(er +ro*$'t". In,or'ation ,ro' #ee47o"ean e@4loration "an hel4 4re#i"t earth>ua*es
an# tsuna'is an# hel4 us un#erstan# ho6 6e are a=e"tin/ an# bein/ a=e"te# by "han/es in EarthLs
"li'ate an# at'os4here$ Ex+e*itio!" to t(e $!ex+ore* o'ea! "an hel4 ,o"us
resear"h into "riti"al /eo/ra4hi" an# subBe"t areas that are i<e4 to +ro*$'e ta!1i,e
,e!eGt".
7ta!*ar*"5
Fair!e"": 0E A#E A C#ITICAL INTE##O.ATION OF 0@AT IT
?EAN7 TO EN.A.E IN T@E #E7OLBTIONAL DBE7TION OF
OCEANIC EE)LO#ATION @O0E&E# 0E A#E TO)ICAL. 0E 7AY
T@AT T@E BNITED 7TATE7 FEDE#AL .O&E#N?ENT 7@OBLD
7B87TANTIALLY DE&ELO) IT7 EE)LO#ATION OF T@E OCEAN.
)re*i'ta,iit4: T@E NE.ATI&E ?B7T )#O&E EEACTLY 0@Y OB#
AFF I7NNT TO)ICAL
)#EFE# DI7CB77ION OF T@E TO)IC O&E# TO)ICAL
DI7CB77ION
OB# AFF I7 NECE77A#Y TO C@ALLEN.E COLONIALI7TIC
LO.IC
0E 7TILL EN.A.E IN B7F. ACTION TO0A#D7 T@E
DE&ELO)ENT OF OCEANIC EE)LO#ATION
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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
&oter":
E*$'atio!: 0e *o !ot im+e*e e*$'atio!C rat(er ;e +romote ,4
ta<i!1 a,o$t t(e root o% o'ea! ex+oratio!. T(e !e1"
e*$'atio! voter i" !ot via,e ,e'a$"e 4o$ t(e K$*1e i" !ot
voti!1 %or a! aQ t(at *imi!i"(e" e*$'atio!.
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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
AT: Limit"
Limit" are ,a* %or e*$'atio!C t(e4 imit t(e amo$!t" o%
<!o;e*1e t(at 'a! ,e +ro*$'e* i! *e,ate. T(e !e1ative 'a"
%or imit" t(at ex'$*e +ro*$'tive *i"'$""io!" a,o$t o'ea!i'
ex+oratio! t(at are <e4 to o'ea!i' *eveo+me!t.
F$rt(ermoreC t(e aQ e!'o$ra1e" 'riti'a t(i!<i!1 a" a ;a4 o%
e!1a1i!1 t(e re"o$tio!a L$e"tio! o% o'ea!i' ex+oratio! a!*
*eveo+me!t. T(i" *oe" !ot "i1!a $!to+i'a aQ ,$t rat(er
exem+iGe" t(e ,e!eGt" o% 'riti'a t(i!<i!1. 0it(o$t !e'e""ar4
'riti'i"m" o% t(e to+i' *e,ate ,e'ome" a! e'(oA'(am,er.
Criti'a t(i!<i!1 %$rt(er" e*$'atio! ,4 eimi!ati!1 !arro;A
mi!*e* "o'io'e!tri"m
)a$ a!* E*erC =/N (!i"har# 0aul is the Dire"tor o, !esear"h an# 0ro,essional De;elo4'ent at
the Center ,or Criti"al )hin*in/ )he CeneAts o, Criti"al )hin*in/ Foun#ation ,or Criti"al )hin*in/ June 24
2014
htt45//666$#oane$e#u/,a"sta=/resour"es/"etl7ho'e/31112)
Criti'a t(i!<i!1 is in short sel,7#ire"te# sel,7#is"i4line# sel,7'onitore# an# sel,7
"orre"ti;e thin*in/$ It 4resu44osesassent to ri/orous stan#ar#s o, e@"ellen"e an# 'in#,ul "o''an#
o, their use$ It e!tai" eQe'tive 'omm$!i'atio! a!* +ro,em "ovi!1
a,iitie" a!* a 'ommitme!t to over'ome o$r !ative
e1o'e!tri"m a!* "o'io'e!tri"m.
Criti'a t(i!<i!1 1oo* c i" o!4 ;a4 to "ove i!K$"ti'e a!*
+romote i,ert4
.a,e!!e"'( A4ril =5N (-o6ar# Gabennes"h is 4ro,essor o, so"iolo/y at the Dni;ersity o,
Southern In#iana E;ans;ille I<
4JJ12$ -e sus4e"ts that 'ulti#i'ensional "riti"al thin*in/ is no 'ore "o''on in e#u"ation than in
reli/ion or 4oliti"s Criti"al)hin*in/5 2hat is it /oo# ,orR )he Co'ittie ,or S*e4ti"al In>uiry a""esse#
June 2Ith 2014)
2hen a"a#e'i" te@tboo*s "o'e to rese'ble hy'nals that "elebrate a reli/ious #eno'inationLs
theolo/y an# 6hen this /oes by the na'e o, "riti"al thin*in/ it is ti'e ,or so'e #eAnition
a#Bust'ents$ <o one shoul# 4ontiA"ate a #eAnition o, "riti"al thin*in/ nor shoul# 6e e@4e"t to
a"hie;e unani'ity$ Cut I o=er the ,ollo6in/ #eAnition ,or "onsi#eration5 Criti'a t(i!<i!1 i"
t(e $"e o% ratio!a "<i"C ;or*vie;"C a!* va$e" to 1et a"
'o"e a" +o""i,e to t(e tr$t($ -ere "riti"al thin*in/ is "on"ei;e# as "onsistin/ o,
three essential #i'ensions5 s*ills 6orl#;ie6 an# ;alues$ Is "riti"al thin*in/ 6orth the "ostsR
Consi#er ,or a 'o'ent ho6 "ostly un"riti"al thin*in/ "an be$ Ste4hen Jay Goul# (199J @ @ii) "alls
attention to t6o 4re"ious hu'an 4otentials that to/ether "onstitute Nthe 'ost 4o6er,ul Boint
instru'ent ,or /oo# that our 4lanet has e;er *no6nO5 O!4 t;o +o""i,e e"'a+e"
'a! "ave $" %rom t(e or1a!i>e* ma4(em o% o$r *ar<
+ote!tiaitie"At(e "i*e o% ($ma! !at$re t(at (a" 1ive! $"
'r$"a*e"C ;it'( ($!t"C e!"aveme!t"C a!* (oo'a$"t". ?ora
*e'e!'4 +rovi*e" o!e !e'e""ar4 i!1re*ie!tC ,$t !ot !ear4
e!o$1(. T(e "e'o!* %o$!*atio! m$"t 'ome %rom t(e ratio!a
"i*e o% o$r me!tait4. For unless 6e ri/orously use hu'an reason $ $ $ 6e 6ill lose out to
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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
the ,ri/htenin/ ,or"es o, irrationality ro'anti"is' un"o'4ro'isin/ NtrueO belie, an# the a44arent
resultin/ ine;itability o, 'ob a"tion $ $ $ S*e4ti"is' is the a/ent o, reason a/ainst or/aniFe#
irrationalis'7an# is there,ore one o, the *eys to hu'an so"ial an# "i;i" #e"en"y$ A""or#in/ to this
stri*in/ "lai' 'riti'a t(i!<i!1 i" o!e o% t(e mo"t im+orta!t
re"o$r'e" a "o'iet4 'o$* *eveo+. T(i" i" ,e'a$"e ,a* t(i!1" #o
not e'anate only ,ro' ba# 4eo4le$ Ca# thin/s 'a! also o''$r ,e'a$"e o% t(e
mi"ta<e! t(i!<i!1 o% *e'e!t +eo+e . E;en 6hen a ba# i#ea ori/inates 6ith a
4sy"ho4ath the real #an/er o""urs 6hen it is a""e4te# by the /ullible an# "on#one# by the sin"ere
6ho ha;e little 'ore than a "hil#Ls un#erstan#in/ o, 6hat intelle"tual #ue 4ro"ess entails$ It is li*ely
that an i'4ortant lin* e@ists bet6een "riti"al thin*in/ broa#ly #eAne# an# #e'o"ra"y itsel,$ )he
A'eri"an Burist Learne# -an# (19H2 190) #es"ribe# this "onne"tion as ,ollo6s5 Li,ert4 ie"
i! t(e (eart" o% me! a!* ;ome!M ;(e! it *ie" t(ereC !o
'o!"tit$tio!C !o a;C !o 'o$rt 'a! "ave it . . . . T(e "+irit o%
i,ert4 i" t(e "+irit ;(i'( i" !ot too "$re t(at it i" ri1(tM t(e
"+irit o% i,ert4 i" t(e "+irit ;(i'( "ee<" to $!*er"ta!* t(e
mi!*" o% ot(er me! a!* ;ome!M t(e "+irit o% i,ert4 i" t(e
"+irit ;(i'( ;ei1(" t(eir i!tere"t ao!1"i*e it" o;! ;it(o$t
,ia". 7o ,4 '$tivati!1 1e!$i!e 'riti'a t(i!<i!1C ;e "tre!1t(e!
t(e 'r$'ia $!*er+i!!i!1" o% *emo'ra'4 (Kuhn 2003)$ 0eo4le 6ho are "are,ul
about the truth are less li*ely to be ,oole# by the i#eolo/ies that Busti,y illiberal 4ra"ti"es or 4ro'ise
si'4le solutions$ +oreo;er su"h 4eo4le are 'ore li*ely to re"o/niFe the ;alue o, intelle"tual an#
i#eolo/i"al #i;ersity7they un#erstan# that the truth "o'es in 4ie"es an# is unli*ely to be ,oun# all in
one 4la"e$ )hey are the best "ounter6ei/ht to true belie;ers o, all stri4es$ Dlti'ately intelle"tual
#ue 4ro"ess is no less inte/ral to #e'o"ra"y than is #ue4ro"ess o, la6$
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****Ne1ative****
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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
NE.: Coo!iai"m .oo*
Coo!iai"m i" 1oo*C 'oo!iai"m i! A%ri'a +rove"
Lam+re'(t 01 A0!IL 2==5
(NColonialis' 2as Goo# For A,ri"aO Jan La'4re"ht 4ublishe# author
an# 4ublishes a ne6s arti"le "alle# Straight Tal 01 A0!IL 200J
A""esse# on I/2H/14
htt45//666$ni/eria;illa/es>uare$"o'/ne6s?ash/"olonialis'76as7/oo#7
,or7a,ri"a$ht'lJ2-)

Coo!iai"m ;a" t(e ,e"t t(i!1 t(at ever (a++e!e* to A%ri'a$
Coo!iai"m ,ro$1(t +ea'e to t(e 3== ;arri!1 tri,e" o% A%ri'a$
Coo!iai"m %or A%ri'a mea!t more *eveo+me!t t(a! it (a* ever
<!o;! A ,e%ore or a%ter 'oo!iai"m.R Coo!iai"t" ,ro$1(t %ar more
i!to A%ri'a t(a! too< o$t o% it. It i" %or t(at rea"o! t(at mo"t ;or*
em+ire" ea"i4 et 1o o% t(e 'o!ti!e!tC ;it( o!4 ;(ite "etter"
o++o"i!1 ,a'< r$e. From Lo!*o!C Li",o! a!* 8r$""e"C A%ri'a i"
tota4 $"ee"". Lo'a ;(ite "etter" $!*er"too* t(e *e"tr$'tio! t(e
e!* o% 'oo!iai"m ;o$* ,ri!1 i!to t(eir ive"C ,$t %or E$ro+ea!"C
'oo!iai"m ;a" a ;a"te o% mo!e4 a!* re"o$r'e".S )he stan#ar# o, li;in/ in
A,ri"a un#er "olonialis' has not been 'at"he# e;en #es4ite billions o, #ollars o, annual ai# to the
"ontinent ,ro' 6hite "ountries$S 2hy is South A,ri"a the 4o6erhouse o, A,ri"aR Ans6er5 +ore 6hites li;e#
in South A,ri"a than any 4la"e else an# 6hite rule en#e# only 13 years a/o$S As 6hites (an# Asians) 6ere
*i"*e# out the "ontinent(s "olla4se a""elerate#$ 2hen !obert +u/abe too* a6ay ,ar's an# other 4ro4erty
,ro' ei'bab6ean 6hites he 4ulle# the ru/ ,ro' un#er his "ountry(s e"ono'y$ )his year in?ation is
e@4e"te# to rea"h 4000c$S &ther e@"ellent e@a'4les are5 +oFa'bi>ue an# An/ola$S A,ri"ais the ri"hest
"ontinent on Earth 6hen it "o'es to natural resour"es$ 0arts o, A,ri"a ha;e sta//erin/ ,ertility$ A
%rie!* o% mi!e ;e!t to #;a!*a. @e to* me t(e 1ro$!* t(ere i" "o
%ertieC t(e 'imate "o ;et a!* ;arm 4o$ 'a! itera4 +a!t a "ti'<
a!4;(ere a!* it ;i 1ro;$ S )he >uestion that 'ust there,ore be as*e# is5 6hy are bla"*s
star;in/ in the lan# o, 'il* an# honeyRS 2hy is Ja4an the 2n# ri"hest nation on Earth an# yet it has no
natural resour"es an# is ,ar ,ro' its su44liers an# 'ar*etsR Ans6er5 )he Ja4anese 4eo4le$S Intelli/ent
4eo4le a"hie;e /reat thin/s$ )hat is 6hy East Asia is #oin/ so 6ell (e@"e4t ,or har#"ore "o''unist states
su"h as <orth Korea)$ Cever +eo+eC eve! i! $!%avora,e 'o!*itio!"C are
'a+a,e o% *oi!1 ;e.R A%ri'a ma*e t;o mi"ta<e": (1) Ex+ei!1
;(ite"M a!* (2) a*o+ti!1 7o'iai"t t4+e mo*e".R (1) 0(ite +eo+e
are i!1e!io$" a!* (ar*A;or<i!1. T(eir mai! 'o!tri,$tio! i" a,iit4 to
or1a!i>e a!* t(at i" ;(at ,ro$1(t +ro"+erit4 to A%ri'a. 0(ite"
'o!tri,$te o$t o% a +ro+ortio! to t(eir "ma !$m,er"$ S (2) Cla"*s ha;e
been a#o4te# by "o''unists +ar@ist so"ialists le,tists an# liberals 7 an# 'ost o, these 4eo4le belie;e in
so'e ,or' o, /o;ern'ent han#outs an# #ri;e bla"*s to6ar#s so"ialis'$ Dn,ortunately "o''unis' #oesn(t
6or* any6here in the 6orl# 7 so 6hy shoul# it 6or* in A,ri"aRS T(e mo"t "$''e""%$
ex+erime!t i! ,a'< 'a+itai"m IFve ever "ee! o''$re* i! t(e mi*A
16/=F" i! 7o$t( A%ri'a $!*er a+art(ei*. )re"i*e!t )0 8ot(a '(a!1e*
a;" a!* ao;e* a ,a'< taxi i!*$"tr4 to exi"t. I! m4 vie; it i" t(e
"i!1e mo"t "$''e""%$ ex+erime!t i! ,a'< 'a+itai"m t(at ever
o''$rre* o! t(e %a'e o% t(i" +a!et$ )hat 'o#el i, e@4an#e# u4on "oul# be the ,uture
o, A,ri"a an# "oul# 4ro;i#e ho4e ,or bla"* 4eo4le e;ery6here$S )he 4roble' is that bla"*s 4re,er the
#rea's o, a so"ialist /o;ern'ent /i;in/ the' e;erythin/ rather than 6or*in/ to i'4ro;e their ,ate$S An#
J1
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
6hites are not the Arst to "o'e here any6ay$ All a"ross southern A,ri"a is e;i#en"e o, (Southeast) In#ians
sailin/ here an# 'inin/ /ol# hun#re#s o, years be,ore 6hites "a'e$ In#ians "a'e 'ine# /ol# an# too* it
a6ay$ )he Great ei'bab6e ruins is nothin/ 'ore than an In#ian te'4le built in A,ri"a (as 4ro4oun#e# in a
re"ent theory by an a"a#e'i" in South A,ri"a an# sho6n to be "onsist 6ith si'ilar te'4les in In#ia)$
E;i#en"e o, an In#ian 4resen"e here is 'yria#$ S Coo!iai"m ;or<e*. Forei1! ai*
(a" !ot .R @a!*o$t" to A%ri'a a'(ieve* itte or !ot(i!1 a!* ;i
'o!ti!$e to a'(ieve itte or !ot(!1. Coo!iai"m *i* ;(at %orei1! ai*
'a!!ot A r$! A%ri'a ef'ie!t4.R I!"tea* o% +$m+i!1 mo!e4 i!to
A%ri'aC E$ro+e +$m+e* "<ie* +eo+e i!to A%ri'aC;(o 'ame a!*
re+eate* i! A%ri'a ;(at ;a" *o!e i! E$ro+e$ Cy ha;in/ the' buil# an# or/anise
as 6ell as brin/ s"ien"e an# en/ineerin/ "olonialists built A,ri"a$S Anti7"olonialis' is le,tist bun* that has
no6 be"o'e a/ree# u4on as the %4oliti"ally "orre"t% ;ersion o, history$
Coo!iai"m .oo*. 8etter ($ma! ri1(t"C te'(!oo1ie"C
a!* "o'ia "tr$'t$re". @i"tor4 +rove".
D$<e 2=13
7e;4! D$<e i" a 'o$m!i"tC ;riterC traveerC a!*
e!tre+re!e$rC 0a" 'oo!iai"m a +o"itive %or'eYC (T(e Ne;
Ameri'a!)C -A23A14
htt45//666$thene6a'eri"an$"o'/re;ie6s/o4inion/ite'/1J19476as7
"olonialis'7a74ositi;e7,or"e
ItN" (ar* to %or1et meeti!1 a ma! ;(o (ate* ?a(atma .a!*(i.
I o!'e *i*C t(o$1(. NoC (e ;a"!Nt "ome er"t;(ie vi'ero4
ame!ti!1 o"t 1or4 *a4"C ,$t a! I!*ia! ,or! a!* rai"e* i! t(e
a!* o% "ati a!* "ari". T(e rea"o! %or (i" ireY @e "ai* t(at ;(e!
.a!*(i *rove t(e 8riti"( o$tC I!*ia o"t ever4t(i!1:
te'(!i'ia!"C e!1i!eer"C ex+erti"eC ,$rea$'rati' i!te1rit4C et'. In
the sa'e ;ein I ha;e a ea'bian ,rien# 6ho has ar/ue# that "olonialis' ha# a 4ositi;e i'4a"t
in that it brou/ht "i;iliFation to the lan#s Z su"h as his Z it tou"he#$ An# in ,a"t e;en that
Kenyan &ba'a a/rees$ )he 4resi#entLs hal,7brother Geor/e &ba'a that is$ -e on"e tol# so"ial
"o''entator Dinesh DLSouFa that it 6oul# ha;e been better Ni, the 6hites ha# staye# lon/erO
in Kenya as their 4re'ature e@4ulsion "ause# his nation to #es"en# into 4o;erty$ Cut 6hat o,
the "on;entional narrati;e that "olonialis' is res4onsible ,or )hir# 2orl# 4o;ertyR E"ono'ist
Dr$ 2alter 2illia's a##resse# this in 2011 6ritin/5 It t$r!" o$t t(at 'o$!trie"
i<e t(e B!ite* 7tate"C Ca!a*aC A$"traiaC a!* Ne; Ueaa!*
;ere 'oo!ie"M 4et t(e4 are amo!1 t(e ;or*N" ri'(e"t
'o$!trie". @o!1 9o!1 ;a" a 'oo!4 o% .reat 8ritai! $!ti 1665C
;(e! C(i!a re1ai!e* "overei1!t4C ,$t it ma!a1e* to ,e'ome
t(e "e'o!* ri'(e"t +oiti'a K$ri"*i'tio! i! t(e Far Ea"t. O! t(e
ot(er (a!*C Et(io+iaC Li,eriaC Ti,etC a!* Ne+a ;ere !ever
'oo!ie"C or ;ere "o %or o!4 a %e; 4ear"C a!* t(e4 ra!< amo!1
t(e ;or*N" +oore"t a!* mo"t ,a'<;ar* 'o$!trie". De"+ite t(e
ma!4 K$"tiGe* 'riti'i"m" o% 'oo!iai"m a!*C I mi1(t a**C
m$ti!atio!a"C ,ot( "erve* a" a mea!" o% tra!"%erri!1 0e"ter!
te'(!oo14 a!* i!"tit$tio!"C ,ri!1i!1 ,a'<;ar* +eo+e" i!to
1reater 'o!ta't ;it( a moreA*eveo+e* 0e"ter! ;or*. A tra1i'
%a't i" t(at ma!4 A%ri'a! 'o$!trie" (ave "$Qere* "i1!iG'a!t
J9
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
*e'i!e "i!'e i!*e+e!*e!'e. I! ma!4 o% t(o"e 'o$!trie" t(e
avera1e 'iti>e! 'a! ,oa"t t(at (e ate more re1$ar4 a!*
e!Ko4e* 1reater ($ma!Ari1(t" +rote'tio!" $!*er 'oo!ia r$e.
T(e 'oo!ia +o;er" !ever +er+etrate* t(e $!"+ea<a,e ($ma!
ri1(t" a,$"e"C i!'$*i!1 1e!o'i*eC t(at ;e (ave "ee! i! +o"tA
i!*e+e!*e!'e 8$r$!*iC B1a!*aC Uim,a,;eC 7$*a!C Ce!tra
A%ri'a! Em+ireC 7omaiaC a!* e"e;(ere. Ah "olonialis' "ast as nation
buil#in/$ Su"h a "hara"teriFation "an hit a ner;e be"ause 'any see "olonialis' as a
4heno'enon 6hereby 6hite 2estern 4o6ers #o'inate# ha4less N'inorityO nations but this is
an ahistori"al ;ie6$ Consi#er 8ritai!C thou/ht the >uintessen"e o, "olonial 4o6ers$ At
o!e time it ;a"C alon/ 6ith 'ost o, 2estern Euro4e a 'oo!4 o% "ort" it"e%
V o% t(e #oma!". An# no #oubt this ins4ire# 'any o, the sa'e "o'4laints ,ro'
so'e early7Arst7'illenniu' Euro4eans that 6e ha# hear# 'ore re"ently ,ro' "oloniFe# )hir#
2orl#ers5 )he "oloniFers 6ere tra'4lin/ their "ulture$ )hey 6ere i'4osin/ their ;alues$ )hey
6ere ,orei/n interlo4ers$ Qet t(e #oma!" ,ro$1(t more a*va!'e*
te'(!oo14 a!* (i1(er '$t$re to 8ritai!M t(e4 ,$it aL$e*$'t"C
,at((o$"e"C a!* am+(it(eater". T(e avera1e 8rito!N" i%e
ar1$a,4 ;a" ,etter $!*er #oma! r$e t(a! it (a* ever ,ee!
,e%ore. A!* ;(e! t(e a"t #oma! troo+" (a* to eave 8ritai! i!
41= A.D. to *e%e!* Ita4C itN" "ai* t(at t(eir *e+art$re ;a"
ame!te* ,4 !o "ma !$m,er o% !ative". -o6e;er the !o'ansL e@it 6as
;ie6e# the results o, their entran"e are ,airly "lear$ )he ,a"t is that no /reat "i;iliFation
#e;elo4s in isolationK in a""or#an"e 6ith the Nt6o hea#s are better than oneO
4rin"i4le C +eo+e" 'a! maximi>e t(eir <!o;e*1e o!4 ;(e! t(e4
ear! %rom o!e a!ot(erC a!* t(i" 'a! (a++e! o!4 i% t(e4
a't$a4 (ave 'o!ta't. As e"ono'ist Dr$ )ho'as So6ell 6rote in N!a"e "ulture an#
e>ualityO5 2hen the Critish Arst "rosse# the Atlanti" an# "on,ronte# the Iro>uois on the eastern
seaboar# o, 6hat is to#ay the Dnite# States they 6ere able to steer a"ross that o"ean in the
Arst 4la"e be"ause they use# ru##ers in;ente# in China they "oul# na;i/ate on the o4en seas
6ith the hel4 o, tri/ono'etry in;ente# in E/y4t their "al"ulations 6ere #one 6ith nu'bers
in;ente# in In#ia an# their /eneral *no6le#/e 6as 4reser;e# in letters in;ente# by the
!o'ans$ An# 6hen t6o "ultures #o ha;e "onta"t itLs the less a#;an"e# that "an learn 'ore$
Qet sin"e it "an also be #o'inate# 'ore this so'eti'es "o'es at the "ost o, "oloniFation$
<ote that this isnLt an ar/u'ent Busti,yin/ "oloniFation$ In ,a"t itLs 'u"h as 6ith a ,ello6 I
*ne6 6hoL# been hit by a tru"* but sai# that #ealin/ 6ith his inAr'ities ha# 'a#e hi' a better
'an$ -e "ertainly 6asnLt i'4lyin/ that /ettin/ hit by tru"*s 6as a /oo# thin/ but his
e@4erien"e illu'inate# a truth5 E;en so'ethin/ ba# in 4rin"i4le "an ha;e /oo# out"o'es in
the 4arti"ular$ )he ,a"t is that "oloniFation 6as 4art o, the inter7/rou47intera"tion 4heno'enon
that s4rea# "i;iliFationK the !o'ans learne# ,ro' the Gree*sL triu'4hs an# built u4on the'
an# then brou/ht this *no6le#/e to the lan#s they "on>uere# su"h as En/lan# Fran"e an#
S4ain$ In turn those nations built ,urther be"a'e "olonial 4o6ers an# "arrie# the treasures
(an# trials) o, "i;iliFation to 6hat 6e no6 "all the )hir# 2orl#$ Another "o''on 'is"on"e4tion
is that "olonialis' robbe# 4eo4le o, ,ree#o'$ Cut 6hether it 6as 4re7!o'an CritainK or 4re7
"olonial A,ri"a South or Central A'eri"a +e@i"o or Asia the 4eo4les 6ere /o;erne# by
'onar"hs o, so'e *in#$ )he only #i=eren"e u4on bein/ "oloniFe# 6as that one unele"te#
/o;ern'ent 6as re4la"e# 6ith another Z one that 6as o,ten better$ It 6asnLt Bust the
te"hnolo/y o=ere# by "olonial 4o6ers either but also 'ore Na#;an"e#O 'orality$ For e@a'4le
Bust as the !o'ans "a'e to outla6 hu'an sa"riA"e in their "on>uere# lan#s so #i# the
S4anish eli'inate the hu'an sa"riA"e so ra'4ant a'on/ the AFte"s$ )he 0ortu/uese Dut"h
Fren"h an# Critish e;entually outla6e# sati (6i#o6 burnin/) in areas o, In#ia they "ontrolle#$
An# it 6as "olonial 4o6ers that ulti'ately en#e# sla;ery (6here they "oul#) in A,ri"a$ As ,or
,ree#o' inso,ar as re4resentati;e /o;ern'ent has ta*en hol# in ,or'er "olonies Z su"h as
In#ia Kenya an# Cots6ana Z is it "on"ei;able that it "oul# ha;e ha44ene# 6ithout 2estern
in?uen"eR De'o"ra"y is a 2estern in;ention$ )he international lan/ua/e o, business is
10
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
En/lish$ In China an# Ja4an 4eo4le 6ear suits an# ties an# the 6hole 6orl# 6ants the 2estern
li,estyle 6ith its "ars "o'4uters re,ri/erators a#;an"e# 'e#i"ine an# s"ien"e an# other
6on#ers o, 'o#ernity$ &, "ourse it 6onLt al6ays be this 6ay$ I, 'an still 6al*s the Earth in
2000 years the "oloniFers an# "oloniFe# 'ay be #i=erent but the story 6oul# still be the
sa'e$ +anLs #o'ination o, 'an 6oul# be "ontinuin/ an# 'any 6oul# "o'4lain about it as
the le/a"y o, "i;iliFation 6as 4asse# on as it ha# al6ays been$
11
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
NE.: Coo!iai"m Not #oot
Ca$"e
COLONIALI7? NOT )#O8LE?C #EAL )#O8LE?
BN9NO0N 8ECAB7E OF CENTB#IE7 OF
&IOLENCE.
0iiam" T11
0ater 0iiam" i" a! a$t(or %or FEE.or1C )overt4 i" Ea"4
to ex+ai!C (FEE)C -A2-A14
htt45//666$,ee$or//the8,ree'an/#etail/4o;erty7is7easy7to7e@4lain
A'a*emi'"C +oiti'ia!"C 'eri'"C a!* ot(er" a;a4" "eem
+er+exe* ,4 t(e L$e"tio!: 0(4 i" t(ere +overt4Y Ans6ers
usually ran/e ,ro' e@4loitation an# /ree# to sla;ery "olonialis' an#
other ,or's o, i''oral beha;ior$ 0o;erty is seen as so'ethin/ to be
e@4laine# 6ith "o'4li"ate# analysis "ons4ira"y #o"trines an#
in"antations$ )his ;ision o, 4o;erty is 4art o, the 4roble' in "o'in/ to
/ri4s 6ith it$ )here is ;ery little either "o'4li"ate# or interestin/ about
4o;erty$ 0o;erty has been 'anLs "on#ition throu/hout his history$ T(e
'a$"e" o% +overt4 are L$ite "im+e a!* "trai1(t%or;ar*.
.e!era4C i!*ivi*$a +eo+e or e!tire !atio!" are +oor %or o!e
or more o% t(e %oo;i!1 rea"o!": (1) t(e4 'a!!ot +ro*$'e
ma!4 t(i!1" (i1(4 va$e* ,4 ot(er"M (2) t(e4 'a! +ro*$'e
t(i!1" va$e* ,4 ot(er" ,$t t(e4 are +reve!te* %rom *oi!1 "oM
or (3) t(e4 vo$!teer to ,e +oor. )he true 'ystery is 6hy there is
any apuen"e at all$ )hat is (o; *i* a ti!4 +ro+ortio! o% ma!N"
+o+$atio! ('ostly in the 2est) %or o!4 a ti!4 +art o% ma!N"
(i"tor4 ('ainly in the nineteenth t6entieth an# t6enty7Arst
"enturies) ma!a1e to e"'a+e t(e %ate o% t(eir %eo; me!Y
So'eti'es in re,eren"e to the Dnite# States 4eo4le 4oint to its ri"h
en#o6'ent o, natural resour"es$ )his e@4lanation is unsatis,a"tory$
2ere abun#ant natural resour"es the "ause o, apuen"e A,ri"a an#
South A'eri"a 6oul# stan# out as the ri"hest "ontinents instea# o,
bein/ ho'e to so'e o, the 6orl#Ls 'ost 'iserably 4oor 4eo4le$ Cy
"ontrast that e@4lanation 6oul# su//est that resour"e74oor "ountries
li*e Ja4an -on/ Kon/ an# Great Critain shoul# be 4oor instea# o,
ran*in/ a'on/ the 6orl#Ls ri"hest 4la"es$ A!ot(er $!"ati"%a'tor4
ex+a!atio! o% +overt4 i" 'oo!iai"m. T(i" ar1$me!t "$11e"t"
t(at t(ir*A;or* +overt4 i" a e1a'4 o% (avi!1 ,ee! 'oo!i>e*C
ex+oite*C a!* ro,,e* o% it" ri'(e" ,4 t(e mot(er 'o$!tr4. 8$t
12
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
it t$r!" o$t t(at 'o$!trie" i<e t(e B!ite* 7tate"C Ca!a*aC
A$"traiaC a!* Ne; Ueaa!* ;ere 'oo!ie"M 4et t(e4 are amo!1
t(e ;or*N" ri'(e"t 'o$!trie". @o!1 9o!1 ;a" a 'oo!4 o% .reat
8ritai! $!ti 1665C ;(e! C(i!a re1ai!e* "overei1!t4C ,$t it
ma!a1e* to ,e'ome t(e "e'o!* ri'(e"t +oiti'a K$ri"*i'tio! i!
t(e Far Ea"t. O! t(e ot(er (a!*C Et(io+iaC Li,eriaC Ti,etC a!*
Ne+a ;ere !ever 'oo!ie"C or ;ere "o %or o!4 a %e; 4ear"C a!*
t(e4 ra!< amo!1 t(e ;or*N" +oore"t a!* mo"t ,a'<;ar*
'o$!trie". Des4ite the 'any BustiAe# "riti"is's o, "olonialis' an# I 'i/ht a## 'ultinationals both
ser;e# as a 'eans o, trans,errin/ 2estern te"hnolo/y an# institutions brin/in/ ba"*6ar# 4eo4les into
/reater "onta"t 6ith a 'ore7#e;elo4e# 2estern 6orl#$ A tra/i" ,a"t is that 'any A,ri"an "ountries ha;e
su=ere# si/niA"ant #e"line sin"e in#e4en#en"e$ In 'any o, those "ountries the a;era/e "itiFen "an boast
that he ate 'ore re/ularly an# enBoye# /reater hu'an7ri/hts 4rote"tions un#er "olonial rule$ )he "olonial
4o6ers ne;er 4er4etrate# the uns4ea*able hu'an ri/hts abuses in"lu#in/ /eno"i#e that 6e ha;e seen in
4ost7in#e4en#en"e Curun#i D/an#a ei'bab6e Su#an Central A,ri"an E'4ire So'alia an# else6here$
Any e"ono'ist 6ho su//ests he has a "o'4lete ans6er to the "auses o, apuen"e shoul# be ;ie6e# 6ith
sus4i"ion$ 2e #o not *no6 ,ully 6hat 'a*es so'e so"ieties ri"her than others$ -o6e;er 6e "an 'a*e
/uesses base# on "orrelations$ Start out by ran*in/ "ountries a""or#in/ to their e"ono'i" syste's$
Con"e4tually 6e "oul# arran/e the' ,ro' 'ore "a4italisti" (ha;in/ a lar/er ,ree7'ar*et se"tor) to 'ore
"o''unisti" (6ith e@tensi;e State inter;ention an# 4lannin/)$ )hen "onsult A'nesty InternationalLs
ran*in/ o, "ountries a""or#in/ to hu'an7ri/hts abuses$ )hen /et 2orl# Can* in"o'e statisti"s an# ran*
"ountries ,ro' hi/hest to lo6est 4er "a4ita in"o'e$
COLONIALI7? I7 NOT T@E #OOT CAB7E OF &IOLENCE.
NECE77A#Y FO# DE&ELO)?ENT AND EE)AN7ION
Ea"ter4 a!* Levi!e T12
8i Ea"ter4 a!* #o"" Levi!e are a;4er"C 0a" 'oo!iai"m
1oo* %or 1ro;t(YC (Cri" 8attma!)C -A23A14
htt45//"hrisblatt'an$"o'/2012/0J/03/6as7"olonialis'7/oo#7,or7/ro6th/
I rea# hastily but see i'4ortant ne6 #ata an# 4atterns$ I #onLt really buy the instru'ental
;ariables (sorry Cill) but then a/ain I #onLt really buy any o, the histori"al instru'ents 4eo4le
use to /et aroun# thorny "ausality issues$ )hat #oesnLt 'a*e 'e a total 4arty 4oo4erTI Bust
thin* 6e ha;e to ta*e all the "ausal "lai's an# 'e"hanis's 4retty "autiously$ So'e 4eo4le
ran*le o;er any rosy /lo6 4ut on "olonialis'$ ?o"t o% t(e a$t(or" o% t(e o!1
r$! 1ro;t( +a+er" <!o; t(i" a'$te4C ,$t it ,ear" re+eati!1
t(at O1oo* %or 1ro;t(P !e'e""ari4 a++ie" to +eo+e" !ot
extermi!ate*. I, you are still an/ry about the rosy /lo6 itN" a"o (e+%$ to
+$t i! 'oo!iai"m +er"+e'tive: Deveo+me!t i! mo"t +a'e" i!
mo"t o% (i"tor4 (a" ,a"i'a4 ,ee! a +ro'e"" o% vioe!'e a!*
'oer'io!C eit(er ,4 4o$r o;! eite" or i!va*i!1 o!e". 0(e!
(i"tori'a eve!t" are O1oo* %or 1ro;t(P t(e4 are o%te! ver4
,a* %or t(e 1e!eratio! t(at ex+erie!'e* t(emC in A,ri"a or else6here$
So N/oo# ,or /ro6thO #oes not ne"essarily 'ean N/oo#O$ )his lea#s 'e to thin*5 2hat is
interestin/ about 'o#ern /ro6th 4oli"y is that it is one o, the Arst to try to res4e"t hu'an
ri/hts$ I 6on#er to 6hat e@tent /ro6th ta*e7o=s re>uire a tra#e7o= bet6een 6el,are o, 4eo4le
ali;e to#ay ;ersus 6el,are o, ,uture /enerations$ )here are reasons to thin* there are so'e
6in76in solutions (e$/$ e#u"ation in;est'ents) but I a' not so sure it is true /enerally$ I thin* a
lot o, #e;elo4'ent 4oli"y re>uires tri"*ier tra#e7o=s bet6een those ali;e to#ay an# unborn
,uture /enerations than is "o''only a44re"iate#$ +ore on that on that elusi;e #ay 6hen I
ha;e 'ore ti'e to 6rite$
13
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
COLONIALI7? NOT T@E )#O8LE?C ECONO?IC AND 7OCIAL
)#O8LE?7 7TA#TED 0IT@ COBNT#IE7 AND EEI7T TODAY
7+ii$" T=6
Aex 7+ii$" i" a *i+omati' 'orre"+o!*e!t a!* a
!e;"+a+er re+orterC 8ara'< O,ama te" A%ri'a to "to+
,ami!1 'oo!iai"m %or +ro,em"C (Tee1ra+()C -A23A14
htt45//666$tele/ra4h$"o$u*/ne6s/6orl#ne6s/a,ri"aan#in#iano"ean/HJJ
1104/Cara"*7&ba'a7tells7A,ri"a7to7sto47bla'in/7"olonialis'7,or7
4roble's$ht'l
A(ea* o% a vi"it to .(a!a at t(e ;ee<e!*C (e (O,ama) "ai*:
HBtimate4C IFm a ,i1 ,eiever t(at A%ri'a!" are re"+o!"i,e %or
A%ri'a. HI t(i!< +art o% ;(atF" (am+ere* a*va!'eme!t i! A%ri'a
i" t(at %or ma!4 4ear" ;eFve ma*e ex'$"e" a,o$t 'orr$+tio! or
+oor 1over!a!'eC t(at t(i" ;a" "ome(o; t(e 'o!"eL$e!'e o%
!eoA'oo!iai"mC or t(e 0e"t (a" ,ee! o++re""ive or ra"is' T I(' not
a bi/ T I(' not a belie;er in e@"uses$ ?r O,amaC t(e "o! o% a 9e!4a!C
a**e*: HIF* "a4 IFm +ro,a,4 a" <!o;e*1ea,e a,o$t A%ri'a!
(i"tor4 a" a!4,o*4 ;(oF" o''$+ie* m4 of'e. A!* I 'a! 1ive
4o$ '(a+ter a!* ver"e o! ;(4 t(e 'oo!ia ma+" t(at ;ere
*ra;! (e+e* to "+$r o! 'o!Si'tC a!* t(e term" o% tra*e t(at
;ere $!eve! emer1i!1 o$t o% 'oo!iai"m. HA!* 4et t(e %a't i"
;eFre i! 2==6 C% "ontinue# the DS 4resi#ent$ HT(e 0e"t a!* t(e B!ite*
7tate" (a" !ot ,ee! re"+o!"i,e %or ;(atF" (a++e!e* to
Uim,a,;eF" e'o!om4 over t(e a"t 13 or 2= 4ear". HIt (a"!Ft
,ee! re"+o!"i,e %or "ome o% t(e *i"a"tro$" +oi'ie" t(at ;eFve
"ee! e"e;(ere i! A%ri'a. A!* I t(i!< t(at itF" ver4 im+orta!t
%or A%ri'a! ea*er"(i+ to ta<e re"+o!"i,iit4 a!* ,e (e*
a''o$!ta,e.H +r &ba'a tol# AllA,ri"a$"o' that he "hose Ghana ,or his Arst tri4 to the
"ontinent as 4resi#ent to hi/hli/ht the "ountry(s #e;elo4'ent as a #e'o"ra"y$ 0ro;i#in/
/li'4ses o, a s4ee"h to be #eli;ere# in A""ra on Satur#ay he e@4laine#5 %Ghana has no6
un#er/one a "ou4le o, su""ess,ul ele"tions in 6hi"h 4o6er 6as trans,erre# 4ea"e,ully e;en a
;ery "lose ele"tion$% +r &ba'a 'a#e it "lear that Kenya(s on/oin/ instability ha# rule# out his
,ather(s ho'elan# as an initial #estination #es4ite the eu4horia it 6oul# ha;e 4ro#u"e#$
14
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
NE.: Coo!iai"m28etter
E*$'atio!
COLONIALI7? 9EY TO .OOD EDBCATIONAAF#ICA
)#O&E7
84erri" 3:11
(Cyerris 6riter ,or Stu#y+o#e N0ositi;e E=e"ts o, Colonialis'O Stu#y+o#e +ay 2011 A""esse# on
I/2I/14 htt45//666$stu#y'o#e$"o'/essays/0ositi;e7E=e"ts7&,7Colonialis'7I1H144$ht'lJ2-)
Colonialis' is a syste' in 6hi"h a state "lai's so;erei/nty o;er territory an# 4eo4le outsi#e its o6n
boun#ariesK or a syste' o, rule 6hi"h assu'es the ri/ht o, one 4eo4le to i'4ose their 6ill u4on another$
Durin/ the nineteenth an# t6entieth "enturies ri"h 4o6er,ul states in"lu#in/ Critain an# other Euro4ean
"ountries o6ne# thir# 6orl# "olonies$ b)hir# 6orl#L ori/inally re,erre# to "ountries that #i# not belon/ to
the #e'o"rati" in#ustrialiFe# "ountries o, the 2est (the First 2orl#) or the state7so"ialist in#ustrialiFin/
So;iet Clo" "ountries (the Se"on# 2orl#)$ )his 4a4er uses s4e"iA" thir# 6orl# e@a'4les to su''ariFe the
'ain 4ositi;e i'4a"ts o, nineteenth an# t6entieth "entury "olonialis' 6hen "olonial 4o6ers rea"he# their
4ea*$ It ,o"uses on Euro4ean "olonialis' in A,ri"a$R O!e vie; o% *eveo+me!t i"
t(atC at t(e eve o% t(e i!*ivi*$aC it im+ie" i!'rea"e* "<i a!*
'a+a'it4C 1reater %ree*omC 'reativit4C "e%A*i"'i+i!eC
re"+o!"i,iit4 a!* materia ;e ,ei!1C ;(i'( E$ro+ea! 'oo!ia
+o;er" a'(ieve* t(ro$1( e'o!omi' 1ro;t( by e@4loitin/ the natural an#
hu'an resour"es o, their "olonies$ E*$'atio!S I! A%ri'a t(i" i" 'o!"i*ere* to
,e o!e o% t(e +o"itive im+a't" o% 'oo!i>atio! a!* t(at ;a"
,e!eG'ia to ,ot( t(e E$ro+ea!" a!* t(e A%ri'a!" i! 1e!era. It
;a" mea!t to e!i1(te! A%ri'a!" "o t(at t(e4 ;o$* ,e a,e to
;or< ef'ie!t4 $!*er t(e E$ro+ea!" re1ime ;it(o$t a!4
*if'$tie". ?o"t4 t(e 3#" met(o* o% ear!i!1 ;a" $"e* i.e.
#ea*i!1C ;riti!1 a!* Arit(meti'N". E.1. i! 9e!4a t(e4 ;ere
"'(oo" "et a"i*e %or E$ro+ea! <i*" i! t(e ;(ite 9e!4a!
@i1(a!*" a!* %or A%ri'a!" i! t(e ot(er area". E@a'4leK Lenana S"hool
(Du*e o, Qor* 1949) an# <airobi S"hool (0rin"e o, 2ales 1910) et"$
1H
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
NE.: &i'timi>atio! 8a*
T@E AFFN7 )O7ITION ON DE&ELO)?ENT I7 CLEA#LY
DE)ENDENT ON T@E NA##ATI&E )O7ED T@#OB.@
&ICTI?IUATIONA 0@IC@ I7 A 8AD AND DOE7NNT T#BLY
DEFINE DE&ELO)?ENT.
*e &rie" 5 M0ieter De4art'ent o, !ural De;elo4'ent So"iolo/y at 2a/enin/en Dni;ersity )hir#
2orl# Wuarterly [ol$ 21 <o$ 1 NDonLt Co'4ro'ise Qour Desire ,or De;elo4'entl A La"anian/DeleuFian
rethin*in/ o, the anti74oliti"s 'a"hineO 4$ 2J730P
I! t(e iterat$re ;e G!* ma!i%o* ex+a!atio!" %or t(e "(ort'omi!1"
o% *eveo+me!t an# the #isBun"ture bet6een /oals an# e@4e"tations an#
real out"o'es$ T(o"e ;(o %oo; a mo*er!i"atio! +er"+e'tive ta<e a
,e!evoe!t +o"itio! to;ar*" t(e +roKe't o% *eveo+me!t ar1$i!1
t(at ,or all its short"o'in/s an# #isa44ointin/ results a'a*emi'" a!*
+ra'titio!er" "(o$* <ee+ $!ite* i! t(eir "ear'( %or ,etter "trate1ie"
o% i!terve!tio!$ In this ;ie6 there is si'4ly no alternati;e ,or alle;iatin/ the ,ate o, the 4oor$ )he
;ery e@isten"e o, a bo#y o, international a/en"ies 6or*in/ on the 4ro'otion o, ne6 ,or's o, e@4ertise is
;ie6e# as a heroi" (i, >ui@oti") 'o#ernist en#ea;our or as the e@4ression o, the "ulture o, 'o#ernity as
'ani,este# in the belie, in 4lannin/ an# its sy'boli" 4ara4hernalia$1 In this ;ie6 it is i'4ortant to
a"*no6le#/e that there is no alternati;e to #e;elo4'ent that #e;elo4'ent in s4ite o, its ,ailures is the
only /a'e in to6n$ -ere 6e see a 4re#ile"tion ,or the i#entiA"ation o, "onstantly ne6 a44roa"hes as
'ani,este# in the 4o4ularity o, notions su"h as so"ial "a4ital "i;il so"iety #e;elo4'ent 4arti"i4ation /oo#
/o;ernan"e et"$ )his is the 4osition o, institutions su"h as the 2orl# Can* 6hi"h are rea#y to en/a/e in
thorou/h/oin/ ,or's o, sel,7"riti"is' an# to rein;ent the'sel;es by e'bra"in/ ne6 a44roa"hes an#
'etho#olo/ies so as to sal;a/e the i#ea o, #e;elo4'ent$S #a*i'a +oiti'a e'o!omi"t" on the other
han# "ee *o!orA%$!*e* *eveo+me!t +roKe't" a" ve(i'e" %or t(e +e!etratio! o% 'a+itai"t
reatio!" o% +ro*$'tio! t(ro$1( t(e im+o"itio! o% "tr$'t$re" t(at e!(a!'e mar<et *e+e!*e!'e
via 'ommo*iti"atio! +ro'e""e"$2 T(e4 ar1$e t(at t(e ratio!ae" +$t %or;ar* ,4 i,era
a'a*emi'" %or *eveo+me!t i!terve!tio!"Zin the sense o, 4ro/ra''es ai'in/ at the o4enin/ u4 o,
lo"al e"ono'ies to lar/er 'ar*etsZare !ot(i!1 ,$t i*eoo1i'a K$"tiG'atio!" %or t(e +ro'e""
;(ere,4 !o!A'a+itai"t mo*e" o% +ro*$'tio! are "$,or*i!ate* to 1o,a e'o!omi' %or'e"C thus
'a*in/ their autono'ous re4ro#u"tion un,easible$ Co''o#itisation lea#s to the #estru"tion o, tra#itional
li;elihoo#s an# their subsu'4tion to the lo/i" o, "a4ital ,or the sa*e o, /lobal ,or's o, "a4italist
a""u'ulation$ 0lanne# #e;elo4'ent 6ithout thorou/h/oin/ ,or's o, so"io7e"ono'i" trans,or'ation
"annot but o4erate as a han#'ai#en to ,a"ilitate su"h 4ro"esses o, "a4italist 4enetration$ A''or*i!1 to
t(i" vie;C *eveo+me!t i!terve!tio!" are !ot 1oo* or ,a* i! t(em"eve" ,$t m$"t ,e a!a4"e*
i! term" o% t(eir roe i! ;i*er +ro'e""e" o% "o'ia '(a!1eC t(e L$e"tio! ,ei!1 ;(at <i!*" o%
i!tere"t" t(e4 "ta!* %or$ Are they those o, transnational "or4orations national "a4italists an e'er/in/
rural bour/eoisie or those o, 4o4ular so"ial "lasses su"h as the 4easantry urban 6or*in/ "lasses the
lan#less et"R De;elo4'ent in this 6ay is an arena o, 4oliti"al ne/otiation bet6een #i=erent so"ial "lasses
lea#in/ to #i=erent ty4es o, 4oliti"al e"ono'y$S Sin"e the late 1910s mo*er!i"atio! t(eor4 a!* ra*i'a
+oiti'a e'o!om4 (ave ,ee! Koi!e* ,4 se;eral ot(er +er"+e'tive"C ;(i'( (ave i!
'ommo! a 'riti'a "ta!'e to;ar*" *eveo+me!t$ T(e +o"tA"tr$'t$rai"t
+er"+e'tive o, b4ost7#e;elo4'entL 'riti'i"e" *eveo+me!t ,4 *emo!"trati!1 it" *e+e!*e!'e o!
+atriar'(aC +o"itivi"t a!* et(!o'e!tri' +ri!'i+e" ;(i'( *erive %rom t(e mo*er!i"t +roKe't o%
t(e E!i1(te!me!t$3 ?o*er!it4C a''or*i!1 to +o"tA "tr$'t$rai"t t(i!<er"C i" +re*i'ate* o! t(e
i*ea t(at o,Ke't" a!* "$,Ke't" o% <!o;e*1e are 'o!"tit$te* t(ro$1( t(e ;i to +o;er a"
materiai"e* t(ro$1( +ra'ti'e" o% 'a""iG'atio! a!* re+re"e!tation ('a44in/s o, territory
"lassiA"ations o, nature o, se@uality et")$ 0uttin/ it in a so'e6hat "har/e# 6ayC i! t(i" vie;
*eveo+me!t i" "ee! a" a 'o!"teatio! o% +o;erA<!o;e*1e$ T(i" 'o!"teatio! i" 1eare* at
'o!troi!1 T(ir* 0or* +o+$atio!" t(ro$1( %orm" o% 1over!me!tait4 i! ;(i'( ;(at i" at
"ta<e i" !ot(i!1 e"" t(a! t(e *i"'i+i!i!1 o% ,o*ie" t(ro$1( t(e im+o"itio! o% e+i"temi'
"tr$'t$re" that "on#ition the 6ays in 6hi"h bthe &therL (in this "ase )hir# 2orl# 4eo4le) relate to their
o6n bo#ies an# to nature$ +any o, these authors ha;e #e;elo4e# their analysis ,ollo6in/ a Fou"aul#ian
4ers4e"ti;e$S Finally the re?e@i;e 'o#ernisation 4ers4e"ti;e reBe"ts 6hat it labels as the
uto4ianis'/;an/uar#is' o, 4ast notions o, 4ro/ress an# #e;elo4'ent$4 !e?e@i;e 'o#ernisation is a so"ial
theory that 4ur4orts to en/a/e in 6i#er so"ial #ebates about the ,uture o, so"iety 6hile brea*in/ 6ith
notions o, #e;elo4'ent as an e'an"i4atory "olle"ti;e 4roBe"t ai'e# at 'a*in/ an en# to 4o;erty an#
1I
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
inBusti"e at a 4lanetary le;el$ )he ar/u'ent here is that in an era o, 4ost7s"ar"ity so"ial stru//les re;ol;e
aroun# the a"*no6le#/e'ent o, all sorts o, ris*s brou/ht about by 'o#ernity$ 2hat 'o#ern "itiFens
there,ore ha;e in "o''on is not a "olle"ti;e trans,or'ati;e so"ial 4roBe"t but an a6areness o, share#
;ulnerability to lo674robability hi/h "onse>uen"es ty4es o, ris*$ !e?e@i;ity then is about the 4er"e4tions
,ears an# e@4e"tations that the "onse>uen"es o, 'o#ernity 4ro#u"e in in#i;i#uals$ )he >uestions 4ose# in
theories o, re?e@i;e 'o#ernisation "an be 4ose# as5 ho6 #oes re?e@i;ity loo* li*e in so"ieties that ha;e
ne;er 'a#e a transition ,ro' a Arst to a se"on# 'o#ernisation that e@hibit a bla"*L rather than an e@"ess
o, #e;elo4'entR -o6 #oes it loo* in so"ieties that e@4erien"e both all the #isa#;anta/es o, #e;elo4'ent
(en;iron'ental #e/ra#ation all sorts o, ris*s ran/in/ ,ro' the e'er/en"e o, ne6 ty4es o, 6ars to AIDS to
#rou/hts et") 6ithout enBoyin/ their erst6hile a#;anta/es ('aterial 6ell7bein/ health ser;i"es stable
bureau"ra"ies the e@isten"e o, a 4ubli" s4here et")R Fro' ha;in/ been a 4ro'ise 'o#ernity be"o'es a
ris*y "hallen/e an# a""or#in/ly a 'atter o, ris* 'ana/e'ent$ )his is basi"ally a Euro4ean so"ial7
#e'o"rati" 4ers4e"ti;e 4ur4ortin/ to #esi/n a bthir# 6ayL bet6een #o/'ati" so"ialis' an# sa;a/e
neoliberalis' 6hi"h is /ainin/ "urren"y a'on/ 4oli"y 'a*ers 6ithin the )hir# 2orl#$H Later I e@4lain the
role that a re?e@i;e 'o#ernisation stan"e "an 4lay in the rein;ention o, #e;elo4'ent as a ra#i"al
4ro/ra''e ,or #ealin/ 6ith the irrationalities o, the South$S T(o$1( +oe" a+artC %rom m4 +oi!t o%
vie;C a t(e"e a++roa'(e" "$Qer %rom a "erio$" "(ort'omi!1 . T(e4
a %o'$" o! t(e a't$ait4 o% *eveo+me!tC o! t(e eQe't" o% *eveo+me!t
i!terve!tio!" o! +eo+eN" ive"$ ?4 ar1$me!t (o;ever i" t(at t(e a't$ait4 o%
*eveo+me!t i" "$++eme!te* ,4 a virt$a *ime!"io!C a" ma!i%e"te*
i! t(e *e"ire %orC a!* ima1i!atio! o%C *eveo+me!t$ &, "ourse '$rre!t
*e,ate" (ave +ro*$'e* *iver"e a!* i!tere"ti!1 +o"itio!"C "ome ta<i!1 extreme a!tiA
*eveo+me!t +o"itio!"C ot(er" ;ei1(i!1 t(e merit" a!* *i"a*va!ta1e" o% T*eveo+me!t
ater!ative"N or ater!ative" %or *eveo+me!tN$ )he literature on this #ebate is hu/e an# this is not
the 4la"e to re;ie6 it but it su."es to 4oint out that it a revove" aro$!* t(e L$e"tio!
o% t(e exte!t to ;(i'( *eveo+me!t i" a %orei1! a!* et(!o'e!tri'
'o!"tr$'t$ La,e" "$'( a" Tater!ativeNC Te!*o1e!o$"NC T,ottomA$+NC T1ra""root"N or
Ta$to!omo$"N *eveo+me!t are ,$t *iQere!t ;a4" o% a!";eri!1 t(i" L$e"tio!$ T(ere i" a"o a
va"t ,o*4 o% ;or< o! i!*i1e!o$" a!* o'a <!o;e*1e t(at "et" o$t to +ro+o"e T,ottomA$+N or
T1ra""root"N *eveo+me!t ater!ative"$ +u"h re"ent 6or* on b/lobalisation ,ro' belo6L is re'inis"ent
o, these #is"ussions$ -o6e;er t(e4 rare4 to$'( $+o! t(e ;or< o% ima1i!atio!
i!vove* i! t(e t(i!<i!1 o! *eveo+me!t a!* i% t(e4 *o t(e4 'e!tre
o! i!*ivi*$a a"+iratio!" or ex+e'tatio!"C !ot o! 'oe'tive *ream"
a!* *e"ire" a" ma!i%e"tatio!" o% a 'oe'tive $!'o!"'io$". As I ar/ue
later t(i" i" !ot mere4 a t(eoreti'a L$e"tio!C a" it rai"e" im+orta!t et(i'a i""$e"$S A 'a"e i!
+oi!t i" t(e *e,ate amo!1 +o"tA"tr$'t$ra 'ritiL$e" o% *eveo+me!tC e"+e'ia4
'o!'er!i!1 t(e ri1(t o% *eveo+me!t t(i!<er" to e1i"ate o! t(e reeva!'e o%
*eveo+me!t to +oor +eo+eN" ive"$ ?a!4 a$t(or" (ave +oi!te* o$t t(at it i"
+oor +eo+e t(em"eve" ;(o ;a!t *eveo+me!t a!* t(at ar1$i!1 a1ai!"t it amo$!t" to
a""$mi!1 t(at t(e4 are $!*er t(e "+e o% T%a"e 'o!"'io$"!e""N$ +u"h
o, the #ebate has thus "o'e to re;ol;e aroun# se'anti" >uestions about the #i;erse 'eanin/s o,
#e;elo4'ent ,or ;arious a"tors$ &, "ourse +o"tA"tr$'t$rai"t" ma4 a!";er t(at t(e ta"< o% t(e
'riti'a t(i!<er i" t(at o% *e'o!"tr$'ti!1 t(e *i"'o$r"e o% *eveo+me!t a!* o% *eveo+i!1 !e;
a!1$a1e" %or t(i!<i!1 a,o$t Tater!ative mo*er!itie"N$I 7$'( a re'o!"tr$'tive a1e!*a i!vove"
re*eemi!1 "$,ater! +eo+eN" !otio!" a!* +ra'ti'e" o% 'omm$!it4 "oi*arit4 a!* (o+e$ Althou/h
it stron/ly "on"ur 6ith these ;ie6s the ar/u'ent I #e;elo4 here is that t(e *e"ire" %orC a!*
ima1i!atio!" o% C *eveo+me!t "ta!* %or a! Tim+o""i,eNC $to+ia!
;or*$ +y 4oint is that t(e $to+ia! +romi"e o% *eveo+me!t i!vove" a
!e1ative *iae'ti'" t(at 1oe" %$rt(er t(a! ima1i!i!1 (a) *iQere!t
;or*(")Z or ,or that 'atter alternati;e 'o#ernitiesZi! t(e +re'i"e "e!"e t(at it
+oi!t" to t(e +o""i,iit4 o% a ra*i'a ,rea< ;it( t(e +re"e!t$ I ar/ue in
the "on"lu#in/ se"tion o, the arti"le that "$'( $to+ia!C Tim+o""i,eNC *e"ire %or
*eveo+me!t (a" im+orta!t et(i'a im+i'atio!"C a" it (ar,o$r" t(e +romi"e o%
"$'( a ra*i'a ,rea<$S )hus 'y 4oint is that *eveo+me!t (a" a virt$a
or %a!ta"ti' "i*eC a" ma!i%e"te* i! +arti'$ar ;a4" o% *e"iri!1 t(at
are +art o% t(e 'oe'tive $!'o!"'io$"$ )hus the abo;e7'entione# +er"+e'tive" *o
!ot a'<!o;e*1e t(e %a't t(at *eveo+me!t 1e!erate" t(e <i!*" o% *e"ire" t(at it !e'e""itate"
to +er+et$ate it"e%C t(at it i" a "e%A+ro+ei!1 a++arat$" t(at +ro*$'e" it" o;! motivatio!a
1J
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
*rive"C t(at t(e *eveo+me!t i!*$"tr4 i" +ara"iti' o! t(e ,eie%" a!* *ream" o% t(e "$,Ke't" it
'reate"$ In other 6or#s *eveo+me!t ie" at t(e "ame +a!e o% imma!e!'e a" t(e "$,Ke't" it
+ro*$'e"$JS As ar/ue# t(e i*ea o% *eveo+me!t reie" o! t(e +ro*$'tio! o%
*e"ire"C ;(i'( it 'a!!ot %$G$ In other 6or#sZ,ollo6in/ a La"anian 4ers4e"ti;eZ t(ere i"
a 'ertai! Tex'e""N i! t(e 'o!'e+t o% *eveo+me!t t(at i" 'e!tra to it" %$!'tio!i!1$ Deveo+me!t
t($" +oi!t" to a $to+ia! eeme!t t(at i" a;a4" area*4 o$t o% +a'e$ 7i!'e it i" 'o!"tit$tive4
im+o""i,eC it %$!'tio!" a" it" o;! 'ritiL$e$ T(e L$e"tio! to ,e a!";ere* t(ere%ore i" ;(4
+eo+e i! t(e T(ir* 0or* +er"i"t i! *e"iri!1 *eveo+me!t i! "+ite o% a it" %ai$re"$ ?4 a!";er
to t(i" L$e"tio! i" t(at t(e *e"ire %or *eveo+me!t G" t(e 1a+ ,et;ee!
t(e +romi"e" a!* t(eir mea1re a't$a reai"atio!"C t($" 1ivi!1 ,o*4
to a *e"iri!1 ma'(i!e t(at a"o o+erate" i! ,et;ee! t(e 1e!eratio!
a!* ,a!ai"atio! o% (o+e$
?INO#ITY NA##ATI&E7 E7TA8LI7@ &ICTI? )OLITIC7V
DE)ICTION7 OF T@E ?INO#ITY 7T#B..LE CON7T#BCT I?A.E7
OF ?INO#ITIE7 A7 @EL)LE77 &ICTI?7
Jo#i Dea! (E#itor NCultural Stu#ies an# 0oliti"al )heoryO$ Lauren Cerlant N)he
SubBe"t o, true ,eelin/5 4ain 4ri;a"y an# 4oliti"sO 20==) MGunnars#ottirP
)he "entral "on"ern o, this essay is to a##ress the 4la"e o, 4ain,ul ,eelin/ in the
'a*in/ o, 4oliti"al 6orl#s$ In this I a.liate 6ith 2en#y Cro6n(s "on"ern about
the o;er;aluation o, the 6oun# in the rhetori" o, "onte'4orary D$S$ i#entity
4oliti"s$ Cro6n ar/ues that the i#entiA"ation o, 'i nority i#entity 6ith a
6oun#7a "on;entional story about the 4arti"ular an# 4arti"ulariFin/ inBuries
"ause# by #o'ination7'ust lea# to the 6oun# be"o'in/ ,etishiFe# e;i#en"e o,
i#entity 6hi"h thereby a6ar#s 'onu'en tality an# ;alue to the ;ery
ne/ati;ity that 6oul# also be o;er"o'e$ As a result 'inority stru//le
"an /et stu"* in a /roo;e o, sel,7re4etition an# ha bituate#
resent'ent 6hile ,ro' the outsi#e it 6oul# a44ear ;ulnerable to
the "har/e o, %;i"ti' 4oliti"s$% In 'y ;ie6 ho6e;er 6hat Cro6n lo"ates in
'inority #is"ourse /enerally has a lon/er5 'ore s4e"iA" an# ,ar 'ore 4ri;ile/e#
/enealo/y than she su//ests$ In 4arti"ular I 6oul# li*e to "onne"t it to
so'ethin/ I "all national senti'etality a liberal rhetori" o, 4ro'ise history 6hi"h
;o6s that a nation "an best be built a"ross Ael#s o, so"ial #i=eren"e throu/h
"hannels o, a=e"ti;e i#entiA"ation an# e'4athy
11
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
NE.: 7+ea<i!1 %or ot(er"
,a*
7+ea<i!1 %rom a +o"itio! o% +rivie1e +ro+" $+ +o;er reatio!"Vt(e
"+ea<er reie" o! t(e a""$m+tio! t(at e"" +rivie1e* 'a!!ot "+ea<
%or t(em "eve"
Na<oC <ontsasa$ %(N0ossessin/ the [oi"e o, the &ther5 A,ri"an 2o'en an# the bCrisis o,
!e4resentationL in Ali"e 2al*erLs 0ossessin/ Se"ret o, Joy$% A Journal o, Culture an# A,ri"an 2o'en
Stu#ies (2==1): n$ 4a/$ 2eb$ 2J June 2014
In her essay N)he 0roble' o, S4ea*in/ ,or &thersO Lin#a Al"o= i#entiAes t6o 6i#ely a""e4te# "lai's
relatin/ to s4ea*in/ ,or others (1994)$ )he Arst one "on"erns the relationshi4 bet6een
lo"ation an# s4ee"hK that the 4osition ,ro' 6hi"h one s4ea*s a=e"ts the 'eanin/ o, his or
her s4ee"h$ )here,ore 6here one s4ea*s ,ro' Nhas an e4iste'i"ally si/niA"ant i'4a"t on that
s4ea*erLs "lai' an# "an ser;e either to authoriFe or #isauthoriFe oneLs s4ee"hO(Al"o= 1994 21J)$
)his is 4erha4s the reason 6hy 'ost "riti"s ten# to lea;e their i#entities an# lo"ations ;isible$ &ne
e@a'4le is Chan#ra +ohanty in her intro#u"tion to a ;olu'e o, essays by )hir# 2orl# 6o'en 6here
she 6rites5 NI MalsoP 6rite ,ro' 'y o6n 4arti"ular 4oliti"al histori"al an# intelle"tual lo"ation as a
thir# 6orl# ,e'inist traine# in the D$S$ intereste# in >uestions o, "ulture *no6le#/e 4ro#u"tion an#
a"ti;is' in an international "onte@tO (1991 3)$2hether su"h a"ts o, sel,7i#entiA"ation are
al6ays 4ossible is #ebatable as it is no6 "o''only un#erstoo# that i#entities are ?ui# an# al6ays
shi,tin/$ Cut it is "lear that su"h a"ts are ne"essary be"ause ,or instan"e in +ohantyLs "ase
by ,ore/roun#in/ her 4osition 6ithin the "ate/ory )hir# 2orl# 6o'en she ensures that the 'eanin/
o, 6hat she says is not se4arate# ,ro' the "on#itions 6hi"h 4ro#u"e# it$ She also a"*no6le#/es the
#i=eren"e 6ithin )hir# 2orl# 6o'en an# this anti"i4ates her #eAnition o, )hir# 2orl# 6o'en as
Ni'a/ine# "o''unities o, 6o'en 6ith #i;er/ent histories an# so"ial lo"ationsO(+ohanty 1991
4)$)he se"on# "lai' that Al"o= i#entiAes is that 4o6er relations 'a*e it #an/erous ,or
a 4ri;ile/e# 4erson to s4ea* ,or the less 4ri;ile/e# be"ause that o,ten
rein,or"es the o44ression o, the latter sin"e the 4ri;ile/e# 4erson is 'ore
li*ely to be listene# to$ An# 6hen a 4ri;ile/e# 4erson s4ea*s ,or the less
4ri;ile/e# she is assu'in/ either that the other "annot #o so or she "an
"on,er le/iti'a"y on their 4osition$ An# su"h a"ts #o Nnothin/ to #isru4t the #is"ursi;e
hierar"hies that o4erate in 4ubli" s4a"esO (Ibi#)$
7+ea<i!1 %or ot(er" o++re""e" t(emV;e m$"t "to+ t(e im+$"e to
"+ea< to ao; t(e or1a!i' i!tee't$a to ri"e $+
?ari!io Lauren$ %S4ea*in/ ,or &thers$% +ala"ester Journal o, 0hiloso4hy 14$1 (2==3)5 n$ 4a/$ 0rint$
2hat then is the solutionR I a/ree 6ith bell hoo*s that the o44resse# 'ust "elebrate their
4osition on the 'ar/ins$ )he o44resse# shoul# not try to 'o;e into the
"enter but a44re"iate their "ounter"ulture$ )he o44resse# 'ust 4ro#u"e
intelle"tuals so that the #o'inate# "an s4ea* to the #o'inatin/$ )he i#ea /oes
ba"* to Antonio Gra's"iLs "on"e4t o, the or/ani" intelle"tual$J )he elites are in#o"trinate# in the rulin/
i#eolo/y an# ha;e an in;est'ent in the "urrent or#er$ <o 'atter ho6 4ro/ressi;e their
4oliti"s 'ay be the elite 6ill al6ays be the elite$ )heir in;est'ent in the "urrent so"ial
or#er 4re"lu#es o=ers o, true syste'i" "han/e$ Gra's"i 6rites o, the nee# ,or the 6or*in/ "lass to #e;elo4
its o6n intelle"tuals 6ho are or/ani"ally tie# to their "lass$ )his ar/u'ent is si'ilar to hoo*sL ar/u'ent$
)he 'ar/in 'ust 4ro#u"e or/ani" intelle"tuals$ It 'i/ht be thou/ht that these or/ani" intelle"tuals shoul#
translate bet6een lan/ua/e /a'es$ Cut as hoo*s 4oints out usin/ Nthe o44ressorLs lan/ua/eO is not
a#e>uate be"ause it "annot arti"ulate the e@4erien"e o, the o44resse#$ Qet it is the only lan/ua/e /a'e
the o44ressin/ "an 4lay$ &r/ani" intelle"tuals a=e"t the "enter ,ro' the 'ar/ins i, they are able to
in"or4orate 'ulti4le ;oi"es in the te@ts they "reate$ )he /oal o, the or/ani" intelle"tual a""or#in/ to hoo*s
is to Ni#enti,y the s4a"es 6here 6e be/in a 4ro"ess o, re;isionO to "reate a "ounter7i#eolo/y$1 -oo*s
19
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
relates this a/en"y to lan/ua/e$ NLan/ua/e is also a 4la"e o, stru//le$O9 )he "ounter"ulture "an 4ro#u"e a
"ounter7lan/ua/e 6hi"h is able to 4ro#u"e a ne6 lan/ua/e to 'e#iate bet6een the 'ar/ins an# the
"enter$ <e"essarily the ne6 /a'e 'ust in"lu#e 4ortions o, both ol# lan/ua/e /a'es or no one 6ill
un#erstan# it$ It 'ust use ol# un#erstan#in/s to "reate ne6 'eanin/s$ )hese "ounter7lan/ua/es "an
,un"tion as the inter'e#iary lan/ua/e /a'es that the o44resse# an# the elites "an be initiate#
si'ultaneously$ A ne6 lan/ua/e /a'e 'ust be "reate#$ A /oo# e@a'4le o, this is +artin Luther Kin/Ls NI
-a;e a Drea'O s4ee"h$ -e use# "on"e4ts o, ,ree#o' an# #e'o"ra"y ,a'iliar to the "enter to e@4lain the
e@4erien"e o, the o44resse# 6ithin in the 'ainstrea' lan/ua/e /a'e as 6ell as "reate# ne6 'eta4hors
an# lin/uisti" ,or' i$e$ the 4rea"herLs ser'on to brin/ the ;oi"e o, the o44resse# an# the o44ressors into
a real' o, "o''uni"ation$ (bell hoo*s uses the 4rea"hers ser'on ,or' in her re,rain blan/ua/e is also a
4la"e o, stru//leL)$10 &ne ,a'ous 'eta4hor is ,ree#o' as a boun"e# "he"* to A,ri"an A'eri"ans$ )his
"reate# a ne6 un#erstan#in/ o, the situation$ It 6or*e# bet6een the lan/ua/e o, o44ression un#erstoo#
by A,ri"an A'eri"ans an# the "enterLs un#erstan#in/ o, ,ree#o' an# the 4ro'ises o, #e'o"ra"y$ Kin/ 6as
able to in"lu#e 'ulti4le ;oi"es buil#in/ a bri#/e bet6een the 'ar/in an# the "enter$ )he "on"lusion o,
hoo*s is that the 'ar/in "an be 'ore than a 4la"e o, o44ression an# alienation$ It "an be Na site o, ra#i"al
4ossibility a s4a"e o, resistan"eO that is not o4en to those in the "enter$ It is the s4a"e to 4ro#u"e
"ounter7he/e'oni" "ulture that the or/ani" intelle"tual is loo*in/ ,or$ )he o44resse# "an retell
their story an# i, 6e a""e4t !ortyLs ar/u'ent that the sel, is "ontin/ent the o44resse# "reate
the'sel;es in the 4ro"ess . To "+ea< %or t(e o++re""e* i" to "ie!'e
t(em. +oreo;er in their absen"e o, ;oi"e 6e #eAne the'$ 2e "an #eAne the' in 'any 6ays but
they 6ill al6ays be a NtheyO an# not an Nus$O )hey 6ill be the other$ 2e 'ust
ha;e ,aith in the 'ar/ins to 4ro#u"e ne6 lan/ua/e /a'es to "o''uni"ate 6ith us$
7+ea<i!1 %or ot(er" i" ;ro!1VitN" a! a't o% 'ommo*iG'atio!
a!* 'oo!ia *omi!atio!C
Lin#a +artVn A'oQ (De4art'ent o, 0hiloso4hy at Syra"use Dni;ersity$ N)he 0roble'
o, S4ea*in/ For &thersO Cultural Criti>ue 2inter 1991762 44$ H732$)
Fe'inist #is"ourse is not the only site in 6hi"h the 4roble' o, s4ea*in/ ,or
others has been a"*no6le#/e# an# a##resse#$ In anthro4olo/y there is si'ilar
#is"ussion about 6hether it is 4ossible to s4ea* ,or others either a#e>uately or
BustiAably$ )rinh )$ +inh7ha e@4lains the /roun#s ,or s*e4ti"is' 6hen she says that anthro4olo/y is
%'ainly a "on;ersation o, qus( 6ith qus( about qthe'( o, the 6hite 'an 6ith the 6hite 'an about the
4ri'iti;e7nature 'an$$$in 6hi"h qthe'( is silen"e#$ q)he'( al6ays stan#s on the other si#e o, the hill
na*e# an# s4ee"hless$$$qthe'( is only a#'itte# a'on/ qus( the #is"ussin/ subBe"ts 6hen
a""o'4anie# or intro#u"e# by an qus($$$%
4
Gi;en this analysis e;en ethno/ra4hies 6ritten by
4ro/ressi;e anthro4olo/ists are a 4riori re/ressi;e be"ause o, the stru"tural ,eatures o,
anthro4olo/i"al #is"ursi;e 4ra"ti"e$
)he re"o/nition that there is a 4roble' in s4ea*in/ ,or others has ,ollo6e# ,ro' the 6i#es4rea#
a""e4tan"e o, t6o "lai's$ First there has been a /ro6in/ a6areness that 6here one s4ea*s ,ro'
a=e"ts both the 'eanin/ an# truth o, 6hat one says an# thus that one "annot assu'e an ability to
trans"en# her lo"ation$ In other 6or#s a s4ea*er(s lo"ation (6hi"h I ta*e here to re,er to her so"ial
lo"ation or so"ial i#entity) has an e4iste'i"ally si/niA"ant i'4a"t on that
s4ea*er(s "lai's an# "an ser;e either to authoriFe or #is7authoriFe
one(s s4ee"h$ )he "reation o, 2o'en(s Stu#ies an# A,ri"an A'eri"an Stu#ies #e4art'ents
6ere ,oun#e# on this ;ery belie,5 that both the stu#y o, an# the a#;o"a"y ,or the o44resse# 'ust
"o'e to be #one 4rin"i4ally by the o44resse# the'sel;es an# that 6e 'ust Anally a"*no6le#/e that
syste'ati" #i;er/en"es in so"ial lo"ation bet6een s4ea*ers an# those s4o*en ,or 6ill ha;e a
si/niA"ant e=e"t on the "ontent o, 6hat is sai#$ )he uns4o*en 4re'ise here is si'4ly that a s4ea*er(s
lo"ation is e4iste'i"ally salient$ I shall e@4lore this issue ,urther in the ne@t se"tion$ )he se"on# "lai'
hol#s that not only is lo"ation e4iste'i"ally salient but "ertain 4ri;ile/e# lo"ations are #is"ursi;ely
#an/erous$
H
In 4arti"ular the 4ra"ti"e o, 4ri;ile/e# 4ersons s4ea*in/ ,or or
on behal, o, less 4ri;ile/e# 4ersons has a"tually resulte# (in 'any
"ases) in in"reasin/ or reen,or"in/ the o44ression o, the /rou4
s4o*en ,or$ )his 6as 4art o, the ar/u'ent 'a#e a/ainst Anne Ca'eron(s
s4ea*in/ ,or <ati;e 6o'en5 Ca'eron(s intentions 6ere ne;er in >uestion but
the e=e"ts o, her 6ritin/ 6ere ar/ue# to be har',ul to the nee#s o, <ati;e
authors be"ause it is Ca'eron rather than they 6ho 6ill be listene# to an#
6hose boo*s 6ill be bou/ht by rea#ers intereste# in <ati;e 6o'en$ 0ersons ,ro'
#o'inant /rou4s 6ho s4ea* ,or others are o,ten treate# as authenti"atin/
90
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
4resen"es that "on,er le/iti'a"y an# "re#ibility on the #e'an#s o, subBu/ate#
s4ea*ersK su"h s4ea*in/ ,or others #oes nothin/ to #isru4t the
#is"ursi;e hierar"hies that o4erate in 4ubli" s4a"es$ For this reason the
6or* o, 4ri;ile/e# authors 6ho s4ea* on behal, o, the o44resse# is be"o'in/ in"reasin/ly "riti"iFe#
by 'e'bers o, those o44resse# /rou4s the'sel;es$
I
As so"ial theorists 6e are authoriFe# by ;irtue
o, our a"a#e'i" 4ositions to #e;elo4 theories that e@4ress an# en"o'4ass the i#eas nee#s an#
/oals o, others$ -o6e;er 6e 'ust be/in to as* oursel;es 6hether this is e;er a le/iti'ate authority
an# i, so 6hat are the "riteria ,or le/iti'a"yR In 4arti"ular is it e;er ;ali# to s4ea* ,or
others 6ho are unli*e 'e or 6ho are less 4ri;ile/e# than 'eR 2e
'i/ht try to #eli'it this 4roble' as only arisin/ 6hen a 'ore 4ri;ile/e# 4erson s4ea*s ,or a less
4ri;ile/e# one$ In this "ase 6e 'i/ht say that I shoul# only s4ea* ,or /rou4s o, 6hi"h I a' a 'e'ber$
Cut this #oes not tell us ho6 /rou4s the'sel;es shoul# be #eli'ite#$ For e@a'4le "an a 6hite
6o'an s4ea* ,or all 6o'en si'4ly by ;irtue o, bein/ a 6o'anR I, not ho6 narro6ly shoul# 6e #ra6
the "ate/oriesR )he "o'4le@ity an# 'ulti4li"ity o, /rou4 i#entiA"ations "oul# result in %"o''unities%
"o'4ose# o, sin/le in#i;i#uals$ +oreo;er the "on"e4t o, /rou4s assu'es s4e"ious notions about
"lear7"ut boun#aries an# %4ure% i#entities$ I a' a 0ana'anian7A'eri"an an# a 4erson o, 'i@e#
ethni"ity an# ra"e5 hal, 6hite/An/la an# hal, 0ana'anian 'estiFa$ )he "riterion o, /rou4 i#entity
lea;es 'any unans6ere# >uestions ,or a 4erson su"h as 'ysel, sin"e I ha;e 'e'bershi4 in 'any
"on?i"tin/ /rou4s but 'y 'e'bershi4 in all o, the' is 4roble'ati"$ Grou4 i#entities an# boun#aries
are a'bi/uous an# 4er'eable an# #e"isions about #e'ar"atin/ i#entity are al6ays 4artly arbitrary$
Another 4roble' "on"erns ho6 s4e"iA" an i#entity nee#s to be to "on,er e4iste'i" authority$
!e?e"tion on su"h 4roble's >ui"*ly re;eals that no easy solution to the 4roble' o, s4ea*in/ ,or
others "an be ,oun# by si'4ly restri"tin/ the 4ra"ti"e to s4ea*in/ ,or /rou4s o, 6hi"h one is a
'e'ber$
7+ea<i!1 %or ot(er" i" a ta$too14Vt(e a""ertio! t(at t(e o++re""e*
(ave !o voi'e ma<e" t(at a reait4 ;(e! t(e +rivie1e* 'o!"ta!t4 "+ea<
%or t(em
Jeanne )errea$t (0ro,essor o, En/lish at the Dni;ersity o, Cal/ary NChain Gan/
<arrati;es An# )he 0oliti"s &, bS4ea*in/ ForLO Cio/ra4hy 24$1 (20=1) 1H271J1
Cio/ra4hi"al !esear"h Center) MGunnars#ottirP
)he 4roble' o, %s4ea*in/ ,or% has be"o'e a 4roble' sin"e the
s4o*en ,or ha;e be/un 4ubli"ly to e@a'ine the un"ons"ious or uns4o*en
assu'4tions o, su4erior *no6le#/e insi/ht an# solutions o, 6ell7'eanin/
s4ea*ers ,or$ )he assu'4tion o, the s4ea*ers ,or is that the
o44resse# ha;e no ;oi"e an# thus inter;ention is re>uire#$ )his
belie, is a *in# o, tautolo/y5 to be o44resse# is to ha;e no ;oi"e / to
ha;e no ;oi"e is to be o44resse#$ )he A/urin/ o, o44resse# 4eo4les
as 6ithout ;oi"e is no lon/er a""urate ho6e;er i, it e;er 6as$ 2e
un#erstan# as Cana#ian +Xtis 6riter E''a La!o">ue says that the issue is not
o, s4ea*in/ but o, bein/ hear# (@;)$ So'e o, the earliest "hallen/es to
s4ea*in/ ,or "a'e ,ro' A,ri"an A'eri"an ,e'inists li*e Au#re Lor#e
an# bell hoo*s in the 19J0s an# 1910s$ )hey raise# an i'4assione# #ouble
assertion5 that 6hen 6hite ,e'inists 'a#e /eneral re,eren"es to
%6o'en% they 6ere not s4ea*in/ about the'K an# that no one
"oul# s4ea* ,or the'$ 2hen those un#erstoo# to be the #isen,ran"hise# or
'ar/inaliFe# "hallen/e# those un#erstoo# to ha;e /reater 4ri;ile/e to loo* to
their o6n histories an# i#entities the /uilt ,or ha;in/ so"ially #esi/nate#
4ri;ile/e 6as at least as 4ronoun"e# as the ,ruit,ul e@a'inations o, res4onsibility
inherin/ to their o6n subBe"t 4ositions$
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NE.: .o,ai>atio! root
Ca$"e o% "tr$'t$ra
vioe!'e
T@E .LO8ALIUED ECONO?Y BNDE# I?)E#IALI7?
)#O?OTE7 7T#BCTB#AL &IOLENCE
Deme!'(o!o< a!* )eter"o! T=6
De'en"hono* E#6ar# an# !i"har# 0eterson$ %1$rGlobaliFation an# [iolen"e5 )he Challen/e to Ethi"s$%
A'eri"an Journal o, E"ono'i"s an# So"iolo/y I1$1 (2009)5 H17JI$ 2eb$ 21 June 2014$
DES0I)E its 'any beneAts 1o,ai>atio! (a" +rove! to (ar,or a 1oo* *ea o%
vioe!'e. T(i" i" !ot o!4 a matter o% t(e +roi%eratio! o% ;ea+o!" o% ma"" *e"tr$'tio!
i!a$1$rate* ,4 t(e atomi' ,om,i!1 o% @iro"(imaC ,$t i!'$*e" ma!4 %orm" o% i!*ire't or
O"tr$'t$ra vioe!'eP re"$ti!1 %rom t(e ro$ti!e o% e'o!omi' a!*
+oiti'a i!"tit$tio!" o! t(e 1o,a "'ae$ In this essay the 'ulti,a"ete# 4heno'ena o,
;iolen"e are a44roa"he# ,ro' the stan#4oint o, ethi"s$ )he 4re;ailin/ 4oliti"al thin*in/ asso"iate# 6ith
Nrealis'O ,ails to a##ress the 4roble's o, 'ilitaris' an# o, he/e'oni" unilateralis'$ In "ontrast 'any
4hiloso4hers are "riti"ally rethin*in/ the 4roble' o, /lobal ;iolen"e ,ro' #i=erent ethi"al 4ers4e"ti;es$
Des4ite sharin/ si'ilar "on"erns 4hiloso4hers ne;ertheless #i=er o;er the role o, 4hiloso4hi"al re?e"tion
an# the 4otentials o, reason$ )hese #i=eren"es a44ear in t6o "ontrastin/ a44roa"hes asso"iate# 6ith
4ost'o#ern 4hiloso4hy an# #is"ourse ethi"s$ In the analysis o, #is"ourse ethi"s attention is 4ai# to Karl7
&tto A4elLs atte'4t o, 4hiloso4hi"ally /roun#in/ a 'a"roethi"s o, 4lanetary "o7res4onsibility$ At the heart
o, the essay is the analysis o, the 4roble' o, ;iolen"e in"lu#in/ terroris' by Jsr/en -aber'as 6ho
e@4lains the 4heno'enon o, ;iolen"e in ter's o, the theory o, "o''uni"ati;e a"tion as the brea*#o6n o,
"o''uni"ation$ Ja">ues Derri#aLs #e"onstru"tion o, the notion o, Nterroris'O also is analyFe#$ A""or#in/
to the 4rin"i4le o, #is"ourse ethi"s all "on?i"ts bet6een hu'an bein/s ou/ht to be settle# in a 6ay ,ree o,
;iolen"e throu/h #is"ourses an# ne/otiations$ )hese 4hiloso4hers "on"lu#e that the relian"e on ,or"e #oes
not sol;e so"ial an# /lobal 4roble's in"lu#in/ those that are the sour"e o, ;iolen"e$ )he only ;iable
alternati;e is the N#ialo/i"alO 'ultilateral relations o, 4ea"e,ul "oe@isten"e an# "oo4eration a'on/ the
nations ,or sol;in/ so"ial an# /lobal 4roble's$ )hey e'4hasiFe the ne"essity o, stren/thenin/ the
international rule o, la6 an# institutions su"h as a re,or'e# Dnite# <ations$ )-E I+0&!)A<CE &F the
/lobal #i'ension has e'er/e# on al'ost e;ery le;el o, so"ial e@4erien"e ,ro' the e"ono'i" an# 4oliti"al
to the "ultural an# 4sy"holo/i"al$ &ne "an ;ie6 /lobaliFin/ 4heno'ena an# the 4roble's they raise
throu/h a ;ariety o, lenses in"lu#in/ those o, so"ial Busti"e$ )hese re;eal >uestions o, ine>uality 4o6er
an# re"o/nition$ Closely relate# to ea"h is an issue that "an be"o'e a #istin"ti;e lens o, histori"al
4er"e4tion on its o6nZthe >uestion o, ;iolen"e$ In#ee# the >uestion o, ;iolen"e is ines"a4able on"e one
atten#s to the a"tual "on?i"ts that the 'any as4e"ts o, /lobaliFation an# issues o, Busti"e ha;e brou/ht to
the ,ore$ I! a !$'ear a1e $"(ere* i! ,4 t(e ,om,i!1 o% @iro"(imaC ;ar
(a" ,e'ome a 1o,a *a!1er. T(e to ta<e! ,4 t(e ma!4 re1io!a
;ar" a!* !eo'oo!ia 'o!Si't" *$ri!1 t(e Co* 0ar it"e% "(o;C
%$rt(erC t(at t(e !$'ear "taemate ;a" !o "o$tio! to t(i" re'$rri!1
*a!1er %a'i!1 ($ma! "o'iet4. )he 4roble' o, ;iolen"e is itsel, e@tre'ely #i."ult to
untan/le in 4art be"ause 6hat so'e thin*ers treat as a 'atter o, hu'an nature has been sho6n by others
not to be a "onstant o, hu'an so"ieties an# by still others to be so'ethin/ that e;ol;es #ra'ati"ally 6ith
histori"al "han/e$1 <e;ertheless 6ithin this 'ulti,a"ete# 4roble' t6o as4e"ts are be"o'in/ 'ore
ob;ious an# #isturbin/5 one is the /lobaliFation o, ;iolen"eK the other is the s4rea# o, stru"tural ;iolen"e$
First the "o'4le@ o, "han/e asso"iate# 6ith the i#ea o, /lobaliFation #es4ite all its beneAts an# 4ro'ise
is itsel, ,re>uently a ;ery ;iolent business$ &ne 'ay thin* in#ee# that the un#ersi#e o, /lobaliFation is
itsel, a host o, ol# an# ne6 *in#s o, ;iolen"e$ 2e "an see this in the ne6 *in#s o, 6ars that a""o'4any
stru"tural "han/e 4ushe# ,or6ar# by /lobal e"ono'i" 4ressures2 in the ne6 6ea4ons o, #estru"tion that
?o6 throu/h /lobal net6or*s that o,ten 'i@ to/ether the 'o;e'ent o, ar's an# ille/al #ru/s3 as 6ell as
in the ne6 *in#s o, terrorist ;iolen"e asso"iate# 6ith the i#ea o, a /lobal net6or*$4 &ne "an thin* also o,
ne6 *in#s o, 6ea4ons syste's asso"iate# 6ith s4a"e 6ea4ons in"lu#in/ not Bust 'issiles but satellite
te"hnolo/y laser7o4erate# #e;i"es an# so on$H An# these obser;ations only "onsi#er ;iolen"e in the
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,a'iliar sense o, a"tual or threatene# har's i'4ose# on bo#ies an# 4o4ulations$ In a##ition to its #ire"t
'ani,estations ;iolen"e in a broa#er sense has 'any in#ire"t an# subtle ,or's$ I, 6e thin* o, stru"tural
;iolen"e ,or e@a'4le 6e "an see that 'any o, the e"ono'i" an# en;iron'ental "han/es ta*in/ 4la"e
raise >uestions o, ;iolen"e as 6ell$I )he ter' Nstru"tural ;iolen"eO #oes not re,er to all the *in#s o,
4hysi"al an# 4sy"holo/i"al su=erin/ "ause# by the 6or*in/s o, so"ial institutions$ !ather it re,ers to those
institutionally "ause# har's that are not only 4re#i"table but ha;e been 4re#i"te# an# #ebate# an# ,or
6hi"h 4re;enti;e 'easures "oul# be ta*en$ )he 'oral ,or"e o, the notion o, ;iolen"e is 4reser;e# in the
"ase o, stru"tural ;iolen"e 6hen 6e see that a/ents ha;e *no6in/ly 4er'itte# 4re#i"table har's e;en
thou/h they ha;e not inten#e# the' as is the "ase 6ith #ire"t ;iolen"e$ 7tr$'t$ra vioe!'e i!
t(i" "ome;(at re"tri'te* "e!"e i!'$*e" t(e +overt4 t(at (a"
ex+a!*e* ;it( t(e *ramati' i!'rea"e" o% i!eL$ait4 t(at
1o,ai>atio! (a" 'a$"e*C ,ot( o! t(e 1o,a "'ae a!* ;it(i! ma!4
!atio!a "o'ietie" i<e t(e B!ite* 7tate" it"e%$ 2e see su"h ;iolen"e in the
4roli,eration o, s6eatsho4s an# other *in#s o, harsh labor in"lu#in/ "onte'4orary ,or's o, sla;ery an#
tra."*in/ in hu'ans$ 2e see it too in so7"alle# natural #isasters 6here "ons"ious 4oli"ies ha;e 'a#e
4o4ulations ;ulnerable an# un4re4are# ,or 4re#i"table har's tri//ere# by #ra'ati" 6eather e;ents$
Fa"in/ the "o'bination o, the /ro6in/ s"o4e o, stru"tural ;iolen"e 6ith the e;ol;in/ "on#itions o, #ire"t
;iolen"e ;e 'a! t(i!< o% vioe!'e a" a <e4 i""$e i! t(e $!%o*i!1
'o!Si't" over 1o,ai>atio!$ 2hile ;iolen"e is by no 'eans the only "hallen/e 4ose# by
/lobaliFation it is o, in#is4utable i'4ortan"e both ,or its i'4a"t on the li;es o, in#i;i#uals an# so"ieties
an# ,or its 4la"e in the histori"al 4roble' o, An#in/ a#e>uate institutional ,or's to brin/ the 4ro"esses o,
/lobaliFation into line 6ith the nee#s an# as4irations 4ro4er to Busti"e an# #e'o"ra"y$ In this li/ht the
the'e o, ;iolen"e is a *ey 4art o, the lar/er 4ros4e"t o, the *in# o, so"ial learnin/ that is nee#e# i, the
ne6 stru"tures an# "ultural ,or's that are nee#e# are to be ,oun#/a"hie;e#$J 2ithin this s6ee4in/ set o,
"hallen/es the 4roble' o, ethi"s has a *ey role$ Cut ethi"s nee#s to be ;ie6e# in the histori"al ter's o,
/lobaliFation itsel,$ In 6hat ,ollo6s 6e 6ill sur;ey so'e ,a"ets o, this 4roble' o, ethi"al re?e"tion an#
a"tion in the sha#o6 o, a ;iolen"e74rone /lobaliFation$ In this settin/ is it 4ossible to i'a/ine a uni;ersal
ethi"s one that in,or's a /lobal "o7res4onsibility ,or share# 4roble'sR
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NE.: Im+eriai"m .oo*
C&L&<IALIS+ IS DIFFE!E<) F!&+ I+0E!IALIS+
7E) N12C Stan,or# En"y"lo4e#ia o, 0hiloso4hy NColonialis'O a""esse# I/2H/14
htt45//4lato$stan,or#$e#u/entries/"olonialis'/
Colonialis' is a 4ra"ti"e o, #o'inationC 6hi"h in;ol;es the subBu/ation o, one 4eo4le to
another$ &ne o, the #i."ulties in #eAnin/ "olonialis' is that it is har# to #istin/uish it ,ro' i'4erialis'$
Fre>uently the t6o "on"e4ts are treate# as synony's$ Li*e "olonialis' i'4erialis' also
in;ol;es 4oliti"al an# e"ono'i" "ontrol o;er a #e4en#ent territory$ )he ety'olo/y
o, the t6o ter's ho6e;er 4ro;i#es so'e "lues about ho6 they #i=er$ )he ter' "olony "o'es ,ro' the
Latin 6or# "olonus 'eanin/ ,ar'er$ )his root re'in#s us that the 4ra"ti"e o, "olonialis' usually
in;ol;e# the trans,er o, 4o4ulation to a ne6 territory 6here the arri;als li;e#
as 4er'anent settlers 6hile 'aintainin/ 4oliti"al alle/ian"e to their "ountry
o, ori/in$ I'4erialis' on the other han#C "o'es ,ro' the Latin ter' i'4eriu' 'eanin/ to
"o''an#$ )hus the ter' i'4erialis' #ra6s attention to the 6ay that one "ountry
e@er"ises 4o6er o;er another 6hether throu/h settle'ent so;erei/nty or
in#ire"t 'e"hanis's o, "ontrol$
Im+eriai"m i" !e'e""ar4 to "ove +overt4C *emo'ra'4C ($ma!
ri1(t" a!* ;ar
8ar!ettC T(oma" ?). HT(e Ne; #$e": Lea*er"(i+ Fati1$e )$t" B.7.C a!* .o,ai>atio!C at
Cro""roa*".H )ro%e""or i! t(e 0ar%are A!a4"i" c #e"ear'( De+artme!tC B.7. Nava 0ar Coe1e
5 ?ar. 2=11. 0e,. 2/ I$!e 2=14. d(tt+:::;;;.;or*+oiti'"revie;.'om:arti'e":/=66:t(eA
!e;Ar$e"Aea*er"(i+A%ati1$eA+$t"A$A"a!*AJC2J8-J2=1o,ai>atio!AatA'ro""roa*"e.
It is 6orth Arst e@a'inin/ the lar/er 4i"ture5 0e ive i! a time o% ar1$a,4 t(e
1reate"t "tr$'t$ra '(a!1e i! t(e 1o,a or*er 4et e!*$re*C ;it( t(i"
(i"tori'a mome!tF" mo"t ama>i!1 %eat$re ,ei!1 it" reative a!*
a,"o$te a'< o% ma"" vioe!'e$ )hat is so'ethin/ to "onsi#er 6hen A'eri"ansS
"onte'4late 'ilitary inter;ention in Libya be"ause i, 6e #o ta*e the ste4 to 4re;ent lar/er7s"aleS *illin/
by en/a/in/ in so'e *illin/ o, our o6n 6e 6ill not be a##in/ to so'e ,antasti"ally i'a/ine#S /lobal #eath
"ount ste''in/ ,ro' the on/oin/ %'e/alo'ania% an# %e;il% o, A'eri"an %e'4ire$% 2e(llS be en/a/in/ in
the sa'e sort o, syste'7a#'inisterin/ a"ti;ity that has 'ar*e# our stunnin/lyS su""ess,ul ste6ar#shi4 o,
/lobal or#er sin"e 2orl# 2ar II$ Let 'e be 'ore blunt5 A" t(e 1$ar*ia! o% 1o,ai>atio!C
t(e B.7. miitar4 (a" ,ee! t(e 1reate"t %or'e %or +ea'e t(e ;or* (a"
ever <!o;!. @a* Ameri'a ,ee! remove* %rom t(e 1o,a *4!ami'"
t(at 1over!e* t(e 2=t( 'e!t$r4C t(e ma"" m$r*er !ever ;o$* (ave
e!*e*. I!*ee*C itF" e!tire4 'o!'eiva,e t(ere ;o$* !o; ,e !o
i*e!tiGa,e ($ma! 'ivii>atio! e%tC o!'e !$'ear ;ea+o!" e!tere*
t(e <ii!1 eL$atio!$ Cut the 6orl# #i# not *ee4 sli#in/S #o6n that 4ath o, 4er4etual 6ar$
Instea# Ameri'a "te++e* $+ a!* '(a!1e* ever4t(i!1 ,4 $"(eri!1 i! o$r !o;A
+er+et$a 1reatA+o;er +ea'e. 0e i!tro*$'e* t(e i!ter!atio!a i,era tra*e or*er <!o;! a"
1o,ai>atio! a!* +a4e* o4a Leviat(a! over it" "+rea*. 0(at re"$te* ;a" t(e
'oa+"e o% em+ire"C a! ex+o"io! o% *emo'ra'4C t(e +er"i"te!t
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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
"+rea* o% ($ma! ri1(t"C t(e i,eratio! o% ;ome!C t(e *o$,i!1 o% i%e
ex+e'ta!'4C a ro$1(4 1=A%o* i!'rea"e i! a*K$"te* 1o,a .D) a!* a
+ro%o$!* a!* +er"i"te!t re*$'tio! i! ,atte *eat(" %rom "tateA,a"e*
'o!Si't"$ )hat is 6hat A'eri"anS %hubris% a"tually #eli;ere#$
Im+eriai"m ,ree*" *emo'rati' "e% r$e
9$rt> =3 (Stanley Senior Fello6 at the Ethi"s an# 0ubli" 0oli"y
Center A Bust e'4ireR De'o"rati" I'4erialis'5 A Clue4rint A4ril 1
2003 htt45//666$hoo;er$or//4ubli"ations/4oli"y7re;ie6/arti"le/I42I)
&ur "o''it'ent to 4oliti"al autono'y sets u4 a 'oral 4ara#o@$ Eve! t(e mi*e"t
im+eriai"m ;i ,e ex+erie!'e* ,4 ma!4 a" a ($miiatio!. Yet
im+eriai"m a" t(e mi*;i%e o% *emo'rati' "e%Ar$e i" a! $!*e!ia,e
1oo*. Li,era im+eriai"m i" t($" a mora a!* o1i'a "'a!*aC a
"im$ta!eo$" *e!ia a!* afrmatio! o% "e%Ar$e t(at i" im+o""i,e
eit(er to %$4 a''e+t or re+$*iate. )he "ounter,a"tual o=ers a 6ay out$ I, #e'o"ra"y
#i# not #e4en# on "olonialis' 6e "oul# "onA#ently ,ors6ear e'4ire$ 8$t i! 'o!tra"t to ear4 mo*er!
'oo!ia (i"tor4C ;e *o <!o; t(e a!";er to t(e 'o$!ter%a't$a i! t(e 'a"e o% IraL. A%ter
ma!4 *e'a*e" o% i!*e+e!*e!'eC t(ere i" "ti !o *emo'ra'4 i! IraL.
T(o"e ;(o attri,$te t(i" %a't to Ameri'a! +oi'4 are !ot +er"$a"iveC
"i!'e a$to'ra'4 i" +erva"ive i! t(e Ara, ;or*C a!* "i!'e Ameri'a
(a" e!'o$ra1e* a!* a''e+te* *emo'ra'ie" i! ma!4 ot(er re1io!". So
the reality o, Ira>i #i"tatorshi4 tilts an a#'itte#ly 4re"arious 'oral balan"e in ,a;or o, liberal i'4erialis'$
Ameri'a! im+eriai"m <e4;or* +ea'e
E"(tai! =3 (Jean Ceth*e Laura S4el'an !o"*e,eller 0ro,essor o,
So"ial an# 0oliti"al Ethi"s at the Dni;ersity o, Chi"a/o Di;inity S"hool
NJust 2ar A/ainst )erroris'O 4/$ 1I9)
T(e (eav4 ,$r*e! ,ei!1 im+o"e* o! t(e B!ite* 7tate" *oe" !ot
reL$ire t(at t(e B!ite* 7tate" remai! o! (airAtri11er aert at ever4
mome!t. 8$t it *oe" o,i1e t(e B!ite* 7tate" to eva$ate a 'aim"
a!* to ma<e a *etermi!atio! a" to ;(et(er it 'a! i!terve!e
eQe'tive4 a!* i! a ;a4 t(at *oe" more 1oo* t(a! (armV;it( t(e
+rimar4 o,Ke'tive o% i!ter*i'tio! "o t(at *emo'rati' 'ivi "o'iet4 'a!
,e ,$it or re,$it. )his a44roa"h is better by ,ar than those strate/ies o, e;asion an# #enial o,
the sort ;isible in !6an#a in Cosnia or in the sort o, %a#;i"e% /i;en to A'eri"ans by so'e o, our Euro4ean
"riti"s$ At t(i" +oi!t i! time t(e +o""i,iit4 o% i!ter!atio!a +ea'e a!*
"ta,iit4 +remi"e* o! eL$a re1ar* %or a re"t" ar1e4C t(o$1( !ot
ex'$"ive4C o! Ameri'a! +o;er. +any 4ersons an# 4o6ers #o not li*e this ,a"t but it is
ines"a4able$ As +i"hael I/natie= 4uts it the %'ost "are,ree an# "onA#ent e'4ire in history no6 /ri'ly
"on,ronts the >uestion o, 6hether it "an es"a4e !o'e(s ulti'ate ,ate$%9 Further'ore Ameri'aF"
%ate i" tie* i!extri'a,4 to t(e %ate" o% "tate" a!* "o'ietie" aro$!*
t(e ;or*. I% ar1e +o'<et" o% t(e 1o,e "tart to 1o ,a*V(ereC t(ereC ever4;(ere (t(e
i!%amo$" H%aie* "tateH "4!*rome)Vt(e *rai! o! Ameri'a! +o;er a!* trea"$re ;i rea'( a
+oi!t ;(ere it 'a! !o o!1er ,e ,or!e.
9H
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
I!terve!tio!i"m +rote't" ,a"i' ($ma! ri1(t"
Nar*i! a!* )rit'(ara 6= ()erry7 4ro,essor an# hea# o, the 0oliti"al
S"ien"e De4art'ent at the <ational Dni;ersity o, Sin/a4ore Kathleen
D7 #ire"tor o, "o''unity i'4a"t 4ro#u"t #e;elo4'ent ,or the Dnite#
2ay o, A'eri"a NE)-ICS A<D I<)E![E<)I&<5 )-E D<I)ED S)A)ES I<
G!E<ADA 1913O 1990 4/ 9)
A "e'o!* maKor ar1$me!t i! %avor o% i!terve!tio! i" ,a"e* o! a
'o!'er! %or ($ma! ri1(t". T(i" ar1$me!t re"t" o! t(e i*ea t(at a
'o$!tr4 t(at va$e" *emo'ra'4 a!* i!*ivi*$a ri1(t" "(o$* ,e +reA
+are* to a't ;(e! t(o"e va$e" are t(reate!e*C !ot o!4 at (ome ,$t
a,roa*. A""or#in/ to this ;ie6 it is si'4ly intolerable ,or a ,ree nation to stan# on the si#elines 6hile
,orei/n tyrants li*e I#i A'in an# 0al 0at ensla;e an# 'assa"re their o6n un,ortunate subBe"ts$ At ea"t i!
extreme 'a"e" i<e t(e"e. $!iatera i!terve!tio! "(o$* ,e +ermitte* i%
ot(er mea!" %a. A !atio! t(at i" !ot i! a +o"itio! to i!terve!e It"e% "(o$* "$++ort t(o"e
1over!me!t" (i<e Ta!>a!ia i! t(e 'a"e o% I*i Ami!) t(at are a,e to a't.
B7 im+eriai"m i" Sa;e* ,$t i" "ti t(e 1reate"t %or'e
%or 1oo*
8oot 3 (?axC Iea!e I. 9ir<+atri'< 7e!ior Feo; %or Natio!a 7e'$rit4
7t$*ie"C Co$!'i o! Forei1! #eatio!"C (tt+:::;;;.'%r.or1:iraL:$"A
im+eriai"mA%or'eA1oo*:+3636)
2hat is the /reatest #an/er ,a"in/ A'eri"a as it tries to rebuil# Ira>5 Shiite ,un#a'entalis'R Kur#ish
se4aratis'R Sunni intransi/en"eR )ur*ish Syrian Iranian or Sau#i Arabian 'e##lin/R A o% t(o"e
are rea +ro,em"C ,$t !o!e i" "o "evere t(at it 'a!Ft rea*i4
,e(a!*e*. +ore than 12H000 D$S$ troo4s o""u4y +eso4ota'ia$ T(e4 are ,a'<e* $+ ,4
t(e re"o$r'e" o% t(e ;or*F" ri'(e"t e'o!om4$ In a "ontest ,or "ontrol o, Ira>
Ameri'a 'a! o$t"+e!* a!* o$tm$"'e a!4 'om+eti!1 %a'tio!$ T(e
1reate"t *a!1er i" t(at Ameri'a ;o!Ft $"e a o% it" +o;er %or %ear o%
t(e HIH ;or* AA im+eriai"m. 2hen as*e# on A4ril 21 on al7JaFeera 6hether the Dnite# States
6as %e'4ire buil#in/% Se"retary o, De,en"e Donal# !u's,el# rea"te# as i, he(# been as*e# 6hether he
6ears 6o'en(s un#er6ear$ %2e #on(t see* e'4ires% he re4lie# hu.ly$ %2e(re not i'4erialisti"$ 2e ne;er
ha;e been$% )hat(s a Ane ans6er ,or 4ubli" "onsu'4tion$ )he 4roble' is that it isn(t true$ T(e B!ite*
7tate" (a" ,ee! a! em+ire "i!'e at ea"t 1/=3C ;(e! T(oma"
IeQer"o! +$r'(a"e* t(e Lo$i"ia!a Territor4. T(ro$1(o$t t(e 16t(
'e!t$r4C ;(at IeQer"o! 'ae* t(e Hem+ire o% i,ert4H ex+a!*e*
a'ro"" t(e 'o!ti!e!t. 2hen D$S$ 4o6er stret"he# ,ro' %sea to shinin/ sea% the A'eri"an
e'4ire 'o;e# abroa# a">uirin/ "olonies ran/in/ ,ro' 0uerto !i"o an# the 0hili44ines to -a6aii an#
Alas*a$ 2hile the ,or'al e'4ire 'ostly #isa44eare# a,ter the Se"on# 2orl# 2ar t(e B!ite*
7tate" "et o$t o! a!ot(er ,o$t o% im+eriai"m i! .erma!4 a!* Ia+a!.
O(C "orr4 AA t(at ;a"!Ft im+eriai"mM it ;a" Ho''$+atio!$% Cut 6hen
A'eri"ans are runnin/ ,orei/n /o;ern'ents it(s a #istin"tion 6ithout a #i=eren"e$ Li*e6ise re"ent
%nation7buil#in/% e@4eri'ents in So'alia -aiti Cosnia Koso;o an# A,/hanistan are i'4erialis' un#er
another na'e$ +in# you this is not 'eant as a "on#e'nation$ )he history o, A'eri"an i'4erialis' is
har#ly one o, una#orne# /oo# #oin/K there ha;e been 4lenty o, sha'e,ul e4iso#es su"h as the
'istreat'ent o, the In#ians$ Cut on the 6hole B.7. im+eriai"m (a" ,ee! t(e
1reate"t %or'e %or 1oo* i! t(e ;or* *$ri!1 t(e +a"t 'e!t$r4. It
(a" *e%eate* t(e mo!"tro$" evi" o% 'omm$!i"m a!* Na>i"m
a!* e""er evi" "$'( a" t(e Tai,a! a!* 7er,ia! et(!i'
'ea!"i!1. Ao!1 t(e ;a4C it (a" (e+e* "+rea* i,era
9I
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
i!"tit$tio!" to 'o$!trie" a" *iver"e a" 7o$t( 9orea a!*
)a!ama$ Qet 6hile /enerally su""ess,ul as i'4erialists A'eri"ans ha;e been loath to "onAr' that(s
6hat they 6ere #oin/$ )hat(s &K$ Gi;en the histori"al ba//a/e that %i'4erialis'% "arries t(ereF" !o
!ee* %or t(e B.7. 1over!me!t to em,ra'e t(e term. 8$t it "(o$*
*eG!ite4 em,ra'e t(e +ra'ti'e$
9J
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
NE.: Coo!iai"m <e4 to
Demo'ra'4
Ameri'a! 'oo!iai"m i" <e4 %or *emo'ra'4 i!
$!*er*eveo+e* !atio!"
I"(i4ama T11
Ishiya'a John )$ %NI$ De'o"ratiFation an# the Global En;iron'entO$% Co'4arati;e 0oliti"s5 0rin"i4les o,
De'o"ra"y an# De'o"ratiFation (2011)5 n$ 4a/$ 0rint$
An o,t7 "ite# a##itional N international O ,a"tor a=e"tin/ #e'o"rati" #e;elo4'ent 4arti"ularly in the
#e;elo4in/ 6orl# is the le/a"y o, "olonialis'$ &n the one han# there is the e@tre'ely Euro"entri" ;ie6
that t(e "+rea* o% *emo'ra'4 i" t(e +oiti'a o$t'ome o% t(e
"+rea* o% Euro4ean ;alues an# tra#itions ;ia 'oo!iai"m (,or a #is"ussion see -untin/ton
1914 )$ T(i" i" ,e'a$"e theoreti"ally t(e 'oo!ia +o;er ma4 (ave
tra!"mitte* "ome o% it" '$t$re a!* a!1$a1e to t(e 'oo!4C
;(i'( i! t$r! ma4 (ave e* to t(e emer1e!'e o% a O
'oo+erative P +oiti'a "ulture or 'ay ha;e le,t institutions that 6ere "on#u"i;e to
#e'o"ra"y in 4la"e 6hen the "oloniFin/ 4o6ers e@ite# (2einer 1919 )$ -o6e;er so'e s"holars (Carro
1999 K Wuainoo 2000 ) ha;e ,oun# no relationshi4 bet6een "olonial herita/e an# #e'o"ra"y 6hile others
(Li4set et al $ 1993K Cla/ue et al$ 2001 ) An# that bein/ a ,or'er Critish "olony in"reases the 4robability
that a "ountry be"o'es #e'o"rati"$ In 4arti"ular se;eral "'(oar" (ave ar1$e* t(at
t(e t4+e o% 'oo!i>er ;a" im+orta!t i! ex+ai!i!1 ;(et(er a
'o$!tr4 ;a" a,e to *eveo+ i!to a *emo'ra'4 a%ter t(e e!* o%
'oo!ia r$e$ +yron 2einer (1919) ,or instan"e note# that by 1913 e;ery "ountry in the )hir#
2orl# that e'er/e# ,ro' "olonial rule sin"e 2orl# 2ar II 6ith a 4o4ulation o, at least one 'illion (an#
al'ost all the s'aller "ountries as 6ell) 6ith a "ontinuous #e'o"rati" e@4erien"e 6as a ,or'er Critish
"olony$ )his 6oul# su//est that there 6as so'ethin/ about Critish "olonial rule that 'a#e it #i=erent ,ro'
the "olonial a#'inistration o, other Euro4ean states su"h as Fran"e an# Cel/iu'$ Kha4oya (1991) ,or
instan"e #istin/uishes bet6een t6o 'ain ty4es o, "olonial rule in A,ri"a5 in#ire"t rule an# #ire"t rule$ )he
Critish /enerally use# a syste' o, i!*ire't r$e 6here the e'4hasis 6as not on the assi'ilation o,
A,ri"ans to be"o'e N bla"* Critishers O but rather to share s*ills ;alues an# "ulture to N em+o;er O
the A,ri"ans ;it( t(e a,iit4 to r$! t(eir o;! 'omm$!itie"$ )hus instea# o,
assi'ilatin/ the A,ri"ans as Critish "itiFens so"iety 6as se/re/ate# bet6een the nati;es an# the 6hites
li;in/ in the "olony$ )he Critish also e'4loye# an in#ire"t syste' o, a#'inistrati;e rule$ Generally this
'eant that the "olonial authorities 6oul# "o 7 o4t the lo"al 4o6er stru"ture (the *in/s "hie,s or hea#'an)
an# ;ia in;itations "oer"ion or bribery in"or4orate the' into the "olonial a#'inistrati;e stru"ture$ In
return these lo"al elites 6ere e@4e"te# to en,or"e la6s "olle"t ta@es an# ser;e as the N bu=er O bet6een
the nati;es an# "olonial authorities$ A +o"itive 'o!"eL$e!'e o% t(i" "4"tem o%
i!*ire't r$e (a syste' use# else6here in the Critish E'4ire su"h as in In#ia an# +alaya) ;a"
t(at it +rovi*e* !ative eite" ;it( im+orta!t ex+erie!'e" i! "e%
A r$e . F$rt(erC 'any Critish 'oo!ie" a*o+te* +ra'ti'e" t(at
mimi'<e* Critish +ra'ti'e" "$'( a" ex+erie!'e ;it( ee'toraC
e1i"ativeC a!* K$*i'ia i!"tit$tio!" (Cla/ue et al$ 2001 )$ Gi;en this le;el o,
4re4are#ness then ,ollo6in/ 2orl# 2ar II Critain 6as 'u"h 'ore 6illin/ than other "olonial 4o6ers to
/rant in#e4en#en"e 6hi"h in turn 'a#e the ne6ly in#e4en#ent states 'ore 6illin/ to retain the
institutions the Critish ha# 4ut into 4la"e$ )hus ,ro' this 4ers4e"ti;e Critain see's to ha;e le,t its
"olonies in a better situation to #e;elo4 #e'o"ra"y later than non 7 Critish "olonies$
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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
Coo!iai"m i" a me*i$m ;(i'( ,ri!1" ($ma! ri1(t"
a!* 'ivii>atio! a!* *e"tro4" t4ra!!4 i! t(e
'o$!tr4
DN7o$>a =2 DF7o$>aC Di!e"(. HT;o C(eer" %or Coo!iai"m ( Di!e"( DF7o$>a.H T;o C(eer"
%or Coo!iai"m ( Di!e"( DF7o$>a. Free #e+$,i'C 3 Nov. 2==2. 0e,. 2- I$!e 2=14.
d(tt+:::;;;.%reere+$,i'.'om:%o'$":!e;":-/=132:+o"t"e.
De"+ite t(eir "$"+e't motive" a!* ,a* ,e(aviorC (o;everC t(e
8riti"( !ee*e* a 'ertai! amo$!t o% i!%ra"tr$'t$re to eQe'tive4
1over! I!*ia. 7o t(e4 ,$it roa*"C "(i++i!1 *o'<"C rai;a4
tra'<"C irri1atio! "4"tem"C a!* 1over!me!t ,$i*i!1". T(e!
t(e4 reai>e* t(at t(e4 !ee*e* 'o$rt" o% a; to a*K$*i'ate
*i"+$te" t(at ;e!t ,e4o!* o'a "4"tem" o% *i"+e!"i!1 K$"ti'e$
A!* "o t(e 8riti"( e1a "4"tem ;a" i!tro*$'e*C ;it( a it"
+ro'e*$ra !ovetie"C i<e Hi!!o'e!t $!ti +rove! 1$it4.H T(e
8riti"( a"o (a* to e*$'ate t(e I!*ia!" i! or*er to
'omm$!i'ate ;it( t(em an# to train the' to be "i;il ser;ants in the e'4ire$ )hus In#ian
"hil#ren 6ere e@4ose# to Sha*es4eare Di"*ens -obbes an# Lo"*e$ I! t(at ;a4 t(e
I!*ia!" ,e1a! to e!'o$!ter ;or*" a!* i*ea" t(at ;ere
$!me!tio!e* i! t(eir a!'e"tra '$t$re: Hi,ert4CH
H"overei1!t4CH Hri1(t"CH a!* "o o!.S T(at ,ri!1" me to t(e
1reate"t ,e!eGt t(at t(e 8riti"( +rovi*e* to t(e I!*ia!": T(e4
ta$1(t t(em t(e a!1$a1e o% %ree*om . &n"e a/ain it 6as not the obBe"ti;e o,
the "olonial rulers to en"oura/e rebellion$ Cut by e@4osin/ In#ians to the i#eas o, the 2est they #i#$
T(e I!*ia! ea*er" ;ere t(e +ro*$'t o% 0e"ter! 'ivii>atio!.
.a!*(i "t$*ie* i! E!1a!* a!* 7o$t( A%ri'aM Ne(r$ ;a" a
+ro*$'t o% @arro; a!* Cam,ri*1e$ )hat e@4osure 6as not entirely to the /oo#K
<ehru ,or e@a'4le 6ho be"a'e In#ia(s Arst 4ri'e 'inister a,ter in#e4en#en"e 6as hi/hly in?uen"e# by
Fabian so"ialis' throu/h the tea"hin/s o, -arol# Las*i$ )he result 6as that In#ia ha# a 'is'ana/e#
so"ialist e"ono'y ,or a /eneration$ Cut 'y broa#er 4oint is that t(e '(am+io!" o% I!*ia!
i!*e+e!*e!'e a'L$ire* t(e +ri!'i+e"C t(e a!1$a1eC a!* eve!
t(e "trate1ie" o% i,eratio! %rom t(e 'ivii>atio! o% t(eir
o++re""or"$ )his 6as true not Bust o, In#ia but also o, other Asian an# A,ri"an "ountries that bro*e
,ree o, the Euro4ean yo*e$S +y "on"lusion is that a/ainst their intentions t(e 'oo!iai"t"
,ro$1(t t(i!1" to I!*ia t(at (ave immea"$ra,4 e!ri'(e* t(e
ive" o% t(e *e"'e!*a!t" o% 'oo!iai"m$ It i" *o$,t%$ t(at !o!A
0e"ter! 'o$!trie" ;o$* (ave a'L$ire* t(o"e 1oo* t(i!1" ,4
t(em"eve" . It 6as the Critish 6ho a44lyin/ a uni;ersal notion o, hu'an ri/hts in the early 19th
"entury abolishe# the an"ient In#ian institution o, suttee 77 the "usto' o, tossin/ 6i#o6s on their
husban#s( ,uneral 4yres$ T(ere i" !o rea"o! to ,eieve t(at t(e I!*ia!"C
;(o (a* +ra'ti'e* "$ttee %or 'e!t$rie"C ;o$* (ave rea'(e*
"$'( a 'o!'$"io! o! t(eir o;!$ I'a/ine an A,ri"an or In#ian *in/ en"ounterin/ the
6or*s o, Lo"*e or +a#ison an# sayin/ %Qou *no6 I thin* those ,ello6s ha;e a /oo# 4oint$ I shoul#
relin>uish 'y 4o6er an# let 'y 4eo4le #e"i#e 6hether they 6ant 'e or so'eone else to rule$% So'eho6 I
#on(t see that as li*ely$S Coo!iai"m ;a" t(e tra!"mi""io! ,et t(at
,ro$1(t to A"iaC A%ri'aC a!* 7o$t( Ameri'a t(e ,e""i!1" o%
0e"ter! 'ivii>atio!. ?a!4 o% t(o"e '$t$re" 'o!ti!$e to (ave
"erio$" +ro,em" o% t4ra!!4C tri,a a!* rei1io$" 'o!Si'tC
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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
+overt4C a!* $!*er*eveo+me!tC ,$t t(at i" !ot *$e to a!
ex'e"" o% 0e"ter! i!S$e!'eM rat(erC it i" *$e to t(e %a't t(at
t(o"e 'o$!trie" are i!"$f'ie!t4 0e"ter!i>e*$ Sub7Saharan A,ri"a 6hi"h
is 4robably in the 6orst 4osition has been #es"ribe# by D$<$ Se"retary General KoA Annan as %a "o"*tail o,
#isasters$% )hat is not be"ause "olonialis' in A,ri"a laste# so lon/ but be"ause it laste# a 'ere hal,7
"entury$ It 6as too short a ti'e to 4er'it 2estern institutions to ta*e Ar' root$ Conse>uently a,ter their
in#e4en#en"e 'ost A,ri"an nations ha;e retreate# into a *in# o, tribal barbaris' that "an be re'e#ie#
only 6ith 'ore 2estern in?uen"e not less$ A,ri"a nee#s 'ore 2estern "a4ital 'ore te"hnolo/y 'ore rule
o, la6 an# 'ore in#i;i#ual ,ree#o'$
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NE.: E$ro'e!tri"m .oo*
T(e 9" a""$m+tio! o% t(e mo*er! ,ei!1 ta!1i,e
mea!" t(eir im+a't" are ,$it $+o! %a"e
a""$m+tio!"
.ro"",er1 1= (Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, Co''uni"ation Stu#ies an# Cultural
Stu#ies an# A#Bun"t Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, A'eri"an Stu#ies Anthro4olo/y an#
Geo/ra4hy at the Dni;ersity o, <orth Carolina)
(La6ren"e Cultural Stu#ies in the Future )ense 4/$ 2I0) //DDI13
T(e L$e"tio! i" !eit(er em+iri'a !or 'o!'e+t$aC ,$t
'o!K$!'t$ra a!* *i"'$r"ive. To t(eori>e t(e +ro,emati' o% t(e
mo*er! reL$ire" $" to i!ve"A ti1ate t(e +ro*$'tio! o% t(e
*i"'o$r"e" o% t(e mo*er!A;(at are it" 'o!*itio!" o% +o""i,iit4C
it" eQe'tiviti'"C a!* it" *i"+er"io!". Or to +$t it *iQerA e!t4C it
i!vove" L$e"tio!" o% ;(at mi1(t ,e 'ae* 'o!K$!'t$ra a!*
e+o'(a o!too1ie"$ 2hat are 6e sayin/ about a "onte@t 6hen 6e "all it
'o#ern or 6hen 6e #eny it su"h a #es"ri4tionR 2hat 6as it that 6as brou/ht
into e@isten"e un#er the si/n o, euro7'o#ernity that is 6hat 6e re,er to as %the
'o#ern%R 2hat sort o, ans6er 6oul# not si'4ly "on#e'n the 'o#ern to ,ore;er
be"o'in/ euro7'o#ernR I o=er a so'e6hat s4e"ulati;e analysis o, ,ra"tions o, a
s4atially an# histori"ally #is4erse# "on;ersation on 'o#ernity$ 0(at 'a!
+o""i,4 ,e "i1!ae* ,4 t(e 'om+exit4 o% t(e 'o!text" a!* 'aim"
ma*e a,o$t a!* %or mo*er!it4Y T(e a!a4"i" *oe" !ot "ee< to
*eG!e eit(er a! e""e!'e or a "im+e $!it4M rat(erC it +oi!t" to t(e
virt$ait4 o% mo*er! C to a reait4 t(at (a" eQe't" ,$t i" !ever %$4
a't$ai>e*C ,e'a$"e it 'a! ,e a't$ai>e* i! m$ti+e ;a4"$
+o#ernity allo6s us to An# solutions to 6orl# 4roble's
.ro"",er1 (Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, Co''uni"ation Stu#ies an# Cultural Stu#ies
an# A#Bun"t Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, A'eri"an Stu#ies Anthro4olo/y an#
Geo/ra4hy at the Dni;ersity o, <orth Carolina) 1=
O!e o% t(e mo"t %amo$" (i! t(e E!1i"(A"+ea<i!1 ;or* at ea"t) "tateme!t" o% ti" '(ro!oto+e
i" ?ar"(a 8erma!F" marxi"tAi!S$e!'e* vi"io! o% mo*er!it4 a" a +arti'$ar attit$*e to;ar*
a!* ex+erie!'e o% t(e i!'rea"i!14 ra+i* a!* *e!"e a't$ai>atio!" o% '(a!1e: Ha mo*e o% vita
ex+erie!'eAex+erie!'e o% "+a'e a!* timeC o% ti1e "e% a!* ot(er"C o% i%eF" +o""i,iitie" a!*
+eri" .... To ,e mo*er! i" to G!* o$r"eve" i! a! e!viro!me!t t(at
+romi"e" $" a*ve!t$reC +o;erC Ko4C 1ro;t(C tra!"%ormatio! o%
o$r"eve" a!* t(e ;or* Aa!* at t(e "ame timeC t(at t(reate!" to
*e"tro4 ever4t(i!1 ;e (aveC ever4t(i!1 ;e <!o;C ever4t(i!1 ;e
ar' .... To ,e mo*'r! i" to ,e +art o% a $!iver"e i1 ;(i'( ... Fa t(at
i" "oi* met" i!to airFFF (16/2C r"). To ,e mo*er! i" to ma<e o!e"e% at
(ome i! t(e mae"tro!1C to em,ra'e a!* eve! *e"ire '(a!1e.
?o*er!it4 i" t(e ex+erie!'e o% @i"tor4 . 8$t t(ere i" !o 1$ara!tee (o; t(i" i!ear
tem+orait4 i" ive* o$t. For "o!1e it i" a,o$t t(e %$t$re a" *eG!e* ,4 a teeoo1i'a "e!"e o%
+ro1re"" rat(er t(a! a+o'a4+"e. For Davi* 8romGe*C ;riti!1 a,o$t )ert(C A$"traiaC HT(e
Fmo*er!F ;a" o!4 mar1i!a4 $!*er"too* ... a" im+4i!1 t(e %$t$re .... T(e mo*er! i" m$'(
more 'ommo!4 a <!o;! (i"tor4H (L$ote* i! ?orri" 166/C r- ). .4e<4e ( 1665C 2/=) "imiar4
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f'o!'eive" mo*er!it4 a" a 'ommitme!t to i!!ovatio! a!* '(a!1e: t(e H'$tivatio! o% t(e
i$1ovative "+irit or o$t_ oo< ... 'a! ,e "ai* to *eG!e !1o*er!it4.H ?o*er!it4 i" t(e
i!'e""a!t 'aim to +ro*$'e t(e !e;.1= A!* 4etC .4e<4e a"o 'o!te"t"
a!4 a''o$!t t(at i1!ore" t(e 'om+exit4 !ot o!4 o% mo*er!it4 ,$t
a"o o% !otio!" o% i!!ovatio! a!* '(a!1e. A%ter aC (e +oi!t" o$tC
tra*itio!a "o'ietie" a"o '(a!1e a!* o%te! "ee< '(a!1eC ;(ie o! t(e
ot(er "i*eC mo*er! "o'ietie" a;a4" em,o*4 a!* em,ra'e tra*itio!".
7imiar4C .ao!<ar (2oor) ;ar!" a1ai!"t t(o"e ;(o em+(a"i>e t(e +a'e o% '(a!1e i!
mo*er!it4C i1!ori11f o! t(e o!e (a!* t(e 1ro;i!1 im+orta!'e o% ro$ti1eC a!* o! t(e ot(erC
t(at '(a!1e it"e% i" a !e; mo*ait4 o% +o;erM a" Ce"aire (>oOI)C C(a<ra,art4 (>ooo)C a!*
ot(er" (ave ar1$e*C t(i" 'o!"tr$'tio! o% (i"tor4 a" a i!ear tem+orait4 i" +o;er%$4
arti'$ate* to a variet4 o% %orm" o% vioe!'e a!* ,r$tait4C ex(i,ite* mo"t 'ear4 i! "aver4C
'oo!iai"!1C a!* 1o,a ;ar".
EB#OCENT#IC T@OB.@T ALLO0ED FO# LI8E#ATIN.
IDEA7C ?ODE#NITIE7 .OOD
A'oQ 5 (De4art'ent o, 0hiloso4hy at Syra"use Dni;ersity$ 0roBe"t +use +i/noloLs E4iste'olo/y o,
Coloniality htt45//'use$Bhu$e#u/Bournals/ne68"entennial8re;ie6/;00J/J$3$al"o=$ht'l)
-e/e'ony in +i/noloLs usa/e o, the ter' is ;ery 'u"h ta*en ,ro' the Gra's"ian i#ea o, he/e'ony as the
"onstru"tion o, 'ass "onsent$ )hat is MEn# 0a/e 14P he/e'ony is a"hie;e# throu/h a 4roBe"t o, 4ersuasion
that 6or*s 4rin"i4ally throu/h "lai's to truth$ Euro4e is ahea# be"ause Euro4e is s'arter an# 'ore
re?e"ti;e than the rest o, the 6orl#K t(e B!ite* 7tate" (a" t(e ri1(t to (o1 t(e
;or*N" re"o$r'e" ,e'a$"e it <!o;" ,e"t (o; to ma<e $"e o% t(em.
Lea*i!1 i,era" i<e Art($r 7'(e"i!1er ma<e t(e 'aim %or 0e"ter!
e+i"temi' "$+rema'4 ;it(o$t a!4 em,arra""me!t5 7'(e"i!1er 'aim"
!ot t(at E$ro+e (an# the D$S$ as a Euro4ean nation) (a" ma*e !o mi"ta<e"C ,$t
t(at E$ro+e ao!e i!ve!te* t(e "'ie!tiG' met(o*C ;(i'( 1ave it
t(e 'a+a'it4 to 'ritiL$e it" mi"ta<e"$ +oreo;er he "lai's that at(o$1(
ever4 '$t$re O(a" *o!e terri,e t(i!1"CP O;(atever t(e +arti'$ar
'rime" o% E$ro+eC t(at 'o!ti!e!t i" a"o t(e "o$r'eVt(e $!iL$e
"o$r'eVo% t(o"e i,erati!1 i*ea" . . . to ;(i'( mo"t o% t(e ;or*
to*a4 a"+ire". )hese are Euro4ean i#eas not Asian nor A,ri"an nor +i##le eastern i#eas e@"e4t
by a#o4tionO(S"hlesin/er 1992 12JK e'4hasis in ori/inal)$ )he result o, the 6i#e a""e4tan"e o, su"h
he/e'oni" "lai's in the Dnite# States an# in Euro4e is a broa#7base# "onsent to i'4erial 6ar as the
4resu'4ti;e entitle'ent o, the 4oliti"al ;an/uar# o, the hu'an ra"eK the result o, the a""e4tan"e o, su"h
he/e'oni" "lai's in the "oloniFe# 6orl# in"lu#es su"h sy'4to'ati" e=e"ts as the ones Sa'uel !a'os
an# &"ta;io 0aF #es"ribe# 6hen they sai# that +e@i"ans ha;e an alienate# relationshi4 to their o6n
te'4oral reality an# that they i'a/ine the real 4resent as o""urrin/ so'e6here else than 6here they li;e$
)he te'4oral #is4la"e'ent or alienation o, s4a"e 6hi"h "auses the "oloniFe# 4erson to be unable to
e@4erien"e their o6n ti'e as the no6 an# instea# to see that Nno6O as o""urrin/ in another s4a"e is the
result o, a Euro"entri" or/aniFation o, ti'e in 6hi"h ti'e is 'easure# by the #e;elo4'ents in
te"hnolo/i"al *no6le#/e the /a#/et 4orn o, i0o#s an# Cla"*Cerrys an# the lan/ua/es in 6hi"h that
te"hnolo/i"al *no6le#/e is #e;elo4e#$ 2ho is #e;elo4in/ the latest /a#/etsR 2hat lan/ua/e #o they
s4ea*R )hese >uestions sho6 us 6here the Nno6O resi#es an# thus 6ho is Nbehin#$O
102
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NE.: At 8AD
T@EI# A77E#TION7 OF COLONIAL 7B8IECTI&ITY
ENFO#CE7 AN ENDLE77 CYCLE OF
CONF#ONTATION W T@E ALT 0ILL NE&E# #EAC@
AN END)OINT
.ro"",er1 1=(Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, Co''uni"ation Stu#ies an# Cultural
Stu#ies an# A#Bun"t Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, A'eri"an Stu#ies Anthro4olo/y an#
Geo/ra4hy at the Dni;ersity o, <orth Carolina)
(La6ren"e Cultural Stu#ies in the Future )ense 4/$ 2IH7II)
)his exteriorit4 i" it see's to 'e %$rt(er 'om+romi"e* ,4 t(e
a""$m+tio! t(at t(e ot(er i" 'o!"tit$te* a" a "$,Ke't$ )hus t(e
ar1$me!t move" %rom 'oo!iait4 a" a 'om+ex +oiti'a reatio!
to t(e 'oo!ia *iQere!'e a" a matter o% "$,Ke'tivit4$H )he 'oo!ia
*iQere!'e "i*e" ,et;ee! a "+a'e o% +ro*$'tive +o""i,iit4C a
!otio! o% a +rior i!*i1e!o$" ;a4 o% ivi!1:"$,Ke'tC a!* a ;o$!*e*
4et 'ee,rate* i*e!tit4:"$,Ke't +o"itio! o''$+ie* ,4 "+eA 'iG'
+eo+e ;(o (ave ,ee! t(e FFvi'tim"H o% 'oo!i>atio!. O! t(e o!e
(a!* C t(at +o"itio! oQer" a vi"io! o% a (4,ri*i>e* 'oo!ia "$,Ke't
6hi"h is in its ;ery e@tre'ity the ;ery ines"a4ability o, its ;iolent subor#ination
an# there,ore o=ers a "learer e@4erien"e777an# "riti>ue777o, 'o#ernity ,ro' its
e@tre'ity$ An# o! t(e ot(er (a!* t(e +o"itio! a"o oQer" t(e
+o""i,iit4 o% ater!ative" to mo*er!it4. )re"$ma,4C t(e
a""$m+tio! i" t(at t(e 'ooA !ia "$,Ke't i" more t(a! K$"t t(e
'oo!i>e* "$,Ke'tC t(at t(eir ver4 (4,ri*it4 +oi!t" to a!ot(er
"+a'eAtime o% t(eir exi"te!'e (in another 4la"e another ti'e) t(at
o+e!" t(e +o""i,iitie" !ot o% 1oi!1 ,a'< ,$t o% ima1i!i!1 !e;
%$t$re"$ 8$t t(e ex'$*e*C "$,ater!i>e* ot(er i" !ever o$t"i*e o%
mo*er!it4C "i!'e it i" a !e'e""ar4 a"+e't o% mo*er!it4F it"e%C "i!'e
mo*er!it4 'a!!ot ,e "e+aA rate* %rom 'oo!iait4$ T(ere m$"t ,e
"omet(i!1 moreC %or t(e 'ritiL$e o% mo*er!it4 i" a"o FF%rom t(e
exterior o% t(e mo*er!:'oo!ia ;or*$% T(ere "eem" to ,e !o
rea"o! ;(4 t(at exteriorit4 ;(i'(C a" L$ote* a,oveC i!ter+eate"
t(e Ot(erC m$"t a;a4" a!* o!4 ,e o'ate* ;it(i!
mo*er!it4:'oo!iait4 or a" "$,Ke'tivit4$ 2hile it is i'4ortant to
re"o/niFe that there are ;ibrant alternati;es to 'o#ernity 'i/ht su"h
alternati;es not also "o'e ,ro' other s4a"es o, so"ial 4ossibility an# 4oliti"al
i'a/inationR ?i1(t t(e4 !ot a"o o+e! $+ t(e +o""i,iit4 o% ot(er
mo*er!itie"R +i/ht not the 4ossibility that the +/C /rou4 see*s a ((4ositi;e
a.r'ation o, the alternati;e or#erin/ o, the 6orl#% (Es"obar 2 0 0 J r11) o+e!
$+ t(e m$ti+i'it4 o% mo*er!itie" a" ;e a" ater!ative" to
mo*er!it4Y
103
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
T(i!<i!1 o$t"i*e o% e$roAmo*er!it4 i" ,a*
.ro"",er1 (Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, Co''uni"ation Stu#ies an# Cultural Stu#ies
an# A#Bun"t Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, A'eri"an Stu#ies Anthro4olo/y an#
Geo/ra4hy at the Dni;ersity o, <orth Carolina) 1=
T(e *if'$t4 a!* +romi"e o% t(e eQort to t(i!< mo*er!it4 o$t"i*e or
,e4o!* e$roAmo*er!it4 i" ma*e 'ear i! t(e ver4 im+orta!t
Hre"ear'( +ro1ramH o% t(e H?o*er!it4:Coo!iait4 1ro$+CH 'om+ri"e*
mo"t4 o% Lati! Ameri'a! i!tee't$a"$2 )o be ,air the /rou4 is 6hat Es"obar (200J
190) "alls %a "o''unity o, ar/u'entation% sharin/ a 4roBe"t a "o''on 4oliti"al an# e4ist"n1olo/i"il
#esire an# a "on1rnon set o, ass'n4tions an# "on"e4tual tools$ )hat #esire is arti"ulate# out o, a
4arti"ular %rea#in/% one rlut e"hoes the o4enin/ o, this boo* o, the "onte'4orary "onte@t (r1r): Ht(e
+re"e!t i" a mome!t o% tra!"itio!: ,et;ee! a ;or* *e%$ie* i! term"
o% mo*er!it4 ... a!* a !e; (1o,a) reait4 ;(i'( i" "ti *iSi'$t to
a"'ertai! ,$t ;(i'(C at o++o"ite e!*"C 'a! ,e "ee! eit(er a" a
*ee+e!i!1 o% I!o*er!it4 t(e ;or* over orC o! t(e 'o!trar4C a" a
*ee+4 !e1otiate* reait4 t(at e!'om+a""e" ma!4 (etero1e!eo$"
'$!1ra %ormatio!" .... T(i" "e!"e o% a tra!"itio! i" ;e 'a+t$re* ,4
t(e L$e"tio!: I" 1o,ai>atio! t(at a"t "t:.11e o% 'a+itai"t
mo*er!it4C or t(e ,e1i!!i!1 o% "omet(i!1 !e;YH
104
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
NE.: &a1$e At" 8a*
[AGDE AL)7 E[E< )-E +E)-&D IS D<CE!)AI< ALL AC&D) )-E
I<)ELLEC)DAL A<D <&) )-E 0&LICQ +AKE!
.ro"",er1 (Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, Co''uni"ation Stu#ies an# Cultural Stu#ies
an# A#Bun"t Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, A'eri"an Stu#ies Anthro4olo/y an#
Geo/ra4hy at the Dni;ersity o, <orth Carolina) 1=
Fi!a4C I (ave to a*mit t(at I *o !ot <!o; ;(at t(i" 'o!ver"atio! ;i
oo< i<eC a!* I *o !ot <!o; ;(at t(e o$t'ome ;i ,e. I *o !ot
<!o; ;(at a !e; $!iver"it4 "(o$* ,e. I *o !ot <!o; ;(at
ot(er mo*er!itie"Aa" ;e a" ater!ative" to mo*er!it4Aare
+o""i,eC ,$t I *o <!o; t(at ;e (ave to ,e1i! i!1a1i!i!1 "$'( +o""i,iitie". 0e (ave to
ima1i!e a ;or* i! ;(i'( ma!4 ;or*" 'a! exi"t to1et(er. A!* ;e (ave to G1$re o$t ;(at i"
1oi!1 o!C a!* (o; it (a"C %or "o o!1C +reve!te* $" %rom movi!1 to;ar* more ($ma!e
reaitie". I (ave a;a4" t(o$1(t o% '$t$ra "t$*ie" a" a! i!vitatio! i!to "$'( 'o!ver"atio!"C
i!to t(e ex+erime!tatio! o% 'oa,oratio!C i!to a "e%reSe'tive +ra'ti'e o% tra!"atio! a!*
tra!"%ormatio!C a!* i!tof a! $!'ertai! eQort to ,$i* !e; i!"tit$tio!a "+a'e". A" "$'(C it i"
*if'$t a!* e!ive!i!1C *e+re""i!1 a!* %$ o% (o+eC mo*e"t a!*
arro1a!t. It i" %or me a +romi"i!1 ;a4 o% ,ei!1 a +oiti'a
i!tee't$a ^
10H
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
NE.: ?o*er!it4 1oo*
T$r!: t(eir Gxatio! o! e$roAmo*er!it4 i1!ore" m$ti+e
mo*er!itie"C ;(i'( !e1ate" ater!ative" !o; '(ae!1i!1 t(e
Nort(V#EIECT t(eir !arro; reiG'atio! e$roAmo*er!it4 t(at
eQe'tive4 ex'$*e" t(e ;i" o% rea +eo+e ;(o ;a!t
mo*er!it4
.ro"",er1 (Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, Co''uni"ation Stu#ies an# Cultural Stu#ies
an# A#Bun"t Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, A'eri"an Stu#ies Anthro4olo/y an#
Geo/ra4hy at the Dni;ersity o, <orth Carolina) 1=
(La6ren"e Cultural Stu#ies in the Future )ense 4/$ 21I7J) //DDI13
Ce,ore en#in/ this #is"ussion o, 'ulti4le 'o#ernities I 6ant to a##ress one Anal
"hallen/e$ &ne 'i/ht "on,ronte# 6ith the "lai' o, other 'o#ernities as* 6hy I
"all the' 'o#ern instea# o, so'ethin/ else 4erha4s e;en alternati;es to
'o#ernity$ )his >uestion #eser;es a serious ans6er althou/h I 6ant to reiterate
that I #o not thin* that other 'o#ernities are the only 4ossibilities that are bein/
stru//le# o;er$ T(ere are 'ertai!4 ater!ative" to mo*er!it4 eve! i!
t(e ,roa* "e!"e t(at I am $"i!1 itC ,$t t(ere are a"o "ome
+o""i,iitie" ,etter t(o$1(t o% a" mo*er!itie". I ha;e no #oubt that at
least one reason ,or this "on"lusion lies in the %ori/ins% o, this in;esti/ation in
any e=ort to An# a better 6ay o, un#erstan#in/ the "onte'4orary "onBun"7 ture
o, the Dnite# States$ )his le# 'e to a story about stru//les o;er the %"o'in/
A'eri"an 'o#ernity$% As ha44ens too o,ten ha;in/ %#is"o;ere#% 'o#ernity as
the #eAnition o, a 4roble'7s4a"e I #is"o;ere# that 'any oth7 ers ha;e been
a##ressin/ the >uestion o, (an# #e'an# ,or) 'o#ernity in other7 both
/eo/ra4hi"ally an# histori"ally7"onBun"tures$ A se"on# reason is tl1at I ;a!t to
avoi* +ara*oxi'a4 re+ro*$'i!1 t(e !e1ative o1i' o% e$roA
mo*er!it4. T(e L$e"tio!C are t(e"e ot(er +o""i,iitie" !ot o$t"i*e
o%C or ot(er toC mo*er!it4 it"e%YC 'a! too L$i'<4 ,e'ome a e$roA
mo*er! !e1ative *iQere!'e. 0erha4s ,4 t(i!<i!1 a,o$t m$ti+e
mo*er!iA tie"C ;e 'a! move o$r i!terro1atio! o!to ot(er
to+oo1ie"M t(e eQort to G!* ot(er ;a4" o% t(i!<i!1 reatio!ait4
i" it"e% a +art o% t(e eQort to t(i!< ,e4o!* e$roAmo*er!it4 but
6ithout the analyti" 6or* it "an easily re'ain an i'a/inary lo/i"$ Cut the 'ost
i'4ortant reason is 6hat Gaon*ar (2oor 21) #es"ribes as the %ra/e ,or
'o#ernity% an# 6hat Lisa !o,el (1999 @i) "a4tures #es"ribin/ her Ael#6or*
"on;ersations5 HF?o*er!it4F ;a" "omet(i!1 t(at ma!4 +eo+e %rom
a ;a<" o% ite %et +a""io!ate4 move* to ta< a,o$t a!*
*e,ate.H !o,el ("ite# in Deeb 200I r19) "ontinues5 HI! t(e e!*C *e"+ite
it" me""i!e""C t(e attem+t to re*eG!e t(e term" o% *i"'o$r"e
aro$!* ,ei!1 mo*er! ;a" rea4 a! attem+t to +o"it a ;a4 o% ,ei!1
t(at i" !eit(er 0e"t !or Ea"tC a!* t(at i" ,ot( Fmo*er!N a!*
Fa$t(e!ti'.H(31 &, "ourse I 'o$* (ave '(o"e! to i!ve!t a!ot(er term
%or ot(er mo*er!itie"C 1ive! t(e +o;er o% e$roA mo*er!it4 over
o$r ima1i!atio! o% mo*er!it4 it"e%C ,$t I ;a!t to re"i"t "$'( a
tem+tatio! to 1ive i! to t(e +o;er o% e$roAmo*er!it4 . 0e 'a!!ot "tart
,4 *e!4i!1 +eo+eF" *e"ire to ,e mo*er! C !or "(o$* ;e
$!*ere"timate t(eir a,iit4 to ima1i!e t(e +o""i,iit4 o% ,ei!1
mo*er! ;it(o$t %oo;i!1 i! t(e +at( o% t(e Nort( Ata!ti'
10I
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
!atio!A"tate". Nor 'a! ;e ta<e %or 1ra!te* t(at ;e $!*er"ta!*
;(at it i" t(e4 are rea'(i!1 %or i! t(i" *e"ire. Gye*ye (199J 2I3)
asserts that mo*er!it4 H(a" i! %a't a""$me* or rat(er 1ai!e* a
!ormative "tat$"C i! t(at a "o'ietie" i! t(e ;or* ;it(o$t
ex'e+tio! a"+ire to ,e'ome mo*er!C to ex(i,it i! t(eir "o'iaC
'$t$ra a!* +oiti'a ive" %eat$re" "ai* to '(ara'teri>e
mo*er!it4AAA;(atever t(i" !otio! mea!" or t(o"e %eat$re" are.H
-e is "learly not su//estin/ that the 6hole 6orl# is try7 in/ to be"o'e Euro4eK in
,a"t he si'ilarly #es"ribes a nu'ber o, 6riters in the +i##le A/es (2I9)5 %In
"hara"teriFin/ the'sel;es an# their ti'es as 'o#ern both Arabi" an# Latin
s"holars 6ere e@4ressin/ their sense o, "ul7 tural #i=eren"e ,ro' tl1e an"ients$ $ $
$ Cut not only tl1at5 tl1ey 'ust surely ha;e "onsi#ere# tl1eir o6n ti'es as
a#;an"e# (or 'ore a#;an"e#) in 'ost i, riot all s4heres o, hu'an en#ea;or$% &n
6hat /roun#3: #o 6e #eny su"h "lai's or Bu#/'ents o, 'o#ernityR E;en
Le,eb;re (I99H r1H) a"*no6le#/es that the %('o#ern( is a 4resti/ious 6or# a
talis'an an o4en sesa'e an# it "o'es 6ith a li,elon/ /uarantee$% A#'itte#ly
tl1e relations to #is"ourses o, the 'o#ern are o,ten e@traor#inarily "o'4le@ an#
"ontra#i"t'y$ Deeb(s resear"h 6ith Shi(ites lea#s her to "on"lu#e5 1()he "on"e4t
o, 'o#ern7ness is use# as a ;alue7la#en "o'4arison in relation to 4eo4le(s i#eas
about the'sel;es others% (200I 229) an# %In"o'4atible #esires "o'e to/ether
here 77 tile #esire to un#er'ine #o'inant 6estern #is"ourses about bein/
'o#ern an# the #esire to be 'o#ern (or to be seen as 'o#ern)% (233)$ I 6ant to
su//est that at ea"t a +art o% t(e 'om+exit4 o% t(e"e *i"'o$r"e" i"
+re'i"e4 t(e t(i!!e"" o% o$r vo'a,$ar4 AAA a!* $!*er"ta!*i!1 AAA
o% mo*er!it4$ )hus the ans6er to 6hy I 6ant to thin* throu/h an# 6ith the
"on"e4t o, a 'ulti4li"ity o, 'o#ernities is be"ause t(e 'o!te"t over mo*er!it4
i" area*4 ,ei!1 ;a1e*C ,e'a$"e it (a" rea 'o!"eL$e!'e"C a!* ,e'a$"e
;e !ee* to "ee< a !e; 1ro$!*C o% +o""i,iit4 a!* (o+eC a!* o% a !e;
ima1i!atio! %or %$t$re ;a4" o% ,ei!1 mo*er!$ Cultural stu#ies has al6ays
tau/ht that any su""ess,ul stru//le ,or +oiti'a tra!"%ormatio! (a" to
"tart ;(ere +eo+e areM t(e '(oi'e o% ;(ere to ,e1i! t(e
*i"'o$r"e" o% '(a!1e 'a!!ot ,e *eG!e* "im+4 ,4 t(e *e"ire"C or
eve! t(e +oiti'"C o% i!tee't$a"$ &, "ourse there is another 4ers4e"ti;e
on su"h 'atters that 6e also ha;e to ta*e a""ount o,5 Claser (2009) ,or
e@a'4le has su//este# that I a' ta*in/ 4eo4le(s #esire to be 'o#ern too
literally an# ,ailin/ to "onsi#er that their use o, the ter' 'ay be an a#a4tation
to or the e>ui;o"ation o, a #e'an#$ )hat is 'i/ht not the #e'an# ,or 'o#ernity
also be the 4ro#u"t o, the 4oliti"al 4ositionin/ o, su"h 4o4ulationsR I ha;e no
#oubt that su"h >uestions nee# to be raise# in s4e"iA" "onBun"tural stru//les
an# ,or s4e"iA" a"tors$ I ha;e no #oubt that there are as Deeb (FooI r19)
#e"lares %other stories to be tol#$(( (11I)$
?o*er!it4 ao;" $" to G!* "o$tio!" to ;or* +ro,em"
.ro"",er1 (Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, Co''uni"ation Stu#ies an# Cultural Stu#ies
an# A#Bun"t Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, A'eri"an Stu#ies Anthro4olo/y an#
Geo/ra4hy at the Dni;ersity o, <orth Carolina) 1=
&ne o, the 'ost ,a'ous (in the En/lish7s4ea*in/ 6orl# at least) state'ents o, tills "hronoto4e is +arshall
Cer'an(s 'ar@ist7in?uen"e# ;ision o, 'o#ernity as a 4arti"ular attitu#e to6ar# an# e@4erien"e o, the
in"reasin/ly ra4i# an# #ense a"tualiFations o, "han/e5 %a 'o#e o, ;ital e@4erien"e7e@4erien"e o, s4a"e
an# ti'e o, ti1e sel, an# others o, li,e(s 4ossibilities an# 4erils .... To ,e mo*er! i" to
G!* o$r"eve" i! a! e!viro!me!t t(at +romi"e" $" a*ve!t$reC
+o;erC Ko4C 1ro;t(C tra!"%ormatio! o% o$r"eve" a!* t(e ;or*
10J
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
Aa!* at t(e "ame timeC t(at t(reate!" to *e"tro4 ever4t(i!1 ;e
(aveC ever4t(i!1 ;e <!o;C ever4t(i!1 ;e are .... To ,e mo*er!
i" to ,e +art o% a $!iver"e i! ;(i'( ... Fa t(at i" "oi* met"
i!to airFFF (1912 rs)$ To ,e mo*er! i" to ma<e o!e"e% at (ome i! t(e
mae"tro!1C to em,ra'e a!* eve! *e"ire '(a!1e. ?o*er!it4 i"
t(e ex+erie!'e o% @i"tor4$ Cut there is no /uarantee ho6 this linear te'4orality is li;e#
out$ For son1e it is about the ,uture as #eAne# by a teleolo/i"al sense o, 4ro/ress rather than a4o"aly4se$
For Da;i# Cro'Ael# 6ritin/ about 0erth Australia %)he ('o#ern( 6as only 'ar/inally un#erstoo# $$$ as
i'4lyin/ the ,uture $$$$ )he 'o#ern is 'u"h 'ore "o''only a *no6n history% (>uote# in +orris 1991 rI )$
Gye*ye ( 199J 210) si'ilarly t"on"ei;es 'o#ernity as a "o''it'ent to inno;ation an# "han/e5 the
%"ulti;ation o, the ilu1o;ati;e s4irit or outu loo* $$$ "an be sai# to #eAne n1o#ernity$% ?o*er!it4 i"
t(e i!'e""a!t 'aim to +ro*$'e t(e !e;.1= A!* 4etC .4e<4e
a"o 'o!te"t" a!4 a''o$!t t(at i1!ore" t(e 'om+exit4 !ot o!4
o% mo*er!it4 ,$t a"o o% !otio!" o% i!!ovatio! a!* '(a!1e.
A%ter aC (e +oi!t" o$tC tra*itio!a "o'ietie" a"o '(a!1e a!*
o%te! "ee< '(a!1eC ;(ie o! t(e ot(er "i*eC mo*er! "o'ietie"
a;a4" em,o*4 a!* em,ra'e tra*itio!". Si'ilarly Gaon*ar (2oor) 6arns
a/ainst those 6ho e'4hasiFe the 4la"e o, "han/e in 'o#ernity i/noril1/t on the one han# the /ro6in/
i'4ortan"e o, routil1e an# on the other that "han/e itsel, is a ne6 'o#ality o, 4o6erK as Cesaire (Fo&I)
Cha*rabarty (Fooo) an# others ha;e ar/ue# this "onstru"tion o, history as a linear te'4orality is
4o6er,ully arti"ulate# to a ;ariety o, ,or's o, ;iolen"e an# brutality e@hibite# 'ost "learly in sla;ery
"olonialisn1 an# /lobal 6ars$
E$ro'e!tri' t(o$1(t ao;e* %or i,erati!1 i*ea"C
mo*er!itie" 1oo*
A'oQ 5 (De4art'ent o, 0hiloso4hy at Syra"use Dni;ersity$ 0roBe"t +use +i/noloLs E4iste'olo/y o,
Coloniality htt45//'use$Bhu$e#u/Bournals/ne68"entennial8re;ie6/;00J/J$3$al"o=$ht'l)
-e/e'ony in +i/noloLs usa/e o, the ter' is ;ery 'u"h ta*en ,ro' the Gra's"ian i#ea o, he/e'ony as the
"onstru"tion o, 'ass "onsent$ )hat is MEn# 0a/e 14P he/e'ony is a"hie;e# throu/h a 4roBe"t o, 4ersuasion
that 6or*s 4rin"i4ally throu/h "lai's to truth$ Euro4e is ahea# be"ause Euro4e is s'arter an# 'ore
re?e"ti;e than the rest o, the 6orl#K t(e B!ite* 7tate" (a" t(e ri1(t to (o1
t(e ;or*N" re"o$r'e" ,e'a$"e it <!o;" ,e"t (o; to ma<e $"e
o% t(em. Lea*i!1 i,era" i<e Art($r 7'(e"i!1er ma<e t(e
'aim %or 0e"ter! e+i"temi' "$+rema'4 ;it(o$t a!4
em,arra""me!t5 7'(e"i!1er 'aim" !ot t(at E$ro+e (an# the D$S$ as a
Euro4ean nation) (a" ma*e !o mi"ta<e"C ,$t t(at E$ro+e ao!e
i!ve!te* t(e "'ie!tiG' met(o*C ;(i'( 1ave it t(e 'a+a'it4 to
'ritiL$e it" mi"ta<e"$ +oreo;er he "lai's that at(o$1( ever4 '$t$re
O(a" *o!e terri,e t(i!1"CP O;(atever t(e +arti'$ar 'rime" o%
E$ro+eC t(at 'o!ti!e!t i" a"o t(e "o$r'eVt(e $!iL$e "o$r'eV
o% t(o"e i,erati!1 i*ea" . . . to ;(i'( mo"t o% t(e ;or* to*a4
a"+ire". )hese are Euro4ean i#eas not Asian nor A,ri"an nor +i##le eastern i#eas e@"e4t by
a#o4tionO(S"hlesin/er 1992 12JK e'4hasis in ori/inal)$ )he result o, the 6i#e a""e4tan"e o, su"h
he/e'oni" "lai's in the Dnite# States an# in Euro4e is a broa#7base# "onsent to i'4erial 6ar as the
4resu'4ti;e entitle'ent o, the 4oliti"al ;an/uar# o, the hu'an ra"eK the result o, the a""e4tan"e o, su"h
he/e'oni" "lai's in the "oloniFe# 6orl# in"lu#es su"h sy'4to'ati" e=e"ts as the ones Sa'uel !a'os
an# &"ta;io 0aF #es"ribe# 6hen they sai# that +e@i"ans ha;e an alienate# relationshi4 to their o6n
te'4oral reality an# that they i'a/ine the real 4resent as o""urrin/ so'e6here else than 6here they li;e$
)he te'4oral #is4la"e'ent or alienation o, s4a"e 6hi"h "auses the "oloniFe# 4erson to be unable to
e@4erien"e their o6n ti'e as the no6 an# instea# to see that Nno6O as o""urrin/ in another s4a"e is the
result o, a Euro"entri" or/aniFation o, ti'e in 6hi"h ti'e is 'easure# by the #e;elo4'ents in
te"hnolo/i"al *no6le#/e the /a#/et 4orn o, i0o#s an# Cla"*Cerrys an# the lan/ua/es in 6hi"h that
101
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
te"hnolo/i"al *no6le#/e is #e;elo4e#$ 2ho is #e;elo4in/ the latest /a#/etsR 2hat lan/ua/e #o they
s4ea*R )hese >uestions sho6 us 6here the Nno6O resi#es an# thus 6ho is Nbehin#$O
?$ti+e mo*er!itie" 1oo* %or vie;i!1 t(e ;or* i! a !e; i1(t
.ro"",er1 (Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, Co''uni"ation Stu#ies an# Cultural Stu#ies
an# A#Bun"t Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, A'eri"an Stu#ies Anthro4olo/y an#
Geo/ra4hy at the Dni;ersity o, <orth Carolina) 1=
)o re4eat 'ysel, I 6ant to both a""e4t an# rerea# Sant&s(s (FooF 13) 4er"e4ti;e state'ent that 6e ,a"e
%'o#ern 4roble's ,or 6hi"h there are no 'o#ern solutions$%40 I 6oul# 4re,er to say t(at ;e %a'e
mo*er! +ro,em" t(at '(ae!1e $" to t(i!< o$t"i*e t(e
+o""i,iitie" o% o$r o;! ;a4" o% ,ei!1 mo*er!. T(i!<i!1 a,o$t
m$ti+e mo*er!itie" mi1(t e!a,e $" to a*mit t(at ;e !o
o!1er <!o; ;(at L$e"tio!" to +o"eA%or exam+eC a,o$t
'$t$re i! 1e!eraC a!* me*ia a!* +o+$ar '$t$re 'ore s4e"iA"ally7,or it
is not 'erely that the 4ra"ti"es ha;e "han/e# (althou/h 6e ha;e too o,ten the "onte@ts o, stru//le7an#
the #ia/ra's o, 'o#ernity77ar" "han/in/$ 0(at eQe't *oe" t(e (4+ot(e"i" o% a
m$ti+i'it4 o% mo*er!itie" (ave o! t(e 1e!eratio! o%
ima1i!arie" o% e'o!om4C !at$reC a!* *eveo+me!tC %or
i!"ta!'eC or o! "o'ia moveme!t "trate1ie"C or o! "trate1ie" o%
+a'eAma<i!1 a!* tem+orai>atio!Y -o6 #o 6e "reate >uestions ;o"abularies an#
"on"e4ts that su."iently "a4ture the "o'4le@ity o, ,or"es te"hnolo/ies an# stru//les o4eratin/ in the
'i#st o, nu'erous stru//les o;er an# tra!"itio!" amo!1C *iQere!t vi"io!" a!*
%ormatio!" o% +o""i,e mo*er!itie" a!* ater!ative" to
mo*er!it4Y @o; *o ;e ima1i!e L$e"tio!" a!* a!1$a1e" t(at
"$f'ie!t4 'a+t$re m$ti+oarC m$ti tem+oraC a!* m$ti"'aar
;e," o% 'o!!e'tivit4C reatio!ait4C a!* *iQere!'eC ;(i'( are
*rivi!1 t(e 'reatio! o% 'o!tem+orar4 1eoAe'o!omi'C +oiti'aC
a!* '$t$ra %ormatio!" a!* "+a'e"C a!* !e; "$,Ke'tivitie" a!*
'oe'tivitie" f;it(i! a!* a'ro"" t(emR
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(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
NE.: )ra1mati"m <e4 to
7ove
0oliti"al a"tion *ey to sol;e the 'etho#olo/i"al shi,t
.ro"",er1 (Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, Co''uni"ation Stu#ies an# Cultural Stu#ies
an# A#Bun"t Distin/uishe# 0ro,essor o, A'eri"an Stu#ies Anthro4olo/y an#
Geo/ra4hy at the Dni;ersity o, <orth Carolina) 1=
I f;a!t to *e"'ri,e a *ia1ram o% ;a4" o% ,ei!1 mo*er! a" a 'o!G1$ratio!Aa *o$,e* *iQere!'eA
o% %o$r *i"ti!'t ,$t arti'$ate* a++arat$"e" o% "+atia a!* tem+ora ,eo!1i!1.H T(e
a't$ait4 o% a!4 +o""i,e mo*er!it4 ;i ,e *eG!e* ,4 +arti'$ar
arti'$atio!" o% ea'( o% t(e term" o% ive* tem+orait4A'(a!1e a!*
t(e eve!tAa!* o% ive* "+atiait4Ai!"tit$tio!a "+a'e a!* ever4*a4
i%eAa" ;e a" t(e reatio!" amo!1 t(em. I! e$roAmo*er!it4 C %or
exam+eC t(e"e a++ear a" (i"tor4 a!* t(e +(e!ome!oo1i'a +re"e!tC
a" t(e "tate a!* a 'ommo*iGe* ever4*a4 i%e. 8$t t(ere ar' ot(er
;a4" o% a't$ai>i!1 '(a!1eC a!* t(e +re"e!t o% reai>i!1 i!"tit$tio!a
a!* ever4*a4 "+a'e. T(e4 are virt$aitie" t(at 'a! ,e *iQere!t4
a't$ai>e* to 'reate a m$ti+i'it4 o% ;a4" o% ,ei!1 mo*er! . I! ot(er
;or*"C ,ei!1 mo*er! i!vove" !eit(er t(e eve!t !or '(a!1e i! t(e
a,"tra't ,$t 'o!'rete a't$ai>atio!" o% ,ot( i! reatio!A!eit(er
ever4*a4 i%e !or i!"tit$tio!a "+a'e i! t(e a,"tra't ,$t 'o!'rete
a't$ai>atio!" o% ,ot( i! reatio!. I!"o%ar a" ea'( o% t(e"e varie* o1i'" o%
,eo!1i!1 i! "+a'e a!* time i" !ever "im+4 "i!1$ar a!* $!iver"aC a" i% t(ere ;ere o!4 o!e
+o""i,iit4C t(e! H,ei!1 mo*er!F) it"e% i" a rea a!* +o"itive m$ti+i'it4.
110
(De)Coloniality AFF JDI 2014 Kaut/Johnson Lab
NE.: )ra1mati"m ,a*
)ra1mati"m i" K$"t t(eor4 t(at (i!*er" a'tio!. T$r!" 'a"eAt(e
o!4 ;a4 to <!o; 'oo!i>atio! i" ,a* i" to tr4.
)eter F=5
0eter the ,oun#er o, the blo/ "alle# (&n 0hiloso4hy( 6here he ta"*les 'any #i=erent an# e@"e4te# i#eas$
(0ra/'atis' 5 )he Goo# )he Ca# ` )he D/ly($ !etrie;e# ,ro' (&n 0hiloso4hy(
(htt45//on4hiloso4hy$6or#4ress$"o'/200J/01/0I/4ra/'atis'7the7/oo#7the7ba#7the7u/ly/)
2here 4ra/'atis' is #i=erent ,ro' other theories about BustiA"ation
an# 6here it /oes ba# is by ta*in/ this "lai' to e@tre'es$ 0ra/'atis'
"lai's that the only BustiA"ation a "lai' "an ha;e is by N6or*in/O by
bein/ assi'ilate# ;ali#ate# "orroborate# an# ;eriAe# (a/ain in the
6or#s o, 2illia' Ja'es)$ An# 4ra/'atis' "lai's that there is no 'ore
to truth than bein/ BustiAe# in this 6ay$ Dn,ortunately ,or su"h a stron/
;ersion o, 4ra/'atis' e@ten#in/ it in either o, these 6ays 'a*es the
4osition sel,7#e,eatin/$ Consi#er Arst the i#ea that BustiA"ation "onsists
only in a "lai' N6or*in/O$ Su44ose that a youn/ s"ientist is atte'4tin/
to ,or'ulate a ne6 hy4othesis about /ra;ity$ A nu'ber o, i#eas
4robably 4resent the'sel;es$ A""or#in/ to 4ra/'atis' all o, these
i#eas are at this 4oint e>ually BustiAe#K sin"e none ha;e been 4ut to
the test none "an be sai# to 6or* better or 6orse than any o, the
others$ Cut "learly this is not a"tually the "ase "ertain hy4otheses are
alrea#y 'ore BustiAe# than others by e@tra4olation ,ro' 4ast theories$
-y4othesis in;ol;in/ /re'lins ,airies or anythin/ other than si'4le
an# unintelli/ent "o'4onents intera"tin/ 6ith ea"h other are
unBustiAe#$ I, our s"ientist really 6ithhel# Bu#/'ent about ea"h
hy4othesis until 4uttin/ it to the test then they 6oul# ha;e to test ea"h
hy4othesis that 4resente# itsel, to the' sin"e they 6oul# ha;e no 6ay
to 4i"* the one 'ost li*ely to be a su""ess,ul e@4lanation$ So on
4ra/'ati" /roun#s 6e 'ust reBe"t the 4ra/'atist theory o,
BustiA"ation i, it is to stan# by itsel, sin"e it si'4ly 6onLt 6or*$ (2hat
6ill 6or* is 4ra/'atis' 4lus so'e rules that allo6 #e#u"tion ,ro'
6hat is alrea#y BustiAe#$)
111

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