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NMEROS COMPLEXOS

1. Definies
Vimos na resoluo de uma equao do 2 grau que se o discriminante negativo, ela no
admite razes reais. Por exemplo, a equao
x
2
+ ! "
no admite razes reais. #e usarmos os mtodos que con$ecemos para resolv%&la, o'temos
x
2
! &
x ! (
mas inaceit)vel tal resultado para x* os nmeros negativos no tm raiz quadrada.
Para superar tal impossi'ilidade e poder, ento, resolver todas equa+es do 2 grau, os
matem)ticos ampliaram o sistema de n,meros, inventando os nmeros complexos.
Primeiro, eles de-iniram um novo n,mero
i !
.sso conduz a i
2
! &/. 0m n,mero complexo ento um n,mero da -orma a + 'i onde a e b
so n,meros reais.
Para a equao acima -azemos
x ! (
x ! (
x ! ( .
x ! ( 1 i
2s razes da equao x
2
+ ! " so 1i e & 1i.
Definio
0m nmero complexo uma expresso da -orma
a + 'i
onde a e b so n,meros reais e i
2
! &/.
3o n,mero complexo a + 'i, a a parte real e b a parte imaginria.
4xemplos
2 + 5i parte real 2 parte imagin)ria 5
i parte real parte imagin)ria
/2i parte real 0 parte imagin)ria /2
& parte real & parte imagin)ria 0
0m n,mero como /2i, com parte real 0, c$ama&se nmero imaginrio puro. 0m n,mero
real como &, pode ser considerado como um n,mero complexo com parte imagin)ria 0.
Igualdade de nmers !m"le#s
6s n,meros complexos a + 'i e c + di so iguais se suas partes reais so iguais e suas partes
imagin)rias so iguais, isto 7
a + bi = c + di se
4xemplos
2 + 5i !
#e x e 8 so n,meros reais e x + 8i ! 9 & :i, ento x ! 9 e 8 ! & :.
;onte7 $ttp7<<===./"emtudo.com.'r<demo<matematica<numeros>complexos<index>/.$tml
$. %ri&m'&i!a ds nmers !m"le#s
%di( e Su)&ra(
dio
?a + 'i@ + ?c + di@ ! ?a + c@ + ?' + d@i Para adicionarmos dois n,meros
complexos, adicionamos as partes
reais e as partes imagin)rias
!ubtrao
?a + 'i@ & ?c + di@ ! ?a A c@ + ?' A d@i Para su'trairmos dois n,meros
complexos, su'tramos as partes
reais e as partes imagin)rias
4xemplos
?1 + :i@ + ?& 9 + Bi@ ! ?1 & 9@ + ?: + B@ i
! & : + /2i
3a pr)tica, -azemos
?1 + :i@ + ?&9 + Bi@ !
?& 5 + Ci@ & ?: & 2i@ ! ?& 5 & :@ + DC & ?& 2@E i
! & + Bi
3a pr)tica -azemos
?&5 + Ci@
"ultiplicao
?a + 'i@ . ?c + di@ ! ?ac A 'd@ + ?ad + 'c@i Fultiplicamos n,meros
complexos como multiplicamos
'inGmios, usando i
2
! & /
4xemplos
! C A Bi + i A /2i
2
Histri'utiva
! C + i A /2 . ?&/@ &Bi + i ! i e i
2
! & /
! C + i + /2
! /B + i
! A B A :i + :i + 2i
2
Histri'utiva
! A B + 2 . ?&/@ &:i + :i ! " e i
2
! & /
! A B A 2
! A /"
! A 1i . ?:@ A 1i . ?&2i@
! & /2i + Ci
2
! & /2i + C . ?&/@
! & C & /2i
;onte7
$ttp7<<===./"emtudo.com.'r<demo<matematica<numeros>complexos<index>2.$tml
*. O !n+ugad e a di,is(
Hiviso de n,meros complexos semel$ante I racionalizao do denominador de uma -rao
com radicais. 2ssim, se temos o quociente nosso o'Jetivo escrev%&lo na -orma a + 'i.
Para isso, introduziremos inicialmente o conceito de con#ugado de um nmero complexo.
$omplexos con#ugados
6 con#ugado de um n,mero complexo a + 'i a & 'i, e o con#ugado de a & 'i a + 'i.
6s n,meros complexos a + 'i e a & 'i so c$amados complexos con#ugados.
Para um n,mero complexo z, seu conJugado representado com * ento, se z ! a + 'i
escrevemos ! a & 'i.
4xemplos
6 conJugado de z ! 2 + 1i ! 2 & 1i
6 conJugado de z ! 2 & i ! 2 + 1i
6 conJugado de z ! 5i ! & 5i
6 conJugado de z ! /" ! /"
Kuando multiplicamos um n,mero complexo z ! a + 'i pelo seu conJugado ! a & 'i, o
resultado que se o'tm um nmero real no negativo%
z . ! ?a + 'i@ . ?a A 'i@
! a
2
A a'i + a'i A '
2
i
2
! a
2
A '
2
. ?&/@ 2 soma dos quadrados
de dois n,meros reais
nunca & negativa
! a
2
+ '
2
0samos essa propriedade para expressar o quociente de dois n,meros complexos na -orma a
+ 'i.
Dividindo dois nmeros complexos
Para escrevermos o quociente na -orma 2 + Li, multiplicamos o numerador e o
denominador pelo conJugado do denominador.
4xemplo
Vamos escrever o quociente na -orma a + 'i.
Fultiplicamos o numerador e o denominador pelo conJugado do denominador, para
o'ter um n,mero real no denominador.
!
!
!
! i
! / A i
;onte7
$ttp7<<===./"emtudo.com.'r<demo<matematica<numeros>complexos<index>1.$tml
-. P&.n!ias de i
Memos7
i
"
! / i
:
! i
2
. i
2
! ?&/@ . ?&/@ ! /
i
/
! i i
5
! i
:
. i ! / . i ! i
i
2
! &/ i
C
! i
:
. i
2
! / . ?&/@ ! &/
i
1
! i
2
. i ! &/ . i ! &i i
9
! i
:
. i
1
! / ?&i@ ! &i
6'serve que as quatro pot%ncias de i na coluna da esquerda, repetem&se nos quatro casos
seguintes na coluna da direita. 4ste ciclo
/, i, &/, &i
repete&se inde-inidamente.
4nto, para simpli-icar i
x
para x N :, 'uscamos o maior m,ltiplo de : contido em x* por
exemplo
i
2C
! i
2:
. i
2
! ?i
:
@
C
. i
2
! /
C
. ?&/@
! &/
i
:1
! i
:"
. i
1
! ?i
:
@
/"
. i
1
! i
/"
. ?&i@
! &i
;onte7
$ttp7<<===./"emtudo.com.'r<demo<matematica<numeros>complexos<index>:.$tml
/. O !as da rai0 1uadrada
#a'emos que um n,mero real positivo r tem duas razes quadradas
e & ,
6s n,meros reais negativos tam'm tem duas razes quadradas. Por exemplo, 2i e & 2i so as
razes quadradas de & : porque
?2i@
2
! 2
2
. i
2
! : . ?&/@ ! & :
?& 2i@
2
! ?& 2@
2
. i
2
! ?& 2@
2
. i
2
! : . ?& /@ ! & :
He um modo mais geral, se r N " um n,mero real, o n,mero real negativo & r, tem duas
razes quadradas, porque
?i @
2
! i
2
. ? @
2
! &/ . r ! &r
?&i
2
@ ! ?&/@
2
. i
2
. ? @
2
! / . ?&/@ . r ! &r
O$amamos i de raiz quadrada principal de ' r, e usamos o desen$o para represent)&
la* a outra raiz quadrada & i representada com & . 3ote que as duas razes quadradas
so n,meros complexos imagin)rios puros, e que so conJugados.
(a)zes quadradas de nmeros negativos
#e & r P ", ento as ra)zes quadradas de ' r so
i e & i
2 raiz quadrada principal de ' r i 7
! i
4xemplos
! i !i
! i ! 5i
! i
6'servao
Hevemos ter especial cuidado quando e-etuamos opera+es envolvendo razes
quadradas de n,meros negativos. Kuando a e b so positivos vale a propriedade .
! . Fas, quando am'os so negativos a propriedade no verdadeira. Por
exemplo, a de-inio dada permite&nos escrever
. ! i . i
! i
2
. .
!
4ntretanto, se usarmos a propriedade temos
. !
Kuando multiplicamos radicais de n,meros negativos, devemos em primeiro lugar,
escrev%&los na -orma i , com r N ".
;onte7
$ttp7<<===./"emtudo.com.'r<demo<matematica<numeros>complexos<index>5.$tml
2. Re"resen&a( ds nmers !m"le#s
0m n,mero complexo constitudo por duas componentes7 a parte real e a parte
imaginria. .sso sugere a utilizao de dois eixos para represent)&lo7 um para a parte real e o
outro para a parte imagin)ria. 4sses dois eixos c$amam&se eixo real e eixo imaginrio,
respectivamente. 6 plano determinado por esses dois eixos c$ama&se plano complexo.
Para desen$armos o gr)-ico do n,mero complexo a + 'i, marcamos o ponto ?a* '@ no plano.
4xemplo
;onte7
$ttp7<<===./"emtudo.com.'r<demo<matematica<numeros>complexos<index>C.$tml
3. M4dul de nmer !m"le#
6 m*dulo ?ou valor absoluto@ do n,mero complexo a + 'i distQncia de a + 'i I origem do
plano complexo. 0sando o +eorema de ,itgoras, conclumos que a distQncia de ?a* '@ a ?"*
"@ .
Definio
6 m*dulo ?ou valor absoluto@ do complexo z ! a + 'i
R z R !
4xemplos
6 mSdulo do n,mero complexo & 1 + :i
R&1 + :iR ! ! ! 5
6 mSdulo do n,mero complexo 9 + :i
R9 + :iR ! !
Fonte: http://www.10emtudo.com.br/demo/matematica/numeros_complexos/index_7.html
---------------------------
Complex Numbers: Introduction (page 1 of 3)
Sections: Introduction, Operations with complexes, The Quadratic Formula
Up until now, you've been told that you can't take the square root of a negative number. That's because you
had no numbers that, when squared, were negative. Every number was positive after you squared it. So you
couldn't very well squareroot a negative and e!pect to come up with anything sensible.
"ow, however, you can take the square root of a negative number, but it involves using a new number to do
it. This new number was invented #discovered$% around the time of the &eformation. 't this time, nobody
believed that any (real world( use would be found for this new number, other than easing the computations
involved in solving certain equations, so the new number was viewed as being a pretend number invented
for convenience sake.
#)ut then, when you think about it, aren't all numbers inventions$ *t's not like numbers grow on trees+ They
live in our heads. ,e made them all up+ ,hy not invent a new one, as long as it works okay with what we
already have$%
'nyway, this new number is called (i(, standing for (imaginary(, because (everybody knew( that i wasn't
(real(. #That's why you couldn't take the square root of a negative number before- you only had (real(
numbers. that is, numbers without the (i( in them.% The imaginary is defined to be-
Then- /opyright 0 Eli1abeth Stapel 23342335 'll &ights &eserved
"ow, you may think you can do this-
)ut this doesn't make any sense+ 6ou already have two numbers that square to /. namely A/ and +/. 'nd i
already squares to A/. So it's not reasonable that i would also square to /. This points out an important
detail- ,hen dealing with imaginaries, you gain something #the ability to deal with negatives inside square
roots%, but you also lose something #some of the fle!ibility and convenient rules you used to have when
dealing with square roots%. *n particular, 67U 8UST '9,'6S :7 T;E i<'&T =*&ST+
Sim"lif5 s1r&6789.
#"ote- This is ( (, not ( (. The i is outside the radical+%
Sim"lif5 s1r&67$/9.
Sim"lif5 s1r&671:9.
Sim"lif5 7s1r&6729.
*n computations, you deal with i >ust as you would with x, e!cept for the fact that x
2
is >ust x
2
, but
i
2
is A/-
Sim"lif5 2i + 3i.
2i + 1i ! ?2 + 1@i ! -i
Sim"lif5 16i 5i.
/Ci A 5i ! ?/C A 5@i ! ..i
Mul&i"l5 and sim"lif5 (3i)(4i).
?1i@?:i@ ! ?1T:@?iTi@ ! ?/2@?i
2
@ ! ?/2@?A/@ ! /.0
Mul&i"l5 and sim"lif5 (i)(2i)(3i).
?i@?2i@?A1i@ ! ?2 T A1@?i T i T i@ ! ?AC@?i
2
T i@
!?AC@?A/ T i@ ! ?AC@?Ai@ ! 1i
"ote this last problem. ,ithin it, you can see that , because i
2
? @/. /ontinuing, you get-
This is a cycle-
*n other words, to calculate any high power of i, you can convert it to a lower power by taking the closest
multiple of A that's no bigger than the e!ponent and subtracting this multiple from the e!ponent. =or e!ample,
a common trick question on tests is something along the lines of (Simplify i

(, the idea being that you'll try to


multiply i ninetynine times and you'll run out of time, and the teachers will get a good giggle at your e!pense
in the faculty lounge. ;ere's how the shortcut works-
i

! i
C+1
! i
?:U2:@+1
! i
1
! Ai
That is, i

? i
1
, because you can >ust lop off the i
C
. #"inetysi! is a multiple of four, so i
C
is >ust /, which you
can ignore.% *n other words, you can divide the e!ponent by : #using long division%, discard the answer, and
use only the remainder. This will give you the part of the e!ponent that you care above. ;ere are a few more
e!amples-
Sim"lif5 i
17
.
i
/9
! i
/C + /
! i
: T : + /
! i
/
! i
Sim"lif5 i
120
.
i
/2"
! i
: T 1"
! i
:T 1" + "
! i
"
! .
Sim"lif5 i
64,002
.
i
C:,""2
! i
C:,""" + 2
! i
: T /C,""" + 2
! i
2
! /.
"ow you've seen how imaginaries work. it's time to move on to comple! numbers. (/omple!( numbers have
two parts, a (real( part #being any (real( number that you're used to dealing with% and an (imaginary( part
#being any number with an (i( in it%. The (standard( format for comple! numbers is (a + bi(. that is, realpart
first and ipart last.
Fonte: http://www.purplemath.com/modules/complex.htm
Operations on Complex Numbers (page 2 of 3)
Sections: Introduction, Operations with complexes, The Quadratic Formula
/omple! numbers are (binomials( of a sort, and are added, subtracted, and multiplied in a similar way.
#:ivision, which is further down the page, is a bit different.%
Sim"lif5 (2 + 3i) + (1 6i).
?2 + 1i@ + ?/ A Ci@ ! ?2 + /@ + ?1i A Ci@ ! 1 + ?A1i@ ! 2 / 2i
Sim"lif5 (5 2i) (4 i).
?5 A 2i@ A ?A: A i@
! ?5 A ?A:@@ + ?A2i A ?Ai@@ ! ?5 + :@ + ?A2i + i@
! ?@ + ?A/i@ ! 3 / i
Sim"lif5 (2 i)(3 + 4i).
?2 A i@?1 + :i@ ! ?2@?1@ + ?2@?:i@ + ?Ai@?1@ + ?Ai@?:i@
! C + Bi A 1i A :i
2
! C + 5i A :?A/@
! C + 5i + : ! .0 + -i
=or this last e!ample, if you learned (=7*9(, =7*9ing works for this kind of multiplication. )ut whatever
method you use, remember that multiplying and adding with comple!es works >ust like multiplying and
adding polynomials, e!cept that, while x
2
is >ust x
2
, i
2
is A/. That is, you can use the e!act same techniques
for simplifying comple!number e!pressions, but you can simplify even further with comple!es than with
polynomials, because i
2
reduces to the number A/.
'dding and multiplying comple!es isn't too bad. *t's when you start on fractions #that is, division% that things
turn ugly. 8ost of the reason for this ugliness is actually arbitrary. &emember back in elementary school,
when you first learned fractions$ 6our teacher would get her panties in a wad if you used (improper(
fractions. =or instance, you couldn't say V
1
<2 V. you had to convert it to (/
/
<2(. )ut now that you're in algebra,
nobody cares, and you've probably noticed that (improper( fractions are often more useful than (mi!ed(
fractions. The problem in the case of comple!es is that your professor will get his bo!ers in a bunch if you
leave imaginaries in the denominator. So how do you handle this$
Suppose you have the following problem-
Sim"lif5
The point here is that they want you to get rid of the i underneath. The 2 is fine, but the i has got to
go. To do this, you use the fact that i
2
? A/. *f you multiply top and bottom by i, then the i underneath
will vanish in a puff of negativity-
So the answer is /4
2
50 6i7
This was simple enough, but what if you have something more complicated$
Sim"lif5
*f you multiply top and bottom by i, you get-
Since you still have an i underneath, this didn't help much. So how do you handle this simplification$
6ou use something called (con>ugates(. The con>ugate of a comple! number a + bi is the same
number, but with the opposite sign in the middle- a bi. ,hen you multiply con>ugates, you are, in
effect, multiplying to a difference of squares-
"ote that the i's disappeared. This is what the con>ugate, differenceofsquares thing is for. ;ere's
how it is used- /opyright 0 Eli1abeth Stapel 23342335 'll &ights &eserved
So the answer is
1
5- / 4
2
5-6i.
*n the last step, note how the fraction was split into two pieces. This is because, technically speaking, a
comple! number is in two parts, the real part and the i part. They aren't supposed to (share( the
denominator.
Fonte: http://www.purplemath.com/modules/complex2.htm
Complex Numbers & Te !uadratic "ormula (page 3 of 3)
Sections: Introduction, Operations with complexes, The Quadratic Formula
6ou'll probably only use comple!es in the conte!t of solving quadratics for their 1eroes. #There are many other practical uses
for comple!es, but you'll have to wait for more interesting classes like (Engineering 23B( to get to the (good stuff(.%
&emember that the Cuadratic =ormula solves (ax
2
+ 'x + c ! "( for the values of x. 'lso remember that this means that you
are trying to find the !intercepts of the graph. ,hen the =ormula gives you a negative inside the square root, you can now
simplify the 1ero by using comple! numbers. The answer you come up with is a valid (1ero( or (root( or (solution( for (ax
2
+
'x + c ! "(, because, if you plug it back into the quadratic, you'll get 1ero after you simplify. but you cannot graph a comple!
number on the x,yplane. So this (solution to the equation( is not an xintercept. *n other words, you can make this connection
between the Cuadratic =ormula, comple! numbers, and graphing-
x
2
2x 3 x
2
x ! " x
2
! 3x ! 3
a positive number inside
the square root
1ero inside the square
root
a negative number
inside the square root
two real solutions
one #repeated% real
solution
two comple! solutions
two distinct xintercepts
one #repeated% x
intercept
no xintercepts

's an aside, you can graph comple!es, but not in the x,yplane. 6ou need the (comple!( plane. =or the comple! plane, the x
a!is is where you plot the real part, and the ya!is is where you graph the imaginary part. =or instance, for the comple! number
1 A 2i, you would graph it like this-
This leads to an interesting fact- ,hen you learned about regular #(real(% numbers, you also learned about their order #this is
what you show on the number line%. )ut x,ypoints don't come in any particular order. 6ou can't say that one point (comes
after( another point in the same way that you can say that one number comes after another number. =or instance, you can't
say that ?:, 5@ (comes after( ?:, 1@( in the way that you can say that 5 comes after 1. <retty much all you can do is compare
(si1e(, and, for comple! numbers, (si1e( means (how far from the origin(. To do this, you use the :istance =ormula, and
compare which comple!es are closer to or further from the origin. This (si1e( concept is called (the modulus(. =or instance,
looking at our comple! number plotted above, its modulus is computed by using the :istance =ormula- /opyright 0 Eli1abeth Stapel
23342335 'll &ights &eserved
"ote that all points at this distance from the origin have the same modulus. 'll the points on the circle with radius sqrt?/1@ are
viewed as being comple! numbers having the same (si1e( as 1 A 2i.
Fonte: http://www.purplemath.com/modules/complex3.htm